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8/20/2014

[Reasoning] Syllogism (All Cats are Dogs): Method, approach, techniques, shortcuts explained for IBPS, SSC, CSAT and CAT - Mrunal

remunerative-price }
[Economic Survey] Ch8:
Agriculture Minimum
Support prices...

MALLIKARJUNA {
Thanks for ur reply. I
understood the concept-it
is within 5% & 10%, but
under the subheading
"Amber box: De Minimus
limits" of the article... }
[Economy] WTO: Bali
Summit, Trade

The technique explained in this article, is a modified


version of AEIO method combined with the Tick
Method. Lets call it U.P.-U.N. method.

Ba sics
Subject v s Predica te
Consider this question statement
1. All cats are dogs
2. Some dogs are birds
3. No bird is a pig

Facilitation

4. Some pigs are not birds.

Agreement...

In all such statements, first-term is called subject

SHIKHA { thanks alot

and second is called predicate.

sir........................... }

It doesnt matter what word is given: Table, Chair,

[Economic Survey] Ch8:


Agriculture Minimum
Support prices...

SHAILESH { dear due to

Raja, Kalmadi, Kanimozhi or Madhu Koda first term


is subject and second term is predicate.
Lets relook at those question statements

backlog year vacancy for

Subject

Predicate

1. All cats are dogs

Cats

Dogs

2. Some dogs are birds

Dogs

Birds

3. No bird is a pig

Bird

Pig

4. Some pigs are not birds.

Pigs

Birds

last three year }


[RESULT] SSC CGL 2013
Tier-1 Re-exam result...

MANISHA { Thanx a lot


vk... } [Economy] WTO:
Bali Summit, Trade
Facilitation
Agreement...

MANISHA { Thanx

I hope the Subject vs. Predicate is clear now. Lets

Ritu...for making it clear }

move to second thing

[Economy] WTO: Bali


Summit, Trade

Cla ssifica tion of sta tement

Facilitation
Agreement...

In syllogism, each statement usually has following

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[Reasoning] Syllogism (All Cats are Dogs): Method, approach, techniques, shortcuts explained for IBPS, SSC, CSAT and CAT - Mrunal

KJ { you will have to

format

appear for tier 2 exam and

xyz subject is/are (not) predicate.

if u clear cutoffs after tier 2


.. u will get tax assistant

For example,

jobs ...... } [RESULT] SSC


CGL 2013 Tier-1 Reexam result...

RECRUITMENT
Ex am Dat es
IBPS:11 Oct t o 2 Nov
SSC-CGL 2014:19 & 26 Oct
CAT:16 & 22 Nov

Xyz

Subject

Is/are (+/-not)

Predicate

All

Cats

Are

Dogs

Some

Pigs

Are not

birds

Based on xyz and not, we classify the statements


as following

CDS:26 Oct
MAT: 7 & 13 Sep

Ban kin g
11-Aug: IBPS 2014

Statement

Type

1. All cats are dogs

Universal Positive UP

On 2013 RRB sco re


19-Aug: Baroda Gramin

2. Some dogs are birds

11-Aug: Kerala Gramin

MBA
23-Aug: MAT-2014

3. No bird is a pig

Particular
Positive
Universal
Negative

Codename

PP

UN

30-Sep: CAT-IIM

Uttar Pradesh

4. Some pigs are not

Particular

16-Aug: UP Food safety insp.

birds.

Negative

PN

IT / Co m p u t er
01-Sep: Haryana Programmers
30-Aug: IITD Delhi system
admin(3)

Please remember following words. Whenever they


come, you classify the statement accordingly.

25-Aug: Lucknow
Programmers
21-Aug: NIRD MIS

Universal
All, every, any, none, not a single, only etc.

negative)

19-Aug: SSC 10+2 Data Entry


Op

Engineers
01-Sep: Haryana Engg.
30-Aug: TIFR Electronics

(positive or

Some, many, a few, quite a few, not many,

Particular

very little, most of, almost, generally,

(positive or

often, freqently, etc.

negative)

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[Reasoning] Syllogism (All Cats are Dogs): Method, approach, techniques, shortcuts explained for IBPS, SSC, CSAT and CAT - Mrunal

28-Aug: Mech Engg11


28-Aug: Aeronaut. Engg15
28-Aug: NIT Karnataka
25-Aug: GAIL Engineers
25-Aug: EIL Delhi

Sta nda rd forma t: conv ersion


The standard 2-statement syllogism question format
is following:
1. (xyz) A is/are (+/- not) B

23-Aug: BPCL Assam


22-Aug: Cement India

2. (xyz) B is/are (+/- not) C

20-Aug: BEL Dy.Engg

So basically it is

20-Aug: BEL Pune

1. A>B

20-Aug: Himachal Engg.

