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Chapter 1

Review of Tenses
Tenses which have high frequency of use:
1. The Simple Present Tense
a. Pattern: S + Be (am, is, are) + Adjective/Noun/Adverb
S + V-1 /V-1s(es)
b. Use : to express something that happens in the present
to express habitual activities
c. Adverbs : every............, once/ twice/three times a .........,
always, sometimes, usually, generally, seldom, never
d. Verbs which are only used in simple tenses (not normally used in continuous
tenses)
want like
belong know
suppose
remember
need love see
realize
mean
forget
prefer hate hear
believe
understand
seem
Examples:
- My mother is at home now.
- My father works as a lawyer
- He usually goes to the office by car.
2. The Simple Past Tense
a. Pattern : S + Be (was, were) + Adjective/Noun/Adverb
S + V-2
b. Use : to express something that happened in the past
c. Adverbs : this morning, yesterday, just now, last..............., .................ago
Examples:
- The children were frightened to see the horror film last night.
- All students in my school passed the exam last year.
- Mrs. Andi sent the parcel to Jakarta this morning.
3. The Present Continuous Tense
a. Pattern : S + am, is, are + Verb-ing
b. Use : to express something that is still in progress at the present time or at the
time of speaking
c. Adverbs: now, at present, at this time, at this moment, Look!.... Listen! ....
Examples:
- Look! The children are playing music enthusiastically.
- My father is still working in his office now.
4. The Future Tense
a. Pattern : S + Be going to + V-1
S + Will + V-1
b. Use : To express something that will happen in the future
c. Adverbs : tomorrow, tonight, next.............
Examples:
- We are going to finish the assignment this afternoon.
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- They will help us to finish painting the wall tomorrow.
5. The Past Continuous Tense
a. Pattern : S + was,were + V-ing
b. Use : to express something that was in progress when another activity happened
in the past
c. Adverb : when......................,while.......................
Examples:
- When I arrived home this afternoon, my mother was watching TV.
- While I was studying last night, my brother was talking with his friend.
6. The Present Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : has/have + V-3
b. Use : to express the completion or perfection of an action by now
to express an action which began in the past and continues up to the present
time
c. Adverbs : already, yet, just, lately, recently, since..................., for................
Examples:
-. He has just graduated from senior high school.
- My brother has already got a job.
- We have studied English for more than six years.
7. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
a. Pattern: S + has/have + been + V-ing
b. Use : to express an activity which began in the past and, is still going on at the
present time
c. Adverbs: since.......................... and for...............................
Examples:
- She has been living in that house since 1990.
- They have been arguing for more than half an hour.
8. The Past Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : S + had + V-3
b. Use : to express an activity which was completed before another activity in the
past
c. Adverbs : before................., after................., when................, as soon as...........
Examples:
- When I arrived home yesterday, my mother had finished cooking.
- He had done his homework before he went to bed last night.
9. The Future Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : S + will have + V-3
b. Use : to express an activity which will be completed at a specific time in the
future
c. Adverbs : by the end of this week, by next December, by............
Examples:
- We will have finished our study in this school by the end of this year.
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-

He will have lived in this house for a year by next month.

Exercise 1:
Supply the most suitable tense (Present, Past, or Present Perfect):
1. She (go) away every week-end.
2. He (go) abroad last week.
3. No, he isn’t here. He just (go) out.
4. He (go) downstairs when I (meet) him.
5. “Where is Mr. Green?” “He (go) out ten minutes ago.”
6. This boy never (see) the sea.
7. You (see) my bag? I (lose) it.
8. I (see) you yesterday. You (sit) outside a café.
9. He already (write) a lot of letters, but his sister (not write) many.
10. He is busy now; he (write) a letter.
11. I hope he (get) better now, I (hear) he (have) a bad cold all the week.
12. I usually (not take) sugar in my tea.
13. You (see) a good film lately?
14. He (live) in England since 1980.
15. When I last (see) him, he (lie) in London.
16. He (sit) in the garden when the storm (break).
17. You go to the cinema last night? No, I (not be) for three weeks.
18. I (hear) the news last night, but I (not hear) it today.
19. You (read) that book yet? No, I just (begin) it.
20. I (see) that you (buy) a new hat. How much you (pay) for it?
Exercise 2:
Supply a suitable tense of the verbs in brackets.
1. By next June he (write) his second novel.
2. Before his next visit here he (return) from a world tour.
3. Before you go to see them, they (leave) the country.
4. He (finish) this before you leave.
5. By the end of the summer he (teach) us to speak English.
6. By this time next week you (meet) my friend.
7. When you come back he already (buy) the house.
8. The meeting (finish) by the time we get there.
9. By next month he (sell) all his furniture.
10. By next Sunday you (stay) with us for five weeks.
Exercise 3:
Supply a suitable tense to verbs between brackets into either the Simple Past Tense or the Past
Perfect Tense.
1. They (go) home after they (finish) their work.
2. She said that she already (see) the Pyramids.
3. She just (go) out when I called at her house.
4. You ought to have brought her straight home after she (fall) in the river.
5. They told him that they (not meet) him before.
6. He asked why we (come) so early.
7. She (tell) me his name after he (leave).
8. He (do) nothing after he saw me.
9. My friend enjoyed his food as soon as he (taste) it.
10. He (thank) me for what I (do).
11. I (be) sorry that I (hurt) him.
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12. After they (go), I (sit) down and (rest).
13. Did you (post) the letter after you (type) it?
14. After I (hear) the news, I (hurry) to see him.
15. When we (arrive), the dinner already (begin).
Exercise 4:
Choose the correct answer by crossing either A, B, C, D or E.
1. By the end of this week I...........from Malaysia.
a. am back
d. may be back
b. have been back
e. will have been back
c. would be back
2. I know that one of my students.........in your company since he graduated.
a. work
c. to work
e. have worked
b. working
d. has been working
3. He found the door of his house open, although he.......it before.
a. be locked
c. had been locked
e. had to lock
b. had locked
d. had been locking
4. Hadi looks very tired. He......for hours now.
a. drove
c. was driving
e. has been driving
b. had driven
d. had been driving
5. I hope that by the time my father retires, I.......a job.
a. get
c. have got
e. will have got
b. am getting
d. got
6. I have written three letters. The sentence means........
a. She is still writing now.
b. She is not writing anymore
c. She has not finished writing yet.
d. She hopes to finish writing this morning.
e. She has to write now.
7. For the last five months he........of moving out because the area has become highly polluted.
a. thinks
c. though
e. has been thinking
b. is thinking
d. had thought
8. Suryo had already been working in that company for two years when I started working
there. This means........
a. Suryo wasn’t working in that company anymore.
b. Suryo would be working for two more years.
c. Suryo stopped working in that company.
d. Suryo worked in that company only for two years.
e. Surya was still working in that company.
9. Tina had just watered the flowers when Ali came. From this sentence we know that.........
a. Ali didn’t see Tina watering the flowers.
b. Ali came at the time Tina was watering the flowers.
c. Ali was watching Tina watering the flowers.
d. Ali would come when Tina finished watering the flowers.
e. Ali had come before Tina watered the flowers.
10. Iwan, the national tennis player,.........tennis since he was nine.
a. played
c. plays
e. had played
b. has been playing d. is playing

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...... 2...... He is always very tired when he gets home..... (disappoint) a................................ ........................................................................ . See the following examples: 1.......... Present Participle (Verb-ing) 2............. ................... .. The film was disappointing..............................Chapter 2 Participle There are two types of Participle: 1.................................. ............. ..... .................... Do you know the girl talking to Tom? 2........ 3.................... ...... The ing-form has an active meaning........... Past Participle Bored Interested Excited Tired Surprised Amazed Frightened Confused Disappointed Fascinated Embarrassed Horrified Terrified Depressed Worried Annoyed Exhausted Satisfied Meaning . 1. .......... I expected it to be much better...................................... ................. ......................... ....... ..... (depress-) a...... . The man injured in the accident was taken to the hospital...................... b................ The film was disappointing.... I hate this weather................. .................................. ........................... ......... ......... 5 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ........... 4............... ... Exercise 1: Complete the following sentences................. Read the following examples: 1........................................ He has a very tiring job... .......... ............. ..... ............... while the Verb-3 has a passive meaning................. 5......................... ................ ..... . ................. . Verb-ing and Verb-3 are also used in clauses...... .......... Past Participle (Verb-3) Present Participle and Past Participle can be used as adjectives... John is bored because his job is boring.................................... We were disappointed with the film.... The policemen investigating the robbery are looking for three men.................... 3....................... It’s been raining all day................... None of the people invited to the party can come.......................... I was disappointed with the film............................................... Some pairs of Present Participle and Past Participle which are used as adjectives : Present Participle Boring Interesting Exciting Tiring Surprising Amazing Frightening Confusing Disappointing Fascinating Embarrassing Horrifying Terrifying Depressing Worrying Annoying Exhausting Satisfying Meaning ................. ...................................... ..... This weather is.................. . 4................ Example: The film was not as good as we had expected............... ........... ........ Use an adjective ending in –ing or –ed to complete the sentences........

