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Chapter 1

Review of Tenses
Tenses which have high frequency of use:
1. The Simple Present Tense
a. Pattern: S + Be (am, is, are) + Adjective/Noun/Adverb
S + V-1 /V-1s(es)
b. Use : to express something that happens in the present
to express habitual activities
c. Adverbs : every............, once/ twice/three times a .........,
always, sometimes, usually, generally, seldom, never
d. Verbs which are only used in simple tenses (not normally used in continuous
tenses)
want like
belong know
suppose
remember
need love see
realize
mean
forget
prefer hate hear
believe
understand
seem
Examples:
- My mother is at home now.
- My father works as a lawyer
- He usually goes to the office by car.
2. The Simple Past Tense
a. Pattern : S + Be (was, were) + Adjective/Noun/Adverb
S + V-2
b. Use : to express something that happened in the past
c. Adverbs : this morning, yesterday, just now, last..............., .................ago
Examples:
- The children were frightened to see the horror film last night.
- All students in my school passed the exam last year.
- Mrs. Andi sent the parcel to Jakarta this morning.
3. The Present Continuous Tense
a. Pattern : S + am, is, are + Verb-ing
b. Use : to express something that is still in progress at the present time or at the
time of speaking
c. Adverbs: now, at present, at this time, at this moment, Look!.... Listen! ....
Examples:
- Look! The children are playing music enthusiastically.
- My father is still working in his office now.
4. The Future Tense
a. Pattern : S + Be going to + V-1
S + Will + V-1
b. Use : To express something that will happen in the future
c. Adverbs : tomorrow, tonight, next.............
Examples:
- We are going to finish the assignment this afternoon.
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- They will help us to finish painting the wall tomorrow.
5. The Past Continuous Tense
a. Pattern : S + was,were + V-ing
b. Use : to express something that was in progress when another activity happened
in the past
c. Adverb : when......................,while.......................
Examples:
- When I arrived home this afternoon, my mother was watching TV.
- While I was studying last night, my brother was talking with his friend.
6. The Present Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : has/have + V-3
b. Use : to express the completion or perfection of an action by now
to express an action which began in the past and continues up to the present
time
c. Adverbs : already, yet, just, lately, recently, since..................., for................
Examples:
-. He has just graduated from senior high school.
- My brother has already got a job.
- We have studied English for more than six years.
7. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
a. Pattern: S + has/have + been + V-ing
b. Use : to express an activity which began in the past and, is still going on at the
present time
c. Adverbs: since.......................... and for...............................
Examples:
- She has been living in that house since 1990.
- They have been arguing for more than half an hour.
8. The Past Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : S + had + V-3
b. Use : to express an activity which was completed before another activity in the
past
c. Adverbs : before................., after................., when................, as soon as...........
Examples:
- When I arrived home yesterday, my mother had finished cooking.
- He had done his homework before he went to bed last night.
9. The Future Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : S + will have + V-3
b. Use : to express an activity which will be completed at a specific time in the
future
c. Adverbs : by the end of this week, by next December, by............
Examples:
- We will have finished our study in this school by the end of this year.
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-

He will have lived in this house for a year by next month.