2. B>C

14-Aug: IRCON Civil 20

P o lic e/ D efen c e/ In t e
l.
16-Sep: CISF constables 985

(read as A to B then B to C)
What does this tell us?
Question statements must have ONLY three terms.

01-Sep: Army Vets

(A, B and C).

31-Aug: Army Dental

In the exam, if they give you two question

29-Aug: Chandigarh Constbl

statements with four terms then your time is saved!

19-Aug: Hindi Translator ITBP


18-Aug: CDS (II)
11-Aug: BSF constables 1670

Specialist
Ent rance
19-Aug: CSIR NET
08-Sep: Agro-research+NET
BCo m/ H R/ M BA
01-Sep: Jhajjar Accounts/HR
01-Sep: ICAR account, admin

Just tick the answer no conclusion can be drawn.


For example
Question
statements
1. All cats
are Dogs
2. Some

30-Aug: Accountant NIFFT

birds are

Ranchi

pigs

Answer

No conclusion can be drawn. Because it


has four terms (cats, dogs, birds, pigs)
A>B
C>D

25-Aug: CPET Chennai


25-Aug: EIL Delhi
21-Aug: NIRD Accounts
11-Aug: SBI Mgmt.XO (2-5
yrXP)
Medical
28-Aug: Specialists in Health

Anyways back to the topic,


The standard format for question statements is:
1. A>B

1. First term>Middle Term

2. B>C

2. Middle Term>Third term

min.
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[Reasoning] Syllogism (All Cats are Dogs): Method, approach, techniques, shortcuts explained for IBPS, SSC, CSAT and CAT - Mrunal

28-Aug: Chattisgarh

But if the given question statements are not given in

Med.Service

this format, then we must convert them into above

19-Aug: Haryana Dental

format. Otherwise we cannot proceed with answer.

19-Aug: Raj.Medical

For example

14-Aug: AIIMS
09-Aug: SAIL Doctors

Given question statements

This must be converted

05-Sep: ITBP Pharmacist 13

are

into

05-Sep: ITBP Lab Techni.

1. A>B

1. A>B

28-Aug: Drug controller10

2. C>B

2. B>C

28-Aug: Asst.Prosecuter 32

Given question statements

This must be converted

25-Aug: Allahabad HC

are

into

clerk,review officer

1. B>A

1. A>B

11-Aug: Uttarakhand HC

2. B>C

2. B>C

Paramedics

Legal

deskjobs
Science/Ot her
30-Sep: ICMR Scientists
08-Sep: Canara Sports Quota
05-Sep: RPSC various

Ok, so how to convert the statements?


Univ e rsal Positiv e (UP)

30-Aug: Lab Attendent NIFFT


Ranchi
14-Aug: ISRO assistants 233

Given Statement

29-Aug: Raj.Agro research


25-Aug: Parliament interpreter

Valid
conversions

Type

Some Cats

Particular

25-Aug: Punjab Labor

Given Statement: All

are dogs

Positive (PP)

25-Aug: CSIR-SERC

Cats are Dogs

Some dogs

Particular

are cats

Positive (PP)

22-Aug: Raj.Univ.Lab
Attendents 11
22-Aug: ONGC Technician 137
20-Aug: NCL scientist

It means UP can be converted into PP.

18-Aug: Karnataka Urban

Please note: if the statement is Only Dogs are cats,

14-Aug: SSC Western Specialist

Mis c / D es kjo b s
10-Sep: PGIMER deskjobs
01-Sep: Jhajjar deskjobs
01-Sep: Haryana Clerks

then better convert it into All cats are dogs. (Only A


is B > All B are A)
Univ e rsal Ne gativ e (UN)

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[Reasoning] Syllogism (All Cats are Dogs): Method, approach, techniques, shortcuts explained for IBPS, SSC, CSAT and CAT - Mrunal

30-Aug: NIFT HP Deskjobs


30-Aug: clerks NIFFT Ranchi

Valid

Given Statement

conversions

21-Aug: NIRD project Manager

Some dogs are Particular

19-Aug: SSC 10+2 Data Entry


Op
22-Aug: Raj.Univ.Clerks 29
14-Aug: BankPress Dewas

Type

Given Statement: No

not cats

Negative (PN)

Cats are Dogs

No dogs are

Universal

cats

Negative (UN)

12-Aug: Western Rail Sports

Fac ult y Jobs


14-Sep: Hissar Veterinary
03-Sep: NIRD Hyd.
01-Sep: Jhajjar Teacher's Edu.

It means UN can be converted into PN or UN.


