Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 46

A

REPORT
ON
SEMINAR ON CONTEMPORARY
ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT
2010-12
TITLED
HUMAN RESOUCE PLANNING

Submitted by
SWEETY JAIN
AHMED SIR

MBA-II Sem.

Submitted to
Mr. TANVEER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is great relief and pleasure for me to make use of this golden
opportunity to express my thanks to those who helped me whole
heartedly to bring out this seminar on MARKETING MIX as a
successful venture.
The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of a
particular job will be incomplete without the mention of the people
whose ceaseless cooperation made the job possible.Their
constant guidance and innovative ideas acquires an important role
in successful completion of the task.
Our thank of vote in this regard goes to Tanveer Ahmed Sir for their
valuable suggestions, Motivation & guidance without whom the
project cant be accomplished.

SWEETY JAIN

Preface
As a part of subject requirement of my MBA, I have prepared a
project report on change management in any organization so as to
give Exposure to practical management and to get familiar with
various activities taking place in the organization.
I have done my project report on the HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING The report has been prepared to deliever as much
information as I could gather from whatever resources I had.
It is very important to understand about the Business Ethics, as it
is moral obligations towards the society.It applies to any and all
aspects of business conduct. Business ethics is relevant to the
conduct of individuals and also relevant to the conduct of the
business organizations as a whole.
My Report is based on this important topic HUMAN RESOUCE
PLANNING.

Contents: Meaning and Definition


Emergence of HRP
Characteristics / Features
Need
Factor Affecting HRP
Types of HRP
Objectives
Requisites for Successful HRP
Importance
HRP at Different Levels
Responsibilities for HRP
Benefits of HRP
Barriers to HRP
Guidelines for effective HRP
HRP process
Porter Frame of Relationship between
Business Strategy and HRP
HR planning as a Strategic process / Strategic
manpower planning
Benefits of Strategic HR planning

MEANING AND DEFINITION


According to Edwin B.Geisler, Manpower planning is,
the process (including forecasting, developing,
implementing and controlling) by which a firm ensures
that it has the right number of people and the right kind
of people, at the right places, at the right time, doing
things for which they are economically most useful.

According to Bruce P. Coleman, Manpower planning


is, the process of determining manpower requirements
in order to carry out the integrated plan of the
organization.

Human resource planning or manpower planning is


essentially the process of getting the right number of
qualified people into the right time.
Human resource planning deals with anticipating staff
requirements, taking into account current and likely
future demand for skills, and the probable availability of
individuals with such skill.

EMERGENCE OF HUMAN RESOURCE


PLANNING
The emergence of HR planning reflects a broadening of
the mission of the personnel function .new full time staff
roles have been established in many companies to
provide support to managerial practices in HRP.HRP
professionals fulfill various role, depending on the tasks
and organizational priorities. Consulting role is vital in
effective implementation of changes called for in HRP.
As companies deal with changing social and individual
values, come face to face with the application of
employment-related laws, and experience HR constraints
achieving business plans and objectives, HRM assumes
an increased significance.
Managing HR is primarily a line activity. But demands
have outgrown in other areas, and therefore staff
functions have emerged and expanded to aid
management. Top management continues to provide
company wide policy and philosophy related to HR
matter and participates in decisions and negotiations that
have broad and long-range impact on the direction of the
companys HRM. Personal staff function has expanded
in number, variety, and its scale of activities. It has also
changed in terms of the nature of the roles performs and

the emphasis on its activities. HRP is a direct refection of


the changes that have evolved over recent decades.

CHARACTERSTICS
OF
RESOURCE PLANNING

HUMAN

1. Human resource planning is a strategy for the acquisition,


utilization, improvement and preservation of an enterprise
human resource.
2. It deals with the policies and programmes that are used in
coordinating supply and demand in order to attain the
desired goals.
3. It helps forecast an organizations future demand for
and supply of employees.
4. It helps an organization to staff itself with right people
at the right time.
5. It involves both a quantifiable and qualitative
dimension.
6. It treats employees as a resource to be developed.
7. It is a part of the corporate plan. It influence corporate
strategy and is in turn influenced by it.

8. It is a continuous process with provision for control


and review.
9. It has the short range, mid range and long range time
frame in defining the future.
10. It fulfills the human resource gap.
11. It maybe organized at different levels of an
organization. It is also done at macro level, i.e. national
level.
12. It is concerned with future needs of manpower.
13. A proper recruitment and selection procedure is
developed along with manpower planning.
14. It ensures proper utilization of available manpower
resources.
15. Periodical review and control of cost involved in the
process is undertaken.
16. It requires proper forecasting, anticipation and
planning for future.
17. In a broader sense, it represents a system approach.

