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fluid mechanics

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fluid mechanics

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Fluid Mechanics-I

The world is full of fluid

Kannan Iyer

Kiyer@me.iitb.ac.in

existence

No technology can survive without fluids

It is one of the most widely used subject in

Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

technology

Aerospace

Agriculture

- Aircrafts, Rockets

- Pumps, Irrigation networks

Chemical

Civil

Elect/CS

- Reactors, Distillation

- Dams, Rivers, Canals

- Packaging for cooling

Mechanical

Metallurgy

Pharmacy

Power

TURBULENT JET

Dam construction in

order to hold large

body of water

GEAR PUMP

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

PELTON TURBINE

What is a Fluid

Matter can be divided into Solid and Fluid

Solid

Fluid

Resists Deformation

Deforms Easily

(can resist shear)

(cannot resist shear)

Retains Shape

Fluids can be divided into Liquid and Gas

How to Study

Liquid

Gas

Retains volume

What is continuum?

molecules is difficult and impractical

discreteness

Average properties defined

Empirical closure defined

This course will emphasize this aspect

Validity of Continuum

Molecular mean free path small

It can be expressed in terms of Knudsen Number

Knudsen Number, Kn =

______________

System Length Scale

Refer

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/menfre.html#c1

Concept of a fluid particle

Kn 0.01

Consequences of Continuum

Analysis by Continuum

Can be very detailed

1. All parameters vary continuously

2. So Taylor series can be applied

u

2u

x 2

( x, y, z) x + 2 ( x, y, z)

+ ...

x

x

2

u ( x + x, y, z) = u ( x, y, z) +

uv ( x + x , y, z) = uv ( x , y, z ) +

uv

uv

x

( x , y, z)x +

( x , y, z)

+ ...

x

x 2

2

Lagrangian vs Eulerian

Lagrangian

This is control mass analysis

The equation are generated for the

fixed mass

When mass moves, then you move

with the mass

Results in Partial Differential Equation

Mostly needs computers except for simple cases

This becomes the basis for CFD

Can be overall

Details of flow distribution not important

Only system analysis is resorted to

Results in Algebraic equations

Systems of Dimensions

[M], [L], [t], and [T]

[F], [L], [t], and [T]

[F],[M], [L], [t], and [T]

Eulerian

This is control volume analysis

The equations are generated for the

volume

The volume may or may not move

We shall follow this approach

Systems of Units

MLtT

Preferred Systems of Units

SI (kg, m, s, K)

SI (kg, m, s, K)

FLtT

British Gravitational (lbf, ft, s, oR)

FMLtT

English Engineering (lbf, lbm, ft, s, oR)

Principle of Dimensional

Homogenity

All additive terms in a physical equation must

have same dimensions

channel flow

V (ft/s)=Average velocity, R=Hydraulic Radius (ft), S=slope

3

V(ft / s)

[R (ft )]2 3

= 1.49

2

equations that are not dimensionally consistent

2

V = 1.49 R

V 2

p+

+ gH = cons tan t

2

V = 1.49 R

Principle of Dimensional

Homogenity

say SI, the value of 1.49 would not be the same. If we

convert into SI, 1.49 (ft1/3/s) becomes 1.00(m1/3/s)

Certain propoerties like mass, temperature

have only magnitude and they are called

scalars

A tensor has magnitude

and two or more directions

associated with it

velocity, Force, etc., have directional effects.

Hence we need to specify magnitude and

direction. The parameter can be decomposed

into its components V = Vx i + Vy j + Vz k

Velocity

Velocity

is a vectorField

quantity-

called a velocity field

V=ui+vj+wk

where i, j and k are the unit vectors in x, y

and z directions.

Velocity Field - II

In stationary Eulerian context, Steady state

implies that local velocity does not change

with time or V (x,y,z)

Mathematically

V

=0

t

In general V (x,y,z,t)

Dimensionality of a problem

The number of dimensions required to

specify the variations of properties of a

system is the dimensionality

The dimensionality can be reduced by

intelligently choosing a coordinate system

Examples to be discussed

Path line is the path traced by a fluid

particle in a flow field

Streak line is the locus of all the particles

that have passed through a given point

Stream line is line whose tangent at a point

defines the velocity direction at that point

Time line is the locus of all points that

originated from a line

Examples to be discussed

Property Review

Density( ) =

dM

d d0

Velocity(V) =

Pressure(p) =

dS

dt dt 0

p

where, T (K), R = Ru/M

RT

R = cp - cv

Ru = 8314 J/k-mol-K (Universal Gas Constant)

Force

Area

cp

For ideal gas =

p

where, T (K), R = Ru/M

RT

Concept of Distortion - I

cv

= 1.67

= 1.4

than two atoms

Concept of Distortion - II

Fluid Distortion

t1

Tan =

moved, the top layer

moves with plate and

the time line looks

like what has been

shown

to

Strain Rate

t2

FLUID

t2 > t1 > to

a

b

a = U t

=

& =

U t

b

Lt

t 0

& =

Newtonian Fluid

or

du

dy

U du

=

b

dy

Non-Newtonian Fluids

shear stress and strain rate

&

du

dy

Non-Newtonian Fluids

Special fluids (e.g., most biological fluids,

toothpaste, some paints, etc.)

Non-linear fluids

Dynamic Viscosity

SI Unit

: Pa-s or N-s/m2

Behavior of Fluids

temperature for liquids

This is because force of

cohesion decreases

Viscosity increases with

temperature for gases

This is because force of

molecular kinetic energy

increases

Kinematic Viscosity

Kinematic viscosity = =

Surface Tension -I

arises due to

Free surface

SI Unit

: m2/s

CGS Unit :

cm2/s

C

(called Stoke) = 0.0001

m2/s

between molecules of a liquid

between two unlike molecules

Liquid

A

2 R = p R2

p = pi pe =

2

R

pi > pe

R 2 hg = 2R cos

h=

Contact Angle

Gives indication of

Wettability (ability to

stick to surfaces)

Fully-wetting

=0

Absolutely Non- = 180

wetting

2 cos

gR

Error Analysis

F = ma

F = F(m, a )

2

2

F

F

F =

m + a

a

m

1/ 2

Hydrostatics

Study of Fluids at rest

Nature of Forces

Body Force

Dams

Moving with no relative motion

Gravity force

Centrifugal Force

Inertial Force

Rotating cylinders

Electromagnetic force

Nature of Forces

Surface Force

Pascals Law - I

The pressure at a point in a shear stress free

fluid is independent

of direction

z

ps x s

Pressure Force

Viscous Force

py x z

y

pz x y

x y z

g

2

Pascals Law - II

Vertical Force Balance

x y z

2

gz

As s cos = y, p z = p s +

2

Horizontal Force Balance

p z x y = ps x s cos + g

p y x z = p s x s sin

p

p + z + HoT x y

z

x y zg z

p x z

As s sin = z, p y = p s

When we shrink the element to a point, z tends to zero,

Hence pz = py = ps

p

p + y + HoT x z

y

z

y

p y z

x

x

p x y

p + x + HoT y z

Z-direction Force Balance

Similar Force Balance in x and y directions would yield

p x y p + z + HoT z 2+ x y x y zg = 0

z

+ g + HoT(z + ) xy z = 0

dividing the LHS by the volume

p

+ g = 0

z

Some Observations

1. The weight acts downwards, whereas positive z is

upwards, so we can write g = -gz

2. The final equations were force per unit volume = 0

3. In general, we can write the three equations as

p

+ g x = 0

x

p

p

=0

= 0 and

y

x

p

+ g y = 0

y

p

+ g z = 0

z

We shall generalize in the next slide after making some

observations

r

p + g = 0

p

r

g

volume of fluid in the positive direction (in terms of

the components)

Is the net body force per unit volume of fluid in the

positive direction

equation as

r

p + g = 0

If gravity was the only body force involved, then we

had concluded that there will be pressure variation

only in vertical direction

Manometry

1. In a constant density fluid, pressure at a given

elevation from datum is same

2. This is exploited in measurement of pressure

using manometers

r

p + g = 0

p z

z

g

p

+ (g) = 0

z

p

or

prerf zref

pref

If is constant

then

dp = gdz

zref

increase in elevation

= g

p atm = p vap + h

1. Standard sea level = 760

mm of Hg

2. This is about 10 m of

water column

Toricilli Barometer

U-Tube Manometer

U-Tube Manometer

p 3 = p ref + 2 h 2

p 2 = p3

p A = p 2 1h1

Pref = 0

p A = p ref + 2 h 2 1h1

negligible for large bore

tube ie., diameters

greater than 30 mm

p A + 1h 1 2 h 2 3 h 3 = p B

Pressure Gauges

p A + 1 h 1 2 l 2 sin 3 h 3 = p B

Magnification is

1

sin

Inclination up to 10o Ok

miniscis error becomes

large

You may learn about them in Instrumentation

course

Hydraulic press

Gases are compressible and hence density is

not constant

p2

dp

=

dz

z2

z2

z1

z1

dp = g dz =

p1

RT g dz

z2

ln

F2 = (A2/A1)F1

If T = cons tan t = T0

ln

p2

g dz

=

p1

R z1 T

In general T = T (z)

Isothermal condition

g (z 2 z1 )

p2

= exp

p1

R To

p2

g (z 2 z1 )

=

p1

R To

Linear Temperature Variation

T = 150 C (288.15 K)

ln

= 1.225 kg/m3

= 12.014 N/m3

Airplanes

In Troposphere T

varies Linearly

T = To m z

= 0.0065 K / m

p2

g z 2 dz

=

p1

R z1 T

ln

ln

p2

g z2

dz

=

p1

R z1 To m z

p2

g 1 (T m z 2 )

= ln o

p1

R m (To m z1 )

g

T m z2

p

ln 2 = ln o

p1

To m z1

mR

T m z2

p2

= o

p1

To m z1

mR

important for the design of storage tanks,

pools, dams, ships and other hydraulic

structures

For fluids at rest

The force must be perpendicular to the surface

since there are no shearing stresses present.

The pressure will vary linearly with depth if the

fluid is incompressible.

FR = hA

Free Surface

O - origin

A

yC

yR

dF

FR

FR = p dA = (p o + h ) dA = p o A + y sin dA

hc h

= p o A + sin y dA = p o A + sin y c A

A

1

y dA y-coordinate of centroid

AA

Note

yc =

As

h c = y c sin

FR = p o A + A h c

dA

xR

Centroid, c

Location of resultant force

(center of pressure, CP)

xC

Since atmospheric pressure

would cancel it is not being

carried around

Note that there will also be a force poA that will act in the

opposite direction of FR from the other side of the plate.

