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ME-203

Fluid Mechanics-I

Why Study Fluid Mechanics


The world is full of fluid

Kannan Iyer
Kiyer@me.iitb.ac.in

Water and air are indispensable for human


existence
No technology can survive without fluids
It is one of the most widely used subject in
Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

Let us see some connections with


technology

Fluid Mechanics and Technology


Aerospace
Agriculture

- Aircrafts, Rockets
- Pumps, Irrigation networks

Chemical
Civil
Elect/CS

- Reactors, Distillation
- Dams, Rivers, Canals
- Packaging for cooling

Mechanical

- Hydraulic machines, Automobiles

Metallurgy

- Blast furnace, Casting

Pharmacy

- Blood, Drugs manufacture

Power

- Power plants, Gas handling

Not just academic requirement, but an engineering necessity

No. of Gate:4 Span: 2.0m 1, 20.6m1, 22.15m2

TURBULENT JET

TYPICAL PIPING SYSTEM

Design of gates and tanks

Wright Brothers - 1903

Dam construction in
order to hold large
body of water

GEAR PUMP

A GENERAL PIPE NETWORK

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

PELTON TURBINE

What is a Fluid
Matter can be divided into Solid and Fluid

AIRCRAFT PROPULSION SYSTEM

Solid

Fluid

Resists Deformation

Deforms Easily

Strong Cohesive Force


(can resist shear)

Weak Cohesive Force


(cannot resist shear)

Retains Shape

Cannot retain Shape

Fluid is one that deforms continuously on application of shear stress.

Liquid and Gas


Fluids can be divided into Liquid and Gas

How to Study

Microscopic - Kinetic theory of gases

Liquid

Gas

Weak Cohesive Force

Very Weak Cohesive Force

Retains volume

Cannot retain volume

What is continuum?

Keeping track of a large number of


molecules is difficult and impractical

Macroscopic- Continuum methodology

Continuous representation instead of


discreteness
Average properties defined
Empirical closure defined
This course will emphasize this aspect

Validity of Continuum
Molecular mean free path small
It can be expressed in terms of Knudsen Number
Knudsen Number, Kn =

For Ideal Gas

Mean free path


______________
System Length Scale
Refer

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/menfre.html#c1
Concept of a fluid particle

For continuum to be valid

Kn 0.01

Consequences of Continuum

Analysis by Continuum
Can be very detailed

Most important are


1. All parameters vary continuously
2. So Taylor series can be applied

u
2u
x 2
( x, y, z) x + 2 ( x, y, z)
+ ...
x
x
2

u ( x + x, y, z) = u ( x, y, z) +

uv ( x + x , y, z) = uv ( x , y, z ) +

uv
uv
x
( x , y, z)x +
( x , y, z)
+ ...
x
x 2
2

We shall use this concept extensively

Lagrangian vs Eulerian
Lagrangian
This is control mass analysis
The equation are generated for the
fixed mass
When mass moves, then you move
with the mass

Called Differential analysis


Results in Partial Differential Equation
Mostly needs computers except for simple cases
This becomes the basis for CFD

Can be overall

Called Integral analysis


Details of flow distribution not important
Only system analysis is resorted to
Results in Algebraic equations

Dimensions and Units


Systems of Dimensions
[M], [L], [t], and [T]
[F], [L], [t], and [T]
[F],[M], [L], [t], and [T]

Eulerian
This is control volume analysis
The equations are generated for the
volume
The volume may or may not move
We shall follow this approach

Dimensions and Units


Systems of Units
MLtT

Dimensions and Units


Preferred Systems of Units
SI (kg, m, s, K)

SI (kg, m, s, K)

FLtT
British Gravitational (lbf, ft, s, oR)

British Gravitational (lbf, ft, s, oR)

FMLtT
English Engineering (lbf, lbm, ft, s, oR)

Principle of Dimensional
Homogenity
All additive terms in a physical equation must
have same dimensions

Mannings Equation for open


channel flow
V (ft/s)=Average velocity, R=Hydraulic Radius (ft), S=slope
3

V(ft / s)

[R (ft )]2 3

= 1.49
2

1.49 is not dimensionless but has units of (ft1/3/s)

Experimentalists sometimes derive empirical


equations that are not dimensionally consistent
2

Let us look at the dimensions of the constant 1.49


V = 1.49 R

V 2
p+
+ gH = cons tan t
2

V = 1.49 R

Principle of Dimensional
Homogenity

Therefore if you measure in another system of Units


say SI, the value of 1.49 would not be the same. If we
convert into SI, 1.49 (ft1/3/s) becomes 1.00(m1/3/s)

Scalar, Vector and Tensor - I


Certain propoerties like mass, temperature
have only magnitude and they are called
scalars

V(m / s) = 1.00 R (m)

Scalar, Vector and Tensor - II


A tensor has magnitude
and two or more directions
associated with it

Certain other characteristics, such as


velocity, Force, etc., have directional effects.
Hence we need to specify magnitude and
direction. The parameter can be decomposed
into its components V = Vx i + Vy j + Vz k

Velocity
Velocity
is a vectorField
quantity-

Since velocity can continuously vary it is


called a velocity field
V=ui+vj+wk
where i, j and k are the unit vectors in x, y
and z directions.

Velocity Field - II
In stationary Eulerian context, Steady state
implies that local velocity does not change
with time or V (x,y,z)
Mathematically

V
=0
t

In general V (x,y,z,t)

Dimensionality of a problem
The number of dimensions required to
specify the variations of properties of a
system is the dimensionality
The dimensionality can be reduced by
intelligently choosing a coordinate system
Examples to be discussed

Time, Path, Stream and Streak Lines


Path line is the path traced by a fluid
particle in a flow field
Streak line is the locus of all the particles
that have passed through a given point
Stream line is line whose tangent at a point
defines the velocity direction at that point
Time line is the locus of all points that
originated from a line
Examples to be discussed

Property Review
Density( ) =

dM
d d0

Velocity(V) =
Pressure(p) =

dS
dt dt 0

For ideal gas =

p
where, T (K), R = Ru/M
RT

R = cp - cv
Ru = 8314 J/k-mol-K (Universal Gas Constant)

Force
Area

cp

Momentum = Mass X Velocity


For ideal gas =

Equations for Ideal Gas

p
where, T (K), R = Ru/M
RT

Concept of Distortion - I

cv

For Monoatomic gas

= 1.67

For Diatomic Gas

= 1.4

For gases having more = 1.33


than two atoms

Concept of Distortion - II

Fluid Distortion

t1

Tan =

As the top plate is


moved, the top layer
moves with plate and
the time line looks
like what has been
shown

to

Strain Rate

t2

FLUID
t2 > t1 > to

a
b

a = U t

=
& =

U t
b

Lt

t 0

& =

Newtonian Fluid

For one dimensional flow

or

du
dy

U du
=
b
dy

Non-Newtonian Fluids

Many fluids follow a linear relationship between


shear stress and strain rate

&

du
dy

Non-Newtonian Fluids
Special fluids (e.g., most biological fluids,
toothpaste, some paints, etc.)
Non-linear fluids

Dynamic Viscosity
SI Unit

: Pa-s or N-s/m2

CGS Unit : dyne-s/cm2 (called Poise) = 0.1 Pa.s

Behavior of Fluids

Viscosity Decreases with


temperature for liquids
This is because force of
cohesion decreases
Viscosity increases with
temperature for gases
This is because force of
molecular kinetic energy
increases

Kinematic Viscosity
Kinematic viscosity = =

Surface Tension -I

In the interface surface tension


arises due to

Free surface

SI Unit

: m2/s

CGS Unit :

cm2/s

C
(called Stoke) = 0.0001

m2/s

Cohesion - force of attraction


between molecules of a liquid

Adhesion force of attraction


between two unlike molecules

Liquid
A

Surface Tension -II


2 R = p R2

p = pi pe =

2
R

pi > pe

Cohesion >> Adhesion

Adhesion >> Cohesion

Force balance implies

R 2 hg = 2R cos

h=

Contact Angle
Gives indication of
Wettability (ability to
stick to surfaces)
Fully-wetting
=0
Absolutely Non- = 180
wetting

2 cos
gR

Error Analysis

Wetting < 90o

F = ma

Non-wetting > 90o

m = m m and a = a a What is uncertainty in F

F = F(m, a )

2
2
F
F
F =
m + a
a
m

1/ 2

This procedure can be applied to any functional form

Hydrostatics
Study of Fluids at rest

Nature of Forces
Body Force

Dams

Acts throughout the bulk of the body (fluid)

Tanks or storage vessels


Moving with no relative motion

Gravity force
Centrifugal Force

Uniformly accelerating tank

Inertial Force

Rotating cylinders

Electromagnetic force

No Shear stresses in the fluid field

Nature of Forces
Surface Force

Pascals Law - I
The pressure at a point in a shear stress free
fluid is independent
of direction
z
ps x s

Acts on the surface of the body (fluid)


Pressure Force
Viscous Force

py x z
y

Surface tension Force

pz x y

x y z
g
2

Pascals Law - II
Vertical Force Balance

x y z
2
gz
As s cos = y, p z = p s +
2
Horizontal Force Balance
p z x y = ps x s cos + g

p y x z = p s x s sin

Governing Equation for Pressure Field - I


p

p + z + HoT x y
z

x y zg z

p x z

As s sin = z, p y = p s
When we shrink the element to a point, z tends to zero,
Hence pz = py = ps

p
p + y + HoT x z
y

z
y

p y z

x
x

p x y

p + x + HoT y z

Governing Equation for Pressure Field - II


Z-direction Force Balance

Governing Equation for Pressure Field - III


Similar Force Balance in x and y directions would yield

p x y p + z + HoT z 2+ x y x y zg = 0
z

+ g + HoT(z + ) xy z = 0

Important conclusion is pressure varies only in z direction

In the limit of shrinking the volume to a point after


dividing the LHS by the volume

p
+ g = 0
z

Some Observations
1. The weight acts downwards, whereas positive z is
upwards, so we can write g = -gz
2. The final equations were force per unit volume = 0
3. In general, we can write the three equations as

p
+ g x = 0
x

p
p
=0
= 0 and
y
x

p
+ g y = 0
y

p
+ g z = 0
z

This is because there was body force only in z direction


We shall generalize in the next slide after making some
observations

Interpretation of the final equation


r
p + g = 0
p
r
g

Is the net surface force (due to pressure) per unit


volume of fluid in the positive direction (in terms of
the components)
Is the net body force per unit volume of fluid in the
positive direction

4. We can combine the whole set into one vector


equation as

r
p + g = 0

Evaluation of pressure distribution


If gravity was the only body force involved, then we
had concluded that there will be pressure variation
only in vertical direction

Manometry
1. In a constant density fluid, pressure at a given
elevation from datum is same
2. This is exploited in measurement of pressure
using manometers

If we define positive z to be pointing upwards

r
p + g = 0

p z

z
g

p
+ (g) = 0
z
p

or

prerf zref

pref
If is constant
then

p = pref g(z zref )

dp = gdz
zref

Pressure decreases with


increase in elevation

The product g is called and is denoted by

= g

Terminology in pressure measurement

Measurement of atmospheric pressure


p atm = p vap + h
1. Standard sea level = 760
mm of Hg
2. This is about 10 m of
water column

Toricilli Barometer

U-Tube Manometer

U-Tube Manometer

p 3 = p ref + 2 h 2

p 2 = p3
p A = p 2 1h1
Pref = 0

p A = p ref + 2 h 2 1h1

Capillarity effects are


negligible for large bore
tube ie., diameters
greater than 30 mm

Inclined Tube Manometer

p A + 1h 1 2 h 2 3 h 3 = p B

Pressure Gauges

p A + 1 h 1 2 l 2 sin 3 h 3 = p B
Magnification is

1
sin

Inclination up to 10o Ok

Below this angle


miniscis error becomes
large

There are other type of transducers.