NEED FOR HUMAN RESOURCE


PLANNING
1. The shortage of certain categories of employees and
variety of skills
despite the problem of
unemployment
2. The rapid changes in technology, marketing,
management etc. and the
consequent need for new
skills and news categories of employees.
3. The changes in organization design and structure
affecting manpower demand.
4. The demographic changes like the changing profile of
the workforce in terms of age, sex, education.
5. The government policies in respect to reservation,
child labor, working condition etc.
6. The labor laws affecting the demand for and supply of
labor.
7. Pressure from trade unions, politicians, sons of the
soil, etc.
8. Introduction of computers, robert, etc.

9. The involvement of lead-time in manning the job with


most suitable candidate.

FACTORS
AFFECTING
RESOURCE PLANNING

HUMAN

HRP is influenced by several considerations. The more


important of them are:

Type and strategy of organization


Organizational growth cycles and planning
Environment uncertainties
Time Horizons
Type and quality of forecasting information
Nature of jobs being filled
outsourcing

TYPE &
STRATEGY OF
ORGANISATION

ORGN.
GROWTH
CYCLE &
PLANNING
ENVIRN.
UNCERTAINTIES

HRP
TIME
HORIZON
-S

OUTSOURCING

TYPE &
QUALITY
OF
FORCASTIN
-G INFM.

NATURE
OF JOBS
BEING
FILLED

TYPES OF HRP

1.

TYPE AND STRATEGY OF ORGANIZATION

The type of organization is an


important consideration because it determines the
production processes involved, number and type of staff
needed, and the supervisory and managerial personnel
required. The strategic plan of the organization defines
the organizations HR needs.
Primarily, the organization decides either to be proactive
or reactive in HRP. It can either decide to carefully
anticipate the needs and systematically plan them to fill
them far in advance, it can simple react to needs as they
arise.
Similarly, the organization must determine the
breadth of the plan. Essentially, the organization can
choose a narrow focus by planning in only one or two
HR areas, such as recruitment or selection, or it can
choose a broad focus by planning in all areas including
training, remuneration and so on.

ORANIZATION
PLANNING
2.

GROWTH

CYCLES

AND

The stage of organizations growth


can have consideration influence on HRP. Small
organization in the embryonic stage may not have
personnel planning.
Need for planning is felt when the organization enters
the growth stage. HR forecasting becomes essential.
Internal development of people also begins to receive
attention in order to keep up with the growth.
Finally, in the declining stage, HRP takes a different
focus. Planning is done for layoff, retrenchment and
retirement. Since decisions are often made after serious
financial and sales shocks are experienced by the
organization, planning is often reactive in nature.

3. ENVIRONMENT UNCERTAINTIES
HR managers rarely have the
privilege of operating in a stable and predictable
environment. Political, social and economic changes
affect all organizations. Personnel planners deal with
environment uncertainties by carefully formulating
recruitment, selection, and development policies and
programmes. Balancing mechanisms are build into the
HRM programme through succession planning,
promotion channels, layoffs, flexible, job sharing,

retirement, VRS and


arrangements are hired

other

personnel

related

4. TIME HORIZONS
Another major factor affecting personnel
planning is the time horizons. On one hand, there are
short- term plans spanning six months to one year. On
the other hand, there are long- term plans which spread
over three to twenty years. Plans for others where
environment id fairly stable, for example a university
plan, must be long- term. In general, the greater the
uncertainty, the shorter the plans time horizon and viceversa.

5. TYPE AND QUALITY OF INFORMATION

The information used to forecast


personnel needs originates from a multitude of
sources. A major issue in personnel planning is the
type of information which should be used in making
forecasts. The organizational decision makers have
defined their strategy, organizational structure,
budgets, production schedules and so forth. In
addition, the HR department must maintain welldeveloped job analysis information and HR
information systems that provides accurate and timely
data.

6. NATURE OF JOBS BEING FILLED


Personnel planners must consider the
nature of jobs being filled in the organization. Job
vacancies arise because of separations, promotions and
expansion strategies.
It is easy to employ shop- floor workers, but a lot of
sourcing is necessary for hiring managerial personnel. It is,
therefore, necessary for the personnel department to
anticipate vacancies, as far in advance as possible, to provide
sufficient lead time to ensure that suitable candidates are
recruited.