Hence in the net force, atmospheric pressure will cancel

yR = yc +

FR y R = y dF = y [ h dA ]=

A

y [ y sin dA ]

= sin y dA = sin I xx

= sin I xx c + Ayc

sin I xx c

FR

xR = xc +

sin I xy c

FR

is always below it

Summary

MAGNITUDE OF THE RESULTANT FORCE

FR = A h c

LOCATION OF THE RESULTANT FORCE

yR = yc +

The values of second

moment of area for

some shapes. The

nomenclature is a bit

different but easy to

grasp

xR = xc +

sin I xx c

FR

sin I xy c

FR

Buoyancy Force

FH = F2

FV = F1 + W

floating so that it is only partially submerged, the

resultant upward force acting on the body due to

pressure on the surfaces is called buoyancy force

The line of action of the buoyant force passes through

the centroid of the displaced volume. The centroid is

called the Center of buoyancy

Buoyancy force on the body = Weight of the fluid

displaced by the body

Buoyancy Force - II

General interpretation

A simple case

FB = (P2 P1 )(l b )

p2

p1

z1

z2

z2

But P2 P1 = dp = dz

P1

z1

FB = (l b ) dz = (l b ) dz

z

z

1

2

z2

z1

P2

g dm fluid = m fluid g

domain

The vertical force on the top surface ABC will be

equal to the weight of the liquid above it

Similarly, the vertical force on the

bottom surface ADC will be equal to

the weight of the liquid above it

Thus the net vertical force on the

lump will be equal to the weight of

liquid lump

If a body replaces the lump, the force

field will not change

Buoyancy Force - IV

Archimedes Principle holds good

for bodies of any general shape

for both gases and liquids

does not require density to be constant

Liquid (f)

Principle of Hydrometer

Hydrometer is used to

find the specific gravity

of liquids

W = water g Vs

W = SG water g ( Vs m A h )

SG =

Vs

( Vs m A h )

A

Ah

1 m

Vs

Ah

Vs

Stem can be

calibrated to read SG

A

Original

level

Vs

Water (water)

Vs

Other liquid

Buoyancy

centre of Buoyancy shifts when the object is tilted

object is stable

Tall slender bodies are generally unstable

body motion

Even though a fluid may be in motion, if it moves as a

rigid body there will be no shearing stresses present

An acceleration of a particle sets up an inertial force in

the direction opposite to the acceleration (called

d'Alemberts force

The general governing equation for fluid in a

gravitational and accelerational field can be stated as

r r

r r

p + (g a) = 0 or p = (g a)

p

= (g x a x )

x

rectilinear uniform acceleration-I

z

z

ay

g

p

= 0,

x

y

x

ax = az = gx = gy = 0, ay = a, gz = -g

p

= a

y

p

= g

z

p

= (g z a z )

z

rectilinear uniform acceleration-I

The equation for a constant pressure line shall be

y

x

p

= (g y a y )

y

p

= a p = ay + f (z) + c

y

p

= g p = gz + f ( y) + c p = (gz + ay) + c

similarly

z

p = (gz + ay) + c = C

(gz + ay) = C

z = C

a

y

g

Choosing the origin such that the free surface left hand

side is the origin, then C = 0 for the free surface

Therefore, the equation of the free surface is

z=

a

y

g

of free surface is unaffected

In cylindrical coordinates the governing equation can be

stated as follows

p

= (g r a r )

r

1 p

= (g a )

r

p

= (g z a z )

z

p

= 2 r

r

p

= 2 r

r

similarly

1 p

=0

r

p=

p

= g

z

p is only a function of r

and z

2 r 2

+ f (z) + c

2

2

p

= g p = gz + f (r ) + c p = (gz + r ) + c

z

2

p = (gz

a = az = gr = g = 0,

ar = -2r, gz = -g

r 2

r 2

r 2

) + c = C (gz

) = C z = C+

2

2g

2

Choosing the origin such that the free surface centre is

the origin, then C = 0 (z=0, r=0)

z=

r 2

2g

Volumes-I

Governing Equations in mechanics, thermodynamics, etc.,

are derived for constant mass systems

In fluid mechanics, often, the interest is not of the moving

fluid but its action on the structures through which it

passes

Pressure drop in a pipe

Volumes-II

There is a need to convert the laws for a fixed mass to

laws for a fixed or moving (having relative velocity with

the fluid) volume.

This is accomplished by the Reynolds transport theorem

Before we derive it let us have a quick look at laws for the

fixed mass

Temperature of fuel elements in a reactor

Fixed Mass-I

Fixed Mass-II

Conservation of Angular Momentum

Conservation of Mass

dM sys

= 0;

dt

where M sys =

dm =

d

sys

M sys

dt

dt

= T;

= F;

where Psys =

Vdm =

Vd

e dm =

M sys

V2

+ gz

2

kinetic

Shaft

Torque

Fixed Mass-IV

e d

sys

components

Internal

Due to body

forces

where E sys =

e=u+

r g dm + Texternal

Due to

surface forces

sys

= Q W;

r Vd

sys

M sys

Fixed Mass-III

dt

r Vdm =

M sys

T = r Fs +

M sys

dE sys

where H sys =

dPsys

dH sys

potential

dSsys

dt

Q

+ Sp

T

where Ssys =

s dm =

N sys =

dm =

M sys

d

sys

s d

sys

M sys

Conservation

Mass

M 1

Lin. Mom

P V

Ang. Mom

I-law-Thermo

E e

II-law-Thermo

S s

r V

Control Mass system to Control Volume System .

and control volume coincide

has moved partially out

laws

M sys ( t ) = M CV ( t )

apply them

dt

M CV

m in + m out

t

d + V.dA + V.dA

t CV

CSin

CSout

dM sys

dt

in

mout

M sys ( t + t ) = M CV ( t + t ) m in + m out

dM sys

M ( t + t ) M CV ( t ) m in + m out

M CV ( t + t ) m in + m out M CV ( t )

= CV

t

t

t 0

min

M sys ( t + t ) M sys ( t )

t

=

t 0

M CV ( t + t ) m in + m out M CV ( t )

t

t 0

dM sys

t 0

dt

d + V.dA

t CV

CS

Conservation of Mass

dM sys

A

V

d + V.dA

t CV

CS

dt

d = V.dA = 0

t CV

CS

Rate of increase of mass

in control volume

Application-I

Seawater flows steadily through a simple conical-shaped nozzle at

the end of a fire hose as illustrated in Fig. If the nozzle exit velocity

must be at least 20 m/s. determine the minimum pumping capacity

required in m3/s.

d + V.dA = 0

t CV

CS

=0

through control surface

Application-II

dV + V.dA = 0

t cv

cs

V.dA = m 2 m1 = 0

cs

If Density is constant Q1 - Q2 = 0

Or, Q1 = Q2 = Q = V2A2

Q = 20

40 10 3

4

= 0.0251 m 3 / s

Application-III

Application-IV

Moist air (a mixture of dry air and water vapor) enters a dehumidifier at the

rate of 324 kg/hr. Liquid water drains out of the dehumidifier at a rate of 7.3

kg/hr Determine the mass flow rate of the dry air and the water vapor leaving

the dehumidifier. A simplified sketch of the process is provided in Fig.

dV + V.dA = 0

t cv

cs

Zero flow is

steady

m3 = ?

m 1 = 324 kg / hr

V.dA = m1 + m 2 + m 3 = 0

cs

m1 m 2 m 3 + m 4 m 5 = 0

m 4 = m5

m 3 = 7.3 kg / hr

Conservation of Momentum

Newtons Second Law

Generalization

dN sys

dt

d + V.dA

t CV

CS

property in control volume

dPsys

dt

through control surface

Conservation

Mass

M 1

Lin. Mom

P V

Ang. Mom

I-law-Thermo

E e

II-law-Thermo

S s

= F;

of momentum

V d + V V.dA = F

t CV

CS

r V

Application-V

FA

required to hold in place a conical

nozzle attached to the end of a

laboratory sink faucet shown in Fig.

when the water flowrate is 0.6 liters.

The nozzle mass is 0.1 kg. The nozzle

inlet and exit diameters are 16 mm

and 5 mm, respectively.

The nozzle axis is vertical and the

axial distance between sections (1)

and (2) is 30 mm. The pressure at

section (1) is 464 kPa.

between the faucet and nozzle threads. To evaluate

this force, control volume selected includes the

nozzle and the water contained in the nozzle

Wn

p1A1

w1

Application-VI

FA anchoring force that holds the

nozzle in place

Wn weight of the nozzle

Ww weight of the water in the nozzle

P1 gage pressure at section (1)

A1 cross section area at section (1)

P2 gage pressure at section (2)

A2 cross section area at section (2)

Ww

volume entrance (assumed uniform)

w2 z direction velocity at the control

volume exit (assumed uniform)

p2A2

w2

pressure cancels out in every

direction and is not shown

Application-VII

Application-VIII

V d + V V.dA = F

t CV

CS

V V.dA = ( w 1 )(m1 ) + ( w 2 )m 2

Zero flow is

steady

CS

F = FS + FB = FA p1A1 + p 2 A 2 Wn Ww

m1w 1 m 2 w 2 = FA p1A1 + p 2 A 2 Wn Ww

Conservation of mass

0

4

4

2

2

A 2 = (D 2 ) = (5 10 3 ) = 1.964 10 5 m 2

4

4

dV + V.dA = 0

t cv

cs

m1 m 2 = 0 or m1 = m 2 = m

Application-IX

h 2

Ww = Vw g =

D1 + D 22 + D1 D 2 g

12

W1 =

Q

0.6 10 3

=

= 2.98 m / s

A1 2.011 10 4

W2 =

Q

0.6 10 3

=

= 30.6 m / s

A 2 1.964 10 5

(with constant velocity)

(0.03)

(0.016)2 + (0.004)2 + (0.016)(0.004) 9.81 = 0.0278 N

Ww = 1000

12

Atmospheric pressure

dN sys

dt

p2 = 0

FA = m (w 1 w 2 ) + p1A1 p 2 A 2 + Wn + Ww

A1 =

d + Vrel .dA = 0

t CV

CS

Mass Balance

d + Vrel .dA

t CV

CS

Momentum Balance

FA = 77.75 N

Application-X

An airplane moves forward at a speed of 971 kmph as shown in Fig. The

frontal intake area of the jet engine is 0.8m2 and the entering air density

is 0.736 kg/m3. A stationary observer determines that relative to the

earth, the jet engine exhaust gases move away from the engine with a

speed of 1050 kmph. The engine exhaust area is 0.558 m2 and the

exhaust gas density is 0.515kg/m3. Estimate the mass flow rate of fuel

into the engine.