Particular Positiv e (PP)

31-Aug: NIFM
30-Aug: Bhopal Univ.
29-Aug: IIFT faculties

Given Statement

29-Aug: Raj Lecturer


25-Aug: Lucknow Medical
22-Aug: Kota univ.
20-Aug: NIT Himachal
17-Aug: Jammu University
16-Aug: Shimla Nutrition
14-Aug: Raj.Chemistry
11-Aug: Jammu Uni
Warning
Online Form Part -1 st ops

Valid

Type

conversions

Some Cats are

Some dogs are

Particular Positive

Dogs

cats

(PP)

It means PP can be converted into PP only.


Particular Ne gativ e

Example: Some Cats are not Dogs. In Particular

few day s b4 deadline.So

negative statements (PN), no conversion can be

DONOT wait t ill last dat e.

made.

DONOT forget /misplace

So PN=cant convert.

reg.id, Roll number.

To sum up the conversion rules


Type

Valid Conversion

Universal Positive (UP)

Only PP

Universal Negative (UN)

PN or UN

Particular Positive (PP)

Only PP

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[Reasoning] Syllogism (All Cats are Dogs): Method, approach, techniques, shortcuts explained for IBPS, SSC, CSAT and CAT - Mrunal

Particular Negative (PN)

Not possible.

Please note:
In some lower level exams, sometimes they directly
ask about conversion. For example
Q. What can be concluded from the given statement:
Some Politicians are honest men.
Answer choices
1. Some Honest men are not Politicians.
2. All Honest men are not politician
3. Some Honest men are politicians.
4. None of Above.
(Please donot read further, without solving above
question.)
Solution

well, the given statement Some Politicians are


honest men. is a particular positive statement (PP).
Hence according to our table, it can be converted
into PP only. Therefore
Given answer choice
1. Some Honest men
are not Politicians.
2. No Honest men are
politicians.
3. Some Honest men
are politicians.

Thought process
Particular negative (PN),
hence eliminate.
Universal Negative, hence
eliminate
PP hence this is correct
answer.

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[Reasoning] Syllogism (All Cats are Dogs): Method, approach, techniques, shortcuts explained for IBPS, SSC, CSAT and CAT - Mrunal

4. None of Above.

not applicable because C is


the correct answer.

In case you are wondering,


Q. Some politicians are honest men.
In above case, cant the answer be A: Some honest
men are not politicians?
Well, if you go by Venn Diagram method, itll lead to
two cases hence it is doubtful.
C ase #1
Data
1. Sardar Patel
Subject (Politicians)

2. Lal Bahadur Shastri


3. Raja
4. Kalmadi

Predicate (Honest Men)

1. Sardar Patel
2. Lal Bahadur Shastri

In above situation, can you say Some honest men


are not politicians?
Well you cant say that. Because both Honest men
(Sardar and Shastri) are in politician set.
C ase #2
Data
1. Sardar Patel
2. Lal Bahadur Shastri
Subject (Politicians)

3. Raja

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[Reasoning] Syllogism (All Cats are Dogs): Method, approach, techniques, shortcuts explained for IBPS, SSC, CSAT and CAT - Mrunal

4. Kalmadi

1. Sardar Patel
Predicate (Honest Men)

2. Lal Bahadur Shastri


3. Bhagat Singh
4. ChandraSekhar Azad

In above situation, can you say Some honest


men are not politicians?
Yes you can. Because two Honest men (Bhagat
Singh and Azad) are not in politician set.
The point is, whenever two cases are possible,
you cannot safely conclude one statement.
Hence, if the statement is
Some A are B> it doesnt mean Some B are
not A.
The only valid conclusion in above case is :Some
B are A.
Therefore Particular Positive (PP) statement can be
converted into Particular Positive (PP) statement
only.
Similarly
Type of Statement

Valid Conversion

Path

Universal Positive

Only PPSome Cats (A) are

A to

(UP)All cats(A) are

dogs. (B)Some dogs (B) are

BB

dogs (B)

cats. (A)

to A

Universal Negative

PN :Some Dogs (B) are not


Cats (A).

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B to
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[Reasoning] Syllogism (All Cats are Dogs): Method, approach, techniques, shortcuts explained for IBPS, SSC, CSAT and CAT - Mrunal

(UN)No Cats(A) are


dogs (B)

(A)

Particular Positive
(PP)Some cats (A) are
dogs (B)
Particular Negative
(PN)

UN: No Dogs (B) are cats.

Only PP: Some dogs (B) are

B to

cats(A)

Not possible.

Anyways back to the topic, what are we discussing?


