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Project Report

ON
CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR & CUSTOMER
SATISFACTION ABOUT J.K. WHITE CEMENT
Submitted for the partial fulfilment for the award
Of
Bachelor of Business Administration from
Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut
2012-15
Submitted To:
SHANTI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MEERUT

Under The supervision of: -

Submitted By:-

Mr. RAHUL SHARMA

RAHUL KUMAR

(H.O.D, of BBA, Dept )

BBA VI SEM
Roll No. 3396530

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT
SHANTI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MEERUT
BATCH-2012-15

STUDENT DECLARATION
I, RAHUL KUMAR, student of BBA at SIT, Meerut hereby declare that the
project work entitled CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR & CUSTOMER
SATISFACTION ABOUT J.K. WHITE CEMENT is compiled and
submitted under the guidance of Project Guide Mr. Rahul Sharma
H.O.D., BBA Department, SIT Meerut. This is my original work.

Whatever information furnished in this project report is true to the


best of my knowledge.

Date:
Place:
RAHUL KUMAR
BBA VI SEM
Roll No. 3396530

AKNOWLEDGEMENT
Presenting a Summer Training project of this type is an arduous task,
demanding a lot of time. I cannot in full measure appreciate and
acknowledgementthekindnessshownandhelpextendedbyvariouspersons
inthisendeavor.Iwillrememberallofthemwithgratitude.
Imust,however,especiallyRender&Myspecialsincerethankstowards
Mr. Avnish Pandey (Branch Manager, Depot Manager., Baghpat), for
givingmeachancetotakethisprojectandforhisvaluableguidance,which
helped me on all those points, which I needed to include in, with full
intensity.

My sincere thanks are also due to Project Guide Mr. Rahul Sharma
H.O.D., BBA Department , SIT Meerut fortheirsignificanthelpextended
forthesuccessfulcompletionoftheproject.IhighlythehelpIgotfrom
theminprovidingmeandlotofinformationregardingthefunctioningof
thisorganization.
I am really appreciative this organization (J.K. White Cement mills,
includingallemployees)forfullcooperation,supportandmotivationthat
theyextendedtomeincompletingmyprojecthere.
3

IamalwaysbeholdentomyGod,foralwaysbeingwithmeandshowingme
therightways,myfamily,foralwaysdoingfavorstomeandmyfriendsand
colleaguesconsistentlyhelpedwithencouragementandcriticismthroughout
theprojectwork,foralwaysliftingmysightstohighervision,raisingmy
personalitybeyondnormallimitationandforrealizingmemystrengthsand
potential,asIdidnotalwayswelcomeherexhortation,tryagain;youcan
dobetter.ButthisprojectowesagreatdealtoitandsodoI.

RAHULKUMAR

PREFACE
The motive behind this project is to know the consumer
satisfaction survey towards start White Cement. I researched about
companies and its effectiveness in the eye of customers. In this
project I analyze these strategy and done the survey and give some
recommendation and their benefits to increase their effectiveness.

I dedicate this project report to my loving parents gives me


inspiration to do hard work in the life.

This project report highlights the company profile, their group of


companies and survey about the customer satisfaction.

We are surveying the different companies in Baghpat.

CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

COMPANY PROFILE
CONSUMERS BUYING BEHAVIOR

8
35

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

57

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
SWOT ANALYSIS
DATA ANLAYSIS

58
68
71

FINDINGS

79

LIMITATIONS

81

CONCLUSION

82

SUGGESTIONS

84

APPENDIX

98

BIBLIOGRAPHY

103

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This is an attempt to study consumer perception through consumer


towards J.K. White Cement, so as research has been conducted by
reliance. The project was to carry out survey through filling a
questionnaire, the target consumer was using J.K. White Cement
product and survey was taken out regional urea of Saharanpur &
Meerut.
For the purpose of collection o data and sales promotion of J.K. White
Cement product has started a campaign in which several teams of
summer trines from M.B.A. institutes were supposed to do survey at
selective location. The visitor was requested 1 to till the questionnaire
while making than aware of tariffs, additional benefits and solve
problems it they have.
On the bases of information guttered by filling the questionnaire the
results was as follows.
The J.K. White Cement user were satisfied with the value added
service, brand image, feature of urea and after sales service.

COMPANY PROFILE
.K. Cement is an affiliate of the J.K. Organization, which was founded by
Lala Kamlapat Singhania. The J.K. Organization is an association of
industrial and commercial companies and has operations in a broad number
of industries.

Our cement operations commenced commercial production in May 1975 at


our first plant at Nimbahera in the state of Rajasthan. At Nimbahera, we
started with a single kiln with a production capacity of 0.3 million tons. We
added a second kiln in 1979 with production capacity of 0.42 million tons,
and a third kiln in 1982 with a production capacity of 0.42 million tons. We
added a precalciner with a capacity of 0.4 million tons in 1988, which
increased our capacity at Nimbahera to 1.54 million tons. During the years
1998 through 2003, we continued to implement modifications to each of our
kilns, which increased our aggregate capacity at Nimbahera to 2.8 million
tons as of September 30, 2005.

We commissioned a second grey cement plant at our Mangrol plant in 2001,


with a production capacity of 0.75 million tons. As of September 30, 2005,
we had an aggregate production capacity of 3.55 million tons per annum of
8

grey cement. Our white cement plant was completed in 1984 with a capacity
of 50,000 tons. Our continuing modifications to the plant have increased its
production capacity to 300,000 tons as of September 30, 2005.
Today, J. K. Cement Ltd. is one of the largest cement manufacturers in
Northern India. We are also the second largest white cement manufacturer in
India by production capacity. While the grey cement is primarily sold in the
northern India market, the white cement enjoys demand in the export market
including countries like South Africa, Nigeria, Singapore, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Tanzania, UAE and Nepal.

Our access to high quality limestone reserves that are suitable for production
of white cement provides us with a competitive advantage. Based on
geological surveys conducted by independent agencies on our mines
between 1996 and 2001, our limestone reserves for both grey and white
cement are expected to meet our existing and planned limestone
requirements of 4.0 MnTPA of grey cement and 0.4 MnTPA of white
cement, for approximately 40 years.

Backed by state-of-the-art technology and highly skilled manpower against


the backdrop of Indias infrastructural growth in an overdrive, we are upbeat
9

about the future. We are confident of contributing heavily in Indias journey


of development. We see a world of concrete ideas on the horizon.

Dr. Gaur Hari Singhania

Chairman
Dr. Singhania, our Chairman, holds a Master of Arts degree in Economics
and a PhD degree in Economics from Agra University. He has corporate
experience spanning 50 years. He has been associated with the Company as
its Promoter Director and has led our Company since its inception in 1994.
He is also the Chairman of JKSL, Juggilal Kamlapat Cotton Spg. & Wvg.
Mills Company Limited and J.K. Traders Limited. He has held the position
of Chairman of the Merchant Chambers of Uttar Pradesh and Employers
Association of Northern India.

