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Complete report of Basic Biology with the title Anatomy Vertebrate Animal,
created by :
Name
: Muhammad Takwin Machmud
Reg. Number
: 101 404 166
Group
: IV
Class / Group
: ICP Biology
After its checked and consulted by Assistant and Assistant Coordinator, it has
fulfilled requirement.
Makassar, November
Assistant Coordinator

Assistant

Djumarirmanto S.Pd

Sulfianto

2010

Known by,
Lecturer of Responsibility

Drs. H. Hamka L.Ms


NIP. 19621231 198702 1 005

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background
Anatomy is a scientific that was studied about the structure and the
relation the part of body. For examples in the animal body consist of some
organs, and every organ that has different function, but the organ that has same
function will make the system organs.

Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata, chordates with


backbones and spinal columns. About 58,000 species of vertebrates have been
currently described. Vertebrata is the largest subphylum of chordates, and
contains many familiar groups of large land animals. Vertebrates are the animals
from the groups of jawless fishes, bony fishes, sharks and rays, amphibians,
reptiles, mammals, and birds. Extant vertebrates range in size from the carp
species Paedocypris, at as little as 7.9 mm, to the Blue Whale, at up to 33 m
(110 ft). Vertebrates make up about 5% of all described animal species; the rest
are invertebrates, which lack backbones.
This experiment with the title is anatomy vertebrate animal will use it
the Rana Cancarivora (frog). This experiment had used Rana Cancarivora (frog)
because it gave a general image and general example of main organ in the
vertebrate animal.
In the anatomy vertebrate animal observation it needed the dissection to
make the easy the university student to observation the shape, color, location
organs and it relation with other organs. Beside that we can know about the
digestive system, blood circulation, breath, excretion system and reproduction
organs.

B. Purpose
The purpose of this practicum, the university students can know about a
shape, color, organ position, and it relation with other organ in the organ system.
C. Benefit
Based on this practicum the benefit of this practicum the university
student will know about a shape, color, organ position, and it relation with other
organ in the organ system.

CHAPTER II
PREVIEW OF LITERATURE
Amphibian group is a first vertebrate that had presented in the land. Basically
they has pentdactil (five edge of foot finger), nevertheless it finger foot also can be
decrease. Amphibian is a extoterm or the change of it body heat dependent by the
their environment temperature (Anonymous, 2011).
Animal body consist of some body organ. The organs which was worked
together to do the function that higher to form the organ. In this experiment will do
the experiment anatomy Rana canacarivora. Anatomy frog can give the general
examples for the main organ of vertebrate animal (Tim Pengajar, 2011).
The morphology of frogs is unique among amphibians. Compared with the
other two groups of amphibians, (salamanders and caecilians), frogs are unusual
because they lack tails as adults and their legs are more suited to jumping than
walking. The physiology of frogs is generally like that of other amphibians (and
differs from other terrestrial vertebrates) because oxygen can pass through their
highly permeable skin. This unique feature allows frogs to "breathe" largely through
their skin. Because the oxygen is dissolved in an aqueous film on the skin and passes