t CV

CS

Application-XI

d + Vrel .dA = 0

t CV

CS

0

control Volume

CS

m fuel in = 2 A 2 W2 1A1W1

= 2.5278 kg / s

water having a nozzle exit velocity of V1 is turned 45o by the vane as

indicated in Fig. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force,

F, exerted by the stream of water on the vane surface. The speed of

the water jet leaving the nozzle is 33 m/s, and the vane is moving to

the right with a constant speed of 6 m/s.

x-direction

cs

z-direction

Application-XII

A1 = 5.6 10-4 m2

CS

t CV

CS

0

Rz

Conservation of mass;

Water flow is frictionless and that the change in water elevation

across the vane is negligible. Therefore, Vrel is constant

0.3 m

Rx

volume Vrel-1 = V1 Vo = 33- 6 = 27 m/s = Vrel-2

dH sys

R x = 119.6 N

dt

T = r Fs +

1.65

Due to

surface forces

= 67.6

Due to body

forces

Shaft

Torque

R

290.3

= Tan 1 z = Tan 1

= 2.43

Rx

119.6

r g dm + Texternal

M sys

R z = 290.3 N

R=

r V d + r V V.dA = T

t CV

CS

= T;

(15.12)(+ 27 Cos45) = R z

m rel 1 = m rel 2 = m

control volume needs many more terms that are beyond

the scope of this first course

Application-I

Application-II

y

control volume using

Neglect

tip length

d + Vrel .dA = 0

t CV

CS

CS

Given: Geometry, flow rate

through sprinkler, rotational

speed and pressure at inlet

Q water in

moving CV

= Q water out

moving CV

each nozzle, frictional torque

Application-III

Application-IV

Note that at inlet, the volume flow rate for moving control volume

is same as that for fixed control volume, which is known

Q water in

Vrel =

moving CV

= Q water out

moving CV

= Q water in

T = r Fs +

stationary CV

r g dm + Texternal

M sys

Q

2A jet

r Fs = 0

momentum equation

1.

2.

r g dm = 0

r V d + r V V.dA = T

t CV

CS

M sys

T = Texternal = Tfriction = Tk

Note that we refer to fixed CV

Application-V

Computation of transient term

r V d

t CV

Application-VI

r V = ( Vrel r sin cos + r sin ) k +

(Vrel r sin cos r 2 sin 2 )( k ) = r 2k

2

CV

R 3

A k

3

Conservation of Momentum in

Accelerating Frame-I

dPsys

dt

= F;

(non-accelerating)

accelerating frame analysis

For simplicity only rectilinear accelerating frames

would be considered

R

V

Re l

i

r = ( R cos i + R sin j )

R A

r V d =

k =0

t CV

t

3

3

CS

r = ( r cos i + r sin j)

r V d = r 2Adr k =

r V V.dA

r V = R cos i ((Vrel R ) cos ) j + R sin j (Vrel R ) sin i

= ( Vrel R )Rk

V.dA = Q

A

Even if friction is 0,

maximum = Vrel/R

T = (Vrel R )R kQ

Conservation of Momentum in

Accelerating Frame-II

In the discussion XYZ frame is inertial frame and

PQR would be non inertial

Conservation

of momentum

=

+

dt

dt

dt

d VXYZ d

sys

dt

d ( VPQR + VRe l )d

= FXYZ =

sys

dt

d VRe l d

d VPQR d

FXYZ = FPQR =

sys

dt

sys

dt

Conservation of Momentum in

Accelerating Frame-III

d VRe l d

FPQR

sys

dt

d VPQR d

=

sys

dt

d VPQR d

FPQR

FPQR

a Re ld =

sys

a Re ld =

sys

sys

dt

t CV

CS

Application

Given

Initial Mass = 400 kg

Fuel consumption rate = 5 kg/s

Exhaust Velocity = 3500 m/s

Find

Initial acceleration

Ve

resistance neglected

0

-400 X 9.81

400 X ay

FS PQR + FB PQR a Re ld =

sys

-3500 X 5

t CV

CS

Differential Analysis

where a detailed knowledge of the fluid properties

(pressure, velocity, etc.) within the control volume are

not required

It cannot provide answers when variation of

properties in the fluid domain is desired

equipment

so that we get differential equations

is treated as black box. Only

forces on the contol volume

are solved for

Conservation of Mass-I

information is obtained for

every point in the interior,

given boundary conditions

out side

Conservation of Mass-II

conservation was written as

(w )

w +

z xy

z

r r

dV + V.dA = 0

t cv

cs

u y z

of size x , y, z

v

v +

y x z

y

(xyz )

dV

t

t cv

v x z

z

y

Conservation of Mass-III

r r

V.dA = uyz + ( vxy) + ( wxz) +

(u )

(v )

uy z +

xy z + v x z +

xy z +

x

y

(w )

w x y +

x y z

z

r r

dV + V.dA = 0

t cv

cs

(u ) (v ) (w )

xyz = 0

xyz +

+

+

t

y

z

x

(u ) (v ) (w )

+

+

+

=0

t

x

y

z

CS

w xy

x y z

u +

x

Conservation of Mass-IV

(u ) (v ) (w )

+

+

+

= 0 Can be written in vectorial form as

t

x

y

z

+ . V = 0

t

( )

r

.V = 0

unsteady fields

r

. V = 0

( )

Vector operation

r r r

= ex

+ ey

+ ez

z

x

y

Translation

r r

r

r

V = ex u + e y v + ez w

have the same velocity then

the element will simply

TRANSLATE from one

position to another.

velocity gradients.

r u v w

.V =

+ +

x y z

In Cylindrical coordinate system

r

r

r

r

V = Vr e r + V e + Vz e z

r r 1 r

= er + e

+ ez

r

z

r

r 1 (rVr ) 1 V Vz

.V =

+

+

r r

r

z

Linear Deformation

Linear Deformation for 3-D

Consider 1-D

For 3-D

u v w

+ +

x y z

volumetric strain rate should be zero

u v w

+ +

=0

x y z

The left edge moves less and the right

moves more

u

Stretching = x t

x

Strain rate =

u

x

Angular Deformation

Angular velocity of OA

oA =

Lim

t 0 t

(v x ) x t = v t

Tan =

positions OA and OB

oA =

v

t v

x

=x

t

Lim

t 0

- counterclockwise

- positive

oB =

average of the angular velocities oA and oB of the two

mutually perpendicular lines OA and OB.

Lim

t 0 t

oB

u t

y u

=

= Lim

t

y

t 0

1 v u

Note the negative sign

2 x y

Similarly rotation around x and y axis may be written as

z =

u y t

y

u

Tan =

=

t

y

y

x =

- clockwise

- negative

y =

1u w

2 z

x

r

r

r

= x i + y j + z k

Fluid acceleration-I

1w v

2 y

z

1

1

curl V = V

2

2

twice the angular velocity vector

Flow is irrotational when V = 0

Fluid element will rotate about the z

axis as an undeformed block when

oA= oB or when u = v

y

r

r dV

a=

dt

r

Applying chain rule as V( x, y, z, t ) we can write

r

r

r

r

r V

V

V

V

dV =

dt +

dx +

dy +

dz

t

x

y

z

r

r

r

r

r

dV V V dx V dy V dz

=

+

+

+

dt

t x dt y dt z dt

dx

dy

dz

By definition

= u,

= v, and

=w

dt

dt

dt

Fluid acceleration-II

r

r

r

r

r

dV V V

V

V

=

+

u+

v+

w

dt

t x

y

z

r

r

r

r

r

dV V

V

V

V

or

=

+u

+v

+w

dt

t

x

y

z

Fluid acceleration-III

by virtue of motions in x, y and z directions

velocity field in a converging conical section

1

& in = m

& out 1A1V1 = 2 A 2 V2

m

As 1 = 2 A1V1 = A 2 V2

x from inlet, we can state that

A V Velocity increases

V(x ) = 1 1

A1V1 = A ( x )V ( x )

A ( x ) as area decreases

fluid accelerates as it changes its position

Fluid acceleration-IV

Fluid acceleration-IV

will be shown shortly.

r r r

= ex

+ ey

+ ez

x

y

z

dX X

X

X

X

=

+u

+v

+w

dt

t

x

y

z

or

Velocity is given by

Hence

r r

r

r

V = ex u + ey v + ez w

d( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

=

+u

+v

+w

dt

t

x

y

z

when we follow the material and material derivative

operator is denoted by

V. = u

+v u

y z

x

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( ) r

+u

+v

+w

=

+ V.( )

t

x

y

z

t

D( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

=

+u

+v

+w

Dt

t

x

y

z

or

Conservation of Momentum-I

operator

(uw )

uw +

z xy

z

uu y z

z

r r

t cv

cs

uv x z

z

y

x

uw xy

Conservation of Momentum-III

r r

uV.dA = uuyz + ( uvxy) + ( uwxz) +

(uu )

(uv )

xy z + v x z +

xy z +

x

y

(uw )

uw x y +

x y z

z

(uu ) (uv) (uw )

xyz

=

+

+

y

z

x

uuy z +

xyz

=

+

+

+

x

y

z

t

()

(u )

(u )

(v )

(u )

+u

+u

+ u

+u

+

t

t

x

x

y

=

(w )

(u )

(u )

v y + u z + w z

xyz

r r

u dV + uV.dA

t cv

cs

uv

uv +

y x z

y

(uxyz)

u dV

t cv

t

CS

( )

Conservation of Momentum-II

volume as

r r r

r

r

V dV + VV.dA = F

t cv

cs

D( ) ( ) r

=

+ V. ( )

Dt

t

uu

x y z

uu +

x

Conservation of Momentum-IV

(u )

(u )

(u )

(u )

+ u

+ v

+ w

+

t

x

y

z

=

(u )

(v )

(w )

( )

u t + u x + u y + u z

xyz

(u )

(u )

(u )

(u )

xyz

=

+ u

+ v

+ w

x

y

z

t

(u )

(u )

(u )

(u )

xyz

=

+u

+v

+w

x

y

z

t

r r

(u ) r

+ V. ( u ) xyz

u dV + uV.dA =

t

t cv

cs

( )

Conservation of Momentum-V

Similar exercise in y and z directions will give

r r

(v ) r

v dV + vV.dA =

+ V. ( v) xyz

t cv

cs

t

( )

r r

(w ) r

w dV + wV.dA = t + V. (w ) xyz

t cv

cs

( )

Forces-I

reduced to zero

zz

zy

yz

zx

yy

In general

y yx

r

r r r

r

r

V

r

V

d

V

V

V

.