You may learn about them in Instrumentation
course

Hydraulic press

Pressure distribution in compressible fluid - I


Gases are compressible and hence density is
not constant
p2

dp
=
dz

z2

z2

z1

z1

dp = g dz =

p1

RT g dz

z2

ln
F2 = (A2/A1)F1

Mechanical Advantage = A2/A1

If A1 << A2 then F1 << F2

If T = cons tan t = T0
ln

Temperature Variation in atmosphere

p2
g dz
=
p1
R z1 T

In general T = T (z)

Isothermal condition

g (z 2 z1 )
p2
= exp

p1
R To

p2
g (z 2 z1 )
=
p1
R To

Pressure distribution in compressible fluid - II


Linear Temperature Variation

T = 150 C (288.15 K)

ln

p = 101.33 kPa (abs)


= 1.225 kg/m3
= 12.014 N/m3

Airplanes

In Troposphere T
varies Linearly

T = To m z
= 0.0065 K / m

Applications to sumberged objects

p2
g z 2 dz
=
p1
R z1 T

ln

ln

p2
g z2
dz
=
p1
R z1 To m z

p2
g 1 (T m z 2 )
= ln o
p1
R m (To m z1 )
g

T m z2
p
ln 2 = ln o

p1
To m z1

mR

T m z2
p2
= o

p1
To m z1

mR

Pressure distribution on plane surface -I

Determination of Hydrostatic forces is


important for the design of storage tanks,
pools, dams, ships and other hydraulic
structures
For fluids at rest
The force must be perpendicular to the surface
since there are no shearing stresses present.
The pressure will vary linearly with depth if the
fluid is incompressible.
FR = hA

Pressure distribution on plane surface -II


Free Surface

Pressure distribution on plane surface -III

O - origin
A

yC
yR

dF

FR

FR = p dA = (p o + h ) dA = p o A + y sin dA

hc h

= p o A + sin y dA = p o A + sin y c A
A

1
y dA y-coordinate of centroid
AA

Note

yc =

As

h c = y c sin

FR = p o A + A h c

dA
xR

Centroid, c
Location of resultant force
(center of pressure, CP)

xC

Pressure distribution on plane surface -IV


Since atmospheric pressure
would cancel it is not being
carried around

Position of the resultant force

hc is the vertical distance between free surface and centroid


Note that there will also be a force poA that will act in the
opposite direction of FR from the other side of the plate.
Hence in the net force, atmospheric pressure will cancel

Pressure distribution on plane surface -V


yR = yc +

Moment of the resultant force = Moment of the distributed force

FR y R = y dF = y [ h dA ]=
A

y [ y sin dA ]

= sin y dA = sin I xx

= sin I xx c + Ayc

Similarly we can find xR (Exercise)

sin I xx c
FR

xR = xc +

= sin I xx c + y c sin Ayc

sin I xy c
FR

Resultant force does not pass through the centroid but


is always below it

= sin I xx c + h c Ayc = sin I xx c + FR y c

Summary
MAGNITUDE OF THE RESULTANT FORCE

FR = A h c
LOCATION OF THE RESULTANT FORCE

yR = yc +
The values of second
moment of area for
some shapes. The
nomenclature is a bit
different but easy to
grasp

xR = xc +

sin I xx c
FR
sin I xy c
FR

Direction : FR IS PERPENDICULAR TO THE SURFACE

Buoyancy Force

Pressure distribution on curved surface


FH = F2

FV = F1 + W

When a body is completely submerged in a fluid, or


floating so that it is only partially submerged, the
resultant upward force acting on the body due to
pressure on the surfaces is called buoyancy force
The line of action of the buoyant force passes through
the centroid of the displaced volume. The centroid is
called the Center of buoyancy
Buoyancy force on the body = Weight of the fluid
displaced by the body

Point O summing moments about an appropriate axis

Archimedes Principle Greek Scientist (287 BC 212 B.C)

Buoyancy Force - II

Buoyancy Force - III


General interpretation

A simple case

FB = (P2 P1 )(l b )
p2

p1

z1

z2

z2

But P2 P1 = dp = dz

P1

z1

FB = (l b ) dz = (l b ) dz
z
z
1
2
z2

z1

P2

g dm fluid = m fluid g

domain

Weight of the fluid displaced by the body

Consider an imaginary water lump ABCD


The vertical force on the top surface ABC will be
equal to the weight of the liquid above it
Similarly, the vertical force on the
bottom surface ADC will be equal to
the weight of the liquid above it
Thus the net vertical force on the
lump will be equal to the weight of
liquid lump
If a body replaces the lump, the force
field will not change

Buoyancy Force - IV
Archimedes Principle holds good
for bodies of any general shape
for both gases and liquids
does not require density to be constant

Liquid (f)

Principle of Hydrometer
Hydrometer is used to
find the specific gravity
of liquids

When immersed in water


W = water g Vs

When immersed in an unknown SG fluid


W = SG water g ( Vs m A h )
SG =

Buoyancy force is important

Vs

( Vs m A h )
A

For naval vehicles

Ah
1 m

Vs

Ah
Vs

Stem can be
calibrated to read SG

A
Original
level

lighter than air vehicles hot air balloons

Vs
Water (water)

Vs
Other liquid

Stability of Floating Objects

Stability of Floating Objects-II

The point of action of buoyancy force is called Centre of


Buoyancy

The problem of determining stability is complex as the


centre of Buoyancy shifts when the object is tilted

It is the CG of the submerged volume

Short wide bodies are normally in stable equilibrium

If CG of the body is below the centre of buoyancy, the


object is stable

Stability of Floating Objects-III


Tall slender bodies are generally unstable

Pressure variation in fluids with rigid


body motion
Even though a fluid may be in motion, if it moves as a
rigid body there will be no shearing stresses present
An acceleration of a particle sets up an inertial force in
the direction opposite to the acceleration (called
d'Alemberts force
The general governing equation for fluid in a
gravitational and accelerational field can be stated as
r r
r r
p + (g a) = 0 or p = (g a)
p
= (g x a x )
x

Pressure variation in a tank subjected to


rectilinear uniform acceleration-I
z

z
ay
g

p
= 0,
x

y
x

ax = az = gx = gy = 0, ay = a, gz = -g
p
= a
y

p
= g
z

p
= (g z a z )
z

Pressure variation in a tank subjected to


rectilinear uniform acceleration-I
The equation for a constant pressure line shall be

y
x

p
= (g y a y )
y

P is only a function of y and z

p
= a p = ay + f (z) + c
y
p
= g p = gz + f ( y) + c p = (gz + ay) + c
similarly
z

p = (gz + ay) + c = C

(gz + ay) = C

z = C

a
y
g

Choosing the origin such that the free surface left hand
side is the origin, then C = 0 for the free surface
Therefore, the equation of the free surface is
z=

a
y
g

Assuming the fluid to be incompressible, the mid-point


of free surface is unaffected

The case of rotating cylinder-II

The case of rotating cylinder-I


In cylindrical coordinates the governing equation can be
stated as follows
p
= (g r a r )
r

1 p
= (g a )
r

p
= (g z a z )
z

p
= 2 r
r
p
= 2 r
r
similarly

1 p
=0
r

p=

p
= g
z

p is only a function of r
and z

2 r 2
+ f (z) + c
2

2
p
= g p = gz + f (r ) + c p = (gz + r ) + c
z
2

The equation for a constant pressure line shall be


p = (gz

a = az = gr = g = 0,

ar = -2r, gz = -g

r 2
r 2
r 2
) + c = C (gz
) = C z = C+
2
2g
2

The case of rotating cylinder-III


Choosing the origin such that the free surface centre is
the origin, then C = 0 (z=0, r=0)
z=

r 2
2g

Thus, free surface is a paraboloid of revolution

Integral Analysis for Control


Volumes-I
Governing Equations in mechanics, thermodynamics, etc.,
are derived for constant mass systems
In fluid mechanics, often, the interest is not of the moving
fluid but its action on the structures through which it
passes
Pressure drop in a pipe

Integral Analysis for Control


Volumes-II
There is a need to convert the laws for a fixed mass to
laws for a fixed or moving (having relative velocity with
the fluid) volume.
This is accomplished by the Reynolds transport theorem
Before we derive it let us have a quick look at laws for the
fixed mass

Forces on pipe bends


Temperature of fuel elements in a reactor

Governing Equations for


Fixed Mass-I

Governing Equations for


Fixed Mass-II
Conservation of Angular Momentum

Conservation of Mass

dM sys

= 0;

dt

where M sys =

dm =

d
sys

M sys

dt

dt

= T;

= F;

where Psys =

Vdm =

Vd

e dm =
M sys

V2
+ gz
2
kinetic

Shaft
Torque

Governing Equations for


Fixed Mass-IV
e d

sys

Specific energy for the system can have three


components

Internal

Due to body
forces

Second law of thermodynamics

where E sys =

e=u+

r g dm + Texternal

Due to
surface forces

sys

First law of thermodynamics

= Q W;

r Vd
sys

M sys

Governing Equations for


Fixed Mass-III

dt

r Vdm =
M sys

T = r Fs +
M sys

dE sys

where H sys =

Torque for the system can have three components

Newtons Second Law

dPsys

dH sys

potential

dSsys
dt

Q
+ Sp
T

where Ssys =

s dm =

In general, for a System, we can write

N sys =

dm =
M sys

d
sys

s d
sys

M sys

Conservation

Mass

M 1

Lin. Mom

P V

Ang. Mom

I-law-Thermo

E e

II-law-Thermo

S s

r V

Reynolds Transport Theorem-I

Reynolds Transport Theorem-II

This theorem converts conservation laws from


Control Mass system to Control Volume System .

Initially at time t, control mass


and control volume coincide

We will derive this with mass balance first

After t, the control mass (Msys)


has moved partially out

Then we shall generalize and apply to other conservation


laws

M sys ( t ) = M CV ( t )

We shall not cover Thermodynamics laws here but will


apply them
dt

Reynolds Transport Theorem-III

M CV
m in + m out
t

d + V.dA + V.dA
t CV
CSin
CSout

Note that V.dA


dM sys
dt

in

mout

M sys ( t + t ) = M CV ( t + t ) m in + m out
dM sys

M ( t + t ) M CV ( t ) m in + m out
M CV ( t + t ) m in + m out M CV ( t )
= CV
t
t
t 0

min

M sys ( t + t ) M sys ( t )
t

=
t 0

M CV ( t + t ) m in + m out M CV ( t )
t
t 0

Reynolds Transport Theorem-IV


dM sys
t 0

dt

d + V.dA
t CV
CS

Conservation of Mass

dM sys

A
V

is negative by vector convention

d + V.dA
t CV
CS

dt

d = V.dA = 0
t CV
CS
Rate of increase of mass
in control volume

Application-I
Seawater flows steadily through a simple conical-shaped nozzle at
the end of a fire hose as illustrated in Fig. If the nozzle exit velocity
must be at least 20 m/s. determine the minimum pumping capacity
required in m3/s.

d + V.dA = 0
t CV
CS

=0

Net rate of influx of mass


through control surface

Application-II

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs

V.dA = m 2 m1 = 0

Zero flow is steady

cs

If Density is constant Q1 - Q2 = 0
Or, Q1 = Q2 = Q = V2A2

Q = 20

40 10 3
4

= 0.0251 m 3 / s

Application-III

Application-IV

Moist air (a mixture of dry air and water vapor) enters a dehumidifier at the
rate of 324 kg/hr. Liquid water drains out of the dehumidifier at a rate of 7.3
kg/hr Determine the mass flow rate of the dry air and the water vapor leaving
the dehumidifier. A simplified sketch of the process is provided in Fig.

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs
Zero flow is
steady

m 2 = m1 m 3 = 324 7.3 = 316.7 kg / hr

m3 = ?

m 1 = 324 kg / hr

V.dA = m1 + m 2 + m 3 = 0
cs

Now if we take the whole system as control volume

m1 m 2 m 3 + m 4 m 5 = 0
m 4 = m5
m 3 = 7.3 kg / hr

Reynolds Transport Theorem-V

Conservation of Momentum
Newtons Second Law

Generalization

dN sys
dt

d + V.dA
t CV
CS

Rate of increase of a general


property in control volume

dPsys
dt

Net rate of outflux of the property


through control surface

Conservation

Mass

M 1

Lin. Mom

P V

Ang. Mom

I-law-Thermo

E e

II-law-Thermo

S s

= F;

Also called conservation


of momentum

V d + V V.dA = F
t CV
CS

Let us apply it and learn the intricacies

r V

Application-V

FA

Determine the anchoring force


required to hold in place a conical
nozzle attached to the end of a
laboratory sink faucet shown in Fig.
when the water flowrate is 0.6 liters.
The nozzle mass is 0.1 kg. The nozzle
inlet and exit diameters are 16 mm
and 5 mm, respectively.
The nozzle axis is vertical and the
axial distance between sections (1)
and (2) is 30 mm. The pressure at
section (1) is 464 kPa.

The anchoring force sought is the reaction force


between the faucet and nozzle threads. To evaluate
this force, control volume selected includes the
nozzle and the water contained in the nozzle

Wn
p1A1
w1

Application-VI
FA anchoring force that holds the
nozzle in place
Wn weight of the nozzle
Ww weight of the water in the nozzle
P1 gage pressure at section (1)
A1 cross section area at section (1)
P2 gage pressure at section (2)
A2 cross section area at section (2)

Ww

w1 z direction velocity at the control


volume entrance (assumed uniform)
w2 z direction velocity at the control
volume exit (assumed uniform)

p2A2
w2

The action of atmospheric


pressure cancels out in every
direction and is not shown

Application-VII

Application-VIII

V d + V V.dA = F
t CV
CS

m = A1 w 1 = Q = 1000 0.6 10 3 = 0.6 kg / s

V V.dA = ( w 1 )(m1 ) + ( w 2 )m 2

Zero flow is
steady

CS

F = FS + FB = FA p1A1 + p 2 A 2 Wn Ww

m1w 1 m 2 w 2 = FA p1A1 + p 2 A 2 Wn Ww
Conservation of mass
0

(D1 )2 = 16 103 2 = 2.011104 m 2


4
4
2

2
A 2 = (D 2 ) = (5 10 3 ) = 1.964 10 5 m 2
4
4

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs

m1 m 2 = 0 or m1 = m 2 = m

Application-IX
h 2
Ww = Vw g =
D1 + D 22 + D1 D 2 g
12

W1 =

Q
0.6 10 3
=
= 2.98 m / s
A1 2.011 10 4

W2 =

Q
0.6 10 3
=
= 30.6 m / s
A 2 1.964 10 5

For Moving Control Volumes


(with constant velocity)

(0.03)
(0.016)2 + (0.004)2 + (0.016)(0.004) 9.81 = 0.0278 N
Ww = 1000
12

Atmospheric pressure

dN sys
dt

p2 = 0

FA = m (w 1 w 2 ) + p1A1 p 2 A 2 + Wn + Ww

Reynolds Transport Theorem-VI

Wn = m n g = 0.1 9.81 = 0.981 N

A1 =

d + Vrel .dA = 0
t CV
CS

Mass Balance

FA = (0.6 )(2.98 30.6) + 0.981+ (464000) 2.011104 + 0.0278 0

FA = 16.572 + 0.981 + 93.3104 + 0.0278 0

d + Vrel .dA
t CV
CS

Momentum Balance

FA = 77.75 N

Application-X
An airplane moves forward at a speed of 971 kmph as shown in Fig. The
frontal intake area of the jet engine is 0.8m2 and the entering air density
is 0.736 kg/m3. A stationary observer determines that relative to the
earth, the jet engine exhaust gases move away from the engine with a
speed of 1050 kmph. The engine exhaust area is 0.558 m2 and the
exhaust gas density is 0.515kg/m3. Estimate the mass flow rate of fuel
into the engine.