............ (he was injured in the accident) The man injured in the accidents was taken to the hospital......... Example: a................... It’s a hard job....... 6.. Diana teaches young children....... 6. I was woken up by the baby... I had never expected to be offered the job. I’m starting a new job next week............ She often finds her job........... This weather makes me...She wants to do something different.............. I was really amazing/amazed when I was offered it.. Some paintings were stolen from the palace........ The programme was....... At the end of the day’s work she is often... Are you interesting/interested in football? 5......... That girl is Australian........ The man was taken to the hospital............. She has never been there before.. Tom is.... b... 8.. (bore) a. (exhaust) a... They had always seemed so happy together.... Astronomy is one of Tom’s main interests........ 7......................... It was a really terrifying/terrified experience....................... there was a man. She is really...people I’ve ever met.... A plane crashed into the sea yesterday..... It was very .... Afterwards everybody was very shocking/shocked... b. b....? Is your life really so ... We were all horrifying/horrified when we heard about the disaster. I’m quite.................. I seldom visit art galleries..2............. I enjoyed the football match................ Ann is going to America next month..............experience for her....about it..... 3....about going....... 2.in arts............. At the end of the street there is a path....... He finds astronomy very. He never stops talking and never says something.. I went for a very long walk....... It will be an ......... Exercise 2: Choose the right adjectives..... (they belong to the Queen) 6 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ......... (she is talking to Tom) That girl talking to Tom is Australian... b....... 1.... It’s sometimes embarrassing/embarrassed when you have to ask people for money.... It was quite exciting/excited. 9.. Why do you always look. I turned off the television in the middle of the programme.... 2. Jane finds her job ..... (interest-) a.........................in astronomy............. I was........... It was really disgusting/disgusted............. When I was walking home....when I heard they were getting divorced...... 5.......... He’s one of the most . I was .......... The kitchen hadn’t been cleaned for ages..... Exercise 4: Rewrite the following sentences.. 5............ (he was following me) 3....... 3.. b.... Use the information in brackets to make an-ing clause or an –ed clause..... 4.......? 4.... I was disappointing/ disappointed with the film.... (it was carrying 28 passengers) 2..... 3..... b.... (she was crying) 4............ 7..... (the path leads to the river) 5...... I’m not very ................ 4............ Do you easily get embarrassing/embarrassed? Exercise 3: Complete these sentences with an adjective ending in -ing or –ed.......... 1....... (excite) a.... 1............

. 3. Somebody. Having finished his survey 4..... beat b.. it was beaten e.of our school”....today should arrive tomorrow............ I saw a dog..... the town soon became a popular tourist resort....Jack phoned while you were out..... Tom has got a brother ... Use the correct form of the Present Participle or Past Participle..... a.. 1...... To be startled 2... Being an outstanding student in our school.... 7... which will frighten b..... Situated b..the student prepared a report. 8. (they were made at the meeting) 8... 2.. When he is an outstanding student 7....... The underlined phrase means: an experience .. It is startling e... The paintings haven’t been found yet. As he is an outstanding student b. who frightens d.. He had finished his survey b.... the baby woke up and cried.......... When I entered the waiting-room... There was a tree .. I received a letter..down in the storm last night........ ...... Situates 7 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ......me a job..... a..... B.. All letters . having escape e.... None of the people. (it was broken in last night’s storm) 7..... Although he is an outstanding student e. a.......... that frighten c.... A few days after the interview.. Startling b...near airport... Situating e... a....... is escaped 6.. economics at university in Glasgow........ He finished his survey e... 5......... .... The first school day is a frightening experience for many children.................. a.. In startling d.near a beautiful beach...6. (they were stolen from the museum) Exercise 5: Complete these sentences with the verbs in the box........ Most of the suggestions were not very practical. Situated c. being beaten d.. 6.. escaped b. C... was escaped d. it frightens 5.. it is frightening e......... he has been offered a scholarship to study in Australia.... Finished his survey d. On my way home. The window has now been repaired........... Exercise 6: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A.................. He has finished his survey c......except for a young man.. there was nobody....... D or E... escape c..... 9...................by a boy.. beating c.....prisoners were caught by the police. If he is an outstanding student d... be beaten 3. Startled c.. Sometimes life must be very unpleasant for people.in a bank in London and a sister...a magazine.. I was woken up by a bell.. Before he is an outstanding student c............by the window....... a..... a.... It is situated d..by the sudden noise............ blow read call ring invite sit live study offer wait post work 1... Two of the ...... The underlined words means “....... 4.many children......to the party can come.........

. frightening 9. being frightened b. a...child ran to his mother when he heard the thunder.near airport.8. hiding 8 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ... A hidden treasure c. they lived 10... frightens e. a. be living d... frightened c.. A treasure. live c. They hid a treasure d. frighten d.. What have people recently found in the remote village? a.. Sometimes life must be very pleasant for people ... Hiding a treasure e.. The treasure was hidden b... they are living b... The . be living e.

Now you decide that it doesn’t look very nice. I go to school on foot. Andi will lend you money. It is contrary to the fact. 2. were V-2 Did not + V1 WISH Past Tense: Were Did not + V1 V-2 Past Perfect Tense : Had been Had not + V3 Had + V3 Exercise 1: Read the following sentences and respond using “wish”. They didn’t attend the meeting. Some students failed the exams. is are V-1 Does/do not + V1 Past Tense : Was. Joe feels very sad. Exercise 2: Based on the following situation. When the fact is in the past. George has to write a lot of letters.Chapter 3 Sentences with “wish” Observe the sentences below: SITUATION My mother is sick. Example: The doctor isn’t in now. I wish I didn’t go to school on foot. 7. I wish the doctor were in now. 2. You were walking in the country. Example: You’ve eaten so much and now you feel sick. 10. I wish he lived in the city. You’ve just painted the door red. I was sick last week. You would like to take some photographs but you didn’t bring your camera. “Wish” in the sentences above is used to express an expectation which was not fulfilled. Tom doesn’t live in the city. the “wish” is in the past. the “wish” is in the past perfect. 3. They don’t sell groceries here. I wish I had not been sick. The students don’t understand the lesson. 1. When the fact is in the present. I wish they had attended the meeting. The bus leaves at six p. 5. WISH I wish my mother were not sick. See the following pattern: FACT Present Tense: Am. write sentences with “wish” like the example. 3. I wish they had not failed the exams. 1. The sentence with “wish” is unreal. You don’t know the director. You say : I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. Mrs. The dentist doesn’t work on Sundays. 4. 8. Paul can’t drive a car. 9. John isn’t going with us. A good friend of yours visited your town but unfortunately you were away when he 9 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . 6.m.

... 5. 4. is c.... He doesn’t like her d. a....... You live in London and you hate London.... My sister was smiling as if she.... will be able to 2.. a.. but you’d like to.(know) a lot about the subject.(find) it amusing. A : Let’s go swimming... The boys were behaving as if they. am able c. will be d. Everything was fine except for the hotel.. So you didn’t see him. 7.... .I would rather my father worked in a bank.. Example: They behaved as if they...... 7.. For example : . b............. 9... 15.. has been e.. “as if” and “as though”...... 1.....(not meet) each other for ages....(be) the manager..... were 3.(be) very tired....... The man looked at us as though we...... c...... 5..... You don’t know anything about cars.. 8. 11. The tyre looks as if it ...here now to watch our play...... Exercise 4: Choose the correct form by crossing either a.......... Besides using “wish”....(be) lost.......... You have to work tomorrow.......... The girl was talking as if she..... We have a test tomorrow and I still have to study.... 8...... He spoke as if he had liked her....He always talks as if he knew everything..(want) to run away.... be able to b. be b.... She sat down as if she.... could e......... to express unreal condition we may use “would rather”..... .. The boy looked as though he . They behaved as if they had not met each other for years. “if only”.. which wasn’t very good. 14...(want) to tell us something.. 3........ My friend was panting as though he.... but you’d like to stay in bed. 12... The child wandered about as if she....(run) a long way.. She looks as though she.. and your car has just broken down.. 6.. The sentence means... You can’t give up smoking.. d.(win) the first prize.....They acted as though they had won the competition. He orders people about as if he .came.. 1. You’ve just come back from the holiday...... a.... It sounded as though something.(take) the boxes... 2. He appeared to like her c. could be d...... 4. Exercise 3: Give the correct form of the words in brackets. b..(go) mad... 10.... 13. He used to like her e.... B : I wish I .. He really liked her......(be) punctured.(be) sick.. I wish he.......... He wanted people to think he liked her 10 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .... Her father is shouting as though he ....(fall)..(be) angry.......... or e. The girl behaved as if she.. 6.. It seemed as if he .....

it would stop b. His son didn’t study harder.... Mother said to the guest. His son had studied harder.. She ought to know how to solve the problem. it stops c. haven’t got to d. knew d.... hadn’t had d. His son has studied harder.. I wish you.to stay at home because I’m sure that you would have enjoyed the concert very much. e. haven’t had b..... a. didn’t have to c. I wish.. a.. I’m planning to go to a party tonight. know c.4.. a.” a... She definitely knew how to solve the problem. She went to the blackboard as if she knew how to solve the problem.. His son will not study harder. She should know how to solve the problem.. it had stopped 6...... 7..leave now. had known b... will know 8.. 5.. it will stop e....... visit c. “I wish you..raining now.. b. She actually can’t solve the problem. hadn’t e. c... am visiting e. but it’s raining very hard now.. have known e...... weren’t having to b... could visit b.... b.. a. didn’t have to c... have visited 10. If only his son had studied harder. She succeeded to solve the problem. c. His son never studies harder.. a... it has stopped d.. a. won’t have to e. From the sentence we know that ..her more often. d. She is always busy with her work. don’t have o000o 11 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . This means.. aren’t having to 9.... would visit d... e. d. I’m sorry I don’t know the answer but I really wish I . I wish i...