1. Topic of discussion is: How to solve 2 statement
syllogism question
2. Subject vs predicate
3. Type of statements (UP, UN, PP, PN)
4. Standard format and conversion.
The standard question format is
A>B
B>C
If the given question doesnt have statements in
^above standard format, then we must convert them
into standard format. Only then we can proceed
further.
So far, We constructed our shortcut table on how to
convert the statements. Now
le ts try some e xample s
Question
statements

Conversion?

1. All Cats are


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dogs(B)

Already in standard format (A to B and

2. Some

then B to C)

dogs(B) are not hence no need to convert.


pigs.
1. Some

No need to convert any statement.

dogs(B) are not Just exchange the position of first and


pigs.

second statement.

2. All Cats are

1. All Cats are dogs(B)

dogs(B)

2. Some dogs(B) are not pigs.

1. All Cats are


dogs (B)
2. All pigs are
dogs(B)

Have to convert, because not in


standard format.1.All cats(A) are
dogs(B)
2.Some dogs(B) are pigs(C). (Rule UP->
only PP)

Now coming to the heart of the matter: how to solve


the (stupid) 2 statement syllogism question?

No conclusion Combos
Here are the non-conclusion combos when two
question statements are in following format.
First statement (A

Second statement (B

to B)

to C)

Answer

Particular Positive

No

Universal Positive

(PP)

conclusion

(UP)

Particular Negative

No

(PN)

conclusion

Universal Negative

No

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Universal Negative

(UN)

conclusion

Particular Negative

No

(PN)

conclusion

Particular Positive

No

Particular Positive

(PP)

conclusion

(PP)

Particular Negative

No

(PN)

conclusion

Particular Negative

Any other (UP, UN,

No

(PN)

PP, PN)

conclusion

(UN)

^does it look difficult?


Not really. Lets condense this table into mug-up
rules.
1. UPs politicians hate giving particular statements
(both positive and negative). E.g. they donot
reveal their clear position on FDI in retail until
the 11th hour.
2. United Nations hates negativity. (both Universal
and particular)
3. Pritish Nandy hates everybody.
4. Two-negatives=no conclusion. (although implicit
in 2+3)
5. Two particulars=no conclusion. (although
implicit in 1+3)
Please note: in ^above
situations definite conclusion is impossible.
However, sometimes two answer choices are still
possible either a or b.
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That concept is called Complimentary pairs. Well


learn about it at the bottom of this article.
For the moment, lets not complicate the matters
with complimentary pairs.
Ok back to topic, when you face a Two-statement
syllogism question? youll follow these steps:
1. first, make sure it contains only three terms
(ABC) (else no conclusion.)
2. Make sure question statements are in standard
format (A to B then B to C). If not in standard
format, then re-arrange.
3. Classify the question statements. (UP, UN, PP,
PN)
4. Check if the question statements have no
conclusion combos (^Above rules)
if above things donot yield an answer, then weve to
think about what will be the conclusion(s)?

Conclusiv e-Combos
If youve followed above steps, then question
statements in the format A to B and then B to C.
First statement
(A to B)

Second
statement (B to

Conclusion

C)
Universal

Universal Positive

Universal

Positive (UP)

(UP) (A to C)

Positive (UP)

Universal

Universal Negative

Negative (UN)

(UN) (A to C)

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Universal
Negative (UN)

Universal
positive (UP)

Particular Negative
(PN). (C to A)

Particular
Positive (PP)
Universal

Particular Positive

Particular

Positive (UP)

(PP) (A to C)

Positive (PP)

Universal

Particular Negative

Negative (UN)

(PN) (A to C)

As you can see from above table,


The answer statement is usually in the format of A
to C. with exception when first question statement is
Universal Negative (UN).
Lets condense this table into mug-up rules as well.
Conclusive-Combos In your head, visualize
1. UP+UP=UP

If Uttar Pradesh meets Uttar


Pradesh, then its size doesnt
increase.

2. UP+UN=UN

If Uttar Pradesh meets United


Nations then its size increases and
it becomes United Nations.
United Nations Secretary Ban Ki

3. UN+
(UP/PP)=PN

Moon is in very positive mood. But


he meets another positive person,
and his attitude is totally
reversed- he becomes particularly
negative! (reversed =C to A)
When Mr.PP observes the

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4. PP+

universe via NASA telescope, his

(UP/UN)=PP/PN mood becomes positive or


negative depending on the mood
of universe.

Try a question from SSC-CGL (Tier-I, 2010) exam,

DemoQ: Cra zy men a nd W omen


Question Statements
1. All men are women.
2. All women are crazy.
Conclusion
1. All Men are crazy
2. All the crazy are men
3. Some of the crazy are men
4. Some of the crazy are women
Answer
1. None of the conclusion follows
2. All conclusions follow
3. Only 1, 3 and 4 follow
4. Only 2 and 3 follow
(I suggest you pause here. First try to solve it on your
own, without directly reading the solution. If youve
difficulty, re-read rules given above)
Solution

Our standard operating procedure (SOP)


Question Statements
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1. All men are women.