Vrel d + Vrel Vrel .dA = F


t CV
CS

Application-XI

d + Vrel .dA = 0
t CV
CS
0

Vrel .dA = m air out m air in m fuel in All relative to moving


control Volume

CS

m fuel in = 2 A 2 W2 1A1W1

m fuel in = (0.515kg / m 3 )(0.558 m 3 )(2021 1000 / 3600 m / s)

(0.736kg / m 3 )(0.8 m 3 )(971 1000 / 3600 m / s)


= 2.5278 kg / s

A vane on wheels moves with constant velocity Vo when a stream of


water having a nozzle exit velocity of V1 is turned 45o by the vane as
indicated in Fig. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force,
F, exerted by the stream of water on the vane surface. The speed of
the water jet leaving the nozzle is 33 m/s, and the vane is moving to
the right with a constant speed of 6 m/s.

x-direction

VrelVrel .dA = ( m rel1 ) Vrel1 + (m rel 2 ) Vrel2Sin ( 45) = R x


cs

z-direction

Vrel Vrel .dA = (+ m rel 2 )(+ Vrel 2 Cos(45) ) = R z W

Application-XII

A1 = 5.6 10-4 m2

CS

Vrel d + Vrel Vrel .dA = F


t CV
CS
0

Rz

Conservation of mass;

m rel 1 = 1 A1 Vrel 1 ; m rel 2 = 2 A 2 Vrel 2 ;


Water flow is frictionless and that the change in water elevation
across the vane is negligible. Therefore, Vrel is constant

0.3 m

Rx

The relative veloicty of the stream of water entering the control


volume Vrel-1 = V1 Vo = 33- 6 = 27 m/s = Vrel-2

Conservation of Angular Momentum

m1 = m 2 =1000 5.6 104 27 = 15.12 kg / s

( 15.12)(27) + (15.12)(+ 27 Sin 45) = R x

dH sys

R x = 119.6 N

dt

T = r Fs +

1.65

Due to
surface forces

= 67.6

Due to body
forces

Shaft
Torque

Let us apply it and learn it.

R 2x + R 2z = 119.6 2 + 290.32 = 314 N

R
290.3
= Tan 1 z = Tan 1
= 2.43
Rx
119.6

r g dm + Texternal
M sys

R z = 290.3 N
R=

r V d + r V V.dA = T
t CV
CS

= T;

W = g A1 l = 1000 9.81 5.6 10 4 0.3 = 1.65 N

(15.12)(+ 27 Cos45) = R z

m rel 1 = m rel 2 = m

We will do it for a fixed control volume as rotating


control volume needs many more terms that are beyond
the scope of this first course

Application-I

Application-II
y

The mass balance can be applied even to accelerating


control volume using

Neglect
tip length

d + Vrel .dA = 0
t CV
CS

Vrel .dA = (m water out m water in )moving CV = 0

CS

Since the density is constant


Given: Geometry, flow rate
through sprinkler, rotational
speed and pressure at inlet

Q water in

moving CV

= Q water out

moving CV

To Find: jet speed relative to


each nozzle, frictional torque

Application-III

Application-IV

Note that at inlet, the volume flow rate for moving control volume
is same as that for fixed control volume, which is known

Q water in
Vrel =

moving CV

= Q water out

moving CV

= Q water in

We know that T has three components

T = r Fs +

stationary CV

r g dm + Texternal
M sys

Q
2A jet

r Fs = 0

To get the frictional torque, we need to solve the angular


momentum equation

1.

p is atmospheric everywhere except at inlet

2.

At inlet the resultant passes through r = 0

r g dm = 0

r V d + r V V.dA = T
t CV
CS

The moment on one arm is balanced by the other arm

M sys

T = Texternal = Tfriction = Tk

This is a vector equation; but we need only the Z component


Note that we refer to fixed CV

Application-V
Computation of transient term

r V d
t CV

Application-VI

V = ( Vrel cos i + Vrel sin j) + (r sin i + r cos j )


r V = ( Vrel r sin cos + r sin ) k +
(Vrel r sin cos r 2 sin 2 )( k ) = r 2k
2

CV

R 3
A k
3

Conservation of Momentum in
Accelerating Frame-I
dPsys
dt

= F;

Valid only for Inertial Frame


(non-accelerating)

For problems like a rocket taking off, we need


accelerating frame analysis
For simplicity only rectilinear accelerating frames
would be considered

R
V
Re l
i

r = ( R cos i + R sin j )

R A
r V d =
k =0
t CV
t
3
3

At outlet (Velocity assumed uniform)

= (Vrel cos r sin ) i + ( Vrel sin + r cos ) j

CS

At inlet r = 0; hence no contribution

r = ( r cos i + r sin j)

r V d = r 2Adr k =

r V V.dA

Computation of flux term term

V = (Vrel R ) sin i ( Vrel R ) cos j


r V = R cos i ((Vrel R ) cos ) j + R sin j (Vrel R ) sin i

= ( Vrel R )Rk

V.dA = Q
A

Even if friction is 0,
maximum = Vrel/R

T = (Vrel R )R kQ

Accounts for both jets

Conservation of Momentum in
Accelerating Frame-II
In the discussion XYZ frame is inertial frame and
PQR would be non inertial

VXYZ = VPQR + VRe l


Conservation
of momentum

dVXYZ dVPQR dVRe l


=
+
dt
dt
dt

d VXYZ d
sys

dt

d ( VPQR + VRe l )d
= FXYZ =

sys

dt
d VRe l d

d VPQR d

An example would illustrate application


FXYZ = FPQR =

sys

dt

sys

dt

Conservation of Momentum in
Accelerating Frame-III
d VRe l d
FPQR

sys

dt

d VPQR d
=

sys

dt

d VPQR d
FPQR

FPQR

a Re ld =

sys

a Re ld =

sys

sys

dt

VPQR d + VPQR V.dA


t CV
CS

Application

Given
Initial Mass = 400 kg
Fuel consumption rate = 5 kg/s
Exhaust Velocity = 3500 m/s
Find
Initial acceleration

Ve

Atmospheric pressure all around and air


resistance neglected
0

-400 X 9.81

400 X ay

FS PQR + FB PQR a Re ld =
sys

-3500 X 5

VPQR d + VPQR V.dA


t CV
CS

VPQR= const, M ~ Const.

Differential Analysis

Differential Vs Integral Analysis

Control volume approach is very practical and useful,


where a detailed knowledge of the fluid properties
(pressure, velocity, etc.) within the control volume are
not required
It cannot provide answers when variation of
properties in the fluid domain is desired

These are more often desired for the design of


equipment

This is provided by Differential analysis

Here the control volume is shrunk to a point


so that we get differential equations

In control volume the inside


is treated as black box. Only
forces on the contol volume
are solved for

Conservation of Mass-I

In differential analysis the


information is obtained for
every point in the interior,
given boundary conditions
out side

Conservation of Mass-II

We had seen that for a control volume the mass


conservation was written as

(w )
w +
z xy
z

r r

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs

u y z

Let us do the same for the infinitesimal cuboid


of size x , y, z

v
v +
y x z
y

(xyz )
dV
t
t cv

v x z

z
y

Conservation of Mass-III
r r
V.dA = uyz + ( vxy) + ( wxz) +
(u )
(v )
uy z +
xy z + v x z +
xy z +
x
y
(w )
w x y +
x y z
z
r r

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs

(u ) (v ) (w )

xyz = 0
xyz +
+
+
t
y
z
x
(u ) (v ) (w )
+
+
+
=0
t
x
y
z

CS

w xy

x y z
u +
x

Conservation of Mass-IV
(u ) (v ) (w )
+
+
+
= 0 Can be written in vectorial form as
t
x
y
z

+ . V = 0
t

( )

If density is constant, then

r
.V = 0

This will apply even to


unsteady fields

For steady compressible flow

r
. V = 0

( )

Vector operation

Kinematics of Fluid Flow-I

In Cartesian System (rectangular coordinates)

r r r
= ex
+ ey
+ ez
z
x
y

Translation

r r
r
r
V = ex u + e y v + ez w

If all points in the element


have the same velocity then
the element will simply
TRANSLATE from one
position to another.

This is true if there are no


velocity gradients.

r u v w
.V =
+ +
x y z
In Cylindrical coordinate system

r
r
r
r
V = Vr e r + V e + Vz e z

r r 1 r
= er + e
+ ez
r
z
r
r 1 (rVr ) 1 V Vz
.V =
+
+
r r
r
z

Kinematics of Fluid Flow-II


Linear Deformation

Kinematics of Fluid Flow-III


Linear Deformation for 3-D

Consider 1-D

For 3-D

Volumetric Strain rate =

u v w
+ +
x y z

For volume to remain constant or incompressibility. Hence, the


volumetric strain rate should be zero

u v w
+ +
=0
x y z
The left edge moves less and the right
moves more

u
Stretching = x t
x

This was shown earlier in conservation of mass


Strain rate =

u
x

Kinematics of Fluid Flow-IV


Angular Deformation

Kinematics of Fluid Flow-V


Angular velocity of OA

oA =

Lim
t 0 t

For small angles

(v x ) x t = v t

Tan =

OA and OB will rotate through angles and to the new


positions OA and OB

oA =

v
t v

x
=x
t

Lim

t 0

- counterclockwise
- positive

Kinematics of Fluid Flow-V

Kinematics of Fluid Flow-VI

Similarly, Angular velocity of OB

oB =

Rotation z of the element about the z-axis is defined as the


average of the angular velocities oA and oB of the two
mutually perpendicular lines OA and OB.

Lim
t 0 t

For small angles

oB

u t
y u
=
= Lim
t
y
t 0

1 v u
Note the negative sign

assigned to the second term


2 x y
Similarly rotation around x and y axis may be written as
z =

u y t
y
u

Tan =
=
t
y
y

x =
- clockwise
- negative

y =

1u w

2 z
x

Hence angular velocity vector may be written as

r
r
r
= x i + y j + z k

Fluid acceleration-I

Kinematics of Fluid Flow-VII

It can easily be shown that

1w v

2 y
z

1
1
curl V = V
2
2

Vorticity is defined as the vector that is


twice the angular velocity vector
Flow is irrotational when V = 0
Fluid element will rotate about the z
axis as an undeformed block when
oA= oB or when u = v
y

Otherwise, the rotation will be associated with an angular deformation

Consider a velocity field V( x , y, z, t )

When following fluid particle acceleration is defined as

r
r dV
a=
dt
r
Applying chain rule as V( x, y, z, t ) we can write
r
r
r
r
r V
V
V
V
dV =
dt +
dx +
dy +
dz
t
x
y
z
r
r
r
r
r
dV V V dx V dy V dz

=
+
+
+
dt
t x dt y dt z dt
dx
dy
dz
By definition
= u,
= v, and
=w
dt
dt
dt

Fluid acceleration-II
r
r
r
r
r
dV V V
V
V
=
+
u+
v+
w
dt
t x
y
z
r
r
r
r
r
dV V
V
V
V
or
=
+u
+v
+w
dt
t
x
y
z

Fluid acceleration-III

In Lagrangian frame the above expression is for acceleration

The first term in RHS is the local acceleration component

The subsequent three terms are the accelerations components


by virtue of motions in x, y and z directions

The above can be physically interpreted by an example

Consider a steady one dimensional incompressible


velocity field in a converging conical section
1

From control volume analysis we had shown that

& in = m
& out 1A1V1 = 2 A 2 V2
m
As 1 = 2 A1V1 = A 2 V2

By conveniently choosing 2 to be at a arbitrary distance


x from inlet, we can state that
A V Velocity increases
V(x ) = 1 1
A1V1 = A ( x )V ( x )
A ( x ) as area decreases

Thus we note that though temporal acceleration is zero,


fluid accelerates as it changes its position

Fluid acceleration-IV

Fluid acceleration-IV

This derivative also arises in Eulerian analysis, which


will be shown shortly.

r r r
= ex
+ ey
+ ez
x
y
z

We can generalize this derivative operation as

dX X
X
X
X
=
+u
+v
+w
dt
t
x
y
z
or

We know that the gradient operator is given by

Velocity is given by

Hence

r r
r
r
V = ex u + ey v + ez w

d( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
=
+u
+v
+w
dt
t
x
y
z

This derivative is also called material derivative as it arises


when we follow the material and material derivative
operator is denoted by


V. = u
+v u
y z
x
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) r
+u
+v
+w
=
+ V.( )
t
x
y
z
t

D( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
=
+u
+v
+w
Dt
t
x
y
z

or

Conservation of Momentum-I

operator

(uw )
uw +
z xy
z

uu y z

Let us now restrict it to x-direction


z

r r

u dV + uV.dA = FSx + FBx

t cv
cs

uv x z

z
y
x

uw xy

Conservation of Momentum-III

r r
uV.dA = uuyz + ( uvxy) + ( uwxz) +

(uu )
(uv )
xy z + v x z +
xy z +
x
y
(uw )
uw x y +
x y z
z
(uu ) (uv) (uw )
xyz
=
+
+
y
z
x
uuy z +

(u ) (uu ) (uv ) (uw )


xyz
=
+
+
+
x
y
z
t

()
(u )
(u )
(v )
(u )
+u
+u
+ u
+u
+

t
t
x
x
y

=
(w )
(u )
(u )
v y + u z + w z

xyz

r r

u dV + uV.dA
t cv
cs

uv
uv +
y x z
y

(uxyz)
u dV
t cv
t

CS

( )