from there to the blood, the skin must remain moist at all times; this makes frogs
susceptible to many toxins in the environment, some of which can similarly dissolve
in the layer of water and be passed into their bloodstream. This may be the cause of
the decline in frog populations (Anonymous, 2011).
There are three ordo of Amphibian class which is still alive now : Urodela
(salamander); Anura (frog); and Apoda (Caecilian). Only more then 400 species from
urodela species. Some of it only life in water, and the other life in the land as young
animal or along it life. Anura that has near of 3500 species it was specialization then
Urodela for movemen in the land, and Apoda was called caecilian (near 150 species),
it has not has leg, almost blind and like earth worm
(Campbell, 2003).
Two atrium on the heart to make possible the blood which is contains with
oxygen back into the inside to pump to the all of body with full pressure. While the
mixing of blood which is contains with oxygen with the blood that has less oxygen
was happen in the middle of one ventricle, the heart that has three room or space give
the improve that meaning in the circulation efficiency thereby to improving the
capability to cope with the land environment that was hard and more change
(Kimball, 1999).
Considerable part of amphibian has a problem to filling the heart that
receiving the oxy blood from lung and dioxy blood that hasnt consist the oxygen
from body. To restrain a lot of the mixed two kind of that blood, amphibian had
improving in to transitional circulation system (Kimball, 1999).
More of the amphibian the paired of first, second, and fifth of arcus aorta had
lose. The third arcus aorta of the internal carotid basic, and fourt arcus aorta is a
arcus system that concern to the posterior like dorsal aorta. The proximal from the
sixth pair branch of arcus aorta from pulmocuteneus artery, to transport the blood
into the lung and into the skin where the aeration had done (Sukiyah, 2003).
There are some amphibian which has tongue cannot move. But the most of
amphibian class has tongue that can stick (protrusible tongue) and in the frog the
tongue was rolled to the back if it not use it. Short esophagus can divide with

stomach. Intestines was showing some variety. For the frog there are long intestines,
was rolling which open the cloaca (Sukiyah, 2003).
During the larva phase the amphibian was respiration with gills. This gills is
not internal type like fish, but external gills. The structure of external gills is
filamenous, closed epithelium silia, generally to reduction till metamorphosis. Some
of amphibian that has tail, still has the external gills (Anonymous, 2011).
The structure of lung the amphibian still simple. The amphibian that live in
the water, the inside surface of lung is soft but the considerable part of lung wall was
filled with gaffering of alveoli so it improve circulation surface. Some of amphibian
has short trachea, was support by cartilage which is devide into two branch that
opened into the lung. The edge of trachea was wide, especially for frog, to forming
the larink or voice box, where is the place of voice ribbon. The meeting between the
pharynk and larink was called glottis. Generally the air that was pump into the lung
from the simple process. The considerable part of amphibian breathing with their
skin and oral epithelium. So that it meaning the skin must be defend the damp
(Sukiyah, 2003).
The kidney of amphibian like the kidney in the fish or opistonefros. Some of
amphibian all of it lives into the water, corpuscle renalis was improving to restrain
the dilution from the body water (Sukiyah, 2003).
Amphibian, its urine has improve then the urine on the fish. Generally the
urine is the result of dilatation of archinefric distal vein to pass the kidney into
cloaca, and then goes to the saving of urine. The urine of amphibian which is
assemble it was adsorb again for the several time to make balance the wet of skin
which is decrease (Sukiyah, 2003).

CHAPTER III
PRACTICUM METHOD
A. Place and Date
Day / date
: Tuesday / November 15th 2011
Time
: 10.50 12.30 pm
Place
: Biology Laboratory the 2nd floor at west FMIPA UNM
B. Tools and Materials
1. Tools
a. Bottle
b. Small tray for operation
c. Operation tools consist of
1) Scissor
2) Pipette
3) Tweezers
4) Pin
5) Scalpel
2. Materials
a. Rana Cancarivora (frog)
b. Cotton
c. Chloroform
C. Work Procedure
1. Outside Observation
a. The cotton had taken, wetted with chloroform, then put in the bottle,
closed until the frog had died.
b. Took out the frog which had died and putted it on the small tray. Let it the
cotton in the bottle and close it.
c. Observed a outside part of the frog
1) Eye, eyelid and sleep membrane
2) Nose hole
3) Tympanum, hear membrane
4) Mouth space
5) Front leg :
a) Branchium
b) Ante branchium