10

He has also been the president of Uttar Pradesh Stock Exchange Association
Limited. He has been a director of Pradeshiya Industrial Investment
Corporation of Uttar Pradesh, UttarPradesh State Industrial Development
Corporation and the Uttar Pradesh State Sugar Corporation. Currently, he is
also the chancellor of Dayanand Shiksha Sansthan and the president of
Kanpur Education Society
Board of Directors
Key Management Personnel

Dr. Gaur Hari Singhania


Chairman

Mr. Yadupati Singhania


Managing Director & CEO

11

Mr. J.P. Bajpai

Mr. K.N. Khandelwal

Mr. Raj Kumar Lohia

Mr. Ashok Sharma

Mr. Achintya Karati

Mr. Jayant Narayan Godbole

12

Mr. Suparas Bhandari

Dr. K.B. Agarwal

13

Customer Satisfaction

Always invest in Latest Technology

Huge Distribution Network Creation

Expansion through Balancing Equipment

Constant focus on Cost Control & Quality

Invest in Managers & Develop People Skills

Stability of Executive Management & Low Employee turnover

Social Welfare - A Priority

We enjoy a number of key competitive advantages, which have helped


us maintain our position as one of the leading cement manufacturers in
the Northern Indian cement market. Our principal strengths and
competitive advantages are as follows:
14

Leading position in attractive Northern India grey cement market.

Based on CMA data, Northern Indian cement manufactures have


consistently operated at the highest levels of capacity utilization among
Indias five regions. We believe this reflects the strong demand in Northern
India for cement products relative to supply. Further, based on capacity
expansions announced by cement manufacturers, we expect cement plants in
Northern India to continue to operate at high utilization levels and anticipate
continued strong demand for our grey cement products in the near and
medium-term.
We believe that we are well positioned to take advantage of this demand, as
the fourth largest grey cement manufacturer in Northern India, and the
largest grey cement manufacturer in the state of Rajasthan.
One of the Leading white cement producer in India
White cement accounted for 16.6% of our total cement revenue and 35.2%
of adjusted EBITDA from our cement operations in fiscal 2005, and 15.5%
15

of revenues and 26.7% of our adjusted EBITDA from our cement operations
in the six months ended September 31, 2005. Unlike grey cement, the white
cement industry in India is highly concentrated with the two largest players
accounting for the substantial majority of Indias production capacity.
Consequently, prices of white cement have been relatively less volatile and
sales of white cement have generated more stable cash flows for us even
during industry downturns in grey cement. We also believe our position as
the second largest producer of white cement in India, together with our
nationwide delivery network, significantly enhances the overall brand image
of JK Cement.

Proximity and access to large reserves of high quality limestone

We have access to large reserves of limestone for both our grey and white
cement operations, which we believe are sufficient to sustain our operations
well into the future. Based on independent geological surveys of different
mines during 1996 to 2001, we believe that our limestone reserves are
16

sufficient to support our current and planned capacity for approximately 40


years for both grey and white cement. (Put in risk - assuming we are able to
renew our existing leases upon their expiry) As one of the first cement
producers in Northern India, we were able to choose our limestone reserves
in an area with high quality limestone resources. In addition to allowing us
to produce white cement, which requires high quality limestone, it also
provides us with a cost advantage, as we are not required to purchase
sweeteners to improve the quality of limestone. Further, our manufacturing
plants are in close proximity to our limestone reserves, resulting in lower
transportation costs. Finally, our mines that supply our white cement plant at
Gotan also have a supply of white clay, an important additive necessary for
white cement production.

Quality of products and strong brand name


We believe that brand name and reputation are important to retail purchasers
of cement in India. We have built a strong reputation among cement
purchasers by consistently providing high quality products. We believe that
there is strong customer awareness of our brands, JK Cement
(Sarvashaktiman), for grey cement in our principal market in Northern
17

India, and JK White (Camel), for white cement across India. Further, we
believe that our brand name and our reputation for consistently supplying
high quality products provide us with a competitive advantage in ensuring
that cement dealers carry our products.

Extensive marketing and distribution network


We have a wide distribution network for grey cement in Northern India. We
also have a strong all-India distribution network for white cement. Our
distribution network for grey cement products consists of 44 feeder depots
serviced by seven regional sales offices in Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh,
Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Our white cement network
comprises 20 feeder depots serviced by 13 regional sales offices in Delhi,
Chandigarh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,
Karnataka, Kerala, Maharasthra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. In
addition, we have more than 4,000 retail stores that stock our grey and white
cement products, as well as 22 sales promoters and four handling agents. We
18

believe that the extent of this network, and our relationships with our
dealers, enables us to market and distribute our cement widely and
efficiently.

Experience and technical know-how

We have 30 years of experience in the Indian cement industry, which we


believe provides us with the skills to maximize production efficiency,
expand production capacity quickly and reduce costs. Over the years, we
believe that we have developed long-term customer relationships and a
strong reputation for quality. In addition, we have a proven track record of
upgrading and modernizing our production capabilities efficiently, having
increased our production capacity at Nimbahera by more than 80%, from
1.54 million tons in 1998 to 2.8 million tons as of September 30, 2005.
Further, we have a stable and experienced middle and senior level
management team, many of whom have been working in our cement
operations for more than 20 years. Our Nimbahera manufacturing facility
19

was chosen by the World Bank and the Danish International Development
Agency as one of the four training centers in India to serve as the Regional
Training Center for Northern India. There are only four regional training
centers for the cement industry in India, and we believe our operation of the
training center provides us with access to state of art training aids, live
working models, and technical expertise developed by well known national
and international cement producers.

Architect of the Year Award (AYA)


Architecture was more or less identified with housing & more so with elite
housing. However, many countries have used architecture effectively for
public structures also, such as highways, metro rails, factories, harbours &
any other public facilities. These projects/structures shall consume lot of
building materials. If these structures have to look pleasing, relevant
architecture has to be applied in their designs.
20

The subject of challenges to architecture vis-a-vis town planning,


infrastructure development & affordable housing is being discussed in
various countries through various forums. Mr.Yadupati Singhania, Managing
Director, J.K. Cement Ltd., thought that we could contribute to this cause by
encouraging outstanding talent in the profession of architecture as a
continuous process & thereby set an example for others in this profession to
do better & better.
This is how Architect of the Year Award (AYA) began way back in the year
1990 (1st Architect of the Year Award). Awards were subsequently extended
to architects of neighbouring countries from the year 1996 (7th Architect of
the Year Award). To encourage state level architecture, State Architecture
awards were also introduced from the award year AYA-98 (9th Architect of
the Year Award).

21

Over the years, we have developed long-term customer relationships and a


strong reputation for quality. In addition, we have a proven track record of
upgrading and modernizing our production capabilities efficiently, having
increased our production capacity at Nimbahera by more than 80%, from
1.54 million tons in 1998 to 2.8 million tons as of September 30, 2005.We
have a stable and experienced middle and senior level management team,
many of whom have been working in our cement operations for more than
20 years.

Our Nimbahera manufacturing facility was chosen by the World Bank and
the Danish International Development Agency as one of the four training
centers in India to serve as the Regional Training Center for Northern

22

India. There are only four regional training centers for the cement industry in
India, and we believe our operation of the training center provides us with
access to state of art training aids, live working models, and technical
expertise developed by well known national and international cement
producers.

Regional Training Centre (North)


Kailash Nagar, Nimbahera 312617
Distt. Chittorgarh (Rajasthan), India
Phone: 01477 221590, 221194 (office)
Fax: 01477 220027, 220049 (NBH)
0294 2414181 (Udaipur)
E-mail: rtcnorth@sancharnet.in
rtc@jkcw.com
Gram: JAYKAY

23

Jaykaycem Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of J.K.Cement Ltd. is


setting up Greenfield Grey Cement plant with split grinding unit in the state
of Karnataka.

In Phase I, Integrated plant of 2.5 million tons would be set up at


Muddapur, distt. Bagalkot and in Phase II , split grinding unit of 1.0
million tons would be set up at Bellary.