Conservation of Momentum-II

Recollect that the momentum equation for fixed control


volume as

r r r
r
r
V dV + VV.dA = F
t cv
cs

D( ) ( ) r
=
+ V. ( )
Dt
t

uu

x y z
uu +
x

Conservation of Momentum-IV
(u )
(u )
(u )
(u )
+ u
+ v
+ w
+

t
x
y
z

=
(u )
(v )
(w )
( )
u t + u x + u y + u z

xyz

(u )
(u )
(u )
(u )
xyz
=
+ u
+ v
+ w
x
y
z
t
(u )
(u )
(u )
(u )
xyz
=
+u
+v
+w
x
y
z
t
r r
(u ) r

+ V. ( u ) xyz
u dV + uV.dA =

t
t cv

cs

( )

Conservation of Momentum-V
Similar exercise in y and z directions will give

r r
(v ) r

v dV + vV.dA =
+ V. ( v) xyz

t cv
cs
t

( )

r r
(w ) r

w dV + wV.dA = t + V. (w ) xyz
t cv
cs

( )

Forces-I

Let us revisit stress tensor

Stresses will vary in all directions

We shall use Taylor series again upto first order term

Higher order will vanish as the control volume is


reduced to zero

Usually hydrostatic stress is separated z

zz

zy
yz

zx

yy

In general

y yx

r
r r r
r
r
V
r

V
d
V
V
V
.
d
A

t + V. ( V) xyz
t cv
cs

( ) ( )

x
x

Forces-II

Forces-III

Let us just do in x- direction as we did earlier

zx + zx z x y
z

yx + yx y x z
y

yx x z

xx y z

zx x y

xx + xx x y z
x

Conservation of Momentum-VI

The final form of x-momentum can now be arrived as

r r

u dV + uV.dA = FSx + FBx


t cv
cs
(u ) r

( xx ) ( yx ) ( zx )

+ V. (u ) xyz = g x +
xyz
+
+
x
y
z

( )

(u ) r

( xx ) ( yx ) ( zx )

+
+

+ V. ( u ) = g x +
x
y
z
t

The final form of y and z-momentum can now be arrived as


( xy ) ( yy ) ( zy )
(v ) r


+ V. ( v) = g y +
+
+
x
y
z

( )

( )

(w ) r

( xz ) ( yz ) ( zz )


+ V. ( w ) = g z +
+
+
x
y
z
t

( )

Surface force summation in x-direction will give

FSx = xx yz + ( zx xy) + ( yx xz) +


( yx )
( xx )
xx yz +
xy z + yx x z +
yx z +
x
y
( zx )
zx x y +
zx y
z
( xx ) ( yx ) ( zx )
xyz
=
+
+
y
z
x

x
x

Body Force is x-direction can be written as

FBx = g x xyz

Constitutive Equations-I
Till now we have derived two equations
The mass balance equation is a scalar equation
It is also called Continuity Equation
(u ) (v ) (w )
+
+
+
=0
t
x
y
z

x, y, z and t are independent variables and known


u, v, w and are dependent variables and unknown
In incompressible flow density is known and
specified
Thus mass balance has 3/4 unknowns

Constitutive Equations-II

Constitutive Equations-III

The momentum balance equation is a vector


equation and it represents 3 equations
(u )

+
t
(v )

+
t

(V. ) (u )
r

( xx )
= g x +
+
x

( xy )

= g y +
+
x

V. ( v)

(w ) r

( xz )

+ V. ( w ) = g z +
+
x

( )

( )

( yx )

To solve this problem additional equations have to


be generated so that number of equations balance
the number of unknowns

(zx )

z
( yy ) ( zy )

+
y
z
( yz ) ( zz )

+
y
z
y

Mathematically, this is called closure


The equations for closure includes expressions for
stresses. These are empirical models
We shall accept them and proceed. These will be
derived in the next level course.

This equation has density, 3 velocities and 9


stresses.

Let us state them

We have many unknowns and only 4 equations

Stress-Strain relations
r
u 2
.V
x 3
r
v 2
yy = p + 2
.V
y 3
r
w 2
zz = p + 2
.V
z
3
xx = p + 2

Navier-Stokes Equations-I
Substitution of stresses in the momentum balance
equation gives the following

( )

( )

Normal stresses

( )

u v
xy = yx = +
y x
v w
yz = zy = +

z y

w u
zx = xz =
+
x z

We shall first manipulate x-momentum balance

r u v
Du
p u 2
u w
=
+
2
.V +
+ g x
+ +
+
Dt
x x x 3
y y x z z x

( )

yx

xx

u u u
p
u v w
+ 2 + 2 + 2 +
+
+
x
y
z x x y z
x
2

Shear stresses

We have all stresses in terms


of pressure and velocities

zx
r
2
.V + g x
3

( )

2u 2 u 2 u
Du
p
r
=
+ 2 + 2 + 2 +
.V + g x
Dt
x
y
z x 3

( )

Navier-Stokes Equations-II

Navier-Stokes Equations-III

Similarly we can show for y and z momentum balance

For incompressible liquids


r
.V = 0
The resulting equations are called Navier-Stokes Eqs.

2v 2v 2v
Dv
p
r
=
+ 2 + 2 + 2 +
.V + g y
Dt
y

y 3

( )

2w 2w 2w
Dw
p
r

=
+ 2 +
+
+
.V + g z
2
2
Dt
z

z 3

( )

In a compact for the set of three equations can be


written as

r
r
r
r
DV

= P + 2 V + .V + g
Dt
3
The only assumption is the equation for stresses,
which is the generalized law for Newtonian Fluids

( )

2u 2u 2u
u
u
u
u
p
+ u
+ v + w =
+ 2 + 2 + 2 + g x

x
y
z

x
2v 2v 2v
v
v
v
v
p
+ u
+ v + w =
+ 2 + 2 + 2 + g y
x
y
z
y
y
z
t
x
2w 2w 2w
w
w
w
w
p
=

+u
+v
+w
+ 2 +
+
+ g z

z
y 2
z 2

In Vector form we
can write as

r
r
r
r
V
r

+ ( V. )V = p + 2 V + g

The case of the falling Film


Flow of a film of water on an inclined plane
No variations assumed perpendicular to paper (2-D)

Continuity Eq.

u v
+
=0
x y

gc
o s

Flow fully developed (u not function of x)


Flow incompressible
x

gs

V = 0 on wall (No slip boundary condition)

This is true for all viscous flows

Therefore, v = 0 everywhere.

Under several assumptions we can get analytical


solution for velocity distribution
1.
2.

Assumption-1

Application-III

gs

in

2v 2v
v
v
v
p
+ u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2 + g y
x
y
y
y
t
x
p
p
=

gy
cos
+ C( x )
or
0 =
+ ( g cos )
y

p = 0 (reference pressure) on the surface of


the film everywhere
3. Flow Steady
Y-momentum Eq.

in

v does not change along y

gc
o s

Application-II

Application-I

Using Boundary condition p (x,h) = 0


p = g ( h y) cos

C(x ) = gh cos

p
=0
x

Navier-Stokes Equations-IV
For incompressible liquids in cylindrical coordinates

X-momentum Eq.

2 u 2u
u
u
u
p
+ u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2 + g x
x
y
x
y
t
x
d 2 u gSin
d 2u
=
+ gSin
2
dy 2

dy
gSin y 2
u=
+ c1y + c 2

r-component

0=

Continuity
r 1 (rVr ) 1 V Vz
.V =
+
+
=0
r r
r
z

Note u = u(y)

u = 0 at y = 0 (No slip Boundary Condition)

du
= 0 at y = h (free shear boundary Condition)
dy
gSin
y2
hy
u=

2

Navier-Stokes Equations-V
-component

V V V Vr V
V
V
+ Vr +
+
+ Vz =
r
r
r
z
t
1 (rV ) 1 2 V 2 V 2 V
1 p

g
+
+
+
+ 2
2
z 2 r 2
r
r r r r
z-component

V V Vz
V
V
z + Vr z +
+ Vz z =
r
r
z
t
1 rVz 1 2 Vz 2 Vz
p

g z +
+

+ 2
2
z
z 2
r r r r

2
V
V V Vr V
V
r + Vr r +

+ Vz r =
r
r
r
z
t
1 (rVr ) 1 2 Vr 2 Vr 2 V
p

g r +
+

+ 2
2
r
z 2 r 2
r r r r

Euler Equations
If viscosity can be neglected, or for inviscid flows, the
viscous term drops out of momentum equations and
the resulting equations are called Euler Equations
u
u
u
u
p
+ u
+ v + w =
+ g x
x
y
z
x
t

v
v
v
v
p
+ u
+ v + w =
+ g y
x
y
z
y
t
w
w
w
w
p
=

+u
+v
+w
+ g z
x
y
z
z
t

r
r
r
r
DV

= P + 2 V + .V + g
Dt
3

( )

Note that
incompressible
assumption is
not invoked.
Hence valid for
compressible
flows

Concept of Stream Function-I

Concept of Stream Function-II

When we deal with two dimensional flows, it is useful


to define a function called Stream Function
It is defined in such a way that the Continuity
Equation is automatically satisfied

We will now show that is constant along a stream line


We had seen that the equation of a stream line could
be obtained by solving for
dy v
= ,
dx u

The function is defined such that

= u,
=v
y
x

udy vdx = 0


dy
dx = 0 d = 0
y
x

Thus is constant along a stream line

u v

, +
= 0

+
=
x y x y
y x

Continuity
automatically
satisfied

Concept of Stream Function-III

We shall now interpret that the difference of


between the two stream lines represents the flow per
unit width perpendicular to the this slide

Concept of Stream Function-IV

= 2

2- 1 = flow rate per unit


length perpendicular to slide

= 1

y
r r
dy dx
dQ = (V.n )dA = ( u i + v j). i
ds
ds

r r
dy dx
= (V.n )dA = (u i + v j). i
ds
ds

j ds(1)

dA = ds(1)
ds

= d

xV = 0

r
n

In 2-d flow

dx
dy dx
dy
= u
v ds =

ds
ds
ds
y ds x ds

For irrotational flow, we can state that

r
V

+ d

j ds

Finally we will make a few comments on irrotational


flow

xV =

v u

=0


x y x x y y

2 = 0

Hence proved

Application for Cylindrical Case-I

Application for Cylindrical Case-II

Given: Incompressible Air flows into space between closely spaced


parallel discs through a porous surface at a velocity Vo
Find:

(a) If Vr can be assumed uniform, show for a control volume


enclosing the gap that Vr = Vor/(2h)
(b) Find an expression for Vz
(c) Find the acceleration of fluid particle in gap

Assumptions
Flow is axi-symmetric and steady
r r

dV + V.dA = 0
t cv
cs
Flow in = Flow out
0

Control
Volume

Continuity Equation
1 (rVr ) 1 V Vz
+
+
=0
r r
r
z
0
V
1 ( rVr )
1 r 2 V0
1 rV
V

= 0= 0
z =
=
z
r r
r r 2h
r h
h

Vz
V
Vz
= 0 Vz = 0 + f ( r )
z
h
h

r 2 V0 = 2rhVr

Vz = V0

Application for Cylindrical Case-III


Vr
V V Vr
V
+ Vr r +
+ Vz r
t
r
r
z
0
0
0
2
V r V V r
a r = 0 0 = 0
2
h
2
h
2
h

ar =

az =

p
= g s

Note that gs = -g sin

Consider a stream line as shown

If we assume flow is inviscid, Eulers equation is valid

Since the coordinate system directions are arbitrary, let


us choose r direction aligned with stream line at a local
point

stream line

No velocity normal to stream line

V
p Subscript r changed to s to
Vs s = g s
s
s indicate stream direction

z
r

in

s
s
g
g g co

Bernoullis Equation-III
The conditions that have been used in deriving
Bernoullis Equation are:
1. Steady flow

If density is taken as constant


Vs

s 2

Bernoullis Equation-I

Steady

Bernoullis Equation-II
Vs

s 2

V0 z
h

2
V
V V Vr V
V
p
r + Vr r +

+ Vz r = g r

r
r

z
r

Vz
V V Vz
V
+ Vr z +
+ Vz z
t
r
r
z
0
0
0

2
z V V z
a z = V0 1 0 = 0 1
h h h h

Vz ( z = h ) = 0 0 = V0 + f (r ) f ( r ) = V0

Boundary condition

V0
rV
0 = Vr
2h

2. Viscous effects are neglected

p
Vs
H p
= g sin

or

2 = g s s

H
2


V
= sin
Note
p + s + gH = 0
s

s
2

3. Density is constant
4. Valid along a stream line

Thus along stream line


p+

V 2
+ gH = cons tan t
2

Bernoullis Equation

Concept of Static and Stagnation


Pressure-I

Concept of Static and Stagnation


Pressure-II

Static Pressure: Local thermodynamic pressure measured


without changing its state
Stagnation Pressure: It is the hypothetical pressure that will
be measured, if the fluid is brought to rest in a frictionless
manner at the same elevation

The relationship between static and stagnation pressure can be


obtained by Bernoullis equation
0
2
2
V1
V2
p1 +
+ gH1 = p 2 +
+ gH 2
2
2
H1 = H2
2
p stagnation = p static +

The term

V
2

V 2
is called dynamic pressure
2

Pitot Tube

Local fluid velocity can be estimated, if static and


stagnation pressures can be measured.

Concept of piezometric head

For liquids
V2
h=
2g

Energy and Hydraulic Grade Lines

For gases

P3 = P1 +
This can be done by using Pitot-static tube

P4 = P1

1
V 2
2

Application of Bernoullis Eqn.-I

Application of Bernoullis Eqn.-II

Given: Air ( 20oC) flow makes 30 mm deflection in Hg manometer


To Find: The velocity at center

Water (=1000 kg/m3)


360 cm
5 cm ID

Air Flow
2

Hg

h = 30 mm

60 cm

Hg
(=13600 kg/m3)

h = 15 cm

Estimate velocity and


discharge rate from pipe

Application of Bernoullis Eqn.-III


D

Dimensional Analysis-I

Horizontal Elbow

p= ?
d

Fluid mechanics of real life systems can be very complex

Often the knowledge is incomplete and yet we need the technology


to roll on so that applications can move forward

However, the costs of these complex systems can be very high and
so costly mistakes have to be avoided

Hence a combination of analysis and experimental model studies


(small scale system) is resorted to

The main question is how to do it? What are the principles?