c) Manus
d) Digiti
6) Behind leg :
a) Femur
b) Crus
c) Pes
7) Cloaka
8) Felt the skin and see the color
d. Drew from the back and give the name of the parts.
2. Dissection
a. Put the frog on the back in the small tray. Endure it legs with pin. So, it
cant moved it.
b. With tweezers, pinched skin a part stomach near femur, lift up and scissor
the skin. So the formed cleft in the stomach skin.
c. Pass through the skin, we entered the dull scissor and cut the skin into the
thigh.
d. Cut the skin on the right and left, so the stomach skin opened. Checked
the skin on the muscle tissue. Only in the skin certain in the muscle, so it
form like bag (saccus).
e. Looked the center part stomach muscle. There are white line on the
stomach muscle (linea alba).
f. Clipped the stomach muscle in behind linea alba, and cut with horizontal,
so it form space. Entered the edge of the scissor into the space of stomach
muscle and started cutting .into the head until the jaw. Continue the
cutting until the leg.
g. Opened the stomach muscle in to the left and right so it can opened the
stomach space.
3. Observation of the digestive system
a. Opened the mouth space with scalpel and tweezers, so the mouth space
had opened. Observed tooth shape, felt with finger on the upper jaw and
vorner tooth on the canopy.
b. With tweezers pulled the tongue out, observe the shape and formation.
c. Continue the observation the abdomen space that filled by innards.
Observe the shape and color :
1. Right liver, there are some lobus, found the bile pocket.
2. Left stomach, lift it to show the duodenum and pancreas.
3. Observe the intestines minor and intestines mayor.

4. Rectum that turned into cloaca.


4. Observation of the circulation system
a. Head turn from liver, it showed the heart with membrane.
b. Stabbed the cover of heart membrane with pin until broken, observed the
shape and the part :
1. Ventricle
2. Atrium (left and right).
3. Trunkus arteriosus which outside from the ventricle then branching to
be a two of aorta (left and right).
c. Drew the parts of heart and give the name of the parts
5. Observation of the respiration system
a. Looked the beside of the right liver and left stomach, there are the part of
lugs.
b. With pipette which the edge was entered into the red lane and blow it, so
that the lugs will be swollen. Observed the shape of the lugs.
c. Made the picture of the respiration picture.
6. Observation of the excretion system and reproduction (urogenitalia).
a. Loose the digestion system, it will be showed a couple of kidney stick on
behind space of stomach. And the observed it :
1. Kidney with adrenal gland.
2. Corpus adiposum.
3. Ureter of kidney to visica urinaria.
b. In male there are ureter tahat was said ductus urospermaticus, and in the
female there are a couple of ovarium.
c. Made the picture of the excretion system and reproduction.

CHAPTER IV
RESULT
A. Result of Practicum
1. Morphology of frog

1. mouth (rima
oris)
2. oculi (eye)
3. digiti (finger)
4. branchium
(upper arm)
5. ante branchium
(lower arm)
6. femur (thigh)
7. crus (calf)
8. pes
9. cloaca
10. manus
11. tympanum

2. mouth

1. external nares
2. entrane esofagus
3. tongue
4. maximillary teeth

3. anatomy of frog

1.
2.
3.
4.

larink
heart (cor)
liver (hepar)
stomach

(venrticulus)
5. Pancreas
6. Intestine mayor

4. digestive system

7. Cloaca
8. Intestine minor
9. Lung (pulmo)
10. Gall
1. pharynk
2. esofagus
3. stomach
4. doendenum
5. rectum
6. cloaca
7. small intestine

5. respiratory system

1. larink
2. trachea
3. bronchioles
4. alveolus
5. bronchus

6. circulating system

1. aorta
2. atrium sinsitium
3. ventricle
4. atrium dextrum

7. urogenital (female)

1. esophagus
2. postcaval vein
3. kidney
4. adrenal gland
5. ureter
6. uterus
7. bladder
8. ovary
9. oviduct

7. urogenital (male)