Substantial Land for factory & colony have been acquired and the
entire factory & mining land will be procured by March07.

Orders have been placed for main plant & equipment, gear boxes and
other long delivery items Foundation stone laying ceremony was held on 8th
Dec.06 and civil work has started.

Integrated Unit (Phase I) will be completed in Oct.- Dec.08 quarter


and Grinding Unit (Phase II) would be commissioned after 612 months of
Phase-I.
J.K. white cement

24

We manufacture white cement under the brand names J.K. White and Camel.
White cement is produced using a different quality of limestone and is
distinguished from grey cement by its white colour. Each ton of white
25

cement requires approximately 1.33 tons of limestone, 0.02 tons of gypsum


and 0.2 tons of additives including white clay, feldspar and fluorspar.
White cement is typically used in three principal areas of application, as
set forth below:

Flooring, for the manufacturing and laying of mosaic tiles and as tile fixing
grout, wall applications, such as decorative white cement paints and plain
and spray plasters; and

Other specialized applications including glass fibre reinforced concrete,


garden furniture, lamp posts, as pointing for brick and stone works and as
pre-cast cladding panels.

We sell white cement primarily in the Indian market. We also export white
cement to a number of countries, including South Africa, Nigeria, Singapore,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Tanzania, United Arab Emirates and
Nepal.

26

Technologies change, needs change, and in turn products change. What


remain unchanged, are values and ideas that propel any entity forward. Ideas
that are concrete and unwavering, just like their outcome. At JK Cement we
are crossing milestones, one after another, propelled by the following
concrete ideas:

To provide products that fully comply with technical specifications


committed to our customers, at the most competitive price.

To ensure complete reliability in our dealings with customers,


distributors, suppliers & other partners.

To operate our manufacturing facilities in such a way, that they help


sustain the environment & provide new opportunities for the underprivileged
in that region.

27

To ensure that every department of our every office encourages new &
better ideas and freedom of expressing the same, and cultivate a work
environment that rewards excellence in every employees chosen area of
work leading to a harmonious & fulfilling atmosphere.

To motivate every team member to challenge his last best


performance and out do it continually.

To remain abreast and imbibe the latest technological trends for the
benefit of our customers.

We manufacture grey cement in two facilities located at Nimbahera and


Mangrol in the state of Rajasthan in Northern India. White cement is
produced at our facility at Gotan in the state of Rajasthan. Our plants have
obtained many accolades and recognition, the most noteworthy being : ISO9001:2000 QMS and ISO-14001:2004 EMS for the grey cement facility at
Nimbahera and ISO-9001:2000 QMS, ISO-14001:1998 EMS & OHSAS28

18001:2005 Occupational Health and Safety for the white cement facility at
Gotan. The construction of our first most modern dry cement plant began in
1970

in

Nimbahera

in

Rajasthan.

The following table shows a breakdown of production of the Nimbahera,


Mangrol and Gotan cement facilities for the periods indicated
PRODUCTION (IN METRIC TONS)
Six months
Fiscal

Fiscal

Fiscal

ended

2003

2004

2005

September
30, 2005

Nimbahera 2,323,283 2,272,760 2,414,196 1,256,942


Mangrol

570,464

718,572

912,419

493,211

Gotan

200,149

215,538

224,481

99,343

29

The production process for cement consists of drying, grinding and mixing
limestone and additives like bauxite and iron ore into a powder known as
raw meal. The raw meal is then heated and burned in a pre-heater and kiln
and then cooled in an air cooling system to form a semi-finished product,
known as a clinker. Clinker (95%) is cooled by air and subsequently ground
with gypsum (5%) to form Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Other forms
of cement require increased blending with other raw materials. Blending of
clinker with other materials helps impart key characteristics to cement,
which eventually govern its end use.
There are two general processes for producing clinker and cement in India :
a dry process and a wet process.
The basic differences between these processes are the form in which the raw
meal is fed into the kiln, and the amount of energy consumed in each of the
processes. In the dry process, the raw meal is fed into the kiln in the form of
a dry powder resulting in energy saving, whereas in the wet process the raw
meal is fed into the kiln in the form of slurry. There is also a semi-dry
30

process, which consumes more energy than the dry process but lesser than
the wet process.

The basic steps involved in the production process is set out below:

All J.K. Cement plants are dry process plants. Limestone is crushed to a
uniform and usable size, blended with certain additives (such as iron ore and
bauxite) and discharged on a vertical roller mill, where the raw materials are
ground to fine powder. An electrostatic precipitator dedusts the raw mill
gases and collects the raw meal for a series of further stages of blending. The
homogenized raw meal thus extracted is pumped to the top of a preheater by
air lift pumps. In the preheaters the material is heated to 750C.
Subsequently, the raw meal undergoes a process of calcination in a
precalcinator (in which the carbonates present are reduced to oxides) and is
then fed to the kiln. The remaining calcination and clinkerization reactions
are completed in the kiln where the temperature is raised to between
1,450C and 1,500C. The clinker formed is cooled and conveyed to the
clinker silo from where it is extracted and transported to the cement mills for
producing cement. For producing OPC, clinker and gypsum are used and for
producing Portland [Pozzolana] Cement (PPC), clinker, gypsum and fly
31

ash are used. In the production of Portland Blast Furnace Stag Cement
(PSC), granulated blast furnace slag from steel plants is added to clinker.

32

33

34

CONSUMERS BUYING BEHAVIOR


Understanding the buying behavior of the target market is the essential task
of marketing management under the marketing concept.
The consumer market consists of all the individuals and households who buy
or acquire goods and services for personal consumption.
Consumers vary tremendously in age, income, educational level, mobility

patterns and taste.

MODEL OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Due to the growth in the size of firms and markets, marketing decision

makers have been removed from direct contact with their customers.

Managers have had to turn to consumer research. They spend more money in

trying to learn : Who buys? How do they buy? When do they buy? Where do

35

they buy? Why do they buy?

How do consumers respond to various marketing stimuli, arranged by the

company, is main question. Therefore, business & academic researchers

have invested much energy in researching the relationship between

marketing stimuli and consumer response.

Outside Stimuli

Buyers Black box

Buyer

respon

ses
Marketing

Other

Product

Economic

Buyer

Buyer

Product choice

Price

Technological

Characteristic

Decision

Brand choice

36

Place

Political

Promotion

Cultural

Process

Dealer choice

Purchase choice

Purchase

amount
MODEL OF BUYER BEHAVIOR

37

Their starting point is the stimuli-response model. Above figure shows

marketing and other stimuli entering the buyers black box and producing

certain responses. The stimuli are of two types. Marketing stimuli consists of

the 4 Ps : Product, Price, Place and Promotions. Other stimuli consist of

major forces and events in the buyers environment economic, technological,

political and cultural. All these stimuli pass through the buyers black box

and produce the set of buyer responses : Product choice, brand choice, dealer

choice, purchase timing and purchase amount.

38

MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR


Consumers purchases are highly influenced by cultural, social, personal and
psychological factors.

39

Cultural
Culture

Social
Reference

Personal

group
s
Age and life Psychological
Cycle
Subculture

stage

Motivation

Occupation

Family

Buyer

Perception

Learning
Social class

belief
Roles

&

attitude

and

status

DETAILED MODEL OF FACTORS INFLUENCING BEHAVIOR

40

(A) CULTURAL FACTORS :

Cultural factors exert the broadest and deepest influence on consumer

behavior.