Exercise 1:
Supply the most suitable tense (Present, Past, or Present Perfect):
1. She (go) away every week-end.
2. He (go) abroad last week.
3. No, he isn’t here. He just (go) out.
4. He (go) downstairs when I (meet) him.
5. “Where is Mr. Green?” “He (go) out ten minutes ago.”
6. This boy never (see) the sea.
7. You (see) my bag? I (lose) it.
8. I (see) you yesterday. You (sit) outside a café.
9. He already (write) a lot of letters, but his sister (not write) many.
10. He is busy now; he (write) a letter.
11. I hope he (get) better now, I (hear) he (have) a bad cold all the week.
12. I usually (not take) sugar in my tea.
13. You (see) a good film lately?
14. He (live) in England since 1980.
15. When I last (see) him, he (lie) in London.
16. He (sit) in the garden when the storm (break).
17. You go to the cinema last night? No, I (not be) for three weeks.
18. I (hear) the news last night, but I (not hear) it today.
19. You (read) that book yet? No, I just (begin) it.
20. I (see) that you (buy) a new hat. How much you (pay) for it?
Exercise 2:
Supply a suitable tense of the verbs in brackets.
1. By next June he (write) his second novel.
2. Before his next visit here he (return) from a world tour.
3. Before you go to see them, they (leave) the country.
4. He (finish) this before you leave.
5. By the end of the summer he (teach) us to speak English.
6. By this time next week you (meet) my friend.
7. When you come back he already (buy) the house.
8. The meeting (finish) by the time we get there.
9. By next month he (sell) all his furniture.
10. By next Sunday you (stay) with us for five weeks.
Exercise 3:
Supply a suitable tense to verbs between brackets into either the Simple Past Tense or the Past
Perfect Tense.
1. They (go) home after they (finish) their work.
2. She said that she already (see) the Pyramids.
3. She just (go) out when I called at her house.
4. You ought to have brought her straight home after she (fall) in the river.
5. They told him that they (not meet) him before.
6. He asked why we (come) so early.
7. She (tell) me his name after he (leave).
8. He (do) nothing after he saw me.
9. My friend enjoyed his food as soon as he (taste) it.
10. He (thank) me for what I (do).
11. I (be) sorry that I (hurt) him.
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12. After they (go), I (sit) down and (rest).
13. Did you (post) the letter after you (type) it?
14. After I (hear) the news, I (hurry) to see him.
15. When we (arrive), the dinner already (begin).
Exercise 4:
Choose the correct answer by crossing either A, B, C, D or E.
1. By the end of this week I...........from Malaysia.
a. am back
d. may be back
b. have been back
e. will have been back
c. would be back
2. I know that one of my students.........in your company since he graduated.
a. work
c. to work
e. have worked
b. working
d. has been working
3. He found the door of his house open, although he.......it before.
a. be locked
c. had been locked
e. had to lock
b. had locked
d. had been locking
4. Hadi looks very tired. He......for hours now.
a. drove
c. was driving
e. has been driving
b. had driven
d. had been driving
5. I hope that by the time my father retires, I.......a job.
a. get
c. have got
e. will have got
b. am getting
d. got
6. I have written three letters. The sentence means........
a. She is still writing now.
b. She is not writing anymore
c. She has not finished writing yet.
d. She hopes to finish writing this morning.
e. She has to write now.
7. For the last five months he........of moving out because the area has become highly polluted.
a. thinks
c. though
e. has been thinking
b. is thinking
d. had thought
8. Suryo had already been working in that company for two years when I started working
there. This means........
a. Suryo wasn’t working in that company anymore.
b. Suryo would be working for two more years.
c. Suryo stopped working in that company.
d. Suryo worked in that company only for two years.
e. Surya was still working in that company.
9. Tina had just watered the flowers when Ali came. From this sentence we know that.........
a. Ali didn’t see Tina watering the flowers.
b. Ali came at the time Tina was watering the flowers.
c. Ali was watching Tina watering the flowers.
d. Ali would come when Tina finished watering the flowers.
e. Ali had come before Tina watered the flowers.
10. Iwan, the national tennis player,.........tennis since he was nine.
a. played
c. plays
e. had played
b. has been playing d. is playing

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.......... .................... ............................ ...... .... We were disappointed with the film..... 2.......................... ... Exercise 1: Complete the following sentences......... ...................... (disappoint) a............ The policemen investigating the robbery are looking for three men............. ...... Read the following examples: 1...... ................... It’s been raining all day. .................................... Present Participle (Verb-ing) 2............................... This weather is.............. ... ... . He is always very tired when he gets home. I expected it to be much better......... ............... Past Participle (Verb-3) Present Participle and Past Participle can be used as adjectives......... b..................................... ........................................ ....................... Verb-ing and Verb-3 are also used in clauses........... The man injured in the accident was taken to the hospital...................... while the Verb-3 has a passive meaning...................................... 3.................................. ......Chapter 2 Participle There are two types of Participle: 1. The ing-form has an active meaning..................... . The film was disappointing............. .............. None of the people invited to the party can come......................................... ............. 3........... 1.. He has a very tiring job........................ 4........................ ... ... .. ................... ... I hate this weather................. Some pairs of Present Participle and Past Participle which are used as adjectives : Present Participle Boring Interesting Exciting Tiring Surprising Amazing Frightening Confusing Disappointing Fascinating Embarrassing Horrifying Terrifying Depressing Worrying Annoying Exhausting Satisfying Meaning ........... I was disappointed with the film......................... ......... Past Participle Bored Interested Excited Tired Surprised Amazed Frightened Confused Disappointed Fascinated Embarrassed Horrified Terrified Depressed Worried Annoyed Exhausted Satisfied Meaning ..... Use an adjective ending in –ing or –ed to complete the sentences........... .................... .... See the following examples: 1................................................................ 5....... 4....... (depress-) a...... ........ John is bored because his job is boring.............. 5 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ...................... ......... ........... Do you know the girl talking to Tom? 2.... The film was disappointing............ ...... Example: The film was not as good as we had expected................................................... ........................................................ ........ ..