1. aorta
2. testis

3. efferent ductules
4. bladder
5. cloaca
6. ureter
7. kidney
8. fat body
B. Discussed
Based on the observation about the anatomy of vertebrate animals as
follow :
From the observation of morphology structure from cana cancarivora
(frog) there are some part we can found it. There is digiti, branchium, ante
branchium, femur, crus, pes, cloaca, etc. The morphology of frog (Rana
cancarivora)
1. Mouth gap (rima oris), site in tip of rostum
2. External nares (nares anteriores), there on the front of maxilla it not take part
on the breathing, but it use to sense of smell.
3. Eye (oculi), sight organ of the frog.
4. Nictitating membrane (membrana nictitans), clear eyelid and protec the eyes.
5. Tympanic membrane (tympanum), it used to take voice waves.
6. Front leg, it consist of upper arm (branchium), forearm (ante branchium), palm
(manus), and fingers (digiti) as much as 4 fingers.
7. Hind leg, it comprises thigh (femur), calf (crus), sole (pes), webbed foot and
toe (digiti) as much as 5 toes and it has web.
8. Cloaca, it functions site of digestion duct, excretion duct and sexual duct.
The skin surface of frog was i bit of coarse and moist and the color of its
skin was dark green with black spots and in the middle of its back there was a
yellow line. Moist skin of frog helped it to breathing.
From the observation of anatomy we can found some organs system like
respiratory system, circulation system, digestive system, etc. Each organs has
different function but it the organ has connected with each other.

Below the anatomy part of frog, it would explain on the digestion system,
circulation system, breathing system, urogenital system.
1. Lugs (pulmo)
2. Heart (cor)
3. Liver (hepar)
4. Stomatch (ventriculus)
5. Oviduct
6. Uteres (uterus)
7. Bladder (uledar)
8. Intestine (intestinum)
9. Ovary (ovarium)
10. Spleen (limf)
The specification from observe the digestive system there are we can
found stomach, doendenum, rectum, intestine mayor and minor, etc. This organs
system the function to digestive the food that we eat.
The digestion system on the frog beginning from mouth to cloaca. On the
mouth there were teeth and tongue. The teeth of frog divide into maxilla teeth and
vomerine teeth. The tongue color was deathly pale and it branch on its tip. This
tongue used to catch the prey. The food from mouth enter to stomach via
esophagus. In the stomach the food digested and then entered to intestine. In this,

1.
2.
4.
5.
6.

the essence food absorbed. The rest of food output via cloaca.
Below the part of frog digestion based on the observation
Esophagus (oesophagus), tube leading to the stomach
Pancreas (pancreaticus), makes insulin (aids in digestion).
3. Stomach (ventriculus), first site of chemical digestion, breaks down food.
Small intestine (intestinum tennue), absorb nutrients from food.
Cloaca, "Sewer": Eggs, sperm, urine and feces enter this area.
Large intestine (intestinum crassum), collects waste, absorbs water.
The specification of organ of respiratory system is trakea, bronchus,
bronchioles, and alveolus. This organs system the function as the respiration.
Devices breathing of frog comprises lungs and skin. The frog lungs has two
elastic wall sack it contains of blood vessels. Frog breathing with skin could
happen in the land and in the water. It could happen because the skin most thin
and contains of blood vessels.

Below the part of breathing organs based on the observation


1. Pharynx
2. Bronchus
3. Left lung (pulmo sinister)
4. Right lung (pulmo dexter)
The specification of circulation system, in here we can found the aorta,
atrium sinsitium and dextrum, and ventricle. The function of this organ system is
to pump the blood into all of the part body.
The frog heart has 3 chambers, were left atria (atrium sinister), right
atrium (atrium dexter) and a single ventricle. The partition between atrium and
ventricle there was clamp to avoid the blood did not flow to atrium. The half of
blood from ventricle crossed the lungs circulation and the other blood crossed
systematic circulation begin to aorta base, called conus anterius and then
circulation o throughout of the body. After that, the blood would back to heart via
vena cava posterior that gathered the blood from behind and inner organs and
vena cava anterior that gathered the blood from head part and the body movement
members.
Below the part of circulation of frog based on the observation
1. Aorta (aortae)
2. Left atrium (atrium sinister)
3. Ventricle
4. Right atrium (atrium dexter)
The last is the urogenital,and excretion system in this practicum we
observe the female frog. In this system we can found some organs. There are
postcaval vein, kidney, adrenal gland, ureter, uterus, bladder, ovary, and oviduct.
The function of this system organ as a excretion and secretion. The frog kidneys,
were couple and adhered on the stomach cavity. Kidney was filter, it could take
essence of metabolism like urine. Beside that there was bladder, its function to
storage urine. The liquid in the bladder has reabsorption to blood circulation, this
matter to avoid dryness. The male frog has couple of testes and it produce sperm.
Meanwhile the female frog has couple of ovary.