............... despite/in spite of Because/as/since.......................................... he is in fact German........... b............................ Keith decided to give up his job. 2...... .......... c. ...... Use the word(s) in brackets in your sentences.. 4............. (despite) ........... I love music................... 6....... Mary wore a raincoat as it was raining............................. they enjoyed themselves........................................ they enjoyed themselves......................... “Although”. a lot of things went wrong............ Notes: “Though”......... Despite the rain..... and “Even though” are followed by .... e........ I didn’t feel hungry................ because of and others Observe the following sentences: 1........... Although it rained a lot............ Mary wore a raincoat since it was raining..............all my careful plans......I had planned everything carefully.......... 2.... 4................. b.....the heating was full on..... (in spite of) ...... In spite of not having eaten for 24 hours.... .... 5.............. Although he has an English name.................................... In spite of the rain.................. 6... 1............... Even though it rained a lot.................................. 3................................. (despite) ......... they enjoyed themselves...... a..................................... Mary wore a raincoat because of the rain........... Exercise 1: Complete the following sentences with although or in spite of................................................ (although) ......................................being very tired.... 1.. this house was till cold......................I can’t play a musical instrument...... In spite of her injured foot.. “Because of” is followed by .. a lot of things went wrong... Though it rained a lot.............................................. “Despite” and “In spite of” are followed by ................... Mary wore a raincoat because it was raining............. 5........................... c.......... d... Exercise 3: Read the following sentences and change them using “in spite of” 12 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ................................................ ......... I decided to accept the job although the salary was low........ we carried on walking....... 3....................... she managed to walk to the village..........Chapter 4 Conjunctions Though/although/even though.......................I advised him not to........................... Exercise 2: Read these sentences and then write a new sentence with the same meaning................ I couldn’t sleep although I was tired............................................. “Because”...... (despite) ..................... (even though) . “as” and “since” are followed by..................... d............... We lost the match although we were the better team....... 2....... they enjoyed themselves..... a.............. they enjoyed themselves.......

George couldn’t answer the letter immediately because he had a lot of homework to do..tidak (kecuali)” 8. John can’t go to the movie because he has an exam tomorrow. because 2.. when b. otherwise means “jika tidak” 7.. and it started raining immediately. even though 3.. in order that.. Other conjunctions: 1.. 1. in spite of d. 10.. consequently means “akibatnya” 5. b. A : You look happy with your new job... 7.. D or E. all the same means “namun (demikian)” 2.. 8. It had started raining before I got to the library. I stayed home because it was raining. Mary stayed home yesterday because she had a headache. on the contrary means “sebaliknya” 4. a. We didn’t wear coats although the weather was cool. hence means “oleh karena itu” 3. 5. 6. The classes were cancelled because it was a holiday... as soon as means “segera setelah” Exercise 5: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A... John got home late because the traffic was heavy. B. 6. if b.. however e. till/until means “sampai” 9... since e. Mr. C.. It started raining when I was walking to the library. 4.. Alice is going to Florida because she wants to visit her sister.. a. We decided to go to Fish Lake although the distance was great.. 10. yet.. B : That’s right... Mr. Jones moved to Arizona because the state has a dry climate. We sat on the ground although the grass was wet.. so that means “agar supaya” 6.my salary is smaller than before. Our football team didn’t win the match . as long as means “selama/asalkan” 10.we got a new coach. as a result. Betty went although her mother didn’t want him to. When I got to the library. therefore. c. 9. 2. d. Exercise 4: Rewrite the following sentences using “because of”. We enjoyed our lunch although the coffee was cold.. I came here because I wanted to take the English course. It started raining as soon as I got to the library.. nevertheless. We started home although Betty wanted to stay longer. despite c.. We went in George’s car although the engine was in bad condition.. 5. 9. 7. 13 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . We wanted to go there although the road was not good.. 3. it was already raining. however. on the other hand. 4. accordingly. a.. 8. 1. I got to the library at one o’clock. in spite of c. although d. 3. Miller is going to move to California because he likes the weather there... We got there in an hour although George’s car was very old.. unless means “jika. We swam in the lake although the water was cold. 2.1. My family and I are happier.

. Until e..... In order that c. a. the villagers were willing to transmigrate..he was very lazy to study.. Whereas e. The price of the car went down. have become the victim of it e. I have to save money every month. complain about the danger threatening them c. are still washing their clothes there b. Whereas d.... because of e.. . a. When the price went down.. otherwise I won’t be able to send my children to college.. My uncle doesn’t earn much.. Because 5.... I could not buy it. Since b. Although d. I did not buy the car because the price never went down. a. a. The river is highly polluted. a. therefore e. the price went down.... After I bough the car.... although b. The sentence means. e.... therefore I will be able b. 8. a.. I bought the car.. ..... are greatly concerned about it 9. a.. The sentence means...... 4. However b.she likes him very much.... do not allow the children to play there d.... b. I certainly be able d. Since c.... because c..... I could not afford to buy the car until the price went down. however..... so 7. when 6.. the rain started sometime before I went to the library. So that 10.he can send his children to college.the earthquake had made the region unsafe for living... c.. hence b. d. I had already bought the car before the price went down. besides I will be able o000o 14 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .... many people. she pretends to ignore him. John failed his exam in the national examination . but I will not be able c.... however c.. nevertheless. if I don’t I won’t be able e.e...... however d. and d..

If you (read) that book carefully. He does not go by car because he doesn’t have one. they can stay up late. I should have caught the train. if we study hard. If my car (not break) down. 3. Past Conditional Sentence Observe the following: TYPE MAIN CLAUSE 1 Will/can + Verb-1 Examples: He will go to the doctor We will pass the exam They will fail the exam 2 Would /could+ Verb-1 Examples: I could fly high He would go by car He would be happier 3 Would/could have + Verb-3 Examples: He would have stayed at home They would have won the match IF-CLAUSE USE Simple Present Tense a. if they do not study hard. With “be”= were b. she (have) more sense. If she were older. He is not very happy because his wife works outside. I cannot fly because I am not a bird. 3. The meanings of conditional sentences types 2 and 3: 2. With Auxiliary Verb= do/does not + V-1 To express something that may or may not happen in the future if he is sick. With “be”= am. a. b. Exercise 1 Supply a suitable tense of the verbs in brackets. if he had one. They didn’t win the match because they didn’t practice a lot. 6. To express something that is contrary to the fact of the past if they had practised a lot. b. 4. 15 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . c. Future Conditional Sentence 2. With Verb= V-1/V-1s(es) c. With “be”= had been b. If the children (be) good. You will be ill if you (eat) so much. Simple Past Tense a. With verb= V-2 c. if his wife didn’t work outside. Past Perfect Tense a. I (go) if I had known. With Auxiliary Verb= did not + V-1 To express something that is contrary to the fact of the present if I were a bird. 1. He didn’t stay at home because he was not sick yesterday. 2. are b. a. is.Chapter 5 Conditional Sentences There are three types of Conditional Sentences: 1. 5. you would understand it. With verb= had+V-3 if he had been sick yesterday. Present Conditional Sentence 3.

. 16 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ...... You’ll be ill if you drink that water.. 13. He will not come unless. 3.... 9. 11. 8. If he wrote to me I’ll write to him.. People don’t understand him because he doesn’t speak clearly. 15.. 10.. The soldiers will fight bravely if they (understand) their orders. If you didn’t live so far away. I will play tennis..... 2. I will come and see you if I have time. 8. 4... 15. 2.. 12. 1.. If they had waited.... I’m sure she will do well if she (go) to the university.He’ll come if you wait.. 9. We (be) pleased if our school won the match. 1.. We can’t have lunch in the garden because it’s raining. If he had been thirsty. Exercise 2 Read the following sentences and change them into the other forms of conditional sentences... 3. 13. If you ring the bell. She doesn’t go out very often because she can’t walk without help. 3.. he would have been drowned. they (find) me. I didn’t wake George because I didn’t know he wanted to get up early.. Example: ... 14. I (buy) that hat if it were not so dear. it (bite) you. The streets would be wet if it rained. 7. I can’t meet you tomorrow evening because I have to work. Answers: ..He would have come if you had waited. 7. If it (be) fine tomorrow.. I would not have thought it possible if I (not see) it myself... If you hit the dog.. Example: We don’t visit you very often because you live so far away.. I was able to buy the car because Jim lent me the money. he would have drunk some water. will you give him any? 14. I’m not going to buy that book because it’s too expensive. 12. 1... The accident happened because the driver stopped so suddenly... somebody will come... You (kill) yourself if you always work as hard as that. What will you do if you meet Mr. 10.He would come if you waited. If he saw he would speak to you... 5..... If you buy that big house... What would happen if the bridge broke? 10... If your message had not come. we would visit you more often. you will need several servants. 5... He’s fat because he doesn’t take any exercise. If you had worked harder. Exercise 3 Read the following situation and write sentences with “if”. Why didn’t you do it if.... If he had fallen into the river.7..... 4. 8. You’ll catch the train if you take a taxi. 6. 2. Robinson? 9. 11... my sister will post if for you. . You would have found the book if you had opened the bag. If a beggar asks you for money. 4. 6. She wasn’t injured in the crash because she was wearing a seat-belt.. Exercise 4 Finish the following sentences with your own words. If you leave the letter on that table...

. their house was crowded with people c............ a........... it was only a small family b. I would have won the prize if....... this is a dangerous intersection c.... 1..... b........ he would have looked for another job.......... We conclude that......... would have left b...... If there were traffic lights at this intersection.. despite the traffic lights accidents happen e. so they got a better view.. a..... Exercise 5: Choose the correct answer by crossing either a. 10.... 17 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ....... is still looking for another job 7............ I would not have lost my money if.... If the car were in a better condition... You would be very angry with us if... stayed at home c. couldn’t find a good job c..... the only accidents occur at this intersection b.. prefer staying at home b..5...... she was too late for the first train 4... We may conclude that Andy . the party could have been held at their house... left c....it in the hotel...... have left d..... drivers were always very careful at this intersection 2. found a better-paying job b.. Flowers will not grow well unless. a. I will be very disappointed if.. 9...... c.. 13...... 12... had left 3. It means that.. They climbed higher... a.. she stayed at home that day c. She could have attended the meeting if she had taken the first train......... It may be concluded that we..... not many of the invited people came 6.. the meeting was cancelled b. If I met your friend Mirna in the street. she didn’t like the meeting e.... d...... If I were you... 11. enjoyed the trip 5.. doesn’t like his job d... a.... there wouldn’t be so many accidents.... a.... the party was not held at their house d........ Had the company not raised Andy’s salary..... didn’t leave his present job e... 8... We would not have lost our bag if we. or e. 7. the guests enjoyed the party at their house e. we would make a long trip now. If you don’t visit me soon.... 6... We can conclude that.... have to stay at home d.............. are enjoying the trip e....... Had they invited fewer people.......... If I had plenty of money.... the first train was late d........ 14............. would leave e... 15.. If he wants to see me........... the traffic light often doesn’t work d. If I had known he was here..

e.. b... If they didn’t climb higher.. he didn’t have the potential of a good swimmer 10..... a. he could have become a good swimmer. I could have gone to the party. I didn’t want to be interviewed b.We can also say. he was afraid of swimming c.... I would not have been too late for the interview. a.. If the company’s personnel department had mailed the letter earlier.. he was not interested in becoming a good swimmer e. 8.. If they don’t climb higher... the letter came too early e. he liked swimming very much b. c. they wouldn’t get a better view... a. It can be concluded that .. I went with John... If he had taken the swimming lesson seriously... If I had not quarrelled with John. If they climb higher.... The sentence means... they don’t get a better view.. John promised to go with me c. they won’t get a better view.. If they won’t climb higher... I didn’t go with John d... I missed the interview 9. John would like to go with me. a. If they had not climbed higher.to the party. From the sentence we may conclude that. he succeeded to become a good swimmer d... they didn’t get a better view... perhaps I’ll go with John b. the company didn’t send the letter c. I went through the interview d. d. o000o 18 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . they would not have got a better view. e...