. He’s one of the most ...... b.She wants to do something different...... We were all horrifying/horrified when we heard about the disaster.... Exercise 4: Rewrite the following sentences................ Use the information in brackets to make an-ing clause or an –ed clause. It was very .. b............ (she is talking to Tom) That girl talking to Tom is Australian.in astronomy.......................... b........about it.in arts........... I had never expected to be offered the job............. 4... This weather makes me............people I’ve ever met............. 7..... She often finds her job............... She has never been there before....... They had always seemed so happy together... I was... The kitchen hadn’t been cleaned for ages...................... I was woken up by the baby................ It was quite exciting/excited... 7.. b..2.. That girl is Australian..... 9. (the path leads to the river) 5.. Some paintings were stolen from the palace................... Ann is going to America next month... She is really..... 4. Afterwards everybody was very shocking/shocked..? 4.. there was a man.... (he was injured in the accident) The man injured in the accidents was taken to the hospital....... It will be an ..... (bore) a... A plane crashed into the sea yesterday.... 2... 6. I’m not very ....... I seldom visit art galleries..... 5.................... He never stops talking and never says something........................................ 5.. (she was crying) 4........................ b. I’m starting a new job next week........ 1.... It was a really terrifying/terrified experience..... 1........ Why do you always look...... I was .. I enjoyed the football match. I was really amazing/amazed when I was offered it.. (interest-) a. 2.. He finds astronomy very.... The man was taken to the hospital... Tom is........... (excite) a.. It’s a hard job... At the end of the day’s work she is often................. I’m quite....when I heard they were getting divorced.................. I turned off the television in the middle of the programme...... I was disappointing/ disappointed with the film.... Do you easily get embarrassing/embarrassed? Exercise 3: Complete these sentences with an adjective ending in -ing or –ed................experience for her........ 3........ (they belong to the Queen) 6 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ...... 6............. It’s sometimes embarrassing/embarrassed when you have to ask people for money.. 3. Are you interesting/interested in football? 5... When I was walking home....... Example: a........ Jane finds her job ..... I went for a very long walk............about going........ Exercise 2: Choose the right adjectives.. 1..... The programme was........... b.? Is your life really so ... (it was carrying 28 passengers) 2... It was really disgusting/disgusted..... 3.. 8....... Diana teaches young children... (he was following me) 3..... At the end of the street there is a path............. Astronomy is one of Tom’s main interests.............. (exhaust) a..