d

A

t + V. ( V) xyz

t cv

cs

( ) ( )

x

x

Forces-II

Forces-III

zx + zx z x y

z

yx + yx y x z

y

yx x z

xx y z

zx x y

xx + xx x y z

x

Conservation of Momentum-VI

r r

t cv

cs

(u ) r

( xx ) ( yx ) ( zx )

+ V. (u ) xyz = g x +

xyz

+

+

x

y

z

( )

(u ) r

( xx ) ( yx ) ( zx )

+

+

+ V. ( u ) = g x +

x

y

z

t

( xy ) ( yy ) ( zy )

(v ) r

+ V. ( v) = g y +

+

+

x

y

z

( )

( )

(w ) r

( xz ) ( yz ) ( zz )

+ V. ( w ) = g z +

+

+

x

y

z

t

( )

( yx )

( xx )

xx yz +

xy z + yx x z +

yx z +

x

y

( zx )

zx x y +

zx y

z

( xx ) ( yx ) ( zx )

xyz

=

+

+

y

z

x

x

x

FBx = g x xyz

Constitutive Equations-I

Till now we have derived two equations

The mass balance equation is a scalar equation

It is also called Continuity Equation

(u ) (v ) (w )

+

+

+

=0

t

x

y

z

u, v, w and are dependent variables and unknown

In incompressible flow density is known and

specified

Thus mass balance has 3/4 unknowns

Constitutive Equations-II

Constitutive Equations-III

equation and it represents 3 equations

(u )

+

t

(v )

+

t

(V. ) (u )

r

( xx )

= g x +

+

x

( xy )

= g y +

+

x

V. ( v)

(w ) r

( xz )

+ V. ( w ) = g z +

+

x

( )

( )

( yx )

be generated so that number of equations balance

the number of unknowns

(zx )

z

( yy ) ( zy )

+

y

z

( yz ) ( zz )

+

y

z

y

The equations for closure includes expressions for

stresses. These are empirical models

We shall accept them and proceed. These will be

derived in the next level course.

stresses.

Stress-Strain relations

r

u 2

.V

x 3

r

v 2

yy = p + 2

.V

y 3

r

w 2

zz = p + 2

.V

z

3

xx = p + 2

Navier-Stokes Equations-I

Substitution of stresses in the momentum balance

equation gives the following

( )

( )

Normal stresses

( )

u v

xy = yx = +

y x

v w

yz = zy = +

z y

w u

zx = xz =

+

x z

r u v

Du

p u 2

u w

=

+

2

.V +

+ g x

+ +

+

Dt

x x x 3

y y x z z x

( )

yx

xx

u u u

p

u v w

+ 2 + 2 + 2 +

+

+

x

y

z x x y z

x

2

Shear stresses

of pressure and velocities

zx

r

2

.V + g x

3

( )

2u 2 u 2 u

Du

p

r

=

+ 2 + 2 + 2 +

.V + g x

Dt

x

y

z x 3

( )

Navier-Stokes Equations-II

Navier-Stokes Equations-III

r

.V = 0

The resulting equations are called Navier-Stokes Eqs.

2v 2v 2v

Dv

p

r

=

+ 2 + 2 + 2 +

.V + g y

Dt

y

y 3

( )

2w 2w 2w

Dw

p

r

=

+ 2 +

+

+

.V + g z

2

2

Dt

z

z 3

( )

written as

r

r

r

r

DV

= P + 2 V + .V + g

Dt

3

The only assumption is the equation for stresses,

which is the generalized law for Newtonian Fluids

( )

2u 2u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

+ u

+ v + w =

+ 2 + 2 + 2 + g x

x

y

z

x

2v 2v 2v

v

v

v

v

p

+ u

+ v + w =

+ 2 + 2 + 2 + g y

x

y

z

y

y

z

t

x

2w 2w 2w

w

w

w

w

p

=

+u

+v

+w

+ 2 +

+

+ g z

z

y 2

z 2

In Vector form we

can write as

r

r

r

r

V

r

+ ( V. )V = p + 2 V + g

Flow of a film of water on an inclined plane

No variations assumed perpendicular to paper (2-D)

Continuity Eq.

u v

+

=0

x y

gc

o s

Flow incompressible

x

gs

Therefore, v = 0 everywhere.

solution for velocity distribution

1.

2.

Assumption-1

Application-III

gs

in

2v 2v

v

v

v

p

+ u

+ v =

+ 2 + 2 + g y

x

y

y

y

t

x

p

p

=

gy

cos

+ C( x )

or

0 =

+ ( g cos )

y

the film everywhere

3. Flow Steady

Y-momentum Eq.

in

gc

o s

Application-II

Application-I

p = g ( h y) cos

C(x ) = gh cos

p

=0

x

Navier-Stokes Equations-IV

For incompressible liquids in cylindrical coordinates

X-momentum Eq.

2 u 2u

u

u

u

p

+ u

+ v =

+ 2 + 2 + g x

x

y

x

y

t

x

d 2 u gSin

d 2u

=

+ gSin

2

dy 2

dy

gSin y 2

u=

+ c1y + c 2

r-component

0=

Continuity

r 1 (rVr ) 1 V Vz

.V =

+

+

=0

r r

r

z

Note u = u(y)

du

= 0 at y = h (free shear boundary Condition)

dy

gSin

y2

hy

u=

2

Navier-Stokes Equations-V

-component

V V V Vr V

V

V

+ Vr +

+

+ Vz =

r

r

r

z

t

1 (rV ) 1 2 V 2 V 2 V

1 p

g

+

+

+

+ 2

2

z 2 r 2

r

r r r r

z-component

V V Vz

V

V

z + Vr z +

+ Vz z =

r

r

z

t

1 rVz 1 2 Vz 2 Vz

p

g z +

+

+ 2

2

z

z 2

r r r r

2

V

V V Vr V

V

r + Vr r +

+ Vz r =

r

r

r

z

t

1 (rVr ) 1 2 Vr 2 Vr 2 V

p

g r +

+

+ 2

2

r

z 2 r 2

r r r r

Euler Equations

If viscosity can be neglected, or for inviscid flows, the

viscous term drops out of momentum equations and

the resulting equations are called Euler Equations

u

u

u

u

p

+ u

+ v + w =

+ g x

x

y

z

x

t

v

v

v

v

p

+ u

+ v + w =

+ g y

x

y

z

y

t

w

w

w

w

p

=

+u

+v

+w

+ g z

x

y

z

z

t

r

r

r

r

DV

= P + 2 V + .V + g

Dt

3

( )

Note that

incompressible

assumption is

not invoked.

Hence valid for

compressible

flows

to define a function called Stream Function

It is defined in such a way that the Continuity

Equation is automatically satisfied

We had seen that the equation of a stream line could

be obtained by solving for

dy v

= ,

dx u

= u,

=v

y

x

udy vdx = 0

dy

dx = 0 d = 0

y

x

u v

, +

= 0

+

=

x y x y

y x

Continuity

automatically

satisfied

between the two stream lines represents the flow per

unit width perpendicular to the this slide

= 2

length perpendicular to slide

= 1

y

r r

dy dx

dQ = (V.n )dA = ( u i + v j). i

ds

ds

r r

dy dx

= (V.n )dA = (u i + v j). i

ds

ds

j ds(1)

dA = ds(1)

ds

= d

xV = 0

r

n

In 2-d flow

dx

dy dx

dy

= u

v ds =

ds

ds

ds

y ds x ds

r

V

+ d

j ds

flow

xV =

v u

=0

x y x x y y

2 = 0

Hence proved

parallel discs through a porous surface at a velocity Vo

Find:

enclosing the gap that Vr = Vor/(2h)

(b) Find an expression for Vz

(c) Find the acceleration of fluid particle in gap

Assumptions

Flow is axi-symmetric and steady

r r

dV + V.dA = 0

t cv

cs

Flow in = Flow out

0

Control

Volume

Continuity Equation

1 (rVr ) 1 V Vz

+

+

=0

r r

r

z

0

V

1 ( rVr )

1 r 2 V0

1 rV

V

= 0= 0

z =

=

z

r r

r r 2h

r h

h

Vz

V

Vz

= 0 Vz = 0 + f ( r )

z

h

h

r 2 V0 = 2rhVr

Vz = V0

Vr

V V Vr

V

+ Vr r +

+ Vz r

t

r

r

z

0

0

0

2

V r V V r

a r = 0 0 = 0

2

h

2

h

2

h

ar =

az =

p

= g s

us choose r direction aligned with stream line at a local

point

stream line

V

p Subscript r changed to s to

Vs s = g s

s

s indicate stream direction

z

r

in

s

s

g

g g co

Bernoullis Equation-III

The conditions that have been used in deriving

Bernoullis Equation are:

1. Steady flow

Vs

s 2

Bernoullis Equation-I

Steady

Bernoullis Equation-II

Vs

s 2

V0 z

h

2

V

V V Vr V

V

p

r + Vr r +

+ Vz r = g r

r

r

z

r

Vz

V V Vz

V

+ Vr z +

+ Vz z

t

r

r

z

0

0

0

2

z V V z

a z = V0 1 0 = 0 1

h h h h

Vz ( z = h ) = 0 0 = V0 + f (r ) f ( r ) = V0

Boundary condition

V0

rV

0 = Vr

2h

p

Vs

H p

= g sin

or

2 = g s s

H

2

V

= sin

Note

p + s + gH = 0

s

s

2

3. Density is constant

4. Valid along a stream line

p+

V 2

+ gH = cons tan t

2

Bernoullis Equation

Pressure-I

Pressure-II

without changing its state

Stagnation Pressure: It is the hypothetical pressure that will

be measured, if the fluid is brought to rest in a frictionless

manner at the same elevation

obtained by Bernoullis equation

0

2

2

V1

V2

p1 +

+ gH1 = p 2 +

+ gH 2

2

2

H1 = H2

2

p stagnation = p static +

The term

V

2

V 2

is called dynamic pressure

2

Pitot Tube

stagnation pressures can be measured.