He did not break the vase. and neither has she. and my cousin cannot either. My sister cannot sing well. Ellipsis with “and. I knew the answer quite well. I haven’t finished my homework. My father is not a civil servant. and his mother is too. I do not trust him anymore. 6. and neither is my mother.. and she hasn’t either. Mia has read the book... She hasn’t finished her homework. They’ll attend the meeting. We’ll attend the meeting. His father does not have 19 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . She will not be moving out after all.. B. Andi passed the examination. 4. They knew the answer quite well. My parents work hard to support the family. 3... Exercise 2: Combine the following sentences using “either” and “neither”. a... b. I have never met her before. Andi passed the examination. 9. b.. The jewellery was stolen. Cindi has not graduated. The mangoes she bought were spoilt. Ellipsis with “and. My father is not at home. My father loves durian.either” or “and neither. My father is not a civil servant.. My father does not have enough money to buy a new car. My father loves durian. 2. and so did Fina. My father loves durian.” Observe the following sentences: 1. 5.. 10. Exercise 1: Join the following pairs of sentences using “and. My mother is not at home... I did not break the vase. My mother is not a civil servant.. His parents work hard to support the family. 2. Andi passed the examination. The money was stolen.. b. I haven’t finished my homework. 8..Chapter 6 Elliptical Constructions A. and Fina did.... a.” Observe the following sentences: 1. 3. a.. My sister cannot sing well. The purse belongs to her. 1. and my mother is not either.... He will not be moving out after all. Dewi has not graduated. My mother is a housewife. Fina passed the examination. 3. My cousin cannot sing well. too. and so does my mother. 7. My brother could lift the box... 7. a... a. My father could lift the box.. My mother loves durian. b. My father is not a civil servant. b. 3.. I tried to persuade her to come. My sister has never met her before... and neither can my cousin. 6. and so is his mother. My sister does not trust him anymore. 5.”.. Her friends tried to persuade her to come. b. My sister cannot sing well...... 2. 4. The back door is locked. and my mother does.too” and “and so.too” or “and so. a.. I haven’t finished my homework. too.. My mother is a housewife. My mother is a housewife.. The umbrella belongs to her.. The apples she bought were spoilt. His mother is a housewife.. 2. Her friends have read the book.. 1. The front door is locked.

. a.. Nina did not pass the exam.... 9. such as Both... Because of the rain. and also the teacher e. C.. but father does b.. also I could not b.and... 5..but also. The maid sweeps the floor.. neither am I c.. Nor do the grocery stores e... The grocery stores aren’t either b........ Neither Nina nor Anton passed the exam. a..... either do I 4... The grocery stores don’t either 3.....or... Everybody laughed at his jokes. ........ Your friend has not paid the rent.... neither did I e..... a.......... and .... 2.... My uncle doesn’t smoke........ 8... My friends were not interested to watch the movie... You have not paid the rent...... .. I do neither e. and neither did the teacher b. I neither couldn’t d... Neither... I was not interested to watch the movie. Not only........... 10... Anton did not pass the exam. She washes the clothes.. He doesn’t speak Chinese.... 1.... Neither do the grocery stores d..... and so does father c.. and mother does too 2.. B.. The others did not enjoy the party..... My sister had breakfast this morning... I didn’t have breakfast this morning... Either.. No bookstores are open today.. but the teacher not d... 4. neither do I d.. so did I c..... Examples: 1.. The grocery stores are too c.... The maid not only sweeps the floor but also washes the clothes.. 3.. neither doesn’t mother e...... the teacher couldn’t come on time and . and father doesn’t too d......... Ellipsis with others. I do either b . and so the teacher did 5. Exercise 3: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A. I study Japanese.. I did not enjoy the party... I didn’t have breakfast this morning but my sister did. I study English..... D or E... a. Either you or your brother must help your father...... but the teacher did not c......... I study both English and Japanese..nor. a.... I couldn’t either 20 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . You must help your father or your brother must help your father.......but.enough money to buy a new car....... C.

my father is b.. d.. neither was I d... My brother also did c... a.” a.. but. is 8.” B : “But he . A : “I don’t think your cousin knows anything about computers. so does my father c. Also my brother e... Neither don’t I b..6.... a. know d. I didn’t either c. So does my brother 10... so am I 7.. My brother does too....... X : My brother has just bought a new motorcycle... I think that my mother will be interested in reading this novel. do e. knows b.. a. So don’t I c. but I am not e..000.. my father will be o000o 21 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . I don’t either e. does c. while I didn’t b. He took a computer course last year.. Y : What a coincidence! .. I don’t also 9... my father won’t d..... I don’t like bright colours...for the study tour to Bali. so will my father c... Andy agreed that everybody had to pay Rp 500... a... ..... b. My brother has too.. I don’t so d...

.............. ........... I expected you to be here....... You’re making too much noise.................. 5................. It was........ 7............................................................ 4.. He’s not so keen on his studies...size............ The earlier we leave...........in having a good time.......... Each time use the comparative form of one of the following adjectives or adverbs............... 3.... There were a lot of people on the bus................ You’ll find your way around the town............. .........................Chapter 7 Degrees of Comparison Observe the following table: POSITIVE One or twoTall syllable adjectives high Clever Three-syllable Beautiful adjectives Interesting Important Irregular Good/well Bad/badly Far Little Many/much COMPARATIVE Taller than Higher than Cleverer than More beautiful than More interesting than More important than Better than Worse than Further (than) Farther than Less than More than SUPERLATIVE The tallest The highest The cleverest The most beautiful The most interesting The most important The best The worst The furthest The farthest The least The most Exercise 1: Complete these sentences.. 2.. This jacket is too small................................................................. crowded early easily expensive interested near often quiet thin large 1.................. You’re late..... 4..................................... It’s a pity you live so far away.... Why don’t you write a bit...... 8...... 22 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .........than usual..................... Exercise 2: Match the clauses in Part A with the suitable clauses in Part B........... .............................................................. PART A PART B The earlier we leave the faster you’ll learn The longer we waited the more you have to pay The more I got to know him the sooner we’ll arrive The more you practice your English the more profit you’ll make The longer the telephone call the more impatient he became The more goods you sell the more I liked him Answers: 1............................. Can you be a bit ............if you have a map................... 2. Have you lost weight? 3... You look.........? 6......................... I wish you lived.. 10............. The hotel was surprisingly cheap....... I expected it to be much............... He’s ......... .. I need a ...........................larger............. You hardly ever write to me........? 9..........

.................................. 3....... Tito. I’ve never met such a generous person as Ann.......................................................................... 2...........................5......... ...................... It isn’t...... 8.. 3................................... 4......... 4... 23 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .......................... How do they differ from each other on their height....... He’s never made such a bad mistake........ For example: In my family I’m taller than my brother............... That’s the most...................................... Example: I’ve never seen such a boring film.............. I don’t ... 6...................... 2.. 5... You. Exercise 5: Think of your own family and compare all of them.... The hotel isn’t...................... It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen. The station was nearer than I thought............... 1.............. Example: Jack is younger than he looks................. This is ......... 6........ 1... 5... The examination was easier than we expected.... weight......... 6.............. This is............. There weren’t......... 7................. That’s ..................... I’ve never had such a good friend as you.... Begin as shown.................. I go out less than I used to............... Exercise 3: Rewrite these sentences so that they have the same meaning.... I’ve never slept in such an uncomfortable bed...................... Jack isn’t as old as he looks.............. There were fewer people at this meeting than at the last one...................................... Use a superlative each time and begin each sentence as shown................................................................ Make more than five sentences..................... It is warmer today than yesterday.. I’ve never had such a big meal................................ The examination wasn’t............ I haven’t had to make such a difficult decision for years.. The station wasn’t... .. It is......... Exercise 4: Read these sentences and then write a new sentence with the same meaning.............. but my father is the tallest of all.................. The hotel is cheaper than I expected.... personality or the others..................................................................................... Ann is..........heard........................... I’ve never heard such a funny story......................... I haven’t tasted such a good coffee for a long time.............................. That’s............