7. OUTSOUCRING
Several organizations outsource part of their
work to outside parties either in the form of subcontracting or ancillarisation. Outsourcing is a regular
feature both in the public sector as well as in the private
sector. Most organizations have surplus labour and they
do not want to worsen the problem by hiring more
people. Hence, the need for off- loading.

There are two main types of manpower planning, on the


basis of time span, i.e. short term manpower planning
and long term manpower planning.

1. SHORT TERM MANPOWER PLANNING:

Short term planning as the name suggest is made for a


short time.Short term plans are more concerned with
specific projects and programmes and the existing
personnel must be adjusted, to match the requirements
of that project and programme in the short run, it may
not be possible, either to change the personnel, to suit
the jobs or eliminate jobs, to suit the personnel.
(1) WEAK

INCUMBENT:
The first and the most difficult problem
in short- term planning is experienced, when an existing
personnel is not according to the specifications of the
jobs.
(a) CHANGING

OF THE MAN:
The first approach in this regard is the
changing of the present incumbent by improving his
ability, through education, training and counseling.
(b) CHANGE

IN THE CONTENTS OF THE JOB:


The next approach can be, to change
the job contents, to make them suitable to the individual.
This can be done by:

Withdrawing a duty from one position and


assigning it to some other related position,
Adjusting the degree of decentralization,
Providing the additional assistance when a
person is weak.
(c) CHANGING THE JOBS AND THE MAN:
Another approaches, i.e., both man
and the job can be adjusted according to each other, by:
Improving the ability of the man through training
and counseling, and
Shifting a duty from one position to another.
(d) REMOVAL OF THE INCUMBENT: The fourth
approach may be the removal of the present incumbent
But this step should be taken only when:
It is not possible to change the job to make it
suitable to the individual, or
The individual cannot be improved even after
proper training and counseling.

(2)

STRONG INCUMBENT: Some people in the


organization may have greater ability than their
present job requires.

(a)

ASSIGNING ADDITIONAL DUTIES: A man may


be assigned some additional but related duties beyond
his assigned sphere.

(b)

ASSIGNING SOME SPECIAL PROBLEMS:


Sometimes, some special problems arise in the
organization.

(c) ADVICE: Advice

of the capable man can be sought,


for any problem, for which he is supposed to be
having special knowledge or any activity can be
made part of his regular duty, which requires
repeated advice of the capable man.

(d) CHANGE

IN JOB: The ability of a man can be


better utilized, by changing the job that suits his
abilities and cababilities. Any activity, which is not
being managed properly, may be assigned to the
capable man.

(3) UNEXPECTED

VACANCY: The next problem,


which the management has to face in the short run,
is the filling up of posts, falling vacant, due to some
unexpected reasons, such as death, resignation or
some other social reason. As these unexpected
factors are not known in advance, so again the
problem of matching job and individuals arises.

2.

LONG TERM PLANNING: Long term

manpower planning is concerned with all jobs and


person at once with matching total available
personnel in the organization to total job
requirements.
The long term manpower planning has the
following elements:
(1) PROJECTING MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS:

The first essential step in projecting the manpower


requirements is to forecast the organization
structure. The organization operates in a changing
environment and therefore, it is bound to change in
future.
(a)
An accurate forecast can be done for known
factors but for unknown factors, only past records
may help which may be adjusted, on the basis of
present known circumstances.
(b)
The manpower requirement in future will
depend upon the expansion or contraction in the
size of the organization.
(c)
A job analysis should also help in long-term
planning. A prediction of what capabilities will be
required in the people, to perform the job
effectively.

(2)

TAKING STOCK OF EXISTING MANPOWER:


Having projected the manpower requirements, the next
step in manpower planning is to take stock of existing
manpower and to find out how far the present stock of
manpower would fulfill the qualifications of the
anticipated jobs or how far they would be developed,
through training.
(3)

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION: Once


the requirement of manpower is known, the process
of recruitment and selection starts to identify the
prospective candidates and to stimulate them, to
apply for jobs.

(4)

MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT: Manpower


development individuals, through training, to fill up
the prospective vacancies, so that they can meet the
challenges with their full capabilities. It develops
the man, according the requirements of the jobs and
thus, co-ordinates the man and the job .

OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN RESOURCE


PLANNING
1.

Forecasting Human Resource Requirement- Human


resource planning is determine the future human
resource needs in an organization. In the absence of
such a plan, it would be difficult to have the services
of the right kind of people at the right time.

2.

Effective Management of Change- Proper planning


is required to cope with changes in market conditions,
technology products, and government regulation in an
effective way. These changes call for continuous
allocation or reallocation of skills and in the absence
of planning there might be under utilization of
human resources.

3.

Realizing Organization Goals In order to meet the


needs of expansion programmes and growth strategies
of the organizations planning is essential.

4.

Promoting Employees- The database available


provides a comprehensive skill repertoire, which
facilitates for decision making as to the promotional
opportunities to be made available for the
organization.

5.

Effective Utilization of Human Resource -This


database is also useful for identifying surplus and
unutilized human resources. In times of downsizing or

in estimating the cost-benefit analysis of human


resources would add value to the process.

REQUISITES FOR SUCCESSFUL HUMAN


RESOURCE PLANNING

1) CENTRAL: - Human resource planning must be


recognized as an integral
Part of corporate planning.
2) BACK UP:- Backing of top management for human
resource planning is absolutely essential.
3) CENTRALISED:- Human resource planning
responsibility should be centralized, in order to coordinate consultation between different management
levels.
4) LATEST RECORDS:- Personnel records must be
complete, up-to-date
and readily available.
5) LONG TIME PERIOD:- The time horizon of the
plan must be long
enough, to permit any remedial
action.

6) SUITABLE TECHNIQUE:- The techniques of


planning should be those
best suitable to the data available and the degree of
accuracy required.

IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING


Human resource planning assumes a crucial role in the future
success or failure of an organization. It enables a manager to
predict his manpower requirements, to determine the
development of personnel and to control wage and salary costs.
It is clearly an attempt to prepare the organization for the future,
its important is described under the followings headings:1. Flow of Individuals:- Human resource planning builds
up a picture of resource flows. It provides data on when,
where and how many employees need to be recruited.
2. Critical Management Function:- Human resource
planning is a critical managerial function because it gives
the picture of succession and development plans and
because it is an attempt reduce shocks and disturbances.
3. To Avoid Industrial Unrest:- To change the quantity and
quality of employees will require careful human resource
planning if an organization is to avoid industrial unrest.
4. To Satisfy Developmental Needs:- Human resource
planning attempts more radically to cater the potential and
development needs of employees in order to foster

quality, commitment and productivity in the workforce. It


attempts to treat employees as a resource to be developed.
5. To Integrated Individual and Organizational Needs:Through the human resource planning, the culture of one
large family can be created in which the needs and
ambitions of the individual are joined with those of the
organization.

6.

Shows Future Staffing Needs:- Human resource


planning not only provides information to guide current
staffing needs, but also provides projections of future
human resource needs and availability.

7. Helpful in Various Plans:- Human resource planning


helps in deciding the following plans:
(a)recruitment plans: to avoid unexpected shortages etc;
(b)the identification of training needs: to avoid skill
shortages;
(c)management development: in order to avoid
managerial shortages;
(d)Industrial relations plans: to avoid industrial unrest.
Modernization plans: this is helpful in future expansion

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING AT DIFFERENT


LEVELS
NATIONAL LEVEL: Generally government at the
centre plan for Human resources at the national level. It
Forecasts the demand for and Supply of Human resource, for
the entire nation.

SECTORAL-LEVEL: Manpower requirements for a


particular sector Like agriculture sector, industrial sector,
or Tertiary sector are projected based on the Government
policy, projected output/Operations etc.

INDUSTRY LEVEL: Manpower needs of a particular


industry like Cement, textile, chemical, are predicted
taking into account the output/operation level of the
particular industry.

UNIT LEVEL: This covers the estimation of human


resource needs of an organization or company based on its
corporate / business plan.

DEPARTMENTAL LEVEL: This covers the manpower


needs of a Particular in a company.

JOB LEVEL: Manpower needs of a particular job within


department.

Concept of Strategic Human Resource /


Manpower Planning

Strategic Manpower Planning is a dynamic, proactive, ongoing


process of systematically attracting, identifying, developing,
mentoring and retaining employees to support current and future
organizational goals.
Strategic Manpower Planning focuses specifically on proactive
planning to meet anticipated or unanticipated vacancies due to
retirement and other factors for classes that serve as essential
elements in meeting company public service mandate.
Since resources for developmental programs must be used
judiciously, it is critical that each department identifies those
classes and positions that are most critical to departmental
operations.

RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HUMAN RESOURCE


PLANNING
Human resource planning is the personnel department. The
personnel departments responsibility is to recommend relevant
personnel policies in respect of human resource planning devise
methods of procedure and determine the quantitative aspect of
human resource planning. GEISLER has enumerated the

responsibility of the personnel department with regard to human


resource planning in the following words: To assist, counsel and pressurize the operating
management to plan and establish objectives.
To collect and summarize data in total organizational terms
and to ensure consistency with long-range objectives and
other elements of the total business plan.
To monitor and measure performance against the plan and
keep the top management informed about it.
To provides the research necessary for effective manpower
and organizational planning.
Formulation of human resource plans is a shared task between
top management, line managers and HR department. Top
management is involved in HRP process because ultimately, it
approves various plan of the Two types of plans are more
seriously discussed at the level of Board of Directors of a
company; one is financial plan including investment decisions
and another is human resource plan particularly involving higher
level managers. Thus, top management shares the responsibility
of approving human resource plans and creating climate for
undertaking systematic HRP.
The second group of personnel involved in HRP process is the
functional managers under whom people work. Ultimately, these
managers are responsible for the effective utilization of human
resources and, therefore, they must know what kind of personnel
they need.
Board members are in a position to direct to future course of
business, set appropriate goals for management, concerned in
the formulation of personnel policy .

BENEFITS OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING


Future personnel needs:- Planning is significant it helps to
determine future personnel needs . Surplus or deficiency in staff
strength is the result of the absence of or defective planning.
Coping with change:HRP enables an enterprise to cope
with changes in competitive forces, markets , technology,
products and governments regulation .
Creating highly talented personnel:Jobs are becoming
highly intellectual and incumbents are getting vastly
professionalized. The HR manager must use his ingenuity to
attract and retain qualified skilled personnel.
Protection of weaker sections:- In matters of employment and
promotions, sufficient representation needs to be given SC/ST
candidates, physically handicapped, children of the socially and
physically oppressed and back-ward class citizens.
International strategies:- International expansion strategies
depends upon HRP. The departments ability to fill key jobs with
foreign nationals and re-assignment of employees from within
or across national borders is a major challenge facing
international businesses.
Foundation for personnel functions:- Manpower planning
provides essential information for designing and implementing
personnel functions, such as recruitment, selection, personnel
movement and training and development.
Increasing investment in human resources :Another
compelling reason for HRP is the investment an organization

makes in it human resources. Human assets, as opposed to


physical assets, can increase in value.
Resistance to change and move:- There is a growing
resistance among employees to change and move. There is also
a growing emphasis on self evaluation and on evaluation of
loyalty and dedications to the organization.
Other benefits:-

Following are potential benefits of HRP:

1} upper management has a better view of HR dimensions of


business decisions.
2} personnel cost may be less because the management can
anticipate imbalance before they become unmanageable and
expensive.
3} more time is provided to locate source talent.
BARRIERS TO HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
1. ACCURACY OF FORECAST:
Manpower planning involves forecasting the demand and
supply of human resources. Thus, the effectiveness of
planning depends upon the accuracy of forecasts.
2. IDENTITY CRISIS:
Many human resource specialists and the managers do not
understand the whole manpower planning process.
Because of this, there is generally an identity crisis.
3. SUPPORT OF TOP MANAGEMENT:
In the absence of this support and commitment, it would
not be possible, to ensure the necessary resources, cooperation and support for the success of the manpower
planning.
4. RESISTANCE FROM EMPLOYEES:

Employees and trade unions resist manpower planning.


They feel that this planning increases their overall
workload and regulates them through productivity
bargaining.
5. INSUFFICIENT INITIAL EFFORTS:
Successful human resource planning flourishes slowly and
gradually. Sometimes sophisticated technologies are
forcefully introduced, just because competitors have
adopted them.
6. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM:
Effectiveness of planning depends upon the reliability of
the information system. In most of the Indian Industries,
human resource information system has not fully
developed.
7. UNCERTAINTIES:
It is risky, to develop upon general estimates of manpower,
In the face of rapid changes in the environment.
Absenteeism,
turnover,
seasonal
employment,
technological changes and market fluctuations are the
uncertainties, which serve as constraints to manpower
planning.

GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE HUMAN RESUURCE


PLANNING
Some considerations are helpful in improving the
effectiveness of human resource planning. These are discussed
below;

1. TOP MANAGEMENT SUPPORTTo make human resource effective, the support and
commitment of top management must be ensured. Moreover,
this planning should be done within the limit of budget.
2. APPROPRIATE TIME HORIZENThe period of human resource plan should be
appropriate to the needs of the specific enterprise. It should
also consider the size and structure of the organization as well
as the changing aspiration of the people.
3. TAILORMADEHuman resource plans should be matched and
balanced with corporate objectives, strategies, plans and
environment of the particular organization.
4. PROPER ORGANIZATIONHuman resource plans must be prepared by a separate
cell, section or committee within the human resource
department. This planning must also be co-ordinated at
various levels.
5. BALANCED FOCUSThe emphasis of human resource plans should be on
filling future vacancies with right people. Overall, the
quantity and quality of human resources should be stressed in
a balanced manner.
6. PARTICIPATIONTo be successful, human resource planning requires
active participation and co- efforts on the part of operating
executives. This will improve understanding of the process
and thereby reduce resistance
7. INFORMATION SYSTEMAn adequate database should be developed for human
resources to facilitate human resource planning.

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING PROCESS


ENVIRONMENT

ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES
& POLICIES

HR SUPPLY FORECAST

HR NEED FORECAST

HR PROGRAMING

HRP IMPLEMENTATION

CONTROL & EVALUATION


OF PROGRAMME

SURPLUS RESTRICTED
HIRING REDUCED HOURS
VRS, ,LAY OFF ETC

SHORTAGE,
,RECRUITMENT AND
SELECTION

1. ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES


HR DEMAND FORECAST
HR SUPPLY FORECAST
2. HUMAN RESOURCE PROGRAMMING
3. HUMAN RESOURCE PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
1. CONTROL AND EVALUATION
1. ORANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES:
Human resource plans need to be based on
organizational objectives. In practice, this implies the objectives
of the HR plan must be derived from organizational objectives.
Specific requirements in terms of number and characteristics of
employees should be derived from the organizational objectives.
HR DEMAND FORECASTDemand forecasting is the process of
estimating the future quantity and quality of people required.
The basis of the forecast must be the annual budget and long
term corporate plan, translated into activity levels for each
function and department. Demand forecasting must consider
several factors- both external as well as internal. Among the
external factors are competition economic climate, laws and
regulatory bodies, changes in technology, and social factors.
Internal factors include budget constraints, production levels,
new products and services, organizational structure, and
employee separations. Demand forecasting is common
among organizations, though they may not do personnelsupply forecasting.

HR SUPPLY FORECASTPersonnel demand analysis provides the


manager with the means of estimating the number and kind
of employees that will be required. The next logical step for
the management is to determine weather it will be able to
procure the required number of personnel and the sources for
such procurement.
HUMAN RESOURCE PROGRAMMING:
Once an organizations personnel and
supply are forecast, the two must be reconciled or balanced in
order that vacancies can be filled by the right employees at the
right time. HR programming, the third step in the planning
process, therefore, assumes greater importance.
2.

3. HUMAN RESOURCE IMPLEMENTATION:


Implementation requires converting an
HR plan into action. A series of action programmes are initiated
as a part of HR plan implementation. Some such programmes
are recruitment, selection and placement, training and
development; retaining and redeployment, the retention plan;
and the redundance plan.
4. CONTROL AND EVALUATION:
This represents the fifth and final phase
in the HRP process. The HR plan should include budgets, targets
and standards. It should also clarify responsibilities for
implementation and control, and establish reporting procedures,
which will enable achievements to be monitored against the
plan.

Features of Strategic Human Resource Planning


1) It requires a team approach and must be viewed as a
process, not a single act.
2) Must have support of senior management.
3) Must have line management ownership and be involved in
the process with support from Human Resource personnel.
4) Must align strategic manpower plan program with the
departments culture, services and vision.
5) Necessitates creative thinking that may challenge and
change the status quo.
6) Must ensure that the most qualified candidates move into
positions of greater responsibility.
7) Influence the decision-makers on future appointments /
promotions.
8) Must be tailored to each departments needs and structure.
9) Requires the employee to take ownership of his / her
individual development with strong management support.

EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

BUSINESS
TECHNOLOGICAL

SOCIAL

HRP Activities
HR Strategy

HR ISSUES
ECONOMIC

BUSINESS STRATEGY

PORTER
FRAMEWORK
OF
RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN BUSINESS STRATEGY AND HUMAN
RESOURCE PLANNING
It shows how human resource planning activities are related to
the firm Human resource strategies, corresponding with each of
the business strategies (cost leadership and differentiation)
suggested by PORT

BENEFITS OF
PLANNING

STRATEGIC

HUMAN

RESOURCE

Encouragement of Proactive Rather than Reactive


Behavior: Being proactive means looking ahead and
developing a vision of where the company wants to be and
how it can use human resources to get there. In contrast,
being reactive means responding to problems as they come
up. Companies that are reactive may lose sight of the longterm direction of their business; proactive companies are
better prepared for the future.
1) Explicit Communication of Company Goals:
Strategic HRP can help a firm develops a focused
set of strategic objectives that capitalizes on its
special talents and know-how.

2) Stimulation of Critical Thinking and Ongoing


Examination of Assumption: Manage often
depend on their personal views and experiences to
solve problem and make business decision
assumptions on which they make their decisions
can lead to success if they are appropriate to the
environment in which the business operates. The
strategic HR planning process can help a company
critically reexamine its assumptions and determine
whether the programs that follow from these
assumptions should be modified or discontinued.
Committee, which includes an HR professional and
the CEO to discuss strategic issues on an ongoing

basis and periodically modify the companys


overall HR strategies and programmes.
3) Identification of Gaps between Current
Situation and Future Vision: Strategic HR
planning can help a firm identify the difference
between where we to be . By forcing managers to
think ahead, strategic planning can.
4) Encouragement
of
Line
Managers
Participation: Like most HR activity, strategic HR
planning will be of little value unless line managers
are actively involved. Unfortunately, top
management (including HR professionals) some
times tends to see strategic planning as its domain,
with line managers merely responsible for
implementation.

Analysis & Interpretation


Human resources are a nations and an organizations most
valuable asset, yet the most volatile and potentially
unpredictable resource. If an organization fails to place and
direct human resources in the right areas of the business, at the
right time, and the right cost, serious inefficiencies are likely to
arise. This may create many operational difficulties .It may
cause business failures.
Manpower planning has attempted to reconcile
an organizations need human resources with the available
supply of work force. It uses demand and supply forecasting
techniques to determine the future human resource requirement
of the organization.
It is the process by which a firm determines
how a management should move from its current manpower
position to its desired manpower position.
1. Forecasting Human Resource Requirement- Human
resource planning is determine the future human resource
needs in an organization. In the absence of such a plan, it
would be difficult to have the services of the right kind of
people at the right time.
2. Effective Management of Change- Proper planning is
required to cope with changes in market conditions,
technology products, and government regulation in an
effective way. These changes call for continuous allocation
or reallocation of skills and in the absence of planning there
might be under utilization of human resources.

3. Realizing Organization Goals In order to meet the needs


of expansion programmes and growth strategies of the
organizations planning is essential.
4. Promoting Employees- The database available provides a
comprehensive skill repertoire, which facilitates for
decision making as to the promotional opportunities to be
made available for the organization.
5. Effective Utilization of Human Resource -This database is
also useful for identifying surplus and unutilized human
resources. In times of downsizing or in estimating the costbenefit analysis of human resources would add value to the
process.

Recommendations & Suggestions


According to me Human recourse planning should be slightly
mandatory in all the organization.HRP must be recognized as an
integral part of corporate planning.
1. HRP responsibilities should be centralized.
2. Personnel records must be complete, up to date, and readily
available
3. The time horizon of the plan must be long enough, to permit
any remedial action.
4. Plans should be prepared by skill levels rather than by
aggregates.
5. Backing of top management for HRP is absolutely essential.
6. Data collection, analysis, techniques of planning and the plans
themselves, need to be constantly revised and improved in the
light of experience.

Conclusion
In short we can say that human resource planning is essentially
the process of getting the right number of qualified people into
the right job at the right time. it is a system of matching the
supply of people ( existing employees & those to be hired or
searched for ) with openings the organization expects over a
given time frame.
We cant suppose the improvement in the
performance of any organization without the implementation of
HRP techniques. Human resource planning show the right way
to use the manpower according to its requirement. It insists on
the effective utilization of manpower resources.
So we cannot ignore the vital role of human
resource planning in the growth process of any organization.