For liquids

V2

h=

2g

For gases

P3 = P1 +

This can be done by using Pitot-static tube

P4 = P1

1

V 2

2

To Find: The velocity at center

360 cm

5 cm ID

Air Flow

2

Hg

h = 30 mm

60 cm

Hg

(=13600 kg/m3)

h = 15 cm

discharge rate from pipe

D

Dimensional Analysis-I

Horizontal Elbow

p= ?

d

to roll on so that applications can move forward

However, the costs of these complex systems can be very high and

so costly mistakes have to be avoided

(small scale system) is resorted to

We shall see a highly simplified picture to get a feel for the subject

patm

Given: D, V, d, patm,

To find: p

Dimensional Analysis-II

through a long, smooth-walled, horizontal, circular pipe

to find pressure drop due to friction for a given flow rate.

shear stress on wall would result in higher pressure drop and so

average velocity and diameter would influence it

would also be determined by the density of fluid

friction if the pipe is long

Dimensional Analysis-III

P

= f (D, , , V )

L

flows (which is true)

experimental program on this study and a graduate student to carry

out the experiments

gradient for each of the parameter, while holding others constant

Dimensional Analysis-IV

P

Dimensional Analysis-V

P

= c1D n1 n 2 n 3 V n 4

L

This is the best outcome we would have come out and the resulting

equation is our design equation for estimating pressure drop

Newtonian fluids of same density but with varying viscosity, same

viscosity but with varying density (probably impossible)

Let us say that using the same experiments (four graphs) the

graduate student got curious (He was actually forced by his

professor to come out with more interesting result with the data) and

he plotted all kinds of combinations till he got a stunning result

Dimensional Analysis-VI

Dimensional Analysis-VII

systematic way of doing this business

Such a thing reveals that there are only two combination of system

variables that are important and so experiments can be cut short and

so costs can be reduced

and take L also as a variable

P D

V 2 L

Buckingham PI Theorem-Steps

1. List all the variables that are involved in the problem.

2. Express each of the variables in terms of basic dimensions

(MLtT)

3. Select a set of r repeating variables that includes all

dimensions

4. Form a term by multiplying one of the non-repeating

variables by the product of repeating variables each raised to

an exponent that will make the combination dimensionless.

and repeat it for each of the remaining non-repeating

variables

5. Get the final non-dimensional functional form

Application-I

Step 1: List all the variables that are involved in the problem

P = f (L, D, , , V )

N=6

P ML1t 2

L L

D L

ML3

ML1t 1

V Lt 1

Application-II

Application-III

We choose , V, D

Only has M

2 = L a V b D c

a = 0, b = 0, c = -1

This would

L

2 =

have come by

D

inspection

r=3

Only V has t

Step 4: Formation of Pi groups

1 = P a V b D c

Number of = N r = 6 3 = 3

a = -1, b = -2, c = 0

1 =

P

V 2

M 0 L0 t 0 = (L )(ML3 ) a (Lt 1 ) b Lc

3 = a V b D c

a = -1, b = -1, c = -1

3 =

VD

Application-IV

Application-IV

1 = f ( 2 , 3 )

L

P

= f ,

V 2

D VD

contributed significantly in the related area

1 =

P

V 2

2 =

L

D

P

L

= c

V 2

D

n1

VD

n1

power of L/D is usually 1.

Euler Number

Non-dimensional length

VD

1

=

3

Reynolds Number

We have seen one way of identifying the non-dimensional

groups viz., Buckingham Pi Theorem

influences a system

the differential equation and the boundary conditions

are same for two systems, then the solutions would

be identical for both

route

and boundary conditions for two systems

similar problem

equations.

The problem we choose is the flow between parallel

plates

The problem is identical except for the diameter of

the tube would be replaced the separation between

plates (H)

This has been done for convenience so that we can

stay in Cartesian System

H

L

Flow of two dimensional incompressible, Newtonian fluid,

the governing equations are:

u v

+

=0

x y

u

u

u

+ u

+v

x

y

t

v

v

v

+u

+v

x

y

t

2u 2u

P

=

+ 2 + 2

x

y

2v 2v

P

=

+ 2 + 2

y

y

it is the steady state result we are interested in

The non-dimensionalization starts with individual

variables as follows:

x* =

x * y *

t

;y = ;t =

L

H

L/V

u* =

u * v *

p

;v = ;p =

V

V

V 2

u * L v*

+

=0

x * H y*

Vu * Vv*

+

=0

L x * H y*

Vu *

Vu *

Vu *

+ Vu*

+ Vv*

*

*

(

L

/

V

)

t

L

x

Hy*

the given problem

V 2 u *

V 2 P

V 2 u *

=

+

+

*

2

2

*2

L

x

H 2 y*

L x

u *

u * L u *

p *

H 2u* L 2u*

+

+ u * * + v* * = * +

*

t

x

H y

x VH L x *2 H y*2

Let us substitute for x, y, t, u, v and w in the

differential equations

v

v

v

+u

+v

x

y

t

2v 2v

P

=

+ 2 + 2

y

y

Vv*

V 2v V 2v

V v*

V v*

V 2 p*

=

+ Vu *

+ Vv*

+ 2 2 + 2 2

*

*

*

(

L

/

V

)

t

L

x

H

y

H

y

H y

L x

v *

v* L v*

L p *

H 2 v* L 2 v*

+ u * * + v*

=

+

+

*

*

t

x

y

H

H y VH L x * 2 H y*2

u * L v*

+

=0

x * H y*

u *

u * L u *

p *

H 2u* L 2u*

+ u * * + v* * = * +

+

*

t

x

H y

x VH L x * 2 H y* 2

v*

v* L v*

L p*

H 2 v* L 2 v*

+ u * * + v*

=

+

+

*

*

t

x

H

y

H y VH L x * 2 H y*2

H

L

Non-Dimensional parameters

We have come to the same conclusion that the nondimensional pressure drop is only a function of Inverse of

Reynolds number

and non-dimensional length L

VH

H

variables between model and prototype

,

H VH

If

L

is same, i.e., the geometry is similar, and

is same

VH

H

for both the cases are identical

Further, if the boundary conditions are identical, which are:

1. Flow uniform at inlet, 2. Wall velocity = 0, and

p

V 2

=

mod el

p

V 2

For same

prototype

and L

VH

H

The solution of all variables will be identical

The method also gives physical interpretation for the nondimensional group

Vv*

V v*

V v*

+ Vu *

+ Vv*

*

L x *

H y

(L / V)t

V 2v V 2v

V 2 p*

=

+ 2 2 + 2 2

H y*

H y

L x

Inertia force/volume

Viscous force/volume

2

Re ynolds Number =

V / L VL

Inertia Force

=

=

V / L2

Viscous Force

Geometric Similarity

Example: Drag on a Sphere

Linear dimensions on model and prototype correspond

within constant scale factor

Kinematic Similarity

Velocities at corresponding points on model and prototype

differ only by a constant scale factor

Dynamic Similarity

and D

scale factor

Example: Drag on a Sphere

Incomplete Similarity

cannot be obtained, as all the

numbers may not be matched

Still meaningful results may be

possible to obtain

then

FPr ototype

FModel

[V D ]

[V D ]

2

prototype

2

mod el

The most common example cited is the

frictional resistance to ship movement in sea

It has viscous resistance and wave resistance

F

V 2 L2

= V

FrP = FrM

Lg

Lg

P

M

VP

=

VM

LP

LM

VL

VL

Re P = Re M

=

P M

F = f (L, V, , , g )

Froude Number

VL V

= f (Re, Fr)

= f

,

Lg

M L M VM L M

=

=

P

L P VP L P

3/ 2

M

For typical LM/Lp = 1/100 = 1000

P

1. Froude Number

matched

No Fluid Available

1. Wave Resistance

estimated from

model study as a

function of

Froude Number

2. Total Resistance

obtained

3. Viscous

Resistance

Estimated

Theoretically

2. Viscous

Resistance

Estimated

theoretically

4. Hence Wave

resistance

obtained as a

function of

Froude Number

by subtraction

3. Hence total

resistance

obtained by

adding the two

Multiple parameters

If

then

Pump Head

Pump Power

Negligible

effect

Head Coefficient

Power Coefficient

When velocity of flow is small, fluid flows in

layers. This is laminar flow

When velocity increases, the layered flow is

destroyed and several whirls are formed called

vortices

Fluid Mechanics

Flow inside pipes, flow in between rods are the most

common application in Engineering

always fluctuates with time

The transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow

VD

is characterized by Reynolds number

Navier-Stokes Equations

Between Parallel Plates-I

u

=0

x

Continuity Eq.

length

The non-dimensional entrance length (L/D) is ~ 0.06 Re

This length can be as long as 140 times the diameter

u v

+

=0

x y

Therefore, v = 0 everywhere

Between Parallel Plates-II

Between Parallel Plates-III

dp

d 2u

= 2

dx

dy

Y-momentum Eq.

f(x)

v v

v

v

v

p

+ u

+ v =

+ 2 + 2 + g y

x

y

y

y

t

x

p dp

p

=

p is a function of x only

=0

x dx

y

2

X-momentum Eq.

2 u 2u

u

u

u

p

+ u

+ v =

+ 2 + 2

x

y

x

y

t

x

f(y)

1 dp y 2

+ C1 y + C 2

dx 2

a

Boundary conditions

u = 0 at y =

2

2

2

1 dp a

a

1 dp a

a

0=

+ C1 + C 2 and 0 =

C1 + C 2

dx 8

2

dx 8

2

1 dp a 2

C1 = 0 and C 2 =

dx 8

On integration with y

u=

Between Parallel Plates-III

u=

2

a 2 dp y

1

8 d x a / 2

Between Parallel Plates-IV

Average Velocity

Parabolic Distribution

u avg =

U=umax at y = 0

a /2

a 2 dp

8 d x

y 2

u = u max 1

a / 2

u max =

Or

u max

1 a /2

udy = a

a a / 2

u max

a

u

y 4y

= max

2

a

3

a

a / 2

y2

dy

1

(a / 2)2

a / 2

a/2

a a 4

2

2 2 3a

a 3 a 3

8 8

u max

8a 2

a

= u max

a

3 8 3

u avg =

2

u max

3

Or

Between Parallel Plates-VI

Between Parallel Plates-V

Pressure Drop

1.5u avg 8

dp

=

dx

a2

p =

12u avgL

a2

dp

u 8

= max2

and

dx

a

Shear Stress

Between Parallel Plates-VII

Friction Factor

is introduced

It is the non-dimensional wall shear stress defined by

w

0.5u avg

u v

4

du

= u max 2 2 y

xy = yx = + =

a

dy

y x

Constant

It is zero on centerline

w =

f=

a/2

Note u = u max 1

4u max

a

Couette Flow-I

We had seen flow between parallel plates when both the

plates were at zero velocity and fluid was flowing in

between

The characteristics were:

2

6u avg

4u max

From previous slide w =

=

a

a

6u avg

12

12

f =

=

=

2

0.5u avg a u avg a Re

f=

12

Re

the plates with a velocity U

This flow is called Couette Flow

Couette Flow-III

Couette Flow-II

The first few steps are identical

plate for convenience

y

dp

d 2u

= 2

dx

dy

f(x)

f(y)

u=

U

or

u=U

u=

On integration with y

1 dp y 2

+ C1 y + C 2

dx 2

Boundary conditions

u = 0 at y = 0

u = U at y = a

and

1 dp y 2 U 1 dp a

y

+

d x 2 a d x 2

U 1 dp a

1 dp a 2

0 = C 2 and U =

= C1

+ C1a or

a dx 2

dx 2

y 1 dp y 2 ay

+

a dx

2

If dp/dx = 0, then u is linear (This is what we assumed

when we defined viscosity

If U = 0, it will reduce to the previous distribution

Let us learn to put results in non-dimensional form

Couette Flow-IV

Couette Flow-IV

a dp

2 U dx

2

Rearranging

or

u * = y* +

u y

a 2 dp y y

= +

1

U a 2 U dx a a

a 2 dp *

*

*

*

*

*

y 1 y or u = y + y (1 y )

2U dx

Average Velocity

u avg =

y*

1a

U a y

y

y2

udy = + 2 dy

a0

a 0 a

a

a

U y 2 y 2 y 3

+

2

a 2a

2a

3a

u avg

u

Shear Stress

du

= 1 + 1(1 y* ) + y* ( 1)

dy*

+1

2

a 2 dp

2 U dx

u v

du U du *

U

xy = yx = + =

=

=

1 + (1 2 y* )

dy

a dy*

a

y x

U

a 2 dp

y U a dp

y

1 +

+ (1 2 )

(1 2 ) =

a 2 U dx

a a

2 dx

a

1 + 1(1 y* ) + y* (1) = 1 + (1 2 y* ) = 0

y* =

Couette Flow-VI

du

du *

At point of maximum velocity

=0 * =0

dy

dy

U a a a

U 1

= +

=

a +

3

a 2 6

a 2 2

1

=U +

2 6

Couette Flow-V

u * = y * + y* 1 y*

y

y y

u = U + 1

a a

a

u * = y* + y* (1 y* )

yx =

U dp 1 y

+ a

a

dx 2 a

Pipes are the most common geometry in geometry

The solution for this case is just similar to the parallel

plates

Fully developed, axi-symmetric, incompressible, steady

flow

V = V(r,z)

Continuity Equation

1 ( rVr ) Vz

+

=0

r r

z

rVr is independent of r

Since Vr at r = R is 0, Vr is 0 everywhere

Hence there is only Vz = Vz (r)

r - Momentum Equation

z - Momentum Equation

1 (rVr )

V

V

p

2V

V

r + Vr r + + Vz r = +

+ + 2 r

r

r

r

z

p is only a function of z

1 Vz 2 Vz

V

V

p

V

z + Vr z + + Vz z = +

r

+

2

r

z

z

t

r r r z

p dp

=

z dz

p

1 Vz

=

r

z

r r r

f(z)

f(r)

d dVz

1 dp

r

=r

dr dr

dz

dVz 1 dp r

=

dr dz 2

Integrating with r

1 dp r 2

+ C 2

Vz =

dz 4

dV 1 dp r 2

r z =

+ C1

dr dz 2

dVz 1 dp r 2

=

+ C1

dr dz 2

Transposing r, we can write

dp

1 d dVz

=

r

= Cons tan t

dz

r dr dr

C1 = 0

dVz 1 dp r 2

=

dr dz 2

1 dp 2 2 R 2 dp

r2

1 dp R 2

Vz =

C 2 =

(R r ) =

1 2

4

dz

4

dz

R

dz

4

Vz =

R 2 dp

r2

1

4 dz R 2

Average Velocity

1 R

2 R

2 R

v 2r dr

v r dr = 2 v z r dr

2 z

2 z

R 0

R 0

R 0

2Vz (max) R

r2

2Vz (max) R

r3

Vz =

1 R 2 r dr = R 2 r R 2 dr

R2

0

0

2V (max) R 2 R 4

Vz = z 2

2

R

2 4R

Vz =

Vz = Vz (max) at r = 0

Vz (max) =

R 2 dp

4 dz

r2

Vz = Vz (max)1 2

R

=

R2

4

2

2

R dP

=

8 dz

Vz =

r2

Vz = Vz (max)1 2

R

Shear Stress

v

v

2r

rz = rz = z + r = Vz (max) 2

Friction Factor

R 2 dp 2 r

R 2 dp

Q Vz (max) =

4 dz R 2

4 dz

r dp

= Direction is Negative as dp/dz is negative

2 dz

f=

Force Balance

dz

p+dp

8 dz

R dp

From previous slide

2 dz

(R / 2) /(dp / dz) = 8 = 16 = 16

0.5Vz R 2 / 8 (dp / dz ) Vz R Vz D Re

We had seen that pressure drop varies linearly with

velocity

w =

w = r =R =

f =

Pressure Drop

2

Further Vz = R dp

and

r dp

2rdz + r dp = 0 =

2 dz

Note the answer is same, as direction of

p

2

w

0.5Vz

increased, the variation becomes non-linear

R dp

2 dz

VA

) (

2

2

2

4

4 0.5Vz f

4 Vz f

4Vz 16

dp 2

= w = w =

=

=

R

D

D

2D

2D Vz D

dz

32Vz

=

D2

32Vz L

p =

Linear dependence with velocity

D2

Vavg

Reynolds Experiment

u = u + u

The fluctuating component creates agitation

This increases the shear stresses

The additional shear created by fluctuations are

called Reynolds stresses. The details of these

are generally taught in the next level course

Detailed solutions are possible only using

numerical solutions

We shall learn enough so that engineering

problems can be solved.

u

u

is the fluctuating component

It has been experimentally verified that the

velocity profile close to wall has been linear

In the bulk of the flow the profile is logarithmic

New variables have been defined for this

representation

The distance from the wall is denoted by y, and

the wall shear is denoted by w

The non-dimensionalization is carried as

follows

y

u

u+ =

; where u * = w and y + =

/ u*

u*

Shear velocity

Though the outer layer empirical equation does

not predict the profile near the wall, it is still

adequate to calculate average velocity

Viscous layer

or Wall layer

u + = y + ; for y + < 5

Outer layer

u

y

Rr

= 2.5 ln

+ 5 or u = u * 2.5 ln

+ 5

u*

/ u*

/

u

u* R

R r

V=

2.5 ln / u + 5 2rdr Integrate by parts

R 2 0

*

R

= u * 2.5 ln

+ 1.25

/

u

*

computed if average velocity

is known but requires

solution of a non-linear

equation

In laminar flow we had defined that

friction factor. So you have to be careful

Vz

= w

2

would be

2

Fanning friction factor

Independently in German literature, Weisbach

had derived the following relation

dp Vz f

=

2D

dz

u* =

w f Vz

=

4 2

u * = Vz

f

8

two slides before as

Darcy-Weisbach

friction factor

V=

R

f

V 2.5 ln

8

f

V + 1.25

1 2.5 Re f 1.25

+

=

ln

f 8 2 8

8

On simplifying, we get

Re f

1

= 0.88 ln

f

5.66

friction factor for smooth pipes. To take into

roughness of pipes Colebrook derived the

following relation for Darcys friction factor

+ 0.44

1

= 2.05 log Re f log 5.66 + 0.44

f

1

= 2.0 log Re f 0.8

f

1

/ D 2.51

= 2.0 log

+

f

3.7 Re f

Moody chart. One of the most popular figure

Equivalent Roughness for New Pipes

Pipe

Moodys Chart

Riveted steel

0.99.0

Concrete

0.33.0

Wood stave

0.180.9

Cast iron

0.26

Galvanized iron

0.15

0.045

Drawn tubing

0.0015

Plastic, glass

0.0 (smooth)

For computer calculations the following relations are

useful

f=

64

Re

/ D 1.11 6.9

1

= 1.8 log

+

3.7

f

Re

Before we conclude, sometimes the profile in a pipe is

approximated by

1

r n

R

maximum velocity can be obtained as

Re =

Vz (max)D

Vz

2n 2

=

Vz (max) (n + 1)(2n + 1)

finding derivatives.

lines using Bernoullis equation, where friction

effects were neglected

friction effect for a stream line can be written as

2

p1 V1

p

V

+

+ gH1 = 2 + 2 + gH 2 + gH loss

effects.

for downstream point

large number of practical problems

frictionless flows, where Hloss = 0

flows as shown in next slide

2

dividing all the terms by g as

p1 1V1

p

V

+

+ gH1 = 2 + 2 2 + gH 2 + gH loss

p1 V12

p

V2

+

+ H1 = 2 + 2 + H 2 + H loss + (H gain )

g 2g

g 2g

This can be derived from energy equation that we

shall do only at the end of the course

The parameter can be estimated from the equation

1

V 3dA

& V 2 A

m

sections 1 and 2

Hloss is called the head loss due to friction

We had derived an expression for dp/dz as

mass flow rate

2

dp Vz f

=

dz

2

D

lies between 1.08 (n = 6) to 1.03 (n = 10) depending

on the profile. Hence is usually ignored

Or

p =

2

p fL Vz

=

= H loss

g

D 2g

Vz 2 fL

2 D

equation for head loss

force terms, it is valid for all fully developed flows be

it horizontal, vertical or inclined

pipes

fluid column

equivalent diameter called the hydraulic diameter

diagram or from the following relations

64

f=

For Re < 2300

Re

/ D 1.11 6.9

1

= 1.8 log

+

3.7

f

Re

Dh =

4 Area

Wetted Perimeter

L

B

L

5 rods of radius = R

Dh =

4LB

2(L + B)

Dh =

4 L2 5R 2

4L + 5(2R )

Valves-I

tees, contraction, expansion, etc.

These are done empirically through loss coefficients

element in a pipe circuit

These are used to regulate or

stop flow

V2

HL = KL

2g

These are listed in text books, hand books, etc.