We shall see a highly simplified picture to get a feel for the subject

patm

Given: D, V, d, patm,
To find: p

Dimensional Analysis-II

Let us look at steady flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid


through a long, smooth-walled, horizontal, circular pipe

This is an applied problem of interest to engineers. The objective is


to find pressure drop due to friction for a given flow rate.

Higher fluid viscosity would obviously lead to higher pressure drop

From the knowledge acquired till now leads to intuition higher


shear stress on wall would result in higher pressure drop and so
average velocity and diameter would influence it

Similarly, Bernoullis equation has suggested that the pressure drop


would also be determined by the density of fluid

Finally, it is common sense to expect higher pressure drop due to


friction if the pipe is long

Dimensional Analysis-III

P
= f (D, , , V )
L

We shall at this point assume that we have no knowledge of viscous


flows (which is true)

Let us also assume that we have found a sponsor to support an


experimental program on this study and a graduate student to carry
out the experiments

We need experiments to be carried for the variation of pressure


gradient for each of the parameter, while holding others constant

Dimensional Analysis-IV
P

This leads us to believe intuitively that

Dimensional Analysis-V

Using the results obtained we can fit a regression equation

P
= c1D n1 n 2 n 3 V n 4
L

This is the best outcome we would have come out and the resulting
equation is our design equation for estimating pressure drop

Note that we carried 20 experiments, but it will be an ordeal to find


Newtonian fluids of same density but with varying viscosity, same
viscosity but with varying density (probably impossible)

Let us say that using the same experiments (four graphs) the
graduate student got curious (He was actually forced by his
professor to come out with more interesting result with the data) and
he plotted all kinds of combinations till he got a stunning result

Dimensional Analysis-VI

All the 20 experiments in a single curve !

Both x and y axes are dimensionless!

Dimensional Analysis-VII

The above case study raises our curiosity to see if there is a


systematic way of doing this business

Such a thing reveals that there are only two combination of system
variables that are important and so experiments can be cut short and
so costs can be reduced

The result of this quest is the Buckingham Pi Theorem

It helps us to identify the dimensionless groups

Let us go through it for the problem discussed above

Let us drop our intuition that pressure drop is proportional to length


and take L also as a variable

P D
V 2 L

Buckingham PI Theorem-Steps
1. List all the variables that are involved in the problem.
2. Express each of the variables in terms of basic dimensions
(MLtT)
3. Select a set of r repeating variables that includes all
dimensions
4. Form a term by multiplying one of the non-repeating
variables by the product of repeating variables each raised to
an exponent that will make the combination dimensionless.
and repeat it for each of the remaining non-repeating
variables
5. Get the final non-dimensional functional form

Application-I
Step 1: List all the variables that are involved in the problem

P = f (L, D, , , V )

N=6

Step 2: Express each of the variables in terms of basic dimensions

P ML1t 2
L L
D L
ML3
ML1t 1
V Lt 1

Application-II

Application-III

Step 3: Select a set of r repeating variables that includes all dimensions


We choose , V, D

Only has M

2 = L a V b D c

a = 0, b = 0, c = -1
This would
L
2 =
have come by
D
inspection

r=3

Only V has t
Step 4: Formation of Pi groups
1 = P a V b D c

Number of = N r = 6 3 = 3

M 0 L0 t 0 = ML1 t 2 (ML3 ) a (Lt 1 ) b Lc

a = -1, b = -2, c = 0
1 =

P
V 2

M 0 L0 t 0 = (L )(ML3 ) a (Lt 1 ) b Lc

3 = a V b D c

M 0 L0 t 0 = ML1t 1 (ML3 ) a (Lt 1 ) b Lc

a = -1, b = -1, c = -1
3 =

VD

Application-IV

Application-IV

Step 5: Get the final non-dimensional functional form


1 = f ( 2 , 3 )

L
P
= f ,

V 2
D VD

In fluid mechanics, we will come across many terms

Many of these bear names to honor scientists who


contributed significantly in the related area

In this exercise we discovered three non dimensional groups


1 =

P
V 2

2 =

L
D

Usually a power law is chosen and the data is fitted


P
L
= c
V 2
D

n1

VD

n1

If we look at the y-axis of the student, he was lucky as the


power of L/D is usually 1.

Euler Number
Non-dimensional length

VD
1
=
3

Reynolds Number

Caution: Be ready for lots of such numbers in ME 203 and ME 210

The Governing Equation Route-I


We have seen one way of identifying the non-dimensional
groups viz., Buckingham Pi Theorem

The Governing Equation Route-II

It works ok once we identify the parameters that


influences a system

The thrust of this method is based on the fact that if


the differential equation and the boundary conditions
are same for two systems, then the solutions would
be identical for both

If the governing equations are known, there is an alternate


route

Therefore, the objective is to get the same equations


and boundary conditions for two systems

We shall understand the essence of this method for a


similar problem

This is done by non-dimensionalizing the governing


equations.

The Governing Equation Route-III


The problem we choose is the flow between parallel
plates
The problem is identical except for the diameter of
the tube would be replaced the separation between
plates (H)
This has been done for convenience so that we can
stay in Cartesian System
H
L

The Governing Equation Route-IV


Flow of two dimensional incompressible, Newtonian fluid,
the governing equations are:

u v
+
=0
x y
u
u
u
+ u
+v
x
y
t

v
v
v

+u
+v
x
y
t

2u 2u

P
=
+ 2 + 2
x
y

2v 2v

P
=
+ 2 + 2
y
y

The purpose of taking transient term is only for illustration as


it is the steady state result we are interested in

The Governing Equation Route-V


The non-dimensionalization starts with individual
variables as follows:
x* =

x * y *
t
;y = ;t =
L
H
L/V

u* =

u * v *
p
;v = ;p =
V
V
V 2

The denominator are called scaling variables

The Governing Equation Route-VI


u * L v*
+
=0
x * H y*

Vu * Vv*
+
=0
L x * H y*

Vu *
Vu *
Vu *

+ Vu*
+ Vv*
*
*
(
L
/
V
)

t
L

x
Hy*

These have been chosen from the characteristics of


the given problem

V 2 u *

V 2 P
V 2 u *
=
+
+
*
2
2
*2
L

x
H 2 y*

L x

u *
u * L u *
p *
H 2u* L 2u*
+
+ u * * + v* * = * +

*
t
x
H y
x VH L x *2 H y*2

Typically the variables will go from 0 1


Let us substitute for x, y, t, u, v and w in the
differential equations

The Governing Equation Route-VII


v
v
v

+u
+v
x
y
t

2v 2v

P
=
+ 2 + 2
y
y

Vv*
V 2v V 2v
V v*
V v*
V 2 p*
=

+ Vu *
+ Vv*
+ 2 2 + 2 2
*
*
*
(
L
/
V
)
t
L
x
H
y
H
y
H y

L x

v *
v* L v*
L p *
H 2 v* L 2 v*
+ u * * + v*
=
+
+

*
*
t
x
y
H
H y VH L x * 2 H y*2

The Governing Equation Route-VIII


u * L v*
+
=0
x * H y*
u *
u * L u *
p *
H 2u* L 2u*
+ u * * + v* * = * +
+

*
t
x
H y
x VH L x * 2 H y* 2
v*
v* L v*
L p*
H 2 v* L 2 v*
+ u * * + v*
=
+
+

*
*
t
x
H
y
H y VH L x * 2 H y*2

H
L

The Governing Equation Route-IX


Non-Dimensional parameters

The Governing Equation Route-X

We have come to the same conclusion that the nondimensional pressure drop is only a function of Inverse of

Reynolds number
and non-dimensional length L
VH
H

The method has laid the foundation for similarity of the


variables between model and prototype

It has also introduced the scaling variables.

,
H VH
If

L
is same, i.e., the geometry is similar, and
is same
VH
H

i.e., Reynolds number is same, the non-dimensional equations


for both the cases are identical
Further, if the boundary conditions are identical, which are:
1. Flow uniform at inlet, 2. Wall velocity = 0, and

p
V 2

=
mod el

p
V 2

For same
prototype

and L
VH
H

3. Fully developed at exit,


The solution of all variables will be identical

The Governing Equation Route-XI

The method also gives physical interpretation for the nondimensional group

Reynolds number was derived from

Vv*
V v*
V v*

+ Vu *
+ Vv*
*
L x *
H y
(L / V)t

V 2v V 2v
V 2 p*
=
+ 2 2 + 2 2
H y*
H y

L x

Inertia force/volume

Viscous force/volume
2

Re ynolds Number =

V / L VL
Inertia Force
=
=
V / L2

Viscous Force

Flow Similarity and Model Studies-I


Geometric Similarity

Flow Similarity and Model Studies-II


Example: Drag on a Sphere

Model and prototype have same shape


Linear dimensions on model and prototype correspond
within constant scale factor

Kinematic Similarity
Velocities at corresponding points on model and prototype
differ only by a constant scale factor

Dynamic Similarity

Choosing the repeating variables as , V


and D

Forces on model and prototype differ only by a constant


scale factor

Flow Similarity and Model Studies-III


Example: Drag on a Sphere

Flow Similarity and Model Studies-IV


Incomplete Similarity

For dynamic similarity

Sometimes complete similarity


cannot be obtained, as all the
numbers may not be matched
Still meaningful results may be
possible to obtain

then

FPr ototype
FModel

[V D ]
[V D ]
2

prototype
2
mod el

This needs experience

Flow Similarity and Model Studies-V


The most common example cited is the
frictional resistance to ship movement in sea
It has viscous resistance and wave resistance

F
V 2 L2

= V
FrP = FrM
Lg
Lg

P
M

VP
=
VM

LP
LM

Given VP,LM and LP, we get VM

VL
VL
Re P = Re M
=

P M

F = f (L, V, , , g )

Buckingham theorem leads to

Flow Similarity and Model Studies-VI

Froude Number

VL V
= f (Re, Fr)
= f
,

Lg

M L M VM L M
=
=
P
L P VP L P

3/ 2

M
For typical LM/Lp = 1/100 = 1000
P

1. Froude Number
matched

No Fluid Available

1. Wave Resistance
estimated from
model study as a
function of
Froude Number

2. Total Resistance
obtained
3. Viscous
Resistance
Estimated
Theoretically

2. Viscous
Resistance
Estimated
theoretically

4. Hence Wave
resistance
obtained as a
function of
Froude Number
by subtraction

3. Hence total
resistance
obtained by
adding the two

Flow Similarity and Model Studies-VII

Flow Similarity and Model Studies-VIII

Multiple parameters
If

then

Example: Centrifugal Pump


Pump Head
Pump Power

Negligible
effect

Head Coefficient

Power Coefficient

Internal Incompressible Viscous Flow

Laminar Vs Turbulent Flow


When velocity of flow is small, fluid flows in
layers. This is laminar flow
When velocity increases, the layered flow is
destroyed and several whirls are formed called
vortices

Flow inside passages is the most common application of


Fluid Mechanics
Flow inside pipes, flow in between rods are the most
common application in Engineering

This is called turbulent flow. In this case velocity


always fluctuates with time
The transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow
VD
is characterized by Reynolds number

In the next few lectures we see extensive application of


Navier-Stokes Equations

This is typically 2300 in pipe flow

Fully Developed Laminar Flow


Between Parallel Plates-I

Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Flow is fully developed

u
=0
x

Flow is incompressible two dimensional and Steady


Continuity Eq.

It implies that the velocity profile does not change along


length
The non-dimensional entrance length (L/D) is ~ 0.06 Re
This length can be as long as 140 times the diameter

u v
+
=0
x y

v does not change along y

V = 0 on wall (No slip boundary condition)


Therefore, v = 0 everywhere

This is small in turbulent flow (L/D ~ 6-10)

Fully Developed Laminar Flow


Between Parallel Plates-II

Fully Developed Laminar Flow


Between Parallel Plates-III
dp
d 2u
= 2
dx
dy

We will first consider gravity free flow

Y-momentum Eq.

f(x)

v v
v
v
v
p
+ u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2 + g y
x
y
y
y
t
x
p dp
p
=
p is a function of x only
=0
x dx
y
2

X-momentum Eq.