2. All women are crazy.
First step: make sure four terms are not given =
check. Only three terms (men, women, crazy)
Second step, make sure theyre in standard format (A
to B and then B to C): Check yes theyre.
Hence conversion is not required.
1. All men(A) are women. (B) (UP)
2. All women(B) are crazy.(C) (UP)

Third step, classify the statements.


1. All men are women.

Universal Positive (UP)

2. All women are crazy.

Universal Positive (UP)

Fourth step: check the combo for question


statements.
Well, since it is UP+UP= its size doesnt increase.
Hence conclusion should be UP. (A to C)
meaning All men(A) are crazy.(C)
Check the answer statements.
1. All Men
are
crazy

Correct.

Recall that conversion table.Universal


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Positive (UP) can be converted only into


Particular Positive (PP).
2. All the

Since All men are crazy => Some Crazy are

crazy

men.

are

But we cannot say All crazy are men. So this

men

option is false.
If you apply common sense at this stage:
well, 1st statement correct, and 2nd
statement is false, hence answer is (C): only
1, 3 and 4 follow!

3. Some
of the
crazy
are

Correct because of conversion table

men
4. Some
of the
crazy
are

Given question statement : All women are


crazy. (Universal positive). If we apply
conversion table (UP=> PP) then Some
Crazy are women. Hence this statement is

women also correct.

Final answer (C): only 1, 3 and 4 follow


If youre still staggering, I suggest you go through
those rules again, note them down in a diary in your
own words and language, revise a few times. Then
try next question

DemoQ: Intelligent Poets a nd singers


Question Statements (SSC-CPO exam)
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1. All poets are intelligent


2. All singers are intelligent.
Conclusion
1. all singers are poets
2. some intelligent persons are not singers
Answer choices
1. only conclusion one follows
2. only conclusion two follows
3. either conclusion one or conclusion two follows
4. neither follows
solution

first step: does the question statements have only


three terms? Check: Yes. Singers, poets, intelligent.
Good, proceed with next step.
Second step: Are the question statements given in
standard format (A to B then B to C)?
Check. Nope
1. All poets (A) are intelligent (B)
2. All singers (C) are intelligent. (B)
Then we have to convert it into standard format. And
since both statements are universal positive, we
dont need to worry about which statement to
convert first? (that priority order, more about it,
explained at the bottom of this article.)
Second statement is universal positive (UP),
according to our table, we can only convert it into
particular positive (PP) therefore
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All singers (C) are intelligent. (B)==> Some intelligent


persons(B) are singers.(C)
Now the new question statements, in the standard
format (A to B then B to C) are
1. All poets are intelligent (B)
2. Some intelligent persons(B) are singers.
Third step, classify the question statements
question statement
1. All poets(A) are intelligent (B)

type
Universal positive
(UP)

2. Some intelligent persons(B) are

Particular positive

singers.(C)

(PP)

Fourth step, apply the combo rules.


Since UPs politicians hate particular statements
(both positive and negative), hence no conclusion
can be drawn. That means we cannot connect A to C
or C to A.
Now check the Answer statements
i. all
singers(C)
are poets

False. UP+PP=no conclusion, as


explained above.

(A)
Check the second original question
ii. some
intelligent
persons
are not

statement : All singers are intelligent.


(Universal positive UP).
According to our conversion table, UP
can be converted into particular positive
(PP) only. But this answer statement (II) is

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singers

a particular negative statement. Hence


this is also false.

Final answer: (D) neither follows.

CAT -lev el
Same UP-UN Concept but they pack 3-4 or more
syllogism questions into one question to test your
speed, not just your understanding. for example:

DemoQ: Sweet T esting Apples (CAT )


given question has five statements followed by
options containing three statements put together in
a specific order. Choose the option which indicates
a valid argument, where the third statement is a
conclusion drawn from the preceding two
statements.
Question statements (CAT 1999)
1. Apples are not sweet
2. Some apples are sweet
3. All sweets are tasty
4. Some apples are not tasty
5. No apple is tasty
answer choices
1. cea
2. bdc
3. cbd
4. eac
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solution and approach

weve to check the given options one by one.


Option (i). CEA. Meaning weve to take C as our
statement (I), E as our Statement (II) and then
observe, if statement (A) can be concluded from C
and E.
C

All sweets are tasty

Universal positive

No apple is tasty.