............... Before he is an outstanding student c..... C.. is escaped 6..................... economics at university in Glasgow........... When I entered the waiting-room.. 6....... a. To be startled 2....... 4.. Tom has got a brother . it frightens 5.. being beaten d. D or E. a.......Jack phoned while you were out. a....... Startled c... B. who frightens d.by the sudden noise.... (they were stolen from the museum) Exercise 5: Complete these sentences with the verbs in the box.....down in the storm last night....... Two of the ......a magazine. a.... 1. Sometimes life must be very unpleasant for people...... He finished his survey e. I was woken up by a bell. 3. Most of the suggestions were not very practical.......... the town soon became a popular tourist resort........today should arrive tomorrow.. None of the people....... a. Having finished his survey 4........ he has been offered a scholarship to study in Australia... Finished his survey d... I received a letter............. On my way home....prisoners were caught by the police. 2.near airport. escaped b... escape c....... Although he is an outstanding student e. it was beaten e. If he is an outstanding student d.. 7.... blow read call ring invite sit live study offer wait post work 1. Somebody..... It is startling e... beat b....me a job.. All letters .by the window....... I saw a dog...by a boy.. The window has now been repaired.................... There was a tree ... Situated c.... (they were made at the meeting) 8......... that frighten c... The paintings haven’t been found yet... In startling d... the baby woke up and cried... The first school day is a frightening experience for many children.except for a young man.... The underlined words means “.................. 8.. He had finished his survey b....... A few days after the interview..the student prepared a report.. there was nobody...... Being an outstanding student in our school...... it is frightening e. beating c..in a bank in London and a sister. The underlined phrase means: an experience . It is situated d.... 5....... . He has finished his survey c.......... Situated b.......... As he is an outstanding student b.........many children...... Situates 7 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .... Exercise 6: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A.. 9. a..........6.to the party can come.. be beaten 3... Situating e.near a beautiful beach.. a........ Startling b...of our school”. having escape e.. When he is an outstanding student 7. .. which will frighten b..... Use the correct form of the Present Participle or Past Participle..... was escaped d.. (it was broken in last night’s storm) 7..

... What have people recently found in the remote village? a. A hidden treasure c. The .... frightens e... a. be living d. live c.. being frightened b. hiding 8 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . a. A treasure.child ran to his mother when he heard the thunder.near airport... frightened c. Hiding a treasure e....8. they lived 10. They hid a treasure d. they are living b. frighten d.. frightening 9.. The treasure was hidden b. be living e. Sometimes life must be very pleasant for people ....

8. “Wish” in the sentences above is used to express an expectation which was not fulfilled. 2. WISH I wish my mother were not sick. 10. is are V-1 Does/do not + V1 Past Tense : Was. When the fact is in the past. I wish the doctor were in now. The dentist doesn’t work on Sundays. The bus leaves at six p. You were walking in the country. See the following pattern: FACT Present Tense: Am. A good friend of yours visited your town but unfortunately you were away when he 9 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . The students don’t understand the lesson. You say : I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. When the fact is in the present. I wish they had not failed the exams. the “wish” is in the past. 1. 7. were V-2 Did not + V1 WISH Past Tense: Were Did not + V1 V-2 Past Perfect Tense : Had been Had not + V3 Had + V3 Exercise 1: Read the following sentences and respond using “wish”. write sentences with “wish” like the example. 5. 4. I go to school on foot. 3. They don’t sell groceries here. the “wish” is in the past perfect. Andi will lend you money. Mrs. 3. It is contrary to the fact. Exercise 2: Based on the following situation. You would like to take some photographs but you didn’t bring your camera. They didn’t attend the meeting. Example: You’ve eaten so much and now you feel sick. Now you decide that it doesn’t look very nice. 1. The sentence with “wish” is unreal. 9. I wish he lived in the city. Tom doesn’t live in the city. I was sick last week. Some students failed the exams. You don’t know the director. John isn’t going with us. Paul can’t drive a car. I wish I had not been sick. 6. You’ve just painted the door red.m. I wish they had attended the meeting. Joe feels very sad. 2. Example: The doctor isn’t in now. George has to write a lot of letters.Chapter 3 Sentences with “wish” Observe the sentences below: SITUATION My mother is sick. I wish I didn’t go to school on foot.