CULTURE:

Culture is the most fundamental determinant of a persons wants and

behavior. The child growing up in a society learns a basic set of values,

perception, preference & behavior through a process of specialization

involving the family & other key institutions.

SUBCULTURE:

Each culture contains smaller groups of subcultures that provide more

41

specific identification & socialization for its members. Four types of sub

culture can be distinguished.

(i) Nationality groups.

(ii) Religious groups.

(iii) Racial groups

(iv) Geographical areas.

SOCIAL CLASS:

Virtually all human societies exhibit social stratification. More frequently,


stratification takes the form of social classes. Social classes are relatively
homogenously and enduring divisions in a society, which are hierarchy
ordered and whose members share similar values, interests, and behavior.
(B) SOCIAL FACTORS:

A consumers behavior is also influenced by social factors, such as the

42

consumers reference groups, family, and social roles and statuses.

(i) REFERENCE GROUPS:

A persons reference groups are those groups that have a direct or indirect

influence on the persons attitudes or behaviors. Groups influence will be

stronger for products that will be visible to others whom the buyer respect.

(ii) FAMILY:

Members of the buyers family can exercise a strong influence on the

buyers behavior. The family of orientation consists ones parents. From

parents a person acquires an orientation toward religion politics, &

economics and a sense of personal ambition self-worth & love. The

43

following products and services fall under such.

Husband-dominant

: Life insurance, automobiles

Wife-dominant

: Mixer, Washing Machine, and Kitchenware

Equal

: Housing, Entertainment, and Housing Furniture

(iii) ROLES AND STATUSES:

Participating of buyer in the different groups as clubs, organization influence

his/her buying behavior. His/her position in the different groups can be

termed as roles & status. A role consists of the activities that a person is

expected to perform according to the persons around him/her. Each role

carries a status reflecting the general esteem : accorded to it by society.

44

( C ) PERSONAL FACTORS:

Personal factors a buyers decisions by his/her personal characteristics,

occupation, economic circumstances, life style, and personality & self-

concept.

(i) AGE & LIFE CYCLE STAGE:

People change the goods and services; they buy over their life time. They eat

baby food in childhood, most foods in the young age and special diets in the

later year.

(ii) OCCUPATION:

45

A persons consumption pattern is also influenced by his or her occupation.

A blue-chip worker will purchase good clothes, care etc.

(iii) ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES:

A persons economic circumstances will greatly affect product choice. His

economics circumstances consists of their spend able income, saving &

assets, borrowing power.

(iv) LIFE-STYLE:

A persons life style is that persons pattern of living in the world as

expressed in the persons activities, interests & opinions.

(d) PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS:

46

A persons buying choices are also influenced by four major psychological

factors-

(1) Motivation

(2) Perception

(3) Learning

(4) Beliefs and Attitudes

( E) BUYING ROLE:

For many products, it is easy to identify the buyer. Men buy shaving Cream,

Razor, Cigarette etc. While cosmetic, pantyhose etc.

Thus, we can distinguish several roles people may play in a buying decision.

47

Initiator

: One who first suggests or thinks of the idea of buying the

particular product or service.

Influencers : One whose views or advice carries some weight in making

the final decision.

Decider

: One who ultimately determines any part of, or the entire

buying decision whether to buy, what to buy, or where to

Buy.

Buyer

: One who makes the actual purchase.

User

: One who consumes or uses the product or service.

48

TYPES OF BUYING BEHAVIOR

There are four types of consumer buying behavior based on the degree of

buyer involvement in the purchase and the degree of differences among

brands.

Significant

High involvement
Complex buying

Low involvement
Variety seeking buying

Differences

Behavior

behavior

Between brand
Few

difference Dissonance

between brand

reducing Habitual

buying behavior

(a) COMPLEX BUYING BEHAVIOR

49

behavior

buying

Consumers go through complex buying behavior when they are involved in

a purchase and aware of significant difference existing among brands.

Consumers are highly involved ma purchase when it in expensive, risky and

highly expressive.

(b) DISSONANCE - REDUCING BUYING BEHAVIOR

When the consumers are highly involved in a purchase but see little

differences in the brands. It in based on the fact that the purchase is

expensive, infrequent & risky. For example, shopping for carpet.

(c) HABITUAL BUYING BEHAVIOR

50

Many products are bought under conditions of low consumer involvement

and absence of significant brand differences. A good example is the purchase

of salt.

(d) VARIETY-SEEKING BUYING BEHAVIOR

Some buying situations are characterized by low consumer involvement but

significant brand difference e.g. in purchasing cookies.

CONSUMER BUYING BEHAIOUR

SALES PROMOTION - A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Sales promotion consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly

51

short-term, designed to stimulate quicker and / or greater purchase of

particular products / services by consumers or the trade.

Whereas advertising offers a season to buy, sales promotion includes tools

for consumer promotion e.g. samples, coupons, cash refund offers, prices-

off,

premiums,

prizes, patronage rewards, free trials, warranties,

demonstration, contests:

Trade promotion e.g. buying allowances, free goods, merchandize

allowance, cooperative advertising, advertising and display allowances, push

money, dealer sales contests.

Sales force promotion (bonuses, contests, sales rallies).

52

Sales promotion tools are used by most organizations, including

manufacturers, distributors, retailers, trade associate and non-profit

organizations.

A decade ago, the advertising-to-sales promotion ratio was about 60/40.

Today in many consumer packaged goods companies, the picture is reversed

with sales promotion accepting for between 60-70% of the combined budget.

Sales promotion expenditures have been increasing 12% annually, compared

with advertisings increase of 7.6% of the fast growth is expected to

continue.

Several factors contributed to the rapid growth of sales promotion,

particularly consumer markets.


53

Internal factors include the following


Promotion is now more accepted by top management as an effective sales

tool.

More product managers are qualified to use sales promotion tools;

Product manager are under greater pressure to increase their current sales.

External factors Includes the following:

The number of brands has increased.

Competitors use promotions frequently.

Many brands are at parity. Consumers are more deal oriented.

The trade has demanded more deal from manufactures.

54

Advertising efficiency has declined because of arising costs, media

costs and legal restraints.

The rapid growth of sales promotion media (contests, coupon etc) has

created a situation of promotion clutter. Similar to advertising clutter. There

is a danger that consumers will start tuning out, in which case coupons. and

other media will weaken in their ability to trigger purchase. Manufacturers

will have to find ways to rise above the clutter, for instance, by offering

large coupons, redemption values or using more dramatic point of purchase

displays or demonstrations.

PURPOSE OF SALES PROMOTION

Sales promotion tools vary in their specific objectives. A free sample


55

stimulates consumer trial, while a free management advisory service


cements a long term relationship with a retailers.
Sellers used incentive type promotions to attract new tiers, to reward loyal

customers, and to increase the repurchase rates of occasional users.

New tiers are of three types

Users of another brand in the same category.

Users in other categories and

Frequent brand switches.

Sales promotions often attract the brand switches, because users of other

brands arid categories do not always notice or act on a promotion. Brand

switches are primarily looking for low price, good value or premiums. Sales

56

promotion are unlikely to turn them into loyal brand users; Sales promotions

are used in markets of high brand users. Sales promotions are used in

markets of high brand similarity, produce a high sales response in the short

run but little permanent gain in market share. In markets of high brand

dissimilarity, sales promotions can alter market share more permanently.