.......... 11.. 15..............whose. 19.. The man whose car was damaged in the accident was hospitalized..you are smoking is “Jarum”.... 6.... 2......... Use more than one relative pronoun if possible. that......mother I was talking to has left the room......... The girl.lead to school is very wide...you are wearing is lovely.. 3.. I want to find a man .......................... The umbrella which is in front of the room is mine.. Exercise 1: Add a relative pronoun to the following sentences............... The man who is coming here is the principal.....you lent me is very interesting. I’m looking for somebody.......... ... Object ..... The man whom you talked about is my neighbour...............I can trust...............purse has been stolen.... The girl.......... 20....... There’s the lady.......... 16. .....Chapter 8 Relative Pronouns Observe the following sentences: 1...... The man that you talked about is my neighbour. .... His wife is a woman . ... ... 14..........----.... 8.....lives next door has just died.lives opposite my house is very pretty... 4..... The dress .. Possessive . ...... 6.... For the sentences above you may also say: 1......I ate yesterday was not so good.... 10.. 4. The man that is coming here is the principal...which.. The umbrella which you borrow is my sister’s.............which.is sitting next to me is very good-looking. 9... 5......... The umbrella that is in front of the room is mine.. that...whose wife was badly wounded in the accident....... The use of Defining Relative Pronouns Subject Person .. 2.. Women .was broken is now mended... 5.you want has just left. Thing ....................... 24 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. ...... 18..............who. of which.... 2........ The old man .will lend me the money. The magazine.... The chair.............. The umbrella whose colour is red is Mrs.. The umbrella you borrow is my sister’s.....----...... 7.loves jokes...... 17......... The street . 3....... 12.. 13.. The umbrella that you borrow is my sister’s.. The man you talked about is my neighbour..................I cut this morning is still very fresh... The lady..... The person.. The cigarette ... The flowers...in hospitals are to be admired.............. 1..... I will never forget the man.... Wahyu’s..............whose.... .. The man.........................had helped me fight the pickpocket......... that..........that. The fish..... 5..... 4. ........whom.... That’s the man....was here yesterday has gone to London.......

....... Megawati.is a bad habit...... His birth place was Salzburg. Exercise 3: Combine the following pairs of sentences by using a suitable relative pronoun..which. He was living with her. Shakespeare.. is situated in Yogyakarta.. whose....... Flies.. The table stands by the window............. The matter has been settled.. 1... Example: 1.. You were arguing about it last night......... whom the teacher was talking about 2. 8.........come mostly in the summer.... 3... makes people strong. 3. They will grow well in pots indoors.. 9...... . was also a writer. comes to everyone at some time in his life... . d or e............was a great general. Love...... George Washington. has been taught to students in Indonesia since they are in the elementary school. 7.whom...became the President of the United States. Grammar.....is one of the oldest in the world. I left the cigarettes on the table.. 2.yesterday.. One should try to stop smoking.. 6. What is the name of the girl? She came here last night..... 10. 5. His legs were shot away in the war...... 5.... carry diseases.... 9.. a..... whose............... He was a powerful Roman General. ......... 1..... 10.... 2. 4. Mozart spent the last ten years of his life in Vienna...some students dislike... Is that the new station? You pointed out to me last week. is very good for them.. is made up of many gases. the teacher was talking about b......... c.... who. 6...... ................. Exercise 2: Add the necessary relative pronoun to the following....is a wonderful feeling... 2.. who was the first woman to be president of our country.. Exercise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either a..........is a good sport....which.. Possessive .... Julius Caesar came to Britain in 55 BC. the teacher was talking about it d............ 8... These cactus plants should not have too much water... .... 4.. An old soldier sits begging on the pavement.. was born in a little cottage.......... The businessman.. 1. never told a lie. . which many students from all over Indonesia attend.....we breathe...... which is an international language. of which..is the world’s greatest dramatist... His step mother was not very kind to him...Air...we met at the party yesterday is the General Manager of a 25 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . English..... b.. Gajah Mada University....... about the teacher was talking c.The use of Non-Defining Relative Pronouns: Subject Object Person .... This is the man I gave the money to him this morning...... This is the book... has many different colleges.. is Sukarno’s daughter. 3.... Swimming..... Julius Caesar. 7. Oxford University.. ... Thing .. that the teacher was talking about it e.......

where he borrowed a car c.. who is b.succeeded in getting a scholarship a. which d.. from whom he borrowed a car d.. The student succeeded in getting a scholarship.. is in hospital now... The lady.....is a very generous person. a...the Dutch imprisoned Pangeran Diponegoro.. which I told you d. Tom’s father. the two chapters are taken 7.. This is the place.... a.. he borrowed a car from him b.. of which 6.. to whom d. Flash... from whom I bought the typewriter e.. a..... which I bought the typewriter from b.this letter is addressed had moved to another city.......... a. whom e... from which these two chapters are taken b. who b.big company.. from him I bought the typewriter c. whose c.. which 10...... whoever 3. whom I told you about e..... where these two chapters are taken from d....... with whom e. his typewriter I bought 26 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .... that I told you b... whom the teachers like b.... The book...... about which I told you c..health hasn’t been good lately.. which the teachers like him e..... a. it was from them the two chapter are e... where d.. the person he borrowed a car 5.... whom b..... The teachers like him. who c. His supervisor.. a.. The above sentence can be joined as follows: The student..... that 8....is only available in the library... where e. A : Who called you last night? B : The student. he is liked by the teachers c. on which c. a....... a... of whom e. to which c.. his car he borrowed e.. which b. I bought the typewriter from him d.. I told you 9. This is Mr... the teachers like him d... is liked by the teachers 4... his d........ these two chapters are taken c..

Two of my dinner plates (break). 2. She had returned the books to the library The books had been returned to the before she went home. have + Verb 3 Has. This picture (always admire). Present Perfect 27 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . are + BEING + Verb 3 Was. Past 6. 5. Present 2. were + BEING + Verb 3 The house is being cleaned now. is. Present / Past Continuous Tense ACTIVE Am. PASSIVE Am. Past 3. 1. are + Verb 3 The house is cleaned every day. The Tower of London (formerly use) as a prison. were + Verb-ing Example: Someone is cleaning the house now. could. is. This exercise (do) very carefully. Present Continuous 4. Simple Present Tense ACTIVE Verb 1/ Verb 1s(es) Example: Someone cleans the house every day. will etc. is. His homework has been finished. The police must punish the criminals. Simple Past Tense ACTIVE Verb 2 Example: Someone cleaned the house yesterday. Present Perfect 5. The plates were being washed when I arrived home. are + Verb-ing Was. were + Verb 3 The house was cleaned yesterday. Exercise 1: Complete the following passive voice sentences in the tense suggested. His leg (hurt) in an accident. will etc. could. The box (not open) for the last hundred years. 3. PASIVE Was. 4. The servant was washing the plates when I arrived home. The criminals must be punished. library before she went home. Present Perfect Tense / Past Perfect Tense ACTIVE PASSIVE Has. + BE + Verb 3 The letter will be sent tomorrow. PASSIVE Can. PASSIVE Am. + Verb 1 Example : I will send the letter tomorrow. Sentences with Modal Auxiliary ACTIVE Can.Chapter 9 Passive Voice Observe the following : 1. have + BEEN + Verb 3 Had + Verb 3 Had + BEEN + Verb 3 Example: He has finished his homework.

has to sell 28 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . Mr. Exercise 3: Choose the best answer by crossing either a.7. X : Last night someone broke into our house... Anything took 5. 1. 13. 10. Kelly can’t use his room at this moment. still selecting c. I didn’t realize that someone was recording our conversation.. We can also say “Our school building. madam.. 6. 3..... still selected b. An electric fault could have caused the fire. 7. is needing remodelled c. a.. still be selected 4.. A :Which painting will be exhibited tomorrow? B : I don’t know yet. Present 10. has been sold c. Somebody had robbed and attacked him in the street. 9.. They are building a new ring-road round the city. Somebody might have stolen your car if you had left the keys in it.... It. are still being selected d. Y : Oh.. Was anything being taken c.. The answer must (write) on one side of the paper.. As he was badly hurt in the accident. 2.. has been selling d... 4... 8. They cancelled all flights because of fog... needs to be remodelled d. People don’t use this road very often.by a team..The stolen car (find) in another town... a. Somebody accused of stealing the money. Dear ! .. X : I want the red dress displayed in the window? Y : I’m sorry. d... c.. has to be sold e.? a. Anything to take b.. The bridge (build) last year. 5.. They are going to hold the congress in San Francisco. They shouldn’t have played the football match in such bad weather... The bill includes service.. needing to be remodelled b. b.. was taken 2.. 11. Present perfect Exercise 2: Change the following sentences into passive.... be taken b. took e.... They have changed the date of the meeting.” a.. 14. 15. People should send their complaints to the head office. needed to remodel 3.. or e.. They had to postpone the meeting because of his illness. a... 1.. 12. was taking c. We need to remodel our school building.. are still selecting e. is needed to remodel e.. has sold b. Past 8.. he. Milk (use) for making butter and cheese.. being taken d.... Auxiliary 9. Did anything take d..... Was anything taken e.to the nearest hospital.. they .

being unloaded 11. Somebody was offered my father c... is watched e.. a. was to tear 8... were unloading d. to be recording b.... a.. My father had offered e. built e. watched 10.a new watch.. is being cleaned b....... they were unloading b... cleaned 9....... They would offer someone b.. The pool. a. unloaded c. was build c... promised d.. a. being promised 7.... We can also say “... was torn d.. This is a very popular TV program..... Someone offered my father 29 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ..... is cleaning c.. has torn c. tore e.... has been promised b...”. X : When did the accident happen? Y : When the goods.. is tearing b. is recording e.6. a.. build b. My father offered someone d. I became quite nervous when I knew that my speech..... the choice between two posts. a... it. Every week it.when she jumped over a fence.. a.. watches d. I’m sorry but you can’t swim today. has been promising e. was built 12... be cleaned d. was to record d..... A : How old is the mosque? B : Well. cleans e.by millions of people.. has been building d. has promised c. being recorded 13.. A : What happened to her skirt? B : It. was being recorded c....from the truck. is being watched b.... were being unloaded e.. a....in 1980..... Anin is looking forward to her birthday because she. My father was offered between two posts.. has watched c.