...He always talks as if he knew everything............ The boys were behaving as if they..... Besides using “wish”......... You live in London and you hate London...(be) the manager.... It sounded as though something. 6. or e....They acted as though they had won the competition.(be) angry. We have a test tomorrow and I still have to study... 7. You’ve just come back from the holiday.. but you’d like to stay in bed. c..(be) punctured.. 9.... The child wandered about as if she.. Example: They behaved as if they.I would rather my father worked in a bank... b.... could be d. a. will be able to 2.(go) mad. My friend was panting as though he.....(not meet) each other for ages... They behaved as if they had not met each other for years....(win) the first prize.... 6. has been e. could e...... The man looked at us as though we...... 11.. 7..... a..... ..here now to watch our play. am able c. 13. d.. He doesn’t like her d......... He appeared to like her c..... 12......came. and your car has just broken down. is c..(be) lost. 4... The sentence means.. 8. He used to like her e..(want) to tell us something......(want) to run away... 10...........(fall).... be b. Exercise 3: Give the correct form of the words in brackets. It seemed as if he .. were 3......(know) a lot about the subject.. which wasn’t very good..... 4... The girl behaved as if she. 14... but you’d like to....... 5..(take) the boxes.......... She looks as though she. . The boy looked as though he ........... b. will be d..... 1.. to express unreal condition we may use “would rather”... B : I wish I . Exercise 4: Choose the correct form by crossing either a.. You have to work tomorrow.......(be) sick... be able to b... My sister was smiling as if she.. 1....... A : Let’s go swimming.... She sat down as if she..... “as if” and “as though”......(find) it amusing. He wanted people to think he liked her 10 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .... 2.. 3. a..(run) a long way.... Everything was fine except for the hotel............. 5... So you didn’t see him....(be) very tired. 15............ You don’t know anything about cars.. The tyre looks as if it .. The girl was talking as if she.. You can’t give up smoking.... He orders people about as if he .. “if only”.. 8.. Her father is shouting as though he .. He spoke as if he had liked her.... For example : .... I wish he. He really liked her..

.. it had stopped 6. didn’t have to c. hadn’t had d. His son didn’t study harder. I’m planning to go to a party tonight. won’t have to e.. didn’t have to c. have known e..leave now. She actually can’t solve the problem. His son will not study harder. c. a.. a. b. knew d... Mother said to the guest. a.. a.. weren’t having to b. e..to stay at home because I’m sure that you would have enjoyed the concert very much.. d. She succeeded to solve the problem.. She is always busy with her work.... I wish i. b.” a... haven’t got to d.. it stops c. 5.. 7. She definitely knew how to solve the problem.. know c. I’m sorry I don’t know the answer but I really wish I ... “I wish you.... haven’t had b. don’t have o000o 11 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ... e. had known b.... a... visit c.. aren’t having to 9.... She went to the blackboard as if she knew how to solve the problem. His son has studied harder.her more often.4. She ought to know how to solve the problem.... could visit b... I wish. but it’s raining very hard now. c.. She should know how to solve the problem. it has stopped d.. His son had studied harder...raining now.. d... it would stop b..... a... would visit d. it will stop e.. have visited 10.. I wish you... His son never studies harder. am visiting e. hadn’t e. If only his son had studied harder... From the sentence we know that ...... will know 8.. This means.

we carried on walking................... 1.............. ......... d............ 6. Even though it rained a lot........ (despite) .. Despite the rain.......................... they enjoyed themselves. Though it rained a lot......... 4....................all my careful plans........ e... Although it rained a lot... b...........................I can’t play a musical instrument...........I had planned everything carefully....... (even though) .................... (despite) .................. a lot of things went wrong............................. (despite) ......... I couldn’t sleep although I was tired................ “as” and “since” are followed by.....I advised him not to..... they enjoyed themselves.................................................. a......being very tired........... d.......................................................... 1.............Chapter 4 Conjunctions Though/although/even though............ Mary wore a raincoat because it was raining...................... Mary wore a raincoat since it was raining........................ 3.................................... b...... because of and others Observe the following sentences: 1............ he is in fact German.......................................................................... .............. “Because of” is followed by ....... (although) ............ a.............................................. c...the heating was full on................ ................... In spite of her injured foot......... she managed to walk to the village.. Mary wore a raincoat as it was raining............ Exercise 1: Complete the following sentences with although or in spite of..................................................... (in spite of) .................. We lost the match although we were the better team................................................ c.. Keith decided to give up his job. Although he has an English name........................... despite/in spite of Because/as/since....... this house was till cold................. 2................................... In spite of the rain.......... I didn’t feel hungry................... 6........ “Although”. 5........................ Exercise 3: Read the following sentences and change them using “in spite of” 12 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ........... 5. 4. “Because”.............. Notes: “Though”....................... they enjoyed themselves. they enjoyed themselves.................... “Despite” and “In spite of” are followed by .. and “Even though” are followed by ............... I decided to accept the job although the salary was low...... I love music. In spite of not having eaten for 24 hours... 2. 2....... 3.......... . Mary wore a raincoat because of the rain...... they enjoyed themselves.............. a lot of things went wrong.......... Use the word(s) in brackets in your sentences.............................. Exercise 2: Read these sentences and then write a new sentence with the same meaning.......