Sellers often think of sales promotion as designed to break down brand

loyalty, and advertising as designed to build up brand loyalty. Therefore, an

important issue for marketing managers is how to divide the budget between

sales promotion and advertising.

Ten years ago marketing managers would decide what they needed to spend

on advertising and put up the rest on sales promotion. Today marketing


57

mangers first estimate what they need to spend in trade promotion, then

what they need to spend in consumer promotion and whatever is left they

will budget for advertising.

A study conducted by Brown has revealed the following: Sales promotion yield faster response in sales than advertising does.

Sales promotions do not tend to yield new, long term buyers in mature

markets because they attract mainly deal prone customers who switch

among brands as deals become available.

Loyal brand buyers tend not to change their buying patterns as a result

of competitive promotion.

58

Advertising appears to be capable of increasing the prime franchise of

a brand.

There is also evidence that price promotions do not permanently build total

category volume. They usually build short term volume that is not

maintained. Small share competitors find it advantageous to use sales

promotion, because they cannot afford to match the large advertising

budgets of market leaders. Nor can they obtain shelf space without offering

trade allowance or stimulate consumer trial without offering consumer

incentives. Price competition is often used by a small brand seeking to

enlarge its share, but it is IT less effective for a category leader who growth

lies in expanding the entire category.

59

Sales promotion seems most effective when used together with advertising.

In one study, point-of purchase displays related to current White Cement

commercials were found to produce 15% more sales than similar displays

not related to such advertising. In another, a heavy sampling approach along

with WHITE CEMENT advertising proved more successful than either

White Cement alone or White Cement other coupons in introducing a

product.

SELECTING THE SALES PROMOTION TOOLS

Sales promotion tools are selected keeping in view the sales promotion

objectives. These, objectives are derived from broader promotion objectives

which are derived from more basic marketing objective d for the product.
60

The specific objectives set for sales promotion will vary with the type of

target market.

For consumers objectives include encouraging purchase of larger size units,

building trial among non-user and attracting switches away from

competitors brands.

For retailers objectives inducing retailers to carry new items and high level

of inventory, encouraging off season buying, encouraging stocking of related

items, offsetting competitive promotions, building brand loyalty of retailers

and gaining entry into new retail outlets. For the sales force, objectives

include encouraging support of a new product or model, encouraging more

prospecting and stimulating off-season sales.


61

Many sales promotion tools are available to accomplish these objectives.

The main sales promotion tools are designed for consumer promotion, trade

promotion and business promotion.

CONSUMER PROMOTION TOOLS:

The main consumer promotion tools include samples, coupons, cash refund

offers, price packs, premiums, prizes, patronage awards, free trials, product

warrantees, tie-ins, and point-of-purchase displays and demonstrations.

SAMPLES:

They are offers of a free amount or trial of a product to consumer. The

sample might be delivered door to door, sent in the mail, picket up in a store,

62

found attached to another product or featured in a advertising offer.

Sampling is the most effective and most expensive way to introduce a new

product.

COUPONS:

They are certificate entitling the bearer to a stated saving on a purchase of a

specific product. Coupons can be mailed, enclosed in or on other products,

or inserted in magazine and newsWhite Cement advertisements.

63

CASH REFUND OFFERS:

Cash refund duffers or rebates are like coupons except that the price

reduction occurs after the purchase rather than at the retail shop. The

consumer sends a specified proof of purchase to the manufacturer who in

turn refunds part of the purchase price by mail.

64

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

To study produced variety and product feature.


To study J.K. White Cement other White Cement.
To study the consumer penetration of J.K. White Cement.
To study the satisfaction level of consumer with J.K. White
Cement.
To study the market share of J.K. White Cement.
To study the dicision making of consumer satisfaction.
To study the need of consumer with J.K. White Cement.
To contact some of the corporate customers of J.K. White Cement.
To ensure their satisfaction with J.K. White Cement.
Devising strategy to increase the sale of J.K. White Cement.

65

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Methodology is a systematic way, which consists of series of
actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research and the desired
sequencing of these steps. The marketing research is a process of involves a
number of inter-related activities, which overlap and do rigidly follow a
particicular sequence. It consists of the following steps
1. Formulating the objective of the study
2. Designing the methods of data collection
3. Selecting the sample plan
4. Collecting the data
5. Processing and analyzing the data
6. Reporting the findings

66

Objective of Study

Research Design

Sample Design

Data Collection

Data analysis

Reporting of Findings

67

RESEARCH DESIGN
Research Design specifies the methods and procedures for conducting a
particular study. A Research Design is the arrangement of conditions for
collection and analysis of the data in a manner that aims to combine
relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Research
Design is broadly classified into three types as
Exploratory Research Design
Descriptive Research Design
Hypothesis testing Research Design
On the basis of the objective of study, the studies which are concerned with
describing the character tics of a particular individual, or of a group of
individual under study comes under Descriptive Research Design.

Descriptive Research Design: In this research design the objective of study


is clearly defined and has accurate method of measurement with a clear cut
definition of population which is to be studied.

Formulating the research problem


Two steps are involved in formulating the research problem:

68

Understanding the problem


Rephrasing the problem into meaningful terms from an analytical
point of view.
The training sessions are conducted in the beginning of training in order to
make us clear about the task provided and how to handle the different
situations.

69

PREPARING THE RESEARCH DESIGN


The research design is developed to collect the relevant information with
minimum of efforts, time and money.
Marketing Research Objectives:
Type of Study: Descriptive.
Research Area: Baghpat.
Source of Information: Primary Data.
Data Collection Instrument: Questionnaires & Personal
Interview.
Research Approach: Survey Method.
SAMPLING DESIGN
A Sample Design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given
population. It refers t the technique r the procedure adopted in selecting
items for the sample. The main constitution of the sampling design is as
below1. Sampling Unit
2. Sample Size
3. Sampling Procedure

70

SAMPLING UNIT
A sampling framework i.e. developed for the target population that will be
sampled i.e. who is to be surveyed.
Consumers
SAMPLE SIZE
It is the substantial portion of the target population that are sampled to
achieve reliable results.
100 ------- RESPONDENT (Customer)
SAMPLING PROCEDURE
The procedure to choose the respondents to obtain a representative sample, a
non-probability sampling technique is applied for the target market.
Non-Probability Sampling
It is a purposive sampling which deliberately chooses the particular units of
the universe for constituting a sample on the basis that the small mass that
they so select out of a huge one will be typical or representative of the
whole.
Judgment sampling: To select population members who are good prospects
for accurate information?

71

DATA COLLECTION
The data collection process is the predefined task that I have to undergo. The
data collection process starts right from the first day till the final day on the
field. During the whole period a list of different retailers scattered around
whole of the South Meerut gets visited on the regular basis. The main task is
to analyze the market potential, study of the market share of the company
and analyzing the competitors strategies.

The survey process is not complete without consulting the


Distributor & Retailers. The distributors are the key nodes that make the
chain moving effectively. So the response made by them is also an essential
criterion to involved and reaching for certain decisions.

There are several ways of collecting appropriate data that differ


considerably in the context of money costs, time, and other resources at the
disposal of the researcher. The tools used for data collection are as:
PRIMARY DATA
The primary data are those data, which are collected afresh and for the first
time. And happen to be original in character. The primary data to be

72

collected for the study are Questionnaire A set of questionnaire is prepared for the
cause of collecting different information related to the predetermined objectives. The questionnaire prepared is in two
forms & targeted towards the doctors and chemists differently.
The format of questionnaire is structured and non-disguised.
Direct Personal Interview Under this method of collecting
data there is face-to-face context with the person from whom
the information is obtained. The data collected are from the
respective selected doctors and chemists visited regularly. The
pattern used is Structured and Indirect Interview.