Valves

Globe Valve

Gate valve

Ball Valve

Check Valve/Non

Return Valve

Valves-II

variable K

This will be

determined by the

fraction of opening

Globe Valve

Loss

Coefficients

Gate Valve

Manufaturers specify

this, which is used to

select valves

Alternately, the minor losses are accounted using the

equivalent length concept

The component is viewed as an additional equivalent

pipe length and is normally expressed as a factor times

the pipe diameter

p1 V12

p

V2

+

+ H1 + H gain = 2 + 2 + H 2 + H loss min or + H loss major

g 2 g

g 2g

H loss major =

64

Re

fLVz 2

2gD

Component

Le/D

f=

Gate Valve

Globe Valve

340

90o

elbow

30

/ D

1

= 1.8 log

3.7

f

45o

elbow

16

Hence student is referred to hand books for its application

1.11

H Loss min or = K L

V2

2g

6.9

Re

Or

Moodys

Chart

KL empirically obtained

Flow Measurement-I

Find L for given p, D, Q

Find Q for given p L, D

Find D for given p L, Q

1

1

V12 = P2 + V22

2

2

P1 +

Types of Problems

A1V1 = A 2 V2

Can be directly

solved

Q th = A 2

Iterations

Required

2 ( P1P2 )

2

A

1 2

A1

Q act < Q th

Discharge C = Q act

Coefficient d

Q th

Flow Measurement-II

Q act = C d A t

2 (P1P2 )

= Cd A t

2

A t

1

Ap

2 (P1P2 )

4

where, =

(1 )

Flow Measurement-II

Dt

Dp

These will be taught in the course on instrumentation

Cd is a function of Re,

Empirical correlations exist for Cd to aid the design of

orifices

understanding of Aircrafts wings, Ship hull,

Submarines, etc.

The study becomes complicated as fully developed

flow does not exist in these cases

In fully developed flow we could reduce NavierStokes equations to ordinary differential equations

However, this is not possible in external flows and

hence partial differential equations need to be solved

Some clever simplifications exist and we shall see

these

We will start with flow over a flat plate

considered a big milestone in Fluid mechanics

The layer in which the velocity gradients are

confined is called the boundary layer

In boundary layer flows, the viscous effects are

important only inside the boundary layer

Adverse Pressure Gradient

here the viscous effects are not important

Thus, for a uniform steady free stream flow over a flat

plate, the momentum equation can be simplified as

2u 2 u

u

u

u

p

+u

+ v =

+ 2 + 2

t

x

y

x

y

x

U

p

=

x

x

+ g x

p

=0

x

We can compute a value for Displacement Thickness

* as follows

Some Definitions

y + *

udy = udy

as the thickness when u = 0.99 U denoted by

At x = 0

(u U + U)dy

At x = x

Uy =

y+

*

(u U)dy + U ( y + )

U* =

Streamline if plate

not present

Boundary Layer

y + *

Uy =

Streamline with

plate present

Displacement Thickness

U

<0

x

U

=0

x

U

>0

x

y + *

y + *

(u U)dy

0

u

u

(1 )dy (1 )dy

U

U

0

the value of integrand beyond

this is almost zero

Momentum Thickness

u

u

(1 )dy

U

U

0

x

1

r r

d + V.dA = 0

t CV

CS

steady

d

udy x

dx

0

0

d

& 12 m

& 34 = udy x

=m

dx 0

& 34 = udy +

m

& 23

m

r r

u V.dA = FSx + FBx

(M34)

Momentum per unit width at 23

(M23)

FSx = M12 + M 23 + M 34

= uudy = u 2 dy

d 2

d

u dy x U udy x

=

dx 0

dx

p

x

x

4

1

w x

p

1 p

x )d F34 = (p +

x )( + d) F14 = w x

x

2 x

p

p

1 p

x +

xd + pd +

xd

x

x

2 x

F12 = p

d

u 2 dy x Sign positive by

our convention

dx 0

From

d

udy x

& 23 U = U

=m

previous

dx

slide

0

= u 2 dy +

p+

p

1

Evaluation of FSx

Sign negative by

our convention

CS

Momentum Equation

r r r r

r

V d + V V.dA = F

t CV

CS

& 12 = m

& 23 + m

& 34

m

rates are per unit

width

& 12 = udy

m

Continuity Equation

are approximate.

(M12)

Control Volume

is sketched as

1234

later

equations is complex and involves numerical

computation and hence deferred for time being

F23 = (p +

FSx =

p

1 p

x

xd w x

x

2 x

p

1 p

d 2

d

u dy x U udy x

x

xd w x =

x

2 x

dx 0

dx

For flat plate dp/dx = 0

p

1 p

d 2

d

u dy x U udy x

x

xd w x =

x

2 x

dx 0

dx 0

0

p

1 p

d 2

d

u dy U udy

d w =

x

2 x

dx 0

dx 0

p

d 2

d

u dy U

w =

udy

x

dx 0

dx

w = U

d 2

d

udy

dx u dy

dx 0

and rewrite the above equation as

d

u ( U u )dy

w =

dx 0

w = U 2

d u

u

(1 )dy

dx 0 U

U

w

1

U 2

2

=2

d u

u

(1 )dy = C f

dx 0 U

U

drag, we need to know the velocity profile

Integral method assumes realistic profiles to get the

answer

u = 2U

u

= 2 2

U

du

U

= 2

Further w =

dy y =0

U

d u

u

(1 )dy

= U 2

dx 0 U

U

2 U

d

2

2 1 2 2 d

U 2 dx 0

5.48

=

x

Re x

exact solution is

2 =

5.00

=

x

Re x

Re x

2U /

4

4 x

4

Cf =

=

=

=

=

1

1

U Ux Re x 5.48

2

2

U

U

2

2

w

Cf =

w = U 2

d u

u

(1 )dy

dx 0 U

U

y

d = dy

d 5

4

3

2

+4

5

+2

dx 5

4

3

2

15

dx

U

Or

2 15

=

dx

2

U

Integration leads to

u

y y2

=2 2

U

Or

2 15

=

x+C

2

U

Using the condition = 0 at x = 0 C = 0

)]

d 1

4 + 43 5 2 + 2 d

dx 0

at y =

2 U 2 d

=

U 2 15 dx

d =

w = 2

at y =

u

y y2

=2 2

U

)[ (

u=U

du

=0

dy

y

y2

U 2

We shall use

conditions

at y = 0

u = a + by + cy 2

u=0

0.73

Re x

0.664

The exact solution for this case is C f =

Re x

30

x =

U

30

x =

U

x

30

Ux

=

x

30

Re x

Transition to turbulence

This occurs typically at Rex = 5 X 105

Note

Re x =

Ux

concepts in pipe flow

We had assumed a velocity profile obtained from

experiments

u

y

= 2.5 ln

+5

u*

/ u*

Eventually we arrived at

1

/ D 2.51

= 2.0 log

+

f

3.7 Re f

1

0.316

w = (0.817Vmax ) 2

0.25

8

(0.817 Vmax )2R

f=

0.316

0.316

=

Re 0.25 VD 0.25

2

w = 0.0233Vmax

manipulations

1

Vmax R

V

= 0.817

Vmax

f =

w

1

(0.817Vmax ) 2

8

w = 0.0233U 2

0.316

(0.817Vmax )2R

0.25

0.25

1

U

0.25

Separating the variables we get

1

7

u y

= =

U

0.25d = 0.240

1

7

equation

d u

u

(1 )dy

w = U 2

dx 0 U

U

We get

1

7 d

0.0233 0.25

d 1/ 7

(1 1/ 7 )d =

=

72 dx

(U )0.25 dx 0

We have seen that Friction Coefficient Cf is of the form

Cf =

1

2

w

= C Re x n

U 2

C = 0.0594, n = 0.2 for laminar

integrate to compute the total drag (per unit width)

0.25

dx 0.25 d = 0.240

U

0

0

1.25

= 0.240

1.25

U

0.25

dx

1

5

0.25

4/5

x

= 0.382

U

= 0.382

x

Ux

0.382

=

x Re1x/ 5

get

0.0594

Cf = 1 w 2 =

Re 0x.2

2 U

FD =

1

2

1

2

U 2 LCU n L n 1

C

= 2 U 2 L

Re Ln

n (1 n )

1 n

FD

C

= CD =

Re Ln

U 2 L

1 n

Total drag = CD X Area of plate X 0.5 U2

y

x

dx

n

Ux

= 12 U 2 C

L

2 n

2 n

n +1 L

U C n

U Cx

U 2 n CL n +1

FD = 12

x dx = 12 n

=1

n 0

( n + 1) 0 2 n (n + 1)

dFD = w dx = 12 U 2 C f

Differential Analysis-I

flat plate with no source terms, we can simplify the

equations as

The friction coefficient Cf decreases as x increases

u

v

+

=0

x

y

over to turbulent

Turbulent boundary layer is thicker than laminar ones

2u

(u )

(u )

2u

=

u

+v

x 2 + y 2

x

y

improved by using higher order profiles

solution

transforms to turbulent

0.0742 1740

Re 0L.2

Re L

0.455

1610

CD =

(log Re L ) 2.58 Re L

CD =

introduced by Blasius

5 X 105 < ReL< 109

Differential Analysis-II

Differential Analysis-III

Now a similarity variable is defined as

velocity is exprressed as:

function would automatically satisfy the continuity equation

2

u

df

d 2f

d 2f

u

= u

=

= u

2 y

y

y

d

d

d 2

u

d 2f

=

u

y

y 2

d 2

u

= u

x

v =

=

x

df

+ f

u x

d 2 x

u x

u

1

=

x

2 x

follows

u =

df

u x

dn y

=

y

u d f

x d3

df

+ f

d x

u 1

1

=

x

2

2

v =

u

x

= u df

dn

u

x

u df

f

x d

1

2

3

u

u d f

= u

x

x d3

1

u

2 x

u

x

df

u x

dn

Differential Analysis-V

df

d 2 f

d 2f

u

= u

= u

d

d 2 x

d 2 2 x

u

x

= f ( ) u x

Differential Analysis-IV

=

y

commonly denoted by u and we shall use this

=

x

x

u 1 3/ 2

1 y

=

x

2

2 x

= y

x

u

v

+

=

= 0

x

y

xy xy

u

x

= y

v =

x

u =

y

df

f

d

df

d 2f

u

u

dn d 2 2 x

1

+

2

u

x

u

x

df

d

d 2f

f u

d

2

v

y

v

= u

Collecting

terms

u d 3f

x d 3

u

df d f

2 x d d 2

2

u

x

u

+

2x

df

d f

f

2

d

d

2

u

=

x

2u

y 2

d f

d3

Differential Analysis-VI

u 2 d 3f

d 2f u 2

f

=

2 2x

x d3

d

d 2f

+2

d 3f

d

solution

d 2f

d 3f

f

= 0

Blasius Equation

1 u df

v =

f

d

u = u , at y =

u = u , at x = 0

+2

= 0

d 3

three first order differential equation

Let f = y 1 ,

df

= 0 , f = 0 at = 0

d

u = 0 , v = 0 at y = 0

d 2

df

= 1, at =

d

u = u

df

dn

df

= y2,

d

dy 1

= y2

d

dy 2

= y3

d

d 2f

d 2

= y3

y1 (0 ) = 0

y 2 (0 ) = 0

dy 3

y y

= 1 3

d

2

y 2 ( ) = 1

Now if we apply it to the second equation

simplest of all called Eulers method

This is not the most accurate method, but is easy to follow

From Taylor series, we can write

y 2 ( ) = y 2 (0) + y 3 (0)