B. a. c. 1. 6. 8. a. 9.we got a new coach... even though 3. The classes were cancelled because it was a holiday. in spite of d.. 7. because 2. in order that. I stayed home because it was raining. all the same means “namun (demikian)” 2.. My family and I are happier... on the other hand.. B : That’s right. nevertheless.. We swam in the lake although the water was cold.. D or E. Our football team didn’t win the match . since e.. 6. 3. so that means “agar supaya” 6. as soon as means “segera setelah” Exercise 5: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A. George couldn’t answer the letter immediately because he had a lot of homework to do. I came here because I wanted to take the English course. Jones moved to Arizona because the state has a dry climate. 2. when b. It had started raining before I got to the library. however e. 5.. despite c.... It started raining when I was walking to the library. although d. otherwise means “jika tidak” 7. C.. 10. till/until means “sampai” 9. 13 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . 5. 9... A : You look happy with your new job... yet.. therefore.my salary is smaller than before. accordingly. if b. Betty went although her mother didn’t want him to.. Mr. 1.. Alice is going to Florida because she wants to visit her sister. Mary stayed home yesterday because she had a headache. 4. 10.. Miller is going to move to California because he likes the weather there.. as long as means “selama/asalkan” 10.. however. 3. as a result.. John got home late because the traffic was heavy. We didn’t wear coats although the weather was cool.. We decided to go to Fish Lake although the distance was great. Mr. d. it was already raining. 4. 7.. unless means “jika.tidak (kecuali)” 8. We sat on the ground although the grass was wet. We started home although Betty wanted to stay longer. We got there in an hour although George’s car was very old. a. in spite of c. on the contrary means “sebaliknya” 4.. b... Other conjunctions: 1. I got to the library at one o’clock. 2. Exercise 4: Rewrite the following sentences using “because of”. It started raining as soon as I got to the library. and it started raining immediately. When I got to the library. hence means “oleh karena itu” 3.. consequently means “akibatnya” 5. John can’t go to the movie because he has an exam tomorrow. We enjoyed our lunch although the coffee was cold. We wanted to go there although the road was not good. 8... We went in George’s car although the engine was in bad condition..1.

e.. Whereas e. have become the victim of it e. complain about the danger threatening them c..... However b.... when 6.. because of e.she likes him very much.. Because 5. In order that c..... I could not afford to buy the car until the price went down..... however c. d.... the villagers were willing to transmigrate.he was very lazy to study. When the price went down........ I did not buy the car because the price never went down. a. Since b. 4. the price went down. the rain started sometime before I went to the library..... a.. The price of the car went down... 8. a.. hence b.. a. Since c... John failed his exam in the national examination . After I bough the car. because c. ... c.. are still washing their clothes there b... ..... nevertheless.... The sentence means. I certainly be able d. but I will not be able c. The river is highly polluted... many people.. a. however. do not allow the children to play there d.. therefore I will be able b.. so 7.. I could not buy it. Until e. she pretends to ignore him.the earthquake had made the region unsafe for living. Whereas d. I bought the car... although b.. however d. a. My uncle doesn’t earn much. So that 10.he can send his children to college.. I had already bought the car before the price went down.... b. .. besides I will be able o000o 14 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . a... otherwise I won’t be able to send my children to college. The sentence means. if I don’t I won’t be able e.... are greatly concerned about it 9. and d. I have to save money every month. e.. therefore e. Although d.