73

SECONDARY DATA

Secondary data means data that are already available i.e., they refer
the data, which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else.
When the researcher utilizes secondary data, then he has to look into various
sources from where he can obtain them, IN this case he is certainly not
confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection
of original data. Secondary data may either be published data or unpublished
data. Usually published data are available in:
Various publications of the central, state and local governments;
Various publications of foreign government or of international bodies
and their subsidiary organization;
Technical and trade journals:
Books, magazines and newsWhite Cements;
Reports and publications of various associations connected with
business and industry, banks, stock, exchanges etc.;
Reports prepared by research scholars, universities, economists etc.
In different fields, and

74

Public records and statistics, historical documents, and other sources


of published information. The sources of unpublished data are many;
they may be found in diaries, letters, unpublished biographies and
autobiographies and also may be available with scholars and research
workers, trade associations, labor bureaus and other public/private
individuals and organizations.

75

SWOT ANALYSIS
STRENGTH
J.K. White Cements strategies are more interested in expanding the
market than wresting share away from other players.
J.K. White Cement decided to be a value driver, selling novel product
benefits.
J.K. White Cement applied unique insight across product markets,
including consumer electronics, where people hadnt imagined that health
had any relevance (like offering ACs with health air system with anti
fungus, electrostatic and deodorizing and anti-bacteria filters so that AC
which was previously just a cooling machine, is low wanted by people to
improve the aesthetics of the room, give them status, be easy to operate
and improve health.
And this due to the accurate presentation by effective advertisements the
Indian consumers is beginning to judge all sort of machines by what they
mean for a healthful life style.
J.K. White Cement a technological brand as compared to others which
launched a whole range of household products simultaneously and

76

because of the strategy the customers had been benefited with the
consciousness of concept of health who receive it in the from of quality
healthful products and also are new conscious enough the judge their
machines vide this parameter.
Operating with a consumers perspective is a matter of routine at J.K.
White Cement keep on asking ridiculous questions and then figuring out
how much to deliver.

WEAKNESS
J.K. white cement has less no of retailers.
Less force it has less no. of marketing personnel.
It has planned for setting up of new plants where their competitor has
planned to setup several new plants.
It has no extra features in the brand that differentiate its from other
competitors.
In J.K. White Cement There is no any famous personality as brand
personality.

77

OPPORTUNITY
It can take the market very well with the new investment of 82 millions.
It can give a big jerk to its major competitor in J.K. white cement
increase its number of product in consumer goods.
Increasing trend of J.K. white cement of different brands.

THREATS
It has a continuous threat from pg groups as well as various other
competitors.
J.K. White Cement has major market than other competitor the company.
A large amount of expenses on the production.

78

DATA ANLAYSIS
EVALUATION OF OTHER COMPETITIVE BRANDS IN
PRODUCTION STRATEGY
Company
J.K. White Cement
Birla
ACC
Prism
Others

% age
40
15
8
15
22

79

INFLUENCES:
In the survey in find the brands strategy production J.K. White Cement is
more than other competitive, more 40% have J.K. White Cement, and
second greater than 22% of other and lower the brand strategy of production
have Nobel group.

80

CUSTOMERS INFLUENCED BY THE PRODUCTION PROCESS


FEATURES

Company
Model
Concept
Massage
Product

% age
20
15
8
15

81

INFLUENCES
1. 20% of customers are influence by the model as shown in the
production.
2. 20% of customers are influence by the concept as shown in the
production.
3. 20% of customers are influence by the technology as shown in the
production.
4. 40% of customers are influence by the production as shown in the
production.

82

CUSTOMER VIEW OVER QUALITY REFLECTED THROUGH


PROCESS

Company
Actual
Exemplary

% age
80%
20%

Analysis
In the survey I find more 80% of the customer view of the quality reflected
is actual basis and rest 20% exemplary basis.
1. 80% of actual basis
2. Rest of exemplary
ARE YOU SATISFIED WITH J.K. WHITE CEMENT

83

Total of respondents 50
Yes
No

40
10

INFLUENCES
1. In the survey we find maximum 80% consumer are satisfied with J.K.
White Cement and rest 20% has problem.

84

ARE YOU SATISFIED WITH QUALITY OF PRODUCT


Total of respondents 50
Yes
No

40
10

INFLUENCES
2. In the survey we find maximum 90% consumer are satisfied with J.K.
White Cement quality and rest 10% has problem with quality.

Which A4 size copier White Cement you sale in our stationary shop

85

Total of respondents 50
Companies
J.K. White Cement
Birla
ACC
Prism
Others

Respondent
15
10
8
7
10

INFLUENCES
3. In the survey we find maximum 30% consumer used J.K. White
Cement and second largest consumer used AVM and other brand.

FINDINGS

86

There are a large number of small & big localities in the area. It was a
difficult tasks to cover to many companies. Hence, only 3 of them were
selected, Saharanpur & Meerut.
Exclusive dealer of the company, were also inquired where sometimes
delays occurred and repeated visits were made on account of the
concerned person unavailable or busy.
Only 50 odd customer were covered in the project and that too equally
divided in the localities selected, which is infect a small sample to
represent the population.
Customer awareness and negligence was also a problem since many of
them the end to walk from the White Cement as soon as advertisement
break commences in during and after the schedule of programs and film.
Only a small function of customers reading national dailies is one of the
factors of their not coming across advertisements and without which
advertisement effectiveness cannot be judged.
Locating dealers selling brands other than J.K. white cement was a
difficult task. Their views seemed necessary in getting an overall picture.
Many of them out rightly to entertain the questionnaire.
Contacting the various eligible customers and probing in details about
various features of the advertisements, improvements of the competitors,
87

their suggestions etc. sometimes proved a difficult job. Many times


appointments were taken and were cancelled at the last minute.

88

LIMITATIONS
While working on this project I have to face some difficulties while conducting
the survey. People were not interested in giving there actual information about
their product, as they were extremely scared about the income tax some people
have difficult to take them in confidence so that they can give correct
information.

Some of the limitation is:


Not interest to meet
Refusal to co-operate
Respondent bias

89

CONCLUSION

There are on an average 43.33% the existing users of the companys


products in the area.
90% of the vendor are dealing in the companys products since many
year when the company started it operations.
9167% of the respondents have seen the companys advertisements, out
of which the advertisement recall is barely 44%.
The symbol / logo recall is appreciable to be 72%.
Most problematic feature of the advertisement seems to be the slogan
with a whoolpingly lower recall of 13%.
After viewing the companys advertisement a significant proportion
(76%) think of buying the companys product.
Among the various features of the production the highest performance
(60%) goes for the overall production. On the contrary, the lowest
preference (6%) is for the message.
41% opined that the companys production ltd company 34% opined that
the companys advertisement are ideally for company.
90

97% of the respondents are of the opinion that the products actually
confirm to the standards shown in the advertisements.
A sizeable population (60%) is in the favor of their favorite stars and
models to be featured in the companys advertisement easily, preferably
in the first shot.
On an average 56% of the customers are in the favor of the frequency of
the production to be increased. While 95% favor the launching of the
nationwide promotional schemes by the company.
One of the major studies was about the overall customers satisfaction
survey 42% of respondents find it good but need some alteration. In
addition a strikingly 32% find it very good and promising.