...... so he.... 1..... The girl will. b... What are the meanings of the verbs ‘get’ and ‘has’ in the sentences above? 2... I will get the children to pick the mangoes.. but I will.. Answers: a.. but later we... My mother always has the servant wash the clothes... 2........ 5. He got the man to tow away the car.....Chapter 10 Causative ‘Get’ and ‘Have” Observe the following sentences: 1... Mind the form of the tense.his friends to bring back some food for him.... 8.....the goldsmith carve her name on it..........him to take the prize... The burglars.somebody represent me at the ceremony and ..... We lost our way at first.. but I will HAVE somebody represent me at the ceremony and GET him to take the prize. 9.some workmen come to paint their house while they were away on holiday..+ O... PASSIVE : a.... 3... S + GET + O + ................ 4..... 4.the maid serve you some drinks while I am on the telephone......... We must...her father to buy her the piano.... and I .......... 3.. b.. What is the difference between sentences numbers 1 and 2 and sentences numbers 3 and 4? 3..... S + HAVE + O + .. Example: I cannot go to receive the prize myself. They .. He had the car towed away by the man. Complete the following patterns: ACTIVE : a....her brother to repair the toy for her yesterday.... My mother always gets the clothes washed by the servant. Answer the questions: 1.. I must..a passer-by give us the correct direction.....Fita clean up the mess before she goes out.. He was too busy to go out for lunch...........+ O.... 2... Answer: I cannot go to receive the prize myself... That girl is too quiet.. We had the mechanic repair the television set. 2... Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks with causative ‘get’ or ‘have’. She...... Exercise 2: Change the following sentences into the other forms of causative active and passive......... S + GET + O + .... 10.. He got the car towed away by the man..... b....... c.... Example : He had the man tow away the car. My mother always gets the servant to wash the clothes.... I will ....the frightened woman to tell them where she kept all her valuables. 1...... 6.... My mother always has the clothes washed by the servant.....her to say something.. I bought her a watch. 7.. S + HAVE + O + ........... 30 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ..

. having her meals brought c... He changed the oil of his car... He gets his hair trimmed once a month.. so we had it sawn into two.. 6. The sentence means. The boys usually get other people to replace them.. 4.. She got her fortune told by that man. My mother had all her dresses sewn by a seamstress. 31 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. so she. e. to have her meals brought d... She will have this dress altered to fit her. The teacher had the students... Fitria got me to carry her books.The students have their clothes washed and ironed at the laundry.. had the gardener do the job b. We had our car repaired at the garage.. c... A plumber has mended the pipe. d. 8. have listened b... 3... to have brought her meals e.. a.. she wants ... c... The plank was too long. a. 9. 6. 7. 2. The man always gets his wife to wake him up. 1. listened d. Because she is ill. 10.into her room... “My father had the oil of his car changed... He had to change the oil of his car. listening e. b... My mother was not strong enough to clear the old tree trunks from the shed... That old man had his grandson take him around the town. a...to the passage twice before they answered the questions.. a. Exercise 3: Replace the active causative in these sentences into passive and vice versa. You must have it mended.. 2.... listen c.3. Someone has mended the pipe.. 7..” means.. a... My father had the fence repaired. Exercise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either am. had done the job by the gardener 5. had been doing the gardener’s job e. The pipe is leaking. 4.. You don’t need someone to mend the pipe. We had the plumber fix the leaking tap. You have to find someone to mend the pipe. 8. He had changed the oil of his car. She will have the maid iron the suit as soon as possible. or e. she brings her meals 3.. You have mended the pipe.. b.. My mother will get my brother to help us. had to do the job of the gardener c.. 9... The police got the man reveal the secret plans of his gang.. she has brought her meals b. c.. 5. d. The soldier had his wound examined by the doctor.. to listen 4. The owner had the house renovated. b. 1.... 5.. 10.. had the gardener doing the job d.

... to have everything done c. My niece asked someone to lengthen her old dresses.. we... it has been done b.. everything has done d.. have to make it d. had it made e. e... a. He always wants.. 9.. I ... b. c. My niece has lengthened her old dresses.. The sentence means. have it done o000o 32 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. X : What a lovely evening gown you’re wearing! Did you make it yourself? Y : No.. Now that she has grown up.. a. my niece has her old dresses lengthened.... Someone asked my father to change the oil of his car. a... My niece has been told to lengthen her old dresses. have washed them e. have made it c.... 6. e.. I don’t know how to arrange the flowers so I’d rather. The curtains are dirty.. have done it c.. do it myself d... are washing them b. everything having been done b.. having done everything e... My niece has been asked by someone to lengthen her old dresses.. had to make it b..... d....d..at the dry-cleaner’s..... Someone changed the oil of his car.. must have washed them d. to have done everything 7.for him..... had made it 8.... have to do it e... a.. Sugeng is a very lazy boy... must have them washed c. must be washing them 10. My niece has to lengthen her old dresses herself... a..

......... conclusion. She could have bought something at the mall..(I conclude that..................... It must have rained last night... be allowed to) Might possibility .. Examples: Paul is going to write PAUL WILL WRITE A LETTER a letter tomorrow................. 33 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. Exercise 1: Form sentences using the modals...... 4........ Should have + V3 (seharusnya telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan tindakan yang seharusnya dilakukan tetapi tidak dilakukan............ ...... ...........(be going to) Can ability ....He came late......... She had enough money with her but she didn’t buy anything.. . Might have + V3 (mungkin telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kemungkinan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau....... The students have permission THE STUDENTS MAY DO THE to do the exercise in the library.) necessity .....Mrs.................. 3... Will future time ... have permission to.. perhaps) Should obligation.......... probability It is very probable that... He might have missed the bus...... ..... VERY WELL... ..... George is able to speak GEORGE CAN SPEAK FRENCH French very well.......(ought to) desirability Must inference....(It is possible that..... Look at the examples..................Look at the ground! It’s wet.... Should = ought to ......... EXERCISE IN THE LIBRARY 1..(be able to) May permission ........... TOMORROW...She should have helped her mother (but she didn’t) 2. Could have + V3 (sebenarnya bisa) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sebenarnya bisa dilakukan pada waktu lampau tetapi karena sesuatu alasan kegiatan itu tidak dilakukan...... Paul and George are going to play tennis tomorrow..............Chapter 11 Modal Auxiliaries Notice the forms and meanings of the modal auxiliaries..(be permitted to.... Must have + V3 (pasti telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kesimpulan dari peristiwa yang terjadi pada waktu lampau......(have to) Modals with Perfect: Observe the following: 1....... Tono went to a mall last Sunday.......

He came back from the city with lots of money and no car. a.. 8. She. He spoke Italian very well when he came back from Europe. 9. Brown has to get a new passport soon. d or e. Did she save her money? It was desirable. 2.. shall be d. 4. He had to write the check with a pencil.. Ridwan sell his car? I conclude that he did.. Example : Your sister laughed after she talked with Budi. My brother is in your class. His music teacher told him that he played the piano like an expert. Is the new student a very good dancer? I conclude she is. c. 8. It is possible that George is a very good tennis player.. 10.Mary is able to play the violin well. 1. ‘might’. 3. Does Mrs. Exercise 3: Use ‘must have’ in your response to the sentences. His glasses were broken and his nose was bleeding. 4. she didn’t.. John is able to swim very well. He had souvenirs and photographs of many different cities all over the world. That’s the only reasonable conclusion.2. Did your brother forget to mail the letter? I think it’s possible. 3.. X : Does she live in an apartment now? Y : I suppose she does. 7. Did she stay with her sister? She had that opportunity but she didn’t. 2. 5. 5. ‘should’ or ‘could’ according to the situation. Answer : SHE MUST LIVE IN AN APARTMENT NOW. 6. Rini is very thin and pale. Answer : He must have told her something funny. Did she ride with us in the car? She had that opportunity but she didn’t. Did she decide to get a job? I think that’s possible.. He was very sleepy this morning. 9. Fitri own a new house? I conclude that she does. Tom was coughing and sneezing yesterday. X : Did she live in the dorm last year? Y : I conclude that she did.. This morning he left suddenly and went to the dentist’ office. Mr. 8. 2. You ought to send messages to your parents regularly.. 1.ill. Did Mr. The students have to join an English course. Did you aunt shop by phone? She had the opportunity but she didn’t. You have permission to come and see the doctor. We have to get up at six tomorrow. Execise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either a. 10. 10. 1. 5. 7.. 7. Examples: 1.. 9. Answer : SHE MUST HAVE LIVED IN THE DORM LAST YEAR.. ought to be 34 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. 6. I conclude that you know him. 6. 4. b. 3. Did she invite her uncle on her birthday? It was desirable but she didn’t. Exercise 2: Make sentences with ‘must’. He knew what was going to happen every minute during the whole movie.

Last year the couple could save much money.. My brother will be very busy. has to be 35 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .... has to be practising c. X : Hello! Is your Mom home? This is from her office. She. they. a.. We can also say. Iwan was supposed to go. a..entered the house while we were away... could have arrived b. Iwan was ordered to go.” There... will have practice 9. could afford e. Y : No.. e.. must be d. My brother would be very busy.. a.. had better be c.. should be e... will have arrived d. E.. d. X : Then.” a... a. will afford b.. b....... ought to have b. d. They lost all their possession in the fire.... My brother is expected to be very busy..... ought to have arrived c. Somebody. would have been c....... otherwise. Iwan was requested to go... b.. must have arrived 6... a. She left home an hour ago. must have been practising b... My brother was perhaps very busy. ought to have 8.... must not have cleaned it c... a. they. can’t afford d.... must have c.” The sentence means.. would have e...... may have had d.b... should not have cleaned it b......a rise in the price of petrol soon. My brother did not keep his promise to send us a message soon.a hard time now. must be having e. ought to practice d... My brother was certainly busy.. must be 2.at the office by now. The teacher said to Iwan : “You can go now.. The sentence means... we found the front door open. will be e.. He might have been very busy. 3. His English is very good. used to have b.. Iwan was allowed to go c. could not be cleaning e... wouldn’t afford c..quite a lot... may be b. a.... would have arrived e. Her house is very dirty...... does not clean d.. are to have c.. 5.... He. Iwan was advised to go. could have d...it for a long time. should have 7... It is possible that there will be a rise in the price of petrol soon.. should practice e..to make a tour around the world this year. she.. did not clean 4. could not have afforded 10.... When we got home... c. a...