Universal negative

Apples are not sweet

Universal negative

In the actual CAT exam, we cannot afford to waste


time in actually converting all statements and
checking them.
Here is the fast approach
1. three terms?= yes
2. in standard format? No. but we can convert
second (UN) into another UN and then combo rule is
UP+UN=UN.
Hence this answer choice (CEA) is correct.
Final answer (i) CEA

DemoQ: W orking mother nurses (CAT )


question statement

answer choices

1. No mother is a nurse.
2. Some Nurses like to work

1. ABE

3. No woman is prude

2. CED

4. Some prude are also nurses

3. FEB

5. Some nurses are women

4. BEF

6. All women like to work


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Check the answer choices one by one.


i. A BE
A (Statement I)

No mother is a nurse. (UN)

B (Statement II)

Some Nurses like to work

E (Conclusion)

Some Nurses are women.

This is invalid. Because Statement I and II have three


terms (Mother, Nurse and work) while given
conclusion statement adds fourth new term
women
Move to next choice.
ii. C ED

C (Statement I)

E (Statement II)

D (conclusion)

Statement

Type

No woman is

Universal

prude

negative

Some nurses are

Particular

women

positive

Some prude are

Particular

also nurses

positive

Question statements have three terms? Yes (women,


prude, nurses)
Are they in standard format (A to B then B to C?)
nope.
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No woman(B) is prude

Universal negative

Some nurses are women(B)

Particular positive

change position of first and second statement.


1. Some nurses(A) are women(B)
2. No woman(B) is prude(C)
question statement
1. Some nurses(A) are
women(B)
2. No woman(B) is prude(C)

type
Particular positive (PP)
Universal negative
(UN)

Apply the combo rules


PP+UN=??
When Mr.PP observes the universe via NASA
telescope, his mood becomes particularly
negative or positive depending on the mood of
universe. Hence PP+UN=PN.(A to C)
So legitimate conclusion is Some Prune arenot
nurses.
But Check the given conclusion statement:
Some prude are also nurses. It is Particular
positive (PP).
But According to conversion table, PN cannot be
converted. So we cannot say that since Some
prune are not nurses, that means some prunes
are nurses!
Therefore given answer choice(ii) CED is false
because D cannot be concluded from C+E.
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Move to the next answer choice.


Actual thought process: three terms =yes. Standard
form=no. rearrange. But PP+UN=PN, cant be
converted to PP. Hence false.
iii. F EB

F (Statement I)

E (Statement II)

B (conclusion)

Statement

Type

All women like to

Universal

work

positive UP

Some nurses are

Particular

women

positive PP

Some nurses like

Particular

to work

positive PP

three terms =yes. Standard form=no. but no need to


convert, just exchange position of statement I and II.
Some nurses(A) are
women(B)
All women(B) like to work (C)

Particular positive PP
Universal positive UP

Apply combo rule, again same situation


When Mr.PP observes the universe via NASA
telescope, his mood becomes particularly positive
or negative depending on the mood of universe.
Hence PP+UP=PP.(A to C).
Some nurses(A) like to work(C). Done! This is same
as the given conclusion (B)
Therefore, final answer is (iii) FEB.
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DemoQ: 4 questions in 1!
This one is from CAT-1999.
Each of the given question statement as three
segments. Choose the alternative where third
segment of the statement can be logically be used
using the both preceding two but not just from one
of them
Question statements
1. all dinosaurs are prehistoric creatures. Water
buffaloes are not dinosaurs. Water buffaloes are
not prehistoric creatures
2. all politicians are frank. No frank people are
crocodiles. No crocodiles are politicians
3. no diamond is quartz. No opal is quartz.
Diamonds are opals.
4. All monkeys like bananas. Some Joes like
bananas. Some Joes are monkeys.
Answer choice
1. Only C
2. Only B
3. Only A and D
4. Only B and C
A pproach
Three terms yes. Standard format
=No.Both question statements are
Universal negative. We can convert either
C. Diamonds, of them, into UN or PN. But in any case,
Quartz,
both question statements will remain
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Opals.

negative. And Two negatives=no


conclusion. So C is not possible. Hence
answer choice (i) and (iv) eliminated.

Already in three terms standard


B. Frank

format.UP+UN=size enlarged and

politicians

becomes UN.

and

So conclusion should be No crocodile is

crocodiles

politician so this statement is correct.


Hence answer choice (ii).

Final answer: (ii) only B.


The End?
No. Picture abhi baaki hai mere dost: just three
more concepts before concluding the TwoStatement Syllogism

Specia l Conv ersions


Recall that when question statements are not in
standard format (A to B then B to C), in that case
weve to convert them according to conversion table.
Here are some special cases.
Given Question
statement
None but
Politicians are

Conversion (all applicable to


all given question

Type

statements)
1. All honest(people) are
politicians

UP

honest.
No one else but
Politicians are

2. No non-politician is

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honest.

honest.