If my car (not break) down. With “be”= am. 2. With Verb= V-1/V-1s(es) c. I cannot fly because I am not a bird. With Auxiliary Verb= do/does not + V-1 To express something that may or may not happen in the future if he is sick. 3. 6. They didn’t win the match because they didn’t practice a lot. a. they can stay up late. if he had one. The meanings of conditional sentences types 2 and 3: 2. With Auxiliary Verb= did not + V-1 To express something that is contrary to the fact of the present if I were a bird. With “be”= were b. 1. Future Conditional Sentence 2. You will be ill if you (eat) so much. if we study hard. 3. He does not go by car because he doesn’t have one. 4. she (have) more sense. is. I should have caught the train. b. 15 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . If you (read) that book carefully. With verb= had+V-3 if he had been sick yesterday. Simple Past Tense a. He is not very happy because his wife works outside.Chapter 5 Conditional Sentences There are three types of Conditional Sentences: 1. To express something that is contrary to the fact of the past if they had practised a lot. Past Perfect Tense a. c. Present Conditional Sentence 3. I (go) if I had known. With verb= V-2 c. you would understand it. If she were older. if they do not study hard. If the children (be) good. 5. b. With “be”= had been b. are b. if his wife didn’t work outside. a. Past Conditional Sentence Observe the following: TYPE MAIN CLAUSE 1 Will/can + Verb-1 Examples: He will go to the doctor We will pass the exam They will fail the exam 2 Would /could+ Verb-1 Examples: I could fly high He would go by car He would be happier 3 Would/could have + Verb-3 Examples: He would have stayed at home They would have won the match IF-CLAUSE USE Simple Present Tense a. Exercise 1 Supply a suitable tense of the verbs in brackets. He didn’t stay at home because he was not sick yesterday.

1.. If he saw he would speak to you. We can’t have lunch in the garden because it’s raining. People don’t understand him because he doesn’t speak clearly... 4. If a beggar asks you for money.......... I didn’t wake George because I didn’t know he wanted to get up early. I will play tennis.. She doesn’t go out very often because she can’t walk without help.. I can’t meet you tomorrow evening because I have to work... 2... you will need several servants.. The soldiers will fight bravely if they (understand) their orders. If you leave the letter on that table.. She wasn’t injured in the crash because she was wearing a seat-belt. If he had fallen into the river.. If you didn’t live so far away. 11. somebody will come.. he would have been drowned... Answers: . 7. Why didn’t you do it if.. 4.. You’ll catch the train if you take a taxi.. I was able to buy the car because Jim lent me the money. 10. . We (be) pleased if our school won the match. You would have found the book if you had opened the bag.. If he had been thirsty.... 10. Example: We don’t visit you very often because you live so far away. it (bite) you. we would visit you more often.7. If your message had not come... 6.. 1. I (buy) that hat if it were not so dear.. What would happen if the bridge broke? 10. 5. 3. Exercise 3 Read the following situation and write sentences with “if”. I would not have thought it possible if I (not see) it myself.. 8. he would have drunk some water.. 2. Exercise 2 Read the following sentences and change them into the other forms of conditional sentences. 3.... I will come and see you if I have time. they (find) me. If they had waited. If you buy that big house.. 16 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . He’s fat because he doesn’t take any exercise. 12. my sister will post if for you... He will not come unless. 14.. What will you do if you meet Mr.. 2... You (kill) yourself if you always work as hard as that.. If you hit the dog. 9. I’m sure she will do well if she (go) to the university.He would have come if you had waited. 7. 1. 15. If he wrote to me I’ll write to him. Exercise 4 Finish the following sentences with your own words. Robinson? 9. 8. If it (be) fine tomorrow.He’ll come if you wait. Example: .. 4...He would come if you waited. 11.. The streets would be wet if it rained.. 15. 8. 5.. If you ring the bell. 13.. You’ll be ill if you drink that water. 3.... I’m not going to buy that book because it’s too expensive... If you had worked harder.... will you give him any? 14.. 9. 13. 12. The accident happened because the driver stopped so suddenly..... 6.

