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CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT

Plants of same kind that are grown on large scale in an area is known as crop. Examples
are rice, wheat, maize etc.
The process of growing crops is called cultivation.
The production of crops by cultivation of land is called Agriculture.
In India, based on season crops can be categorised into three types Kharif, Rabi and
Zaid.
Kharif (June to October) Paddy (rice), Maize, Groundnuts, Soyabean, Cotton,
Rabi Crops (November to February) Wheat, Mustard, Linseed, Gram, Pea,
Zaid Crops (March to May) Watermelon, Muskmelon, Cucumber
The basic activities done by farmers to raise a crop is called agriculture practices.
These are
1. Preparing soil
2. Sowing seeds
3. Adding manure and fertiliser
4. Irrigation
5. Protecting from weeds and pests
6. Harvesting and threshing
7. Storage
The process of turning and loosening the soil is called tilling or ploughing. This is
done with the help of plough, or hoe, or cultivator.
The process of scattering seeds in the ground for growing crops is called sowing.
Sowing of seeds can be done by hand or with the implement (machine) called seeddrill.
The substances that are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for healthy growth of
plants are called fertiliser.
Fertilisers - Organic Fertilisers (Manure, Compost, decaying plants and
vegetables)
- Inorganic/Chemical Fertiliser
Manure is any animal or plant material used to fertilise land, especially animal excreta
and organic litter material.
Compost is a mixture of manure and decaying vegetation.
The process of converting dead organic matter into rich humus with the help of
earthworm is called vermin-composting.
Humus are organic component of soil. Organic matters/components mean those
things which are obtained or derived from living organism.
The practice of growing leguminous and non-leguminous crops alternatively in the
same field is called crop-rotation.
The supply of water to the crops at different interval is called irrigation.
Traditional methods of irrigation Moat, Dhekli, Rahat, and Chain-pump
Modern methods sprinkler system and drip irrigation
The sources of irrigation are wells, tube-wells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams and canals.
The process of transferring seedlings/saplings (young plant grown from a seed) to the
crop field is called transplantation.

The unwanted plants which grow along with the crops are called weeds. Examples
grass, wild oats etc.
The insects, fungi or animals which affects the crops are called pests. Examples
gadflies, blighters, rodents (rats and rabbits etc.).
The process of removing unwanted plants from a crop is called weeding.
The process of cutting and gathering of matured crops is called harvesting.
The crops are cut manually by sickle or by a motorised machine called harvester.
Harvester is tractor drawn machine which chops the crops and collects the grains as it
moves through the field.
The Combine is a machine which does all grain-handling operations (from harvesting
to threshing, to separating and cleaning the grains) on the field. The Combine is
actually a combined harvester and thresher.
The process of separating the grains from the chaff with the help of machine is called
threshing.
The process of separating the grains from the chaff with the help of wind is called
winnowing.
The food-grains are dried in sunshine before storage. At small scale the storage of food
is done in jute (gunny) bags, or metallic bins. At large scale the storage is done in silos
or granaries.