91

SUGGESTIONS
Production are made intended to accomplish the task of communicating
effectively and properly, by communicating to the right person, by
communicating the right message; put across through appearing and
persuasive language, to positively after the purchase behavior of the target
audience. The role of advertisement is to provide the maximum economic
returns to the company and fulfilling other social and informational
objectives as well.
When seen in the light of above the advertising campaign of the company
broadly seems to achieve the objectives.

Focus to be shifted towards major fraction of Indian society:


As reflected from the analysis, a major population is in the impression of the
advertisements catering to the lives and needs of the richer society which
themselves from only a fraction of the entire population of the country. Now
at this point of the time when the company has established itself as a major
brand in the country the company should strive to engross itself deeper into
the lives of the major fraction of the Indian society i.e. the rural and the semi
urban population.
92

Use of better, catchy slogans:


The successful today have the J.K. White Cement working towards a better
future today have the element of effective slogans or punch lines as well.
The slogans should be such that they are shortn sweet to be humble at the
same time contributing cleverly to the overall objective of the
advertisements.

The recommendation of effective and catch punchilines or slogans to be


made a part of the production of the company will definitely improve the
present impact. Such slogans it incorporating regional sayings or slang
might make them more easily understood and quick to repeat and sign.

Launching of nationwide promotional schemes:


As the analysis reflected that it is the need of the hour to launch more
attractive schemes country wide on the major festivals, seasonal events, etc.
the company can go for some incentives schemes for its existing customers
to create loyalty among them. It can be something like Lucky Draw prizes,
sending festivals wishes etc. it would help the company to crate band loyalty
as well enhance the existing market share.

93

COLLECTING OF DATA THROUGH


QUESTIONNARIES
The method of data collection of quite popular, particularly in
case of big enquiries. It is being adopt by private individual
research workers, and workers, private and public organizations
and even by government. In this method a questionnaire is sent
(usually by post) to the persons concerned with a request to
answer the question and return the questionnaire. A questionnaire
consist of a number of questions printed of typed in a define
order on a form or set of forms. The questionnaire is melting to
response then or expected to read and understand the questions
and write down the reply in the space meant the purpose in the
questionnaire itself. The respondents have to answer to answer
the questions on their own.
The method of collecting data wise mailing the questionnaires to
respondents is most extensively employed in various economy
and business surveys. The merits claimed on behalf on methods
are as follows
94

1. There is low cost even when the universe is large and is


widely spread geographically.
2. It is free from the bias of the interviewer; answers are in
respondents own words.
3. Respondents, have adequate time to give well thought out
answers.
4. Respondents who are not easily approachable, can also be
reached conveniently.
5. Large samples can be made use of and thus the results can
be made more dependable and reliable.

The main demerits of this can be listed here.


1. Low rate of return of the duly filled in questionnaires; bias
sue to no response is often indeterminate.
2. It can be used only when respondents are educated and
cooperating.
3. The control over questionnaire may be lost once is it sent.
4. There is a built inflexibility because of the difficulty of
amending the approach once questionnaires have been
dispatched.
95

5. There is also possibility of ambiguous replies or omission


of replies or omission of replies altogether to certain
questions; interpretation of omissions is difficult.
6. It is difficult to know whether willing respondents are truly
representative.
This method is likely to be the slowest of all.
Before using this method, it is always advisable to conduct pilot
study (pilot survey) for testing the questionnaires. In a big
enquiry the significance of pilot survey is felt very much. Pilot
survey is infect the replica and rehearsal of main survey. Such a
survey, being conducted by expert, brings to the light the
weakness (if any) of the questionnaires and also of survey
techniques. From the experience gained in this way, improvement
can be effected.

96

MAIN ASPECTS OF A QUESTIONNAIRE


Quite often questionnaire is considered as the heart of a survey
operation; hence it should be very carefully. If it is not properly
set up, the main aspect of a questionnaires viz., the general form,
question

sequence

and

question

formulation

and

wording.

Researcher should note the fooling with regards to these main


aspects of questionnaire.

1.

GENERAL FORM: - So as the general form of a

questionnaire is concerned, it either be structured or untutored


questionnaire structured questionnaires are those questionnaires
in which there are definite concrete and pre-determined questions
the questions are presented with exactly the same wording and in
the same order to all respondents resort is taken to this sort of
standardization to ensure that all respondents reply to the same
set of questions the form of the question may closed (i.e. of the
type yes of no) or open (i.e., inviting free response) but
should

be

stated

in

advance

and

not

constructed

during

questioning. Structured questionnaires may also have fixed


alternative questions in which response of the informants area
97

limited to the stated alternative thus a highly structured


questionnaire is one in which all questions and answers are
specified and comments in the respondent's own words are held
to the minimum when these characteristics are not present in a
questionnaire, it can be termed as unstructured or non-structured
questionnaire.

More

specifically,

we

can

say

that

in

an

unstructured questionnaire, the interviewer is provided with


general guide on the type of information to be obtained, but the
exact question formation is largely his own reasonability and the
replies are to be taken down in the respondent's own words to be
extent possible ; in some situations tape recorder may be used to
achieve this goal. Structured questionnaires are simple to
administer and relatively inexpensive to analyze. The provision
of alternative replies, at times, helps to understand the meaning
of the question clearly. But such questionnaires have limitations
too for instance, wide range of data and that too in respondents
own words cannot be obtained with structured questionnaires.
They are usually considered inappropriate in investigations
where the aim happens to be probe for attitudes and reasons for
certain actions or feelings. They are equally not suitable when a
98

problem is being first explored and working hypotheses sought.


In such situations, unstructured questionnaires may be used
effectively. Then on the basis of the results obtained in pretest
(testing before final use) operations from the use of unstructured
questionnaires, one can construct a structured questionnaire for
use in the main study.
2.

QUESTIONS

SEQUENCE :

In

order

to

make

in

questionnaire effective and to ensure quality to the replies


received, a researcher should pay attention to the questionsequence in preparing the questionnaire. A proper sequence of
questions being misunderstood. The question-sequence must be
clear and smoothly-moving, meaning thereby that the relation of
one question to another should be readily apparent to the
beginning. The first few questions are particularly important
because they are likely to influence the attitude of the respondent
and in seeking his desired cooperation. The opening questions
should be such as to arouse human interest. The following type
of questions should generally be avoided as opening questions in
a questionnaire.