. the verb must be plural.. its Plural people/animals/ things : they.Chapter 12 Agreement/Concord A.... A series of tests.miles committee staff faculty team family B. their.(have) now finished questioning the suspect........ If one knew about a fact...(be) brought to us yesterday by a friend...... he will not be so quick to criticize.(have) all been driven to the market this morning for sale... She had to hire a porter to carry the luggage....... accompanied by my father... 2. 7... which. hers Singular thing/animal : it........ 2... The traffic on the road today....3....(belong) to my brother..... Twenty dollars is the price of the watch... 1.... Examples: 1. My mother.......... Agreement of noun and pronoun Singular male person : he......4.. them Examples: 1... when the subject is plural..dollars class public 2... Either of these buses goes to the university. The police...3... His knowledge about mathematics and natural science has made him successful.. is going to visit my grandmother in Jakarta.. 2. In spite of their small size..... the verb must be singular..... The news ..... 3... her.. 6... him....(be) very heavy.. Notes: Along with...... 5. Exercise 1: Fill in the correct form of the bracketed words (plural or singular)... whatever everything whoever The following collective subjects agree with singular verbs: audience group 2.. 3.. too.. The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anyone neither anything no one each nothing either what everyone... 4... we are now awaiting 36 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ....(be) very heavy. The cattle.... these cameras take very good pictures... Agreement of subject and verb: When the subject is singular.... 4.. with and accompanied by do not cause singular subjects to be plural. his Singular female person : she......4. 3....(have) been made on the animals.. The pyjamas he is wearing now. It is easier to talk about the problem than it is to resolve it..

a.. having become c. it meets the requirements e.. have been repaired 10. That pair of trousers... The bridge designed by the young engineers ..........for the results.. a......a difficult subject for many people........... is repairing d.. a... a. have become 5.(be) tight for him.skills and creativity........ are being b... c.... are e... was 4...expected next year. have been c..... Producing fine paintings.. they d........ were 2.... has become e. 1. These shoes look good. will b.. have been d. are b. were c........ is being repaired c..(be) a united one. An increase in the number of students.. it has become d.happy about the result of the experiments.. 10.......... each of them. Economics.. is e.. is d... or e... I’ll try ... to be b...... they meet the requirements 8... are c. its e.. it c.....now. d... are d. The name of a river passing through some big towns ...equipped with an overhead projector.. The machinery..for our pilot projects. was 7.. have been e.... .......... a. meets the requirements d........... is requires c.. meeting the requirements b...... a. requires b. My family . have b... Neither of the schools .. a.... b...... why does he not give the trousers away? 9....on. require d. is require 6. was 9.... a. are c....the title of a very popular Indonesian song.. is c..... were e...... a. was 3.. Although the boys have enough money.. they require e........ they are d.... to have become b.. is d. are being repaired e. their 37 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .... Exercise 2 : Choose the best answer by crossing either a......going on vacation.... meets the requirements c.. a... 8. them b..(work) only when the electric current is on. Neither the students nor the professor.... were e. The school has a lot of classroom.. neither of them.. are repairing b...

An inversion form is used. Place and Time.Chapter 13 Word Order A. Place Manner 3. Examples: Never has she met us. C. He is often late to school. The more particular expressions of time come before the more general. PLACE AND TIME 1. Example : He went to the station by taxi. this is particularly useful when there are many adverbials in the sentences and also to emphasize the time. Manner Place Time 2. Place Manner She walked to school slowly. Examples: She danced gracefully at the concert last night. When adverbs of Manner. Example : He was born at seven o’clock on Christmas morning in 1993. The adverbial of time is often placed at the very beginning of a sentence. Example : Last night my sister performed very beautifully at the concert. A negative adverb of frequency is often placed at the beginning of a sentence to emphasize the negative meaning. Time Manner Place 4. in the order Manner. With verbs of movement. the adverbial place acts as a kind of object notionally. Adverbs of Frequency Always Sometimes Usually Often Generally Occasionally rarely seldom scarcely hardly ever never Adverbs of frequency usually come after the subject or to be. comes immediately after the verb. Rarely did we eat rice when we were in England. Manner Place Time He is studying hard in the room now. Order of Adjectives 38 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . Examples: She always studies hard. Order of Adverbs of MANNER. Place and Time come together in one sentence. B. the normal order is at the end of a sentence.

She drinks coffee (at hone...... at the station.... Her death has upset me. The train arrived (this morning. Mary can swim now. this morning). On June 14th). The buses are full in this town.. all day. He gets up before half past nine. all day yesterday)... 2. in the concert). (often) 11.... 1.The children quarrel with each other. Task 2: Put the adverb of frequency in the following sentences into the correct place.... The porter was able to carry my luggage..... (never) Task 3: Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position. Bani was working (at her office.. at 10 a. We are very busy. in Tawang Station). (nearly) 8.. We try to work well. Example: a beautiful table (wooden round) a beautiful round wooden table 1. very rudely. We are going (for a week. to Switzerland.. (hardly) 10. tomorrow. 4......DETERMINER A R T I C L E A/an First Two The Second three My Third Another Your Only Several her some A lot of his our this that SIZE AGE SHAPE COLOR ORIGIN HEAD WORD Interesting Boring Beautiful Pretty ugly Handsome Clever Etc Big Small Little Short Tall Wide Narrow Etc.. I saw my friend off (at 7 o’clock. They have heard of it. last night. (always) 2. Old Round Young square New etc Cold Hot Warm modern Red Yellow Green Blue Brown etc Iron Stone Paper Brick Wood Gold etc Task 1: Put the adverbials at the correct place. (quite) 12.m.. (always) 3.. (usually) 6. He was born (in the year 1995.. an unusual ring (gold) . 39 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg Car Book House Dress Ring Etc . 9.. 7.. (never) 7. (often) 5. beautifully... this morning). They stayed (quietly. Our teacher spoke to us (in class.... Mrs. He played (at the Town Hall.. every morning). 3. My mother goes for a walk on Sundays. 8. 6.. 1. She is a good student.. at 2 o’clock).. there).. very late... I will meet you (outside your office. (generally) 4.. (scarcely) 9.. on Saturday) 10. very hard. She knows what to say about it.. 5.

...... 40 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ....... 2.......... a wide avenue (long) .. Does sometimes he read good English books? d...... Which one is true? a........... ........ .......... They seldom are published................. b... black gloves (leather) 6... a sunny day (lovely) 9......... a hot bath (nice) 10.............. Everything Andi told me clearly last night in the library..... They are seldom published..... .......................2...... an ugly dress (orange) 11.................. d. ..... Does sometimes he read English good books? e....... “You shouldn’t write such a criticized articles........................................................ Seldom published the are...... d.. Seldom they are published....... Has your brother been injured in a football match ever? 4....................... Last night Andi told me everything clearly in the library...... ...... an old lady (nice) 3. Does he read sometimes good English books? c.... a good – looking man (young) 4........... a modern house (attractive) 5... Has your brother been ever injured in a football match? d.......... Task 4: Choose the correct answer by crossing either a...... In the library Andi clearly told me everything last night......... Choose the correct sentence. an American film (old) 7......... c.... I think he is alone not strong enough to lift that box.... ....... . a metal box (black/small) 13..... . I think he is not strong enough alone to lift that box............. . Which of the following statements is true? a......................... b... I think he is not strong enough to lift that box alone............. Clearly last night Andi told me everything in the library... a large nose (red) 8...... c....... 3.. a red car (old/little) 12.................................. They published are seldom............. e... Has ever your brother been injured in a football match? b.. .............. Has your brother been injured ever in a football match? e...... c........................................... e... a long face (thin) 14...... Does he sometimes read English good books? b......... ........ b.................... d. c.... I think he is not enough strong to lift that box alone........... I think he alone is not strong enough to lift that box. e.. Choose the correct sentence! a. ............” a................. or e.................. b........ d.... Does he sometimes read good English books? 5................ 1..................... Andi in the library clearly last night told me everything.. Has your brother ever been injured in a football match? c..... a.

Never forgets Tia to send me birthday card. b. b. d. Tifa came home late last night.. a. b. The farmer in the morning left home early. d. Japanese style wooden house c. Early the farmers left home in the morning.6.. 7. e. d.. c. wooden style Japanese house 9.. Usually Ati on my birthday writes me a long letter. e.. What is so special about Rini’s house? It is a. Which of the following sentences is true? a. Where did her boy friend take her to? a. To send me a birthday card Tia forgets never. The farmer left home in the morning early. A long letter usually Ati writes me on my birthday. The farmer left home early in the morning. e.. Usually a long letter Ati writes me on my birthday.. wooden house Japanese style d. To the movies he took her last night. c. b. He took her last night to the movies. Last night she took him to the movies. Tia forgets never to send me a birthday card. 10. e. c. Japanese wooden house style e. d. She took him to the movies last night. Which of the statements is right? a.. Ati usually writes me a long letter on my birthday. Tia never forgets.. o000o 41 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . c. wooden Japanese style house b. He took her to the movies last night. In the morning the farmer left early home. Which of the following statements is true? a. Ati usually writes me on my birthday a long letters. Tia never forgets to send me a birthday card. 8. To send me a birthday card.