2 u 2u
u
u
u
p
+ u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2
x
y
x
y
t
x

f(y)

LHS = RHS = constant

1 dp y 2
+ C1 y + C 2
dx 2
a
Boundary conditions
u = 0 at y =
2
2
2
1 dp a
a
1 dp a
a
0=
+ C1 + C 2 and 0 =
C1 + C 2
dx 8
2
dx 8
2
1 dp a 2
C1 = 0 and C 2 =
dx 8

On integration with y

u=

Fully Developed Laminar Flow


Between Parallel Plates-III
u=

2
a 2 dp y

1
8 d x a / 2

Fully Developed Laminar Flow


Between Parallel Plates-IV
Average Velocity

Parabolic Distribution

u avg =

U=umax at y = 0

a /2

a 2 dp
8 d x
y 2
u = u max 1

a / 2

u max =

Or

u max
1 a /2
udy = a
a a / 2

u max
a

u
y 4y
= max
2

a
3
a

a / 2

y2
dy
1
(a / 2)2
a / 2
a/2

a a 4
2
2 2 3a

a 3 a 3

8 8

u max
8a 2
a
= u max
a
3 8 3

u avg =

2
u max
3

Or

u max =1.5 u avg

Fully Developed Laminar Flow


Between Parallel Plates-VI

Fully Developed Laminar Flow


Between Parallel Plates-V

Pressure Drop

We have shown that

1.5u avg 8
dp
=
dx
a2

p =

12u avgL
a2

dp
u 8
= max2
and
dx
a

u max =1.5 u avg

Shear Stress

Pressure drop over length L

Fully Developed Laminar Flow


Between Parallel Plates-VII
Friction Factor

To generalize the result a term called friction factor


is introduced
It is the non-dimensional wall shear stress defined by
w
0.5u avg

u v
4
du
= u max 2 2 y
xy = yx = + =
a

dy
y x

Constant

It is zero on centerline

It is maximum on the wall

w =

f=

a/2

Note u = u max 1

4u max
a

Opposite to direction of motion

Couette Flow-I
We had seen flow between parallel plates when both the
plates were at zero velocity and fluid was flowing in
between
The characteristics were:

dp/dx was constant

Velocity distribution was parabolic


2

6u avg
4u max
From previous slide w =
=
a
a
6u avg
12
12
f =
=
=
2
0.5u avg a u avg a Re

Friction factor was f = 12/Re

f=

12
Re

Now we shall see, what will change if we move one of


the plates with a velocity U
This flow is called Couette Flow

Couette Flow-III

Couette Flow-II
The first few steps are identical

we choose y = 0 at the bottom


plate for convenience
y

dp
d 2u
= 2
dx
dy
f(x)

f(y)

u=

U
or

u=U

LHS = RHS = constant

u=

On integration with y

1 dp y 2
+ C1 y + C 2
dx 2

Boundary conditions

u = 0 at y = 0

u = U at y = a

and

1 dp y 2 U 1 dp a
y
+
d x 2 a d x 2

U 1 dp a
1 dp a 2
0 = C 2 and U =

= C1
+ C1a or
a dx 2
dx 2

y 1 dp y 2 ay
+
a dx
2

We now can make some general comments


If dp/dx = 0, then u is linear (This is what we assumed
when we defined viscosity
If U = 0, it will reduce to the previous distribution
Let us learn to put results in non-dimensional form

Couette Flow-IV

Couette Flow-IV
a dp

2 U dx
2

Rearranging

or

u * = y* +

u y
a 2 dp y y
= +
1
U a 2 U dx a a

a 2 dp *
*
*
*
*
*
y 1 y or u = y + y (1 y )
2U dx

Average Velocity

u avg =

y*

1a
U a y
y
y2
udy = + 2 dy

a0
a 0 a
a
a

U y 2 y 2 y 3
+
2
a 2a
2a
3a

u avg
u

Shear Stress

du
= 1 + 1(1 y* ) + y* ( 1)
dy*

+1
2

a 2 dp

2 U dx

u v
du U du *
U
xy = yx = + =
=
=
1 + (1 2 y* )
dy
a dy*
a
y x

Note that for U 0, , y* 0.5

U
a 2 dp
y U a dp
y
1 +
+ (1 2 )
(1 2 ) =
a 2 U dx
a a
2 dx
a

1 + 1(1 y* ) + y* (1) = 1 + (1 2 y* ) = 0

y* =

Note that uavg = 0 for = -3

Couette Flow-VI

du
du *
At point of maximum velocity
=0 * =0
dy
dy

U a a a
U 1
= +
=
a +
3
a 2 6
a 2 2

Point of maximum Velocity

1
=U +
2 6

Couette Flow-V

u * = y * + y* 1 y*

y
y y
u = U + 1
a a
a

u * = y* + y* (1 y* )

yx =

U dp 1 y
+ a
a
dx 2 a

This is in tune with parabolic flow

Laminar Flow in Pipes-I


Pipes are the most common geometry in geometry
The solution for this case is just similar to the parallel
plates

Laminar Flow in Pipes-II


Fully developed, axi-symmetric, incompressible, steady
flow
V = V(r,z)
Continuity Equation

This is called Hagen-Poiseuille Flow

1 ( rVr ) Vz
+
=0
r r
z

rVr is independent of r
Since Vr at r = R is 0, Vr is 0 everywhere
Hence there is only Vz = Vz (r)

Laminar Flow in Pipes-III


r - Momentum Equation

Laminar Flow in Pipes-IV


z - Momentum Equation

1 (rVr )
V
V
p
2V
V
r + Vr r + + Vz r = +
+ + 2 r

r
r

r
z

p is only a function of z

1 Vz 2 Vz
V
V
p
V

z + Vr z + + Vz z = +
r
+
2
r
z
z
t
r r r z

p dp
=
z dz

p
1 Vz
=
r

z
r r r

f(z)

f(r)

LHS = RHS = constant

Laminar Flow in Pipes-V


d dVz
1 dp
r
=r
dr dr
dz

dVz 1 dp r
=

dr dz 2

Integrating with r

Integrating once with r

1 dp r 2
+ C 2
Vz =
dz 4

dV 1 dp r 2
r z =
+ C1
dr dz 2

Using the boundary condition Vz = 0 at r = R

Using the boundary condition that flow is symmetric as r0

dVz 1 dp r 2
=
+ C1
dr dz 2

Laminar Flow in Pipes-VI


Transposing r, we can write

Transposing r, we can write

dp
1 d dVz
=
r
= Cons tan t
dz
r dr dr

C1 = 0

dVz 1 dp r 2

=
dr dz 2

1 dp 2 2 R 2 dp
r2
1 dp R 2
Vz =
C 2 =

(R r ) =
1 2
4

dz
4

dz
R

dz
4

Vz =

R 2 dp
r2

1
4 dz R 2

Laminar Flow in Pipes-VII

Laminar Flow in Pipes-VIII


Average Velocity

Velocity distribution is parabolic

1 R
2 R
2 R
v 2r dr
v r dr = 2 v z r dr
2 z
2 z
R 0
R 0
R 0
2Vz (max) R
r2
2Vz (max) R
r3
Vz =
1 R 2 r dr = R 2 r R 2 dr
R2
0
0

2V (max) R 2 R 4
Vz = z 2

2
R
2 4R
Vz =

Vz = Vz (max) at r = 0

Vz (max) =

R 2 dp

4 dz

r2
Vz = Vz (max)1 2
R

2Vz (max) R 2 Vz (max)


=
R2
4
2
2
R dP
=
8 dz

Vz =

Laminar Flow in Pipes-X

Laminar Flow in Pipes-IX

r2
Vz = Vz (max)1 2
R

Shear Stress

v
v
2r
rz = rz = z + r = Vz (max) 2

Friction Factor

Friction factor can be calculated as follows

R 2 dp 2 r
R 2 dp

Q Vz (max) =

4 dz R 2
4 dz
r dp
= Direction is Negative as dp/dz is negative
2 dz

f=

Force Balance

dz

p+dp

8 dz

Laminar Flow in Pipes-XI

Refer two slides back

R dp
From previous slide
2 dz

(R / 2) /(dp / dz) = 8 = 16 = 16
0.5Vz R 2 / 8 (dp / dz ) Vz R Vz D Re

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-I


We had seen that pressure drop varies linearly with
velocity

From force balance

w =

w = r =R =

f =

is implicitly assumed in force balance

Pressure Drop

2
Further Vz = R dp

and

r dp
2rdz + r dp = 0 =
2 dz
Note the answer is same, as direction of
p
2

w
0.5Vz

However experiments show that as velocity is


increased, the variation becomes non-linear

R dp

2 dz

VA

) (

2
2
2
4
4 0.5Vz f
4 Vz f
4Vz 16
dp 2

= w = w =
=
=
R
D
D
2D
2D Vz D
dz
32Vz
=
D2
32Vz L
p =
Linear dependence with velocity
D2

Vavg

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-II

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-III

Reynolds Experiment

Analysis is often carried statistically

u = u + u

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-IV

The Detailed analysis is quite complex


The fluctuating component creates agitation
This increases the shear stresses
The additional shear created by fluctuations are
called Reynolds stresses. The details of these
are generally taught in the next level course
Detailed solutions are possible only using
numerical solutions
We shall learn enough so that engineering
problems can be solved.

u
u

is the mean component


is the fluctuating component

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-V


It has been experimentally verified that the
velocity profile close to wall has been linear
In the bulk of the flow the profile is logarithmic
New variables have been defined for this
representation
The distance from the wall is denoted by y, and
the wall shear is denoted by w
The non-dimensionalization is carried as
follows
y
u

u+ =
; where u * = w and y + =
/ u*
u*

Shear velocity

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-VI

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-VII


Though the outer layer empirical equation does
not predict the profile near the wall, it is still
adequate to calculate average velocity

Viscous layer
or Wall layer

u + = y + ; for y + < 5

Outer layer

u + = 2.5 ln y + + 5 ; for y + > 30

u
y
Rr
= 2.5 ln
+ 5 or u = u * 2.5 ln
+ 5
u*
/ u*

/
u

u* R
R r
V=
2.5 ln / u + 5 2rdr Integrate by parts
R 2 0
*

R
= u * 2.5 ln
+ 1.25

/
u
*

Note that u* can be


computed if average velocity
is known but requires
solution of a non-linear
equation

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-IX

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-VIII


In laminar flow we had defined that

Slowly everyone is using only Darcy-Weisbach


friction factor. So you have to be careful

Vz
= w
2

If we use the same, then the modified definition


would be
2

Some authors call this friction coefficient cf

The friction factor defined above is called


Fanning friction factor
Independently in German literature, Weisbach
had derived the following relation

dp Vz f
=
2D
dz

u* =

w f Vz
=
4 2

u * = Vz

f
8

We can rewrite the average velocity obtained


two slides before as

Darcy-Weisbach
friction factor

V=

R
f
V 2.5 ln
8

f
V + 1.25

1 2.5 Re f 1.25
+
=
ln
f 8 2 8
8

Darcy-Weisbach friction factor is 4 times larger than Fanning friction factor

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-X

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-XI

On simplifying, we get
Re f
1
= 0.88 ln
f
5.66

We just derived the relationship for Darcys


friction factor for smooth pipes. To take into
roughness of pipes Colebrook derived the
following relation for Darcys friction factor

+ 0.44

Changing the base of logarithm to 10, we get

1
= 2.05 log Re f log 5.66 + 0.44
f

Using large experimental data this was modified as

1
= 2.0 log Re f 0.8
f

1
/ D 2.51
= 2.0 log
+

f
3.7 Re f

= 2.05 log Re f 1.1

This was plotted by Moody and is called the


Moody chart. One of the most popular figure

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-XII

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-XIII


Equivalent Roughness for New Pipes
Pipe

Moodys Chart

Equivalent Roughness (mm)

Riveted steel

0.99.0

Concrete

0.33.0

Wood stave

0.180.9

Cast iron

0.26

Galvanized iron

0.15

Commercial steel or wrought iron

0.045

Drawn tubing

0.0015

Plastic, glass

0.0 (smooth)

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-XIV


For computer calculations the following relations are
useful

f=

64
Re

/ D 1.11 6.9
1

= 1.8 log
+
3.7
f
Re

Turbulent Flow in Pipes-XV


Before we conclude, sometimes the profile in a pipe is
approximated by
1

For Re < 2300

r n

Vz = Vz (max)1 n = 1.7 + 1.8 log Re max ;


R

For Re > 2300

For such a profile, the relation between average and


maximum velocity can be obtained as

Re =

Vz (max)D

Vz
2n 2
=
Vz (max) (n + 1)(2n + 1)

This profile cannot be used in the near wall region for


finding derivatives.

Pressure Drops in Internal Flows-I

Pressure Drops in Internal Flows-II

Recollect that we had analyzed fluid along stream


lines using Bernoullis equation, where friction
effects were neglected

The modified form of Bernoullis equation with


friction effect for a stream line can be written as
2

p1 V1
p
V
+
+ gH1 = 2 + 2 + gH 2 + gH loss

We have just derived relations to account for friction


effects.

Here 1 stands for upstream point and 2 stands


for downstream point

These two concepts can be combined to analyze a


large number of practical problems

Note that the order does not matter for


frictionless flows, where Hloss = 0

This will be the topic of our discussion

The above equation can be modified for pipe


flows as shown in next slide

Pressure Drops in Internal Flows-IV

Pressure Drops in Internal Flows-III


2

The modified Bernoullis equation is rewritten by


dividing all the terms by g as

p1 1V1
p
V
+
+ gH1 = 2 + 2 2 + gH 2 + gH loss

p1 V12
p
V2
+
+ H1 = 2 + 2 + H 2 + H loss + (H gain )
g 2g
g 2g

The parameter accounts for non-uniform flows


This can be derived from energy equation that we
shall do only at the end of the course
The parameter can be estimated from the equation

1
V 3dA
& V 2 A
m

There will be Hgain if there is a pump in between


sections 1 and 2
Hloss is called the head loss due to friction
We had derived an expression for dp/dz as

V2/2 is weighted with


mass flow rate

2
dp Vz f
=
dz
2
D

For laminar flow = 2, but for turbulent flows it is


lies between 1.08 (n = 6) to 1.03 (n = 10) depending
on the profile. Hence is usually ignored

Or

p =

2
p fL Vz
=
= H loss
g
D 2g

Vz 2 fL
2 D

This is the Darcy-Weisbach


equation for head loss

Pressure Drops in Internal Flows-V

Pressure Drops in Internal Flows-VI

Though derived for fully developed flow without body


force terms, it is valid for all fully developed flows be
it horizontal, vertical or inclined

The head loss relation was worked out for circular


pipes

Note that unit of head loss is meters of the relevant


fluid column

Often this can be extended to other shapes by defining


equivalent diameter called the hydraulic diameter

The friction factor can be estimated from Moodys


diagram or from the following relations
64
f=
For Re < 2300
Re
/ D 1.11 6.9
1

= 1.8 log
+
3.7
f
Re

Dh =

4 Area
Wetted Perimeter

L
B
L

For Re > 2300

5 rods of radius = R

Dh =

4LB
2(L + B)

Dh =

4 L2 5R 2
4L + 5(2R )

Pressure Drops in Internal Flows-VII

Valves-I

How to handle head loss for components like bends,


tees, contraction, expansion, etc.
These are done empirically through loss coefficients

Valve is a variable resistance


element in a pipe circuit
These are used to regulate or
stop flow

V2
HL = KL
2g
These are listed in text books, hand books, etc.