99

1. Questions that put too great a string on the memory or


intellect of the respondent.
2. Questions of a personal character.
3. Questions related to personal wealth, etc.
Following the opening questions, we should have questions that
are really vital to the research problem and a connecting thread
should run through successive questions. Ideally, the questionsequence should conform to the respondents way of thinking.
Knowing

what

information

is

desired,

the

researcher

can

rearrange the order to the questions (this is possible in case of


unstructured

questionnaire)

to

fit

the

discussion

in

each

particular case. But in structured questionnaire the best that can


be done is to dateline the question-sequence with the help of a
pilot survey which is likely to produce good rapport with most
respondents. Relatively difficult question must be relegated
towards the end so that even if the respondent decides not to
answer such questions, considerable information would have
already been obtained. Thus, question-sequence should usually
go from the general to more specific and the researcher must
always reminder that the answer to a given question is a function
100

not only of the question itself, but of all previous question as


well. For instance, if one question deals with the price usually
paid for coffee and next with next reason for preferring that
particular brand, the answer to this latter question may be
couched largely in the terms of price differences.
3. QUESTION FORMULATION AND WORDING: - With
regards to this aspect of questionnaire, the researcher
should note that each question must be very clear for any
sort of misunderstanding can do irreparable harm to a
survey. Question should also be impartial in order not to
give a biased picture of the true state of affaires. Questions
should be constructed with a view of their forming a logical
part of a well through out tabulation plan. In general, all
questions should meet the following standards-

(a)

Should be easily understood;

(b)

Should be simple i.e., should convey only one


thought at a time;

(c)

Should be concrete and should confirm as possible


to the respondents way of thinking.
101

(For intense, instead of asking. How many razor blades do you


use annually? The more realistic question would be to ask, how
many razor blades did you use at last week?.
Concerning, the form of questions, we can talk about two
principal forms, viz., multiple choice questions did the open-end
question. In the former the respondent select one of the
alternative possible answers put to him, whereas in the latter he
has to supply the answer in his own words. The question with
only two possible answers (usually Yes or No) can be taken as
a special case of the multiple choice question, or can be named
as

closed

question.

There

are

some

advantages

and

disadvantages of each possible form of the question. Multiple


choice or closed questions have the advantage of easy handling,
simple to answer, quick and relatively inexpensive to analyze.
The are most amenable to statistical analysis. Sometimes the
provision of alternative repliesheips to make clear the meaning
of the questions is that of putting answer in peoples mouths
i.e., they may force a statement of opinion on an issue about
which the respondent does not infect having any option. They are
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not appropriate when the issue under consideration happens to be


a complex one and also when the interest of the researcher is in
the exploration of a process. In such situations, open-ended
questions which are designed to permit a free response from the
respondent rather than one limited to certain stated alternatives
are considered appropriate. Such questions give the respondent
considerable latitude in phrasing reply. Getting the replies in
respondents own words is, thus, major advantage of open-ended
questions. But one should not forget that, form an analytical
point of view, open-ended questions are more difficult to handle,
raising problems of interpretation, comparability and interviewer
bias. In practice, one rarely comes across a case when one
questionnaire relies on one form of questions of different forma
are include is one single questionnaire. For instance, multiple choice

questions

constitute

the

basis

of

structured

questionnaire, particularly in a mail survey. But even there,


various open-ended questions are generally inserted to provide a
more complete picture of the respondents feeling and attitudes.
Researcher must pay proper attention to the wording of questions
since reliable and meaningful returns depend on it to a large
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extent. Since words are likely to affect responses, they should be


properly chosen. Simple words, which are familiar to all
respondents,

should

be

employed.

Words

with

ambiguous

meaning must be avoided. Similarly, danger words, catch words


or words with emotional conations should be avoided. Caution
must also be exercised in use of phrases, which reflect upon the
prestige of the respondent. Questions wording is no case should
bias the answer. In fact, question wording and information is an
art and can only be learnt by practice.
ESSENTIAL OF A GOOD

QUESTIONNAIRE:

To be

successful, questionnaire should be comparatively short and


simple i.e. the size of the questionnaire should be kept to the
minimum questions should proceed in logical sequence moving
from easy to more difficult questions. Personal and intimate
questions should be left to the end. Technical terms and vague
expression capable of different interpretations should be avoided
in a questionnaire. Question may be dichotomous (yes or no
answer), multiple choice (alternative answer listed) or openended. The later types of questions are often difficult to analyze
and hence should be avoided in a questionnaire to the extent
104

possible. There should be some control questions in the


questionnaire, which indicate the reliability of the respondent.
For instance, a question designed to determine the consumption
of particular material may be asked first in terms of financial
expenditure and later in terms of weight. The control questions,
thus, introduce a Crosse-check to see whether the information
collected is correct or not. Questions affecting the sentiments of
respondents should be avoided. Adequate space for answer
should be provided in the questionnaire to help editing and
tabulation. This should always be provision for indications of
uncertainty, e.g. do not know, no preference and so on. Brief
directions with regards to filing up the questionnaire should
invariably be given in the questionnaire itself. Finally, the
physical appearance of the questionnaire affects the cooperation
the researcher receives from the recipients and as such an
attractive looking questionnaire, particularly in mail surveys, is a
plus point for enlisting cooperating. The quality of the White
Cement, along with its colour, must be good so that it may attract
the attention of recipients.

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APPENDIX
Dealers questionnaire
Name:
Address:
Date:
Q-1: What company of White Cement of you deal in?
a) J.K. White Cement

b) AVM

c) BDM

d) MRF

e) Other
Q 2: Are you satisfied with the service of company?
a) Yes

b) No

Q-3: What level of quality do you expect from your manufacturer?


a) Very good

b) Good

c) Average

Q-4: Does your current manufacturer meets that level?


a) Yes

b) No

Q-6: Are you satisfied with the replacement facility of the company?
a) Yes

b) No

Q-7: At what cost you think you should get all those facility and quality?
a) Minimum

b) Average Cost
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Q-8: Does you supply and demand need are completely fulfilled by you
always?
a) Yes

b) No

c) Depend upon situation

Q-9: What role does your manufacturer play in managing supply chain?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Q-10: What is your organizational policy for managing relationship with
your manufacturer?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Q-11: Suggestion:
How to improve the sales of J.K. White Cement.
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

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QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CUSTOMER SATISFACTION SURVEY


Customer representative:

Surveyed by:

Responsibility area:

Responsibility area:

Name:

Name:

Signature:

Signature:

Q-1 How do you rate the quality of J.K. White Cement product?
a. Excellent

b. Very good

c. Good

d. Average

Q-2: What would be your rating on basis of returns generated by those


products?
a. High return

b. Average return

c. Low return
Q-3: What do think about the technology and equipment use by them. That
is hardware plant / Machinery etc?
a. Excellent

b. Good but more improvement

c. Average quality

d. Need replacement

Q-4: Are you satisfied with delivery system that J.K. White Cement is
following.
a. Fully satisfied

b. Further improvement
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c. Partially satisfied

d. Never satisfied

Q-5: Is the packaging according to your specification?


a. Always

b. Yes, Its good

c. Never
Q-6: Do you get the original product specified by you?
a. Mostly

b. Always

c. Never
Q-7: How do you compare J.K. White Cement in terms of technology with
context to the technology used by your competitor?
a. Better then competitor

b. quite competitive

C. Innovative

d. Low then competitor

Q-8: How would you rate the policies and practices followed by J.K. White
Cement in there organization?
a. Excellent

b. Vary good and effective

c. Quite good but old trends

d. Not aware

Q-9: What about the communication or response to various quarries of


yours?
a. Excellent

b. Very good

c. Good

d. Just ok

109

Q-10: What about various additional service provide by them?


a. Very good

b. Average

d. Not aware
Q-11: Which attributes of the product attract you to buy it or what attributes
of J.K. White Cement products attractive?
a. Cost

b. Quality

c. delivery service

d. Product design

e. Technology

f. Others

Q-12: How do you rate the following attributes of J.K. White Cement
product on the scale of 1-5.
Cost
Quality
Delivery service
Product design
Technology

1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

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4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS:
(Author-G.C.Beri) Market research (Publish tata McGraw Hill
Publishing CO. Ltd. Delhi) Second Edition
(Author-Philip Kotler) Marketing Management
(Publish Prentice Hall India Pvt.Ltd. NEW Delhi)
Ninth Indian Edition

WEBSITE:
www.google.com
www.sscricket.com

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