Simple Past Past perfect Tense V2 had + V3 Did + V1 had + V3 c. Changes that happen from direct into indirect speech when the reporting verb is in the past. the teacher said. She told the sleepy student to wash his face.” I asked her. c. “I’m a good dancer”.Chapter 14 Direct and Indirect Speech A. says. “The sun rises in the east”. I told her not to sit on that chair. please”. she said. She said that she was a good dancer. Past Continuous Tense Past perfect Continuous Tense was. 3. “Don’t sit on this chair. “The sun rises in the east”. However. except for eternal truth and natural laws. in the present such as: tell. The teacher explains. there is no change of tenses from direct into indirect sentence. Changes of Tenses a. are + V-ing was. Present Perfect tense Past Perfect Tense has/have + V3 had + V3 42 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . has told. 1. she told the sleepy student. Present Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense am. The teacher explained. Statements In reported statements there are two types of introducing verbs: 1. there is always a change of tense from direct into indirect sentence. She often says that she is a good dancer. when the reporting verb is in the past. said etc. “Wash your face. in the past such as : told. were + V-ing d. Changes that happen from direct command to indirect command : V1 to V1 Don’t V1 not to V1 B. “I’m a good dancer”. d. The teacher explained that the sun rises in the est. had told. has said etc 2. “Don’t be afraid. Simple Present Tense Simple Past Tense V1 V2 Do/does + V1 did + V1 b. The teacher told us to pay attention. 2. 4. “Pay attention”.” I told her. b. I asked her not to be afraid. she often says. The teacher explains that the sun rises in the east. Commands or Imperative See the following examples: 1. Examples: a. is. were + V-ing Had been +V-ing e. will tell. When the reporting verb is in the present.

...... yesterday e.before 3........... “Is your mother a housewife?”.... 2... 2. may c.2........... now c. Other changes a. today b... “Will you attend the party?.. “Where is your brother?” The boy asked me where my brother was.. this c...... “Do you go to school on foot?”... tomorrow d... They wanted to know if/whether I went to school on foot. last... Yes/No Questions Observe the following: 1. She asked me if/whether I would attend the party..... next.. the .... f. WH-Questions Observe the following sentences: 1. will b..... . “How did the accident happen?” The policeman wanted to know how the accident had happened... must 4.... these would could might had to there that those C.. can c. Changes of Adverbs of Time a........... here b... I asked her if/whether her mother was a housewife...... The changes from direct to indirect in YES/NO questions: Direct Yes/No Question TO BE/AUX + S+ V/N/ADJ Indirect Yes/No Questions IF/WHETHER S + TO BE/AUX+V/N/ADJ D..... The boy asked me. 43 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .after the previous... 3. they wanted to know. The policeman said.. I asked her..... the .. She asked me....ago that day then the following day the next day the day after the previous day the day before the following. Changes of Modals a.....

1. “They went away yesterday. “Did the greengrocer have any fresh vegetables?” mother asked me. the teacher told the naughty students.” mother told my brother. 10. “May I use your telephone?” my friend asked me. “She has done her homework well. “Wrap it in a piece of paper.” I told the shop assistant. 1. 3. “Don’t try to be funny”. 10.” he said.” they said. “Will the taxi be here at eight o’clock?” father asked the waiter. “I want to speak to you.” Fahmi said. “Does she always wear Moslem clothes?” I asked him. 3. “You may see the photograph if you like. “You can do it if you try. 5. “He is ready to come with us.” I advised him. 4. The pilot told the passengers. 4. “I lost my temper yesterday morning. 9. “Must the door be kept shut?” the shop assistant asked me. “Do you sleep in the afternoon?” I asked her.” I said to her. “Don’t sit on my bed.” I said to her.” Intan said. Task 4: Change the following sentences into the reported questions. 10. 4. 8. 2. 9. “Cut the grass in the garden”. “Did you meet the minister when you were in Jakarta?” she asked me.” the teacher said. “Why were you absent yesterday?” The teacher asked Intan why she had been absent the day before. 2. 9. they said to me. 2. The changes from direct to indirect speech in WH-QUESTIONS: Direct WH-Question WH + TO BE/AUX + S + V/N/ADJ Indirect WH-Question WH + S + TO BE/AUX + V/N/ADJ Task 1: Rewrite the following sentences into indirect commands. 7. 6. 3. “They do not know you. 8. 6. “Don’t speak until you are asked”.” he confessed. 5. “Clean it yourself. “Fasten your safety belt”.” I told the teacher. “Wait there till I come.” my sister asked me.” Leave it on the piano”. 8. 7. Task 2: Change the following sentences into reported statements. 44 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . she asked me. “Was the train very full last Sunday?” the man asked the officer.’ he asked her 7. 1. Father told the gardener. 6.3. “Have you ever seen my new bag?” she asked me. I told my brother. 5. “Have the children put away their toys?” mother wanted to know. “I am going to town with my sister. “Don’t spill the ink on the carpet”. “We have finished our work. The teacher asked Intan. Task 3: Put the following sentences into the reported speech.

. c. a. My mother said that she didn’t waste my money on cigarettes.. whether I was absent yesterday b. “When were you born?” 4... “Didn’t leave the ship”. e. why do they go abroad so often b. “You do not leave the ship” d. “How long have you been waiting here?” 7. I asked Andika. “How could you be so unkind to that poor man?” 8... The captain told the sailors not to leave the ship.. b. a. Sita answered that she wrote letters. a. you called her d. b. The captain said.. A : “What did she ask you just now?” B : “. d. Ira asked Dino. The captain said. My mother asked me if I had wasted my money on cigarettes... b. I asked Ida. My friend asked me.... We asked the boy..... “Why do they go abroad so often?” Farhan asked me. “I’ve been writing letters. whether my mother was at home yesterday 45 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . Andi asked me. 1. “Why didn’t she come to your party?” 9. e. “How is the condition of your car now?” 10. Farhan said to me. c.... My mother told me that she didn’t waste my money on cigarettes. or e. I would call you 5. “Where will we spend our holiday next week?” 2. she said. “Did she leave a message for me?” “ Yes.. “Which book is yours?” 6. The captain said..1.” a. “Don’t waste your money on cigarettes.. The captain said... The teacher asked Sinta. 2... e. 6. Sita answered that I’ve been writing letters. My mother advised me not to waste my money on cigarettes.. Sita answered that she had been writing letters. Mother said. “Not leave the ship”. c. “What will you do if you do not pass the exam?” Task 5: Choose the best answer by crossing either a. “Don’t leave the ship”. did they go abroad so often c. she would call her c.... 4... The direst sentence is a.... “How often do your family visit your grandmother?” 5. she would call you e... d. she called you b. c. My grandmother asked me... why they went abroad so often e.” Sita answered. The captain said... if they went abroad so often d. b. My brother asked.” a. “You didn’t leave the ship”.. My mother allowed me to waste my money on cigarettes. d. I asked the lazy students.. Sita answered that she has been writing letters.tonight”. why did they go abroad so often 3... “How do you usually go to the office?” 3. Sita answered that she was writing letters..

. “You need not smoke here”..... c.... not touch e... “You must not smoke here”. if I did grow my own vegetables o000o 46 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. a.. I saw someone smoking at the petrol station. “Is John coming to the party tonight?’ “Yes... you grow your own vegetables c... if the principal had announced the result of the exam e........ 9.... not to touched c.. I grew my own vegetables e. if he is coming tonight c...... if all students are present today 7. not to touching 10.. whether all the students passed the exam last year d.. not touching b. whether he is going with us 8. b. “You cannot smoke here”. a.c... if he went with us d... he asked me.the new painted wall.. not to touch d.. if he could go with us b. c. “You will not smoke here”... did I grow my own b\vegetables d. so I said.” a. He asked me.... whether he goes with us e.. “You may not smoke here”. whether I grew my own vegetables b. d. a.. Mother warned us ...

so we have to add the auxiliaries of do.. i. e. Example : You have finished your work. When the statement is negative. won’t etc. you. For example : The students should have studied. don’t you? You have a happy family.Chapter 15 Question-Tags Observe the following sentences: 1. When they are not. When there is no be or auxiliary verb. “Have. The children could do the test. won’t you? 8. can. the tag is negative. To be (am.. You have been living here for years. f. has etc. has and had” are auxiliaries when followed by V3.t I? shall we? hadn’t he? wouldn’t he? wouldn’t he hadn’t he isn’t he hasn’t he shouldn’t Exercise 1: Add suitable question-tags to the following statements. b. couldn’t they? 3. haven’t you? 2. the tag is positive. the tag uses the fist auxiliary verb. haven’t you? You have to finish your work. shouldn’t they? 7. it) 5. g. they are considered as verbs. should they? 5. is. don’t you? 9. d. 2. h. are. The subject in the tag is always the same as the subject in the statement but in the form of personal pronoun (I. they. Negative tag is always in the contracted form ( isn’t. a. c. were) or auxiliary verb (will. Tag aren. 47 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .) in the statement is repeated in the tag. she. will you? Study hard for your test. won’t it? 4. When the statement is positive. doesn’t. 3.. Girls should not go out at night alone. The show will end soon. does or did. the tag is either “will you ?” (rising intonation) Or “won’t you?” (falling intonation) Example : Study hard for your test. Statement I am Let’s He’d better He’d rather He’d go He’d gone He’s taking He’s taken He ought to. V1 do V1 s/es  does V2  did 4. have. The students haven’t done their homework. Special Question-Tags: No. we.) 6. he. the tag must be added with the auxiliary verb do. was. does and did. In commands. have they? Rules of Question Tag: 1. When there are two auxiliary verbs used in the sentence.

I am not a good worker. They arrived yesterday. I am very late. 8. 10. You never come to class on time. He won’t fall down. He used to go with his wife. 14. 6. 4. 27. Your grandmother wouldn’t like the window open. 16. 48 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . You broke the window. He has an English-English dictionary. He has lived in his present home for years. Our teachers speak English better than yours. Let’s pretend we’re not here. 5. 11. He always has breakfast at nine. 15. Those children should not have gone without the teachers. You ought to go there yourself. 28. 23. You’d rather I didn’t say anything. 13. They didn’t see you 3. 26. 24. The roof was leaking. Your sister won’t fall down. You shouldn’t have been such a fool. 9. Let’s have something to eat in the restaurant. I have to buy some matches. 18. 12. Come and see me tomorrow. Let me read the letter for you. You have heard about that. He didn’t have to speak to me. 21. People think that he won’t fall down. 17. 19. 20. Anton has your book. 30. 22. This winter hasn’t been cold. 29. You will have finished your study by the end of this school year. 25. 2.1. 7.