There are different types of


Valves
Globe Valve
Gate valve
Ball Valve
Check Valve/Non
Return Valve

Valves-II

Pressure Drops in Internal Flows-VIII

Valves will have


variable K
This will be
determined by the
fraction of opening
Globe Valve

Loss
Coefficients

Gate Valve

Manufaturers specify
this, which is used to
select valves

Swing check valve

Stop check valve

Pressure Drops in Internal Flows-IX


Alternately, the minor losses are accounted using the
equivalent length concept
The component is viewed as an additional equivalent
pipe length and is normally expressed as a factor times
the pipe diameter

Problem Solutions in Pipe Flows-I


p1 V12
p
V2
+
+ H1 + H gain = 2 + 2 + H 2 + H loss min or + H loss major
g 2 g
g 2g
H loss major =

64
Re

fLVz 2
2gD

Component

Le/D

f=

Gate Valve

Globe Valve

340

90o

elbow

30

/ D
1
= 1.8 log
3.7
f

45o

elbow

16

Treatment of Tee is complicated and messy.


Hence student is referred to hand books for its application

For Re < 2300


1.11

H Loss min or = K L

V2
2g

6.9
Re

For Re > 2300

Or
Moodys
Chart

KL empirically obtained

Problem Solutions in Pipe Flows-I

Flow Measurement-I

Find p for given L, D, Q


Find L for given p, D, Q
Find Q for given p L, D
Find D for given p L, Q

1
1
V12 = P2 + V22
2
2

P1 +

Types of Problems

A1V1 = A 2 V2

Can be directly
solved

Q th = A 2

Iterations
Required

2 ( P1P2 )
2

A
1 2

A1

Q act < Q th
Discharge C = Q act
Coefficient d
Q th

Flow Measurement-II
Q act = C d A t

2 (P1P2 )
= Cd A t
2

A t

1
Ap

2 (P1P2 )
4

where, =

(1 )

Flow Measurement-II
Dt
Dp

There are other types of flow meters


These will be taught in the course on instrumentation

Cd is a function of Re,
Empirical correlations exist for Cd to aid the design of
orifices

External Incompressible Viscous Flow

Concept of a Boundary Layer

The motivation for this study stems from the


understanding of Aircrafts wings, Ship hull,
Submarines, etc.
The study becomes complicated as fully developed
flow does not exist in these cases
In fully developed flow we could reduce NavierStokes equations to ordinary differential equations
However, this is not possible in external flows and
hence partial differential equations need to be solved
Some clever simplifications exist and we shall see
these
We will start with flow over a flat plate

In 1904 Prandtl introduced this concept and is


considered a big milestone in Fluid mechanics
The layer in which the velocity gradients are
confined is called the boundary layer

Boundary Layer Flows-I


In boundary layer flows, the viscous effects are
important only inside the boundary layer

Boundary Layer Flows-II


Adverse Pressure Gradient

Favourable Pressure Gradient

The flow outside this layer is called free stream and


here the viscous effects are not important
Thus, for a uniform steady free stream flow over a flat
plate, the momentum equation can be simplified as
2u 2 u
u
u
u
p

+u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2

t
x
y
x
y
x

U
p
=
x
x

+ g x

p
=0
x

Boundary Layer Flows-III

Boundary Layer Flows-IV


We can compute a value for Displacement Thickness
* as follows

Some Definitions

Mass Balance implies

Boundary Layer Thickness

y + *

Theoretically u=U only at y =

udy = udy

It is customary to define boundary layer thickness


as the thickness when u = 0.99 U denoted by

At x = 0

(u U + U)dy

At x = x

Uy =

y+

*
(u U)dy + U ( y + )

U* =

Streamline if plate
not present
Boundary Layer

y + *

Uy =

Streamline with
plate present

Displacement Thickness

U
<0
x

U
=0
x

U
>0
x

y + *

y + *

(u U)dy
0

u
u
(1 )dy (1 )dy
U
U
0

The limit is truncated at as


the value of integrand beyond
this is almost zero

Boundary Layer Flows-V

Momentum Integral Equation-I

Momentum Thickness

u
u
(1 )dy
U
U
0

x
1

r r

d + V.dA = 0
t CV
CS
steady

d
udy x

dx
0
0

d
& 12 m
& 34 = udy x
=m

dx 0

& 34 = udy +
m
& 23
m

Momentum Integral Equation-II

Momentum Integral Equation-III

r r
u V.dA = FSx + FBx

Momentum per unit width at 34


(M34)
Momentum per unit width at 23
(M23)

FSx = M12 + M 23 + M 34

= uudy = u 2 dy

d 2
d
u dy x U udy x
=

dx 0
dx

Momentum Integral Equation-IV

p
x
x

4
1

w x

p
1 p
x )d F34 = (p +
x )( + d) F14 = w x
x
2 x
p
p
1 p

F12 + F34 + F23 = p p + pd +


x +
xd + pd +
xd
x
x
2 x

F12 = p

d
u 2 dy x Sign positive by

our convention
dx 0

From
d

udy x
& 23 U = U
=m
previous

dx
slide
0

= u 2 dy +

p+

p
1

Evaluation of FSx
Sign negative by
our convention

CS

Momentum Equation

r r r r
r
V d + V V.dA = F
t CV
CS

& 12 = m
& 23 + m
& 34
m

All mass flow


rates are per unit
width

& 12 = udy
m

We shall see integral solution first

Continuity Equation

Integral solutions can be easily obtained, but these


are approximate.

(M12)

Control Volume
is sketched as
1234

This will be discussed


later

The solution of Boundary layer flows using differential


equations is complex and involves numerical
computation and hence deferred for time being

Momentum per unit width at 12

F23 = (p +

FSx =

p
1 p
x
xd w x
x
2 x

Substituting for FSx in the equation on the previous slide

p
1 p
d 2
d
u dy x U udy x
x
xd w x =

x
2 x
dx 0
dx

Analysis for Flat Plate-I


For flat plate dp/dx = 0

p
1 p
d 2
d
u dy x U udy x
x
xd w x =

x
2 x
dx 0
dx 0

Canceling x and then shrinking x to zero


0

p
1 p
d 2
d
u dy U udy

d w =

x
2 x
dx 0
dx 0

p
d 2
d
u dy U

w =

udy
x
dx 0
dx

This equation is called the Momentum Integral Equation

w = U

d 2
d
udy

dx u dy
dx 0

Since U is constant, we can take U inside the integral


and rewrite the above equation as

d
u ( U u )dy
w =

dx 0

For incompressible flow we can modify the equation as


w = U 2

d u
u
(1 )dy

dx 0 U
U

Analysis for Flat Plate-II

w
1
U 2
2

=2

Analysis for Flat Plate-III

d u
u
(1 )dy = C f

dx 0 U
U

For Evaluation of wall shear stress and hence the


drag, we need to know the velocity profile
Integral method assumes realistic profiles to get the
answer

u = 2U

u
= 2 2
U
du
U
= 2
Further w =

dy y =0

U
d u
u
(1 )dy
= U 2

dx 0 U
U

2 U
d
2
2 1 2 2 d

U 2 dx 0

5.48
=
x
Re x

exact solution is

2 =

5.00
=
x
Re x

Re x
2U /
4
4 x
4
Cf =
=
=
=
=
1
1
U Ux Re x 5.48
2
2
U
U
2
2
w

Cf =

w = U 2

d u
u
(1 )dy

dx 0 U
U

y
d = dy

d 5
4
3
2

+4
5
+2
dx 5
4
3
2

15
dx
U

Or

2 15
=
dx
2
U

Integration leads to

Analysis for Flat Plate-VI

u
y y2
=2 2

U

Or

2 15
=
x+C
2
U
Using the condition = 0 at x = 0 C = 0

)]

d 1
4 + 43 5 2 + 2 d

dx 0

at y =

2 U 2 d
=
U 2 15 dx

d =

w = 2

at y =

Analysis for Flat Plate-V

u
y y2
=2 2

U

)[ (

u=U
du
=0
dy

To simplify the algebra let us define =

Analysis for Flat Plate-IV

y
y2
U 2

We shall use

The constants are evaluated using boundary


conditions

at y = 0

Evaluation of the constants lead to

Assume a second order polynomial


u = a + by + cy 2

u=0

0.73
Re x

0.664
The exact solution for this case is C f =
Re x

30
x =
U

30

x =
U
x

30
Ux

=
x

30
Re x

Analysis for Flat Plate-VII


Transition to turbulence
This occurs typically at Rex = 5 X 105

Note

Re x =

Ux

To evaluate wall shear stress we use the empirical


concepts in pipe flow
We had assumed a velocity profile obtained from
experiments

u
y
= 2.5 ln
+5
u*
/ u*
Eventually we arrived at

1
/ D 2.51
= 2.0 log
+

f
3.7 Re f

Analysis for Flat Plate-VII

Analysis for Flat Plate-VIII


1
0.316
w = (0.817Vmax ) 2
0.25
8
(0.817 Vmax )2R

For smooth pipes this can be approximated as

f=

0.316
0.316
=
Re 0.25 VD 0.25

2
w = 0.0233Vmax

To adapt it for boundary layer we do the following


manipulations

1
Vmax R

Replacing Vmax by U and R by we get

Assume a 1/7 power law for velocity

V
= 0.817
Vmax

f =

w
1
(0.817Vmax ) 2
8

w = 0.0233U 2

0.316
(0.817Vmax )2R

0.25

0.25

Analysis for Flat Plate-IX

1
U

0.25

Analysis for Flat Plate-X


Separating the variables we get

Now using the velocity profile


1
7

u y
= =
U


0.25d = 0.240

1
7

Substituting for w and u/U in momentum integral


equation

d u
u
(1 )dy
w = U 2

dx 0 U
U

We get
1
7 d
0.0233 0.25
d 1/ 7
(1 1/ 7 )d =
=
72 dx
(U )0.25 dx 0

Calculation of Frictional Drag-I


We have seen that Friction Coefficient Cf is of the form
Cf =

1
2

w
= C Re x n
U 2

C = 0.664, n = 0.5 for laminar


C = 0.0594, n = 0.2 for laminar

Since shear stress varies as position, we need to


integrate to compute the total drag (per unit width)

0.25


dx 0.25 d = 0.240

U
0
0

1.25

= 0.240

1.25
U

0.25

dx
1
5

0.25

4/5
x
= 0.382
U

= 0.382
x
Ux

0.382
=
x Re1x/ 5

We can substitute the value of in w (two slides back) to


get

0.0594
Cf = 1 w 2 =
Re 0x.2
2 U

Calculation of Frictional Drag-II


FD =

1
2

1
2

U 2 LCU n L n 1
C
= 2 U 2 L
Re Ln
n (1 n )
1 n

FD
C
= CD =
Re Ln
U 2 L
1 n

The parameter is called coefficient of drag


Total drag = CD X Area of plate X 0.5 U2

y
x

dx
n

Ux
= 12 U 2 C


L
2 n
2 n
n +1 L
U C n
U Cx
U 2 n CL n +1
FD = 12
x dx = 12 n
=1
n 0
( n + 1) 0 2 n (n + 1)
dFD = w dx = 12 U 2 C f

Differential Analysis-I

Some General Comments

In case of two-dimensional boundary layer flows over a


flat plate with no source terms, we can simplify the
equations as

Boundary layer thickness increases as x increases


The friction coefficient Cf decreases as x increases

u
v
+
=0
x
y

The boundary layer begins as laminar and then changes


over to turbulent
Turbulent boundary layer is thicker than laminar ones

2u
(u )
(u )
2u
=
u
+v
x 2 + y 2
x
y

The solution of integral method for laminar case can be


improved by using higher order profiles

The exact solution can be obtained using similarity


solution

Empirical relations exist for CD that starts as laminar and


transforms to turbulent

0.0742 1740

Re 0L.2
Re L
0.455
1610
CD =

(log Re L ) 2.58 Re L
CD =

This was facilitated by an ingenious transformation


introduced by Blasius

5 X 105 < ReL< 107


5 X 105 < ReL< 109

Differential Analysis-II

Differential Analysis-III
Now a similarity variable is defined as

The definition of stream function and its relation with


velocity is exprressed as:

The motivation for stating this way is that the stream


function would automatically satisfy the continuity equation
2

u

df
d 2f
d 2f
u
= u
=
= u
2 y
y
y
d
d
d 2

u

d 2f

=
u
y
y 2
d 2

u
= u
x

v =
=
x

df
+ f
u x
d 2 x

u x

u
1
=
x
2 x

Now we try to transform the momentum equation as


follows
u =

df
u x
dn y

=
y

u d f
x d3

df
+ f
d x

u 1
1
=
x
2
2

v =

u
x

= u df

dn

u
x

u df
f

x d

1
2

Substituting these in the momentum equation, we get


3

u
u d f
= u
x
x d3
1
u

2 x

u
x

df
u x
dn

Differential Analysis-V

df
d 2 f
d 2f
u
= u
= u
d
d 2 x
d 2 2 x

u
x

= f ( ) u x

Differential Analysis-IV

=
y

Let the stream function be of the form

The free stream velocity earlier denoted by U is also


commonly denoted by u and we shall use this

=
x
x

u 1 3/ 2
1 y
=
x
2
2 x

= y
x

u
v


+
=

= 0
x
y
xy xy

u
x

= y

v =
x

u =
y

df

f

d

df

d 2f
u
u
dn d 2 2 x

1
+
2

u
x

u
x

df


d

d 2f
f u
d
2

v
y

v
= u

Collecting
terms

u d 3f
x d 3

u
df d f

2 x d d 2
2

u
x

u
+

2x

df
d f

f
2
d
d
2

u
=
x

2u
y 2

d f
d3

Differential Analysis-VI

Solution of Blasius Equation-I

u 2 d 3f
d 2f u 2
f
=
2 2x
x d3
d
d 2f

+2

d 3f
d

Blasius equation given below does not have a closed form


solution
d 2f
d 3f
f

= 0

The above equation was derived by Blasius and is called


Blasius Equation
1 u df

v =

The Boundary conditions


f
d

u = u , at y =
u = u , at x = 0

+2

= 0

d 3

As the equation is third order ODE, it is usually split into


three first order differential equation
Let f = y 1 ,

df
= 0 , f = 0 at = 0
d

u = 0 , v = 0 at y = 0

d 2

It is easy to solve it numerically

df
= 1, at =
d
u = u

Solution of Blasius Equation-II

df
dn

df
= y2,
d
dy 1
= y2
d
dy 2
= y3
d

d 2f
d 2

= y3

y1 (0 ) = 0

y 2 (0 ) = 0

dy 3
y y
= 1 3
d
2

y 2 ( ) = 1

Solution of Blasius Equation-III


Now if we apply it to the second equation

There are many methods to solve. But we shall see the


simplest of all called Eulers method
This is not the most accurate method, but is easy to follow
From Taylor series, we can write

y 2 ( ) = y 2 (0) + y 3 (0)
Now if we apply it to the third equation

dy
y( + d) y() +

Now if we apply it to a simple differential equation


dy 1
= y2
d

y1 (0 + ) y1 (0) +

dy 2
= y3
d

dy1
y1 () = y1 (0) + y 2 (0)
d 0

dy 3
y y
= 1 3
d
2

y1 (0) y 3 (0)

2
From the boundary conditions y1(0), y2(0) are known, But
y3(0) is not known, but y2() is what is known
y 3 ( ) = y 3 (0)

The way to solve these is to assume y3(0), and proceed


forward and check whether y2() = 1. If not take another
guess and repeat

Solution of Blasius Equation-IV


Discussion on the numerical solution

w =

Cf

u
y

= u
y =0

w
0.5u 2

d 2f
d 2

u
u
= 0.332u
x
x

( = 0 )

u
x

0.332u
=

0.5u 2
C f ==

= 0.664

ux

0.664
Re x

Separation-II

Separation-I
The problem is more complex to obtain analytical
solution
Can be explained through qualitative arguments
Consider x momentum equation all along the wall

2u 2u
u
u
u
p
+ u
+ v =
+ 2 + 2 + g x
x
y
x
y
t
x
p
2u

= 2
x
y

u
y

Let us look at the velocity profiles at the boundary layer


For the flow to merge smoothly with the free stream

This implies that the sign of 2 at the wall is same as


y
that of p
x

Separation-III
There will be no separation when
For separation to occur

p
>0
x

p
<0
x

Near the point of separation boundary layer concept starts


breaking
After separation boundary layer concepts do not hold
Separation prevents pressure recovery

For
For

p
<0,
x
p
>0,
x

2u
<0
y 2

u
<0
y 2

at the wall. So the curvature is monotonic

2u
>0
y 2

at the wall. So the curvature has to change

Other Concepts in Drag-I


We have looked at pure frictional darg for plate is held along
the flow direction
We can compute drag, once we know CD
When plate is held normal to the flow, we get drag due to
pressure only

pdA

FD =

To ensure that flow does not separate, the diverging portion


of venturimeters cone angle is kept small ~15o

plate surface

FD = C D

It is due to separation that the pressure loss is high in orifice


plates

1
V 2 A projected
2

Note that wall shear is perpendicular to the flow direction


and so will not contribute to drag

Other Concepts in Drag-II


Boundary layer concepts do not hold here and hence are
complicated
The drag coefficients are obtained through computational
means or through experiments and correlated empirically

Drag Over a Sphere-I


For flow over a Sphere we will have both Friction and
Pressure Drag
At very low flow (Re < 1), we have only frictional contribution
as there is no separation and hence there is no pressure
drag. This is some times called creeping flow
CD = 24/ReD
At higher velocities flow starts separating Refer to fig. in next
slide
At around Re ~ 1000, the pressure drag ~ 95%
Turbulence sets in ~ Re 3 X 105
The point of separation shifts to down stream abruptly
decreasing CD (Refer fig. given later)

Drag Over a Sphere-II

Drag Over a Sphere-III

Taken from
ONERA's Science Pictures

Drag Over a Cylinder


Behavior is similar for a cylinder

Vortex Shedding
Vortices are shed alternately from each side of a
cylinder
The separation point and thus the resultant drag
force oscillate
Dimensionless frequency of shedding given by
Strouhal number S = fD/V
S is approximately 0.2 over a wide range of
Reynolds numbers (100 - 1,000,000)

Streamlining
Used to Reduce Wake and hence Pressure Drag
Note that as c is increased for a given t, the pressure
drag decreases
However there is an optimum c

Lift

FL = C L

1
V 2 A p
2

Mostly applies to Aerofoils


Note: Ap is planform area
(maximum projected area)
Lift increases as the angle of attack is
increased, but rapidly falls after a
critical value
Drag increases rapidly as angle of
attack increases

Conclusion
There are many more complex issues for finite
wings
These are not important for a first level study
However one should know how to use data
available in books
This will be given in home work with sufficient
hints as they are straight forward

Conservation of Mass - I

ONE DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

A
s
s
u
u + s
s

+ s
s
&
m
& +
m
s
s
A+

A Area (m2)

In analysis of systems comprising of several


pumps and piping, one dimensional analysis
is most often followed
The necessary system of equations can be
derived from control volume analysis with
suitable closing equations
This is taken up as the last topic for the
course

u Velocity (m/s)

Density (kg/m3)
& Mass flow rate (kg/s)
m

Rate of
accumulation of =
mass in CV

Mass flow _
rate into CV

Rate of
Mass flow rate +/- Mass
out of CV
generated /
destructed in
CV

& g)
(m

= g
s
t
& l)
liquid (l A l ) + (m
= l
s
t
+

Note: In boiling flows

Conservation of Momentum - I

g = l

Conservation of Momentum - II

w Wall shear stress (N/m2)


g Gravitational acceleration (m2/s)

&u+
m

p Pressure (N/m2)

pA

( g A g )

Gas

The control volume need not extend over the entire


cross section. An example is given in next slide

A
p
s
s

Conservation of Mass - III

& g)
(m

(As)
& m
& +
=m
s s
t
s

&

(
m
)

(A)
g
=
+
1
t
s

H Elevation (m)

&
m

Mass source/sink (kg/s-m)

Conservation of Mass - II

P Perimeter (m)

A,
u,

s Coordinate along pipe (m)

&u
m

&u
m
s
s

Rate of
accumulation of =
momentum in
CV

Momentum _
rate into CV

Momentum
+
rate out of CV

g
pA
pA +
s
s

Term-1

Asu

Term-2

Sum of all
forces in
positive
direction
acting on
CV
4

&u
m

Term-3

&u+
m

&u
m
s
s

Conservation of Momentum - III


= Pressure force + Shear force

Term-4

+ Gravity force

pA
A

s + p
s
Pressure force = pA pA +
s
s

p
= A
s
s
Shear force

w Ps

Gravity force

AsgSin ()

Conservation of Momentum - V

u
A
u
Au
p
+u
+ Au + u
= A w P AgSin
t
t
s
s
s
u
u
p
+ Au
= A w P AgSin
t
s
s

(Au ) (Au 2 )
p
+
= A w P AgSin
t
s
s

&)
& u)
(m
(m
p
=
A w P AgSin
t
s
s

Mechanical Energy Equation - I


 Multiplication of momentum equation with
velocity will give mechanical energy equation

We can get non-conservative form by expanding


the LHS and using mass conservation equation

& u)
(Aus)
(m
p

& u m
&u+
=m
A s w Ps AsgSin
t
s
s

Eqs. (2) and (3) are the conservative forms of the


momentum equation

Substitution of all the terms lead to

Conservation of Momentum - IV

The above expression assumes source an sink of mass


is zero.

u
u
p
+ Au 2
= uA u w P uAgSin 5
t
s
s
2
2
u
u
2 + Au
2 = uA p u P uAg H
A
w
t
s
s
s
Au

For steady, inviscid and incompressible flow, we get

Au

Mechanical Energy Equation - I


2

p + u
+ gH
2

=0
s
2
p + u
+ gH = Cons tan t
2

2 + Au p + uA (gH ) = 0
s
s

I-Law of Thermodynamics
Definitions
Specific Flow Energy

e=h+u
Bernoullis Equation

+ gH

h - Specific enthalpy (J/kg)

Specific Energy
2
i = h p + u + gZ

Internal energy

I-Law - III

I-Law - II

qaxial
s
s

+
qaxial

E& CV

Work
q''axial

& e+
m

&e
m

q''surface
T
= k
qaxial
s

qsurface
= U (T T )

&e
m
s
s

e p

(Asi )

=
= As
t
t

Using Taylor series, we can write

& e)
(m
& inlet e inlet m
& exit e exit = m
& e m
&e+
m
s
s

& W
& +m
& inlet e inlet m
& exit e exit
E& CV = Q

k Thermal Conductivity (W/m-K)


U Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2-K)

& e)
(m
s
s

I-Law - V

I-Law - IV

Using mass conservation we can write

We can write
& = Psu + W s
W
w
CV

A)
& = q Ps + q A q A + (qaxial
Q
s
surface
axial
axial

A)
(qaxial
P s
= qsurface
s
s

Substitution of all the terms lead to

A)
(Ae) (Aue)
p
(qaxial
P w Pu

+
= A + qsurface
WCV
t
s
t
s
Conservative form

A)
e
e
p
(qaxial

+ Au = A + qP w Pu
WCV
t
s
t
s

Substituting the expression for e, we get


2
2
( h + u + gH )
(h + u + gH )
2
2
A
+ Au
=
t
s
A)
(qaxial
p
P w Pu

A + qsurace
WCV
t
s

I-Law - VI

Final Set of Equations

Subtracting both sides of mechanical energy


equation Eq. (6) from ILaw Eq. (9) , we
can write the thermal energy equation:

Mass Balance

&)
(A ) (m
+
=0
t
s

Momentum Balance

A)
(h )
(h )
p
p
(qaxial
P
A
+ Au
= uA + A + qsurface
W
t
s
s
t
s

Here we have assumed that shear work is


lost out to the surroundings. For insulated
systems this gets ploughed back and hence
we have to add w Pu on RHS. If there is
energy split, this has to be suitably handled

10

& ) 1 (Au 2 )
p 1 (m
P
H
=
+
+ w + g
s A t
A
s
A
s

Energy Balance

A)
(h )
(h )
p
p
(qaxial
P
+ Au
= uA + A + qsurface
W
t
s
s
t
s

Solution Strategy-I
independent

Illustrative Application

dependent

A, H, P, t , s , u, m
& , p, w , h, qsurface
, qaxial

Variables
Equations

Closing relations

= (p, h )

u, p, h

chosen as primary
dependent variables

(specified / u , properties)
qsurface
= qsurface
= negligible
qaxial

& = Au
m
w = w (, geometry, u , vis cos ity )

To illustrate the application let


us consider forced convection
loop

Primary Flow Rate

Cooler

For a given heater power,


assuming large secondary
flow in cooler, and a given
pump characteristics,
estimate, (a) steady mass flow
rate circulating, (b) fluid
temperature distribution

system is mathematically closed

Sec.
Flow

Heater

Pump

Application-I

Application-II
Momentum Balance

Mass Balance

Pressure term

&)
(A ) (m
+
=0
t
s

Transient term

Acceleration term

Friction term

Gravitation term

& ) 1 (Au 2 )
p 1 (m
P
H

=
+
+ w + g
s A t
s
s
A
A

Mass flow rate is constant


along the duct

11

We shall integrate term by term over the entire loop


Pressure term

For incompressible fluid, even under transient,


instantaneous mass flow rate does not vary along the
length.

p
ds = 0
s
loop

Transient term

Application-III
Acceleration
term

Application-IV

&2

m
2
A

1 (Au 2 )
ds
ds =

s
s
all links A
all links

1
1

A 2 A 2=0
all links
i +1
i
&2
P
u 2
4
4m
1 f i L i K i

ds
=
f
ds
=
+

w
loop A loop 2 d hyd
2 i =all links A i 2 d hyd i 4
=

&2
m

where, f = 16
Friction term

Re

&)
&
&
1 (m
dm
ds dm
L
ds =
=
Ai

A
t
dt
A
dt

all links
i
loop
loop

Re < 1189.4

Gravitation
term
For pump link

g s ds = g (H

loop

exit i

H inlet i ) = 0

all links

p pump = gH pump

Equating pressure term to sum of all the other terms, we get

&
dm
L i 4m& 2
1 f i L i K i gH
+
+

pump = 0

2
2

d
4
A
dt all links A i
i =all links
i hyd i

= 0.079(Re)0.25 Re > 1189.4

Application-V

Application-VI

&
The integrated momentum equation has only one unknown viz., m

Energy Balance

For a given initial condition, the solution can be marched in time.


Any standard procedure for solving ODE can be employed
For steady situations, the First term drops out and any standard
procedure for solving non-linear equations can be employed

A)
(h )
(h )
p
p
(qaxial
P
+ Au
= uA + A + qsurface
W + w Pu
t
s
s
t
s

For steady case


Resistance
curve

Pump
Curve

&
m

(h )
(h )
p
P W + w Pu
+ Au
= uA + qsurface
t
s
s
small
For non-pump links
Linear variation for constant
dT
heat flux case and exponential
&

mc p
= q surface P
for constant U and Tamb case.
ds
A