Only politicians
are honest.

UN

3. No honest (people) are


non-politicians.

Politicians alone
are honest

4. Some politicians are


honest

PP

Second concept:

Complimenta ry pa irs
Earlier we saw there are five no-conclusion combos
1. UPs politicians hate giving particular statements
(both positive and negative). E.g. they donot
reveal their clear position on FDI in retail until
the 11th hour.
2. United Nations hates negativity of any type.
(both Universal and particular)
3. Pritish Nandy hates everybody.
4. Two-negatives=no conclusion.
5. Two particulars=no conclusion.
For example
Question

1. Some Politicians are male.2. Some

statement

males are honest.

Conclusion

1. Some Politicians are honest.2. No


Politicians are honest.

Answer choice
1. Only 1 follows
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2. Only 2 follows
3. Either 1 or 2 follows
4. Neither follows
Apply the standard operating procedure:
Three terms? Check: yes
Are they in standard format? A to B then B to C?
check. Yes
Then classify the statements
1. Some Politicians(A) are males(B)

Particular positive.

2. Some males(B) are honest(C)

Particular positive.

From the given rules, Two particulars = No


conclusion!
But please observe one of the answer choice (C)=
Either 1 or 2 follows.
Consider these cases
C ase #2
Politicians

Males

honest

5. Sardar

1. Sardar Patel

1. Sardar Patel

Patel

2. Lal Bahadur

2. Lal Bahadur

6. Lal

Shastri

Shastri

Bahadur

3. Raja

3. Bhagat Singh

Shastri

4. Kalmadi

4. ChandraSekhar

7. Raja

5. Bhagat Singh

8. Kalmadi

6. ChandraSekhar

9. Sheila

Azad

Azad
5. Sarojini Naidu
6. Mother Teresa

In this case#1: some politicians (Sardar and Shastri)


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are honest.
So conclusion (1) may be possible.
C ase #2
Politicians

Males

honest

1. Raja

1. Bhagat Singh

1. Raja

2. Kalmadi

2. ChandraSekhar

2. Kalmadi

3. Bhagat Singh

3. Sheila

4. ChandraSekhar
Azad

Azad
3. Sarojini Naidu
4. Mother Teresa

In this case, No politician is honest.


So conclusion (2) may be possible.
Therefore answer becomes Either 1 or 2 follows
Such syllogism-situations are called
complementary.
Youve to check following things, before thinking
about complementary cases.
1. Two statements with three terms? Yes
2. Question statements are given in standard
format (A to B Then B to C). if not, then rearrange
or convert them.
3. Classify the statements (UP, UN, PP, PN)
4. Apply the rules. Get the answer.
5. If Step #4 gives No conclusion AND one of the
answer choice is in the format of Either I or II
follows, only then check for complemantary
case.
C he cklist: comple me ntary case
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1. Two answer choices have same subject and


predicate.
Applicable

Not applicable

1. Some Politicians are

1. Some Politicians are

honest.2. No Politicians

honest.2. No Honest are

are honestBecause

Politicians.In first statement,

both have common

subject=Politician but in

subject (politician) and

second statement, subject=

common predicate

Honest. Hence complemantary

(honest)

case not possible.

2). The answer choice combo must be either of


these three
Answer choice combo

example
1. All Politicians are

Uttar Pradesh (UP) + Pritish

honest.

Nandy (PN)

2. Some Politicians
arenot honest
1. Some Politicians are

PP + Pritish Nandy (PN)

honest.
2. Some Politicians
arenot honest
1. Some Politicians are

PP + United Nations (UN)

honest.
2. No Politicians are
honest

When these two conditions are met, then answer


would be Either (I) or (II) follows.
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Priority order
You know that when Question statements are not in
standard format (A to B Then B to C), we must
convert them. But here is a thing to keep in mind.
Consider these statements
Question statements:
1. All Dogs are Cats.
2. Some Dogs are Pigs.
Common term or middle term is Dogs. So thats our
B.
1. All Dogs(B) are Cats.
2. Some Dogs(B) are Pigs.
We can convert it via two routes
Route #1

Route #2
Well re-order the statements. (that is

Just convert the

interchange thee position of both

first statement.

statements)

1. Some Cats are 1. Some dogs(B) are pigs


dogs. (Rule: UP

2. All Dogs(B) are Cats

to PP)

Now well convert the first statement.

2. Some Dogs

1. Some pigs are Dogs (B) (Rule: PP to

are pigs.

PP)
2. All dogs (B) are cats.

Both routes are valid.