Below the urogenital organs of male and female frog based on the
observation
1. Male frog
a. Flatty bodies (corpus adiposum), adipose tissue
b. Testes, male sex organ which produces spermatozoa.
c. Kidney (ren), blood-purifying organ.
d. Ereter (ductus mesonephridicus), tube that carries the urine from the kidneys
to the bladder.
e. Cloaca, orifice shared by the urinary, genital and intestinal tracts of a frog.
f. Bladder (uledar), pocket in which urine collects.
g. Vasicula seminalis, produce gland to sperm live.
h. Spermatic canal, tube that carries sperm.
2. Female frog
a. Ovary (ovarium), reproductive gland that produces ova.
b. Kidney child, blood-purifying organ.
c. Ereter (ductus mesonephridicus), tube that carries the urine from the kidneys
to the bladder.
d. Cloaca, orifice shared by the urinary, genital and intestinal tracts of a frog.
e. Oviduct, passage through which the egg leaves the body of the frog.
f. Flatty bodies (corpus adiposum), adipose tissue.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion
Based on the practicum about anatomy of vertebrate animals , the
practicum draw the conclusion as follows :
The vertebrate has some organ like digestive organ, respiratory organ,
circulating organ, etc. Each organ has different function and different structure.
And the organ has relation with other organ, and to form the organ system. And

the average color of each organ is dark red. But for the kidney the color is black
and in the stomach is a white.
B. Suggestion
1. I hope for next practicum, The university student can be comfort and enjoy to
do the practicum in laboratory.
2. The Assistant who was guide for this practice is good. So, I hope for the next
practicum the assistant can guide excellently.
3. I hope all the apprentice in the next practicum, we can work together again
more than in this practicum and working more seriously to get a good result
to get a good result.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anonymous. 2011. Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frog. Accessed on November 18th
2011.
Campbell N. A. 2003. Biology 5th Edition. Jakarta:Erlangga.
Kimball, John. 1999. Biologi, edisi keiima. Jakarta:Erlangga.
Sukiya. 2003. Biologi Vertebrata. Yogyakarta:Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.
Tim Pengajar Biologi. 2011. Penuntun Praktikum Biologi Dasar. Makassar:
Laboratorium FMIPA UNM.

ANSWER THE QUESTION


1. Frog can be divide into two class because the frog life at two place, young
frog life in water and old frog life in the land.
2. Skin color usually have be change because a frog have chromathopor
(pigment cell) consist of :
a. Xantioplasm have yellow pigment
b. Melanfora have melamin pigment cause the brown and black color.
c. Guanfora have crystal guanine cause blue color.
The cause of this change by :
1. Intern
2. Extern
3. Top of the tongue slikky cranial at the jaw, the advantage that tongue quickly
out to catch the prey.

4. Liver and pancreas not as digestive acces, but include digestive system
because at them there are enzim to help digestive of food so can be absorbed
in intestines minor.
5. The frog can do stomach respiration because the frog there isnt flank bone
and clep and respiration any arrange by lower jaw and stomach muscle.
6. Clean blood and dirty blood in heart of frog mix when have a heart because
only has one ventricle, so the blood from the body will be out by aorta.
7. At frog happen fertilization external because at frog fertilization happen in
out of body.