Now if we apply it to the third equation

dy

y( + d) y() +

dy 1

= y2

d

y1 (0 + ) y1 (0) +

dy 2

= y3

d

dy1

y1 () = y1 (0) + y 2 (0)

d 0

dy 3

y y

= 1 3

d

2

y1 (0) y 3 (0)

2

From the boundary conditions y1(0), y2(0) are known, But

y3(0) is not known, but y2() is what is known

y 3 ( ) = y 3 (0)

forward and check whether y2() = 1. If not take another

guess and repeat

Discussion on the numerical solution

w =

Cf

u

y

= u

y =0

w

0.5u 2

d 2f

d 2

u

u

= 0.332u

x

x

( = 0 )

u

x

0.332u

=

0.5u 2

C f ==

= 0.664

ux

0.664

Re x

Separation-II

Separation-I

The problem is more complex to obtain analytical

solution

Can be explained through qualitative arguments

Consider x momentum equation all along the wall

2u 2u

u

u

u

p

+ u

+ v =

+ 2 + 2 + g x

x

y

x

y

t

x

p

2u

= 2

x

y

u

y

For the flow to merge smoothly with the free stream

y

that of p

x

Separation-III

There will be no separation when

For separation to occur

p

>0

x

p

<0

x

breaking

After separation boundary layer concepts do not hold

Separation prevents pressure recovery

For

For

p

<0,

x

p

>0,

x

2u

<0

y 2

u

<0

y 2

2u

>0

y 2

We have looked at pure frictional darg for plate is held along

the flow direction

We can compute drag, once we know CD

When plate is held normal to the flow, we get drag due to

pressure only

pdA

FD =

of venturimeters cone angle is kept small ~15o

plate surface

FD = C D

plates

1

V 2 A projected

2

and so will not contribute to drag

Boundary layer concepts do not hold here and hence are

complicated

The drag coefficients are obtained through computational

means or through experiments and correlated empirically

For flow over a Sphere we will have both Friction and

Pressure Drag

At very low flow (Re < 1), we have only frictional contribution

as there is no separation and hence there is no pressure

drag. This is some times called creeping flow

CD = 24/ReD

At higher velocities flow starts separating Refer to fig. in next

slide

At around Re ~ 1000, the pressure drag ~ 95%

Turbulence sets in ~ Re 3 X 105

The point of separation shifts to down stream abruptly

decreasing CD (Refer fig. given later)

Taken from

ONERA's Science Pictures

Behavior is similar for a cylinder

Vortex Shedding

Vortices are shed alternately from each side of a

cylinder

The separation point and thus the resultant drag

force oscillate

Dimensionless frequency of shedding given by

Strouhal number S = fD/V

S is approximately 0.2 over a wide range of

Reynolds numbers (100 - 1,000,000)

Streamlining

Used to Reduce Wake and hence Pressure Drag

Note that as c is increased for a given t, the pressure

drag decreases

However there is an optimum c

Lift

FL = C L

1

V 2 A p

2

Note: Ap is planform area

(maximum projected area)

Lift increases as the angle of attack is

increased, but rapidly falls after a

critical value

Drag increases rapidly as angle of

attack increases

Conclusion

There are many more complex issues for finite

wings

These are not important for a first level study

However one should know how to use data

available in books

This will be given in home work with sufficient

hints as they are straight forward

Conservation of Mass - I

A

s

s

u

u + s

s

+ s

s

&

m

& +

m

s

s

A+

A Area (m2)

pumps and piping, one dimensional analysis

is most often followed

The necessary system of equations can be

derived from control volume analysis with

suitable closing equations

This is taken up as the last topic for the

course

u Velocity (m/s)

Density (kg/m3)

& Mass flow rate (kg/s)

m

Rate of

accumulation of =

mass in CV

Mass flow _

rate into CV

Rate of

Mass flow rate +/- Mass

out of CV

generated /

destructed in

CV

& g)

(m

= g

s

t

& l)

liquid (l A l ) + (m

= l

s

t

+

Conservation of Momentum - I

g = l

Conservation of Momentum - II

g Gravitational acceleration (m2/s)

&u+

m

p Pressure (N/m2)

pA

( g A g )

Gas

cross section. An example is given in next slide

A

p

s

s

& g)

(m

(As)

& m

& +

=m

s s

t

s

&

(

m

)

(A)

g

=

+

1

t

s

H Elevation (m)

&

m

Conservation of Mass - II

P Perimeter (m)

A,

u,

&u

m

&u

m

s

s

Rate of

accumulation of =

momentum in

CV

Momentum _

rate into CV

Momentum

+

rate out of CV

g

pA

pA +

s

s

Term-1

Asu

Term-2

Sum of all

forces in

positive

direction

acting on

CV

4

&u

m

Term-3

&u+

m

&u

m

s

s

= Pressure force + Shear force

Term-4

+ Gravity force

pA

A

s + p

s

Pressure force = pA pA +

s

s

p

= A

s

s

Shear force

w Ps

Gravity force

AsgSin ()

Conservation of Momentum - V

u

A

u

Au

p

+u

+ Au + u

= A w P AgSin

t

t

s

s

s

u

u

p

+ Au

= A w P AgSin

t

s

s

(Au ) (Au 2 )

p

+

= A w P AgSin

t

s

s

&)

& u)

(m

(m

p

=

A w P AgSin

t

s

s

Multiplication of momentum equation with

velocity will give mechanical energy equation

the LHS and using mass conservation equation

& u)

(Aus)

(m

p

& u m

&u+

=m

A s w Ps AsgSin

t

s

s

momentum equation

Conservation of Momentum - IV

is zero.

u

u

p

+ Au 2

= uA u w P uAgSin 5

t

s

s

2

2

u

u

2 + Au

2 = uA p u P uAg H

A

w

t

s

s

s

Au

Au

2

p + u

+ gH

2

=0

s

2

p + u

+ gH = Cons tan t

2

2 + Au p + uA (gH ) = 0

s

s

I-Law of Thermodynamics

Definitions

Specific Flow Energy

e=h+u

Bernoullis Equation

+ gH

Specific Energy

2

i = h p + u + gZ

Internal energy

I-Law - III

I-Law - II

qaxial

s

s

+

qaxial

E& CV

Work

q''axial

& e+

m

&e

m

q''surface

T

= k

qaxial

s

qsurface

= U (T T )

&e

m

s

s

e p

(Asi )

=

= As

t

t

& e)

(m

& inlet e inlet m

& exit e exit = m

& e m

&e+

m

s

s

& W

& +m

& inlet e inlet m

& exit e exit

E& CV = Q

U Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2-K)

& e)

(m

s

s

I-Law - V

I-Law - IV

We can write

& = Psu + W s

W

w

CV

A)

& = q Ps + q A q A + (qaxial

Q

s

surface

axial

axial

A)

(qaxial

P s

= qsurface

s

s

A)

(Ae) (Aue)

p

(qaxial

P w Pu

+

= A + qsurface

WCV

t

s

t

s

Conservative form

A)

e

e

p

(qaxial

+ Au = A + qP w Pu

WCV

t

s

t

s

2

2

( h + u + gH )

(h + u + gH )

2

2

A

+ Au

=

t

s

A)

(qaxial

p

P w Pu

A + qsurace

WCV

t

s

I-Law - VI

equation Eq. (6) from ILaw Eq. (9) , we

can write the thermal energy equation:

Mass Balance

&)

(A ) (m

+

=0

t

s

Momentum Balance

A)

(h )

(h )

p

p

(qaxial

P

A

+ Au

= uA + A + qsurface

W

t

s

s

t

s

lost out to the surroundings. For insulated

systems this gets ploughed back and hence

we have to add w Pu on RHS. If there is

energy split, this has to be suitably handled

10

& ) 1 (Au 2 )

p 1 (m

P

H

=

+

+ w + g

s A t

A

s

A

s

Energy Balance

A)

(h )

(h )

p

p

(qaxial

P

+ Au

= uA + A + qsurface

W

t

s

s

t

s

Solution Strategy-I

independent

Illustrative Application

dependent

A, H, P, t , s , u, m

& , p, w , h, qsurface

, qaxial

Variables

Equations

Closing relations

= (p, h )

u, p, h

chosen as primary

dependent variables

(specified / u , properties)

qsurface

= qsurface

= negligible

qaxial

& = Au

m

w = w (, geometry, u , vis cos ity )

us consider forced convection

loop

Cooler

assuming large secondary

flow in cooler, and a given

pump characteristics,

estimate, (a) steady mass flow

rate circulating, (b) fluid

temperature distribution

Sec.

Flow

Heater

Pump

Application-I

Application-II

Momentum Balance

Mass Balance

Pressure term

&)

(A ) (m

+

=0

t

s

Transient term

Acceleration term

Friction term

Gravitation term

& ) 1 (Au 2 )

p 1 (m

P

H

=

+

+ w + g

s A t

s

s

A

A

along the duct

11

Pressure term

instantaneous mass flow rate does not vary along the

length.

p

ds = 0

s

loop

Transient term

Application-III

Acceleration

term

Application-IV

&2

m

2

A

1 (Au 2 )

ds

ds =

s

s

all links A

all links

1

1

A 2 A 2=0

all links

i +1

i

&2

P

u 2

4

4m

1 f i L i K i

ds

=

f

ds

=

+

w

loop A loop 2 d hyd

2 i =all links A i 2 d hyd i 4

=

&2

m

where, f = 16

Friction term

Re

&)

&

&

1 (m

dm

ds dm

L

ds =

=

Ai

A

t

dt

A

dt

all links

i

loop

loop

Re < 1189.4

Gravitation

term

For pump link

g s ds = g (H

loop

exit i

H inlet i ) = 0

all links

p pump = gH pump

&

dm

L i 4m& 2

1 f i L i K i gH

+

+

pump = 0

2

2

d

4

A

dt all links A i

i =all links

i hyd i

Application-V

Application-VI

&

The integrated momentum equation has only one unknown viz., m

Energy Balance

Any standard procedure for solving ODE can be employed

For steady situations, the First term drops out and any standard

procedure for solving non-linear equations can be employed

A)

(h )

(h )

p

p

(qaxial

P

+ Au

= uA + A + qsurface

W + w Pu

t

s

s

t

s

Resistance

curve

Pump

Curve

&

m

(h )

(h )

p

P W + w Pu

+ Au

= uA + qsurface

t

s

s

small

For non-pump links

Linear variation for constant

dT

heat flux case and exponential

&

mc p

= q surface P

for constant U and Tamb case.

ds

A

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