Now the question is, which route should be
preferred?
The priority order is:
1) Particular positive (PP) >> 2) Universal Negative
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(UN) >> 3) Universal Positive (UP)


Note: weve not included Particular Negative (PN) in
this order because PN cannot be converted. So
according to this priority order PP>UN>UP, route #2
is the more suitable approach. (although such
complications dont usually arise in most of the
questions).

T ricky Situa tions: Priority order


Consider this scenario
Question statements

Conclusion

1. All women(B) are birds

1. Some birds are tree

2. Some women(B) are tree

2. All trees are bird.

As you can see, the question statements are not in


standard format (A to B then B to C).
So, which question statement to convert?
First the wrong approach.
Since question statements are not in standard
format (A to B then B to C), hence well convert
first statement. (UP to PP)After conversion
WRON
G

1. Some birds(A) are women (B)


2. Some women(B) are tree
Both question statements are particular, hence
final answer=No conclusion. (please note: this
approach is wrong, because weve not followed
the priority order).

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Now the correct approach


The priority order for Statement conversion is
PP>UN>UP.Meaning, if there are two question
statements, and weve to convert one of them to
make it a standard format=> then well convert
Particular positive statement first.So in the given
case
1. All women(B) are birds
2. Some women(B) are tree
CORR
E
C
T

Convert second statement. (PP to PP)


1. All women(B) are birds.
2. Some trees are women(B).
Now exchange positions of question statements
1. Some trees are women(B). (PP)
2. All women(B) are birds. (UP)
Now theyre in standard format, apply combo
rule: PP+UP=PP (Nasa telescope rule!)
Hence conclusion is
Some trees are birds. (PP)
We can also say that Some birds are trees. (PP to
PP conversion). Therefore answer is (1)

Moral of the story: Conversion priority: PP>UN>UP.


Especially when youre getting PP+PP= no
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conclusion after conversion.

T ricky Situa tions: 1-Sta tement


Conclusion
Question statements
1. All the flowers are leaves.

Conclusion
1. Some birds are

(B) (UP)

flowers

2. Some leaves(B) are birds

2. Some leaves are

(PP)

flowers

Question statement contains only three terms=yes.


Are they in standard format? (A To B then B to C?)
=Yes.
Apply combo rules: UP+PP=No conclusion because
Uttar Pradeshs politicians hate particular
statements.
But heres the catch. Observe the conclusion
statements carefully
Conclusion
statement

Thought process

1. Some
birds
are

Not possible because combo rule.

flowers
first question statement says All flowers are
2. Some

leaves. If you apply the conversion rule UP>PP, thenAll flowers are leaves=> Some

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leaves

leaves are flowers. Hence this conclusion is

are

correct, although it did not employ both

flowers question statements.

Moral of the story: Read terms (subject-predicate) of


conclusion statements.

Summa ry
What to do when 2-statement syllogism question is
given?
1. They must have only three terms (A, B and C)
2. Are the question statements in standard format
(A to B then B to C)? if no, then refer to following
conversion table. (important: priority order for
conversion is PP>UN>UP.)
Type

Valid Conversion

Universal Positive (UP)

Only PP

Universal Negative (UN)

PN or UN

Particular Positive (PP)

Only PP

Particular Negative (PN)

Cant do.

3. Classify the Question statement (UP, UN, PP, PN)


4. Apply the combo rules on Question statements.
No conclusion

Y e s conclusion
1. If Uttar Pradesh meets

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1. UPs politicians hate

Uttar Pradesh, then its

giving particular

size doesnt increase.

statements (both

(UP+UP=UP)

positive and

2. If Uttar Pradesh meets

negative). E.g. they

United Nations then size

donot reveal their

increases and it becomes

clear position on FDI

United Nations.

in retail until the 11th

(UP+UN=UN)

hour.
(UP+PP/PN=NO)
2. United Nations

3. United Nations Secretary


Ban Ki Moon is in very
positive mood. But he

hates negativity.

meets another positive

(both Universal and

person, and his attitude is

particular)

totally reversed- he

(UN+UN/PN=NO)

becomes particularly

3. Pritish Nandy hates


everybody. (first
statement is PN=NO,

negative! (reversed =C to
A). (UN+UP/PP=PN)
4. When Mr.PP observes the

Irrespective of

universe via NASA

second statement.)

telescope, his mood

4. Two-negatives=no
conclusion.
5. Two particulars=no
conclusion.

becomes particularly
positive or negative
depending on the mood
of universe.
(PP+UP/UN=PP/PN)

5. (rarely required): if no-conclusion and either or


given in answer, then check for Complimentary case.
This concludes the discussion on 2 statement
Syllogism question.
In later article, well see the 3-statement syllogism. It
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