. 11...... We conclude that.. She could have attended the meeting if she had taken the first train.... 1.. a. found a better-paying job b.. We would not have lost our bag if we... doesn’t like his job d.... 13.. the traffic light often doesn’t work d.... Had the company not raised Andy’s salary.......... 8. 15............ Exercise 5: Choose the correct answer by crossing either a..... not many of the invited people came 6......... If I met your friend Mirna in the street... We may conclude that Andy ... b.. he would have looked for another job.. their house was crowded with people c. If there were traffic lights at this intersection..... had left 3.. we would make a long trip now... she stayed at home that day c............. she didn’t like the meeting e. 9.. 10. Flowers will not grow well unless.... couldn’t find a good job c... is still looking for another job 7......... I would have won the prize if............ enjoyed the trip 5............. a. a...... left c...... 17 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ........ If I had plenty of money..... a....... We can conclude that.. the guests enjoyed the party at their house e. the first train was late d.. If he wants to see me.. the only accidents occur at this intersection b.. didn’t leave his present job e..... the party could have been held at their house.. It means that.. a.. this is a dangerous intersection c..................... I will be very disappointed if.... there wouldn’t be so many accidents.... stayed at home c.... have left d...... If I had known he was here. 14.......... I would not have lost my money if.. are enjoying the trip e.. so they got a better view. despite the traffic lights accidents happen e......... It may be concluded that we.. it was only a small family b.. drivers were always very careful at this intersection 2. c......it in the hotel........... have to stay at home d. If I were you.... They climbed higher.5... a..... If you don’t visit me soon... or e........... would leave e.. d....... 6. You would be very angry with us if.. prefer staying at home b. If the car were in a better condition. would have left b.. the meeting was cancelled b. 12....... Had they invited fewer people. 7. she was too late for the first train 4.. the party was not held at their house d......

.. If they won’t climb higher.. o000o 18 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . The sentence means. John would like to go with me. b. If they don’t climb higher.. he succeeded to become a good swimmer d. I missed the interview 9. If the company’s personnel department had mailed the letter earlier. From the sentence we may conclude that... perhaps I’ll go with John b... they wouldn’t get a better view... he could have become a good swimmer.. a. e... the letter came too early e. If they didn’t climb higher..We can also say.. I went through the interview d...... It can be concluded that . he liked swimming very much b. I would not have been too late for the interview. c. If I had not quarrelled with John.... they don’t get a better view. he didn’t have the potential of a good swimmer 10.to the party.... they won’t get a better view. 8. I didn’t want to be interviewed b. a. he was afraid of swimming c. he was not interested in becoming a good swimmer e. e... If they climb higher. I didn’t go with John d.. they didn’t get a better view... a.. If they had not climbed higher.. I could have gone to the party.... d. John promised to go with me c... If he had taken the swimming lesson seriously.. I went with John.. they would not have got a better view. the company didn’t send the letter c. a.

” Observe the following sentences: 1. They knew the answer quite well.. My mother is a housewife. a. The apples she bought were spoilt. My mother is a housewife. a. 2. 3.too” and “and so..” Observe the following sentences: 1. He did not break the vase.. We’ll attend the meeting.. Mia has read the book. and Fina did. a. My father is not at home. Andi passed the examination. Ellipsis with “and. 5. My mother is not a civil servant. b.. too. I haven’t finished my homework... My sister cannot sing well. 6. 6.. My mother loves durian.too” or “and so.. Andi passed the examination. and neither has she. The umbrella belongs to her. She hasn’t finished her homework. Dewi has not graduated. My father loves durian. and so does my mother... 1... 3..... The mangoes she bought were spoilt. 4. Cindi has not graduated.. The money was stolen. b. Andi passed the examination. Her friends tried to persuade her to come. My father does not have enough money to buy a new car. 2. My father loves durian. 3... I tried to persuade her to come. His parents work hard to support the family.. They’ll attend the meeting. I have never met her before. 8.. and my mother is not either. My sister has never met her before.. and my cousin cannot either. 3.. My brother could lift the box. B... I did not break the vase. 2. 7. My parents work hard to support the family. I haven’t finished my homework. My sister does not trust him anymore... b. Her friends have read the book.. 5. b. and neither can my cousin. I haven’t finished my homework. My mother is a housewife. and so is his mother. and neither is my mother. My cousin cannot sing well. He will not be moving out after all. 7. 9.. My father is not a civil servant... Ellipsis with “and. The back door is locked. The purse belongs to her..”. I knew the answer quite well...... Exercise 1: Join the following pairs of sentences using “and. and so did Fina. My sister cannot sing well. My father loves durian. The front door is locked... a. My father is not a civil servant.either” or “and neither. She will not be moving out after all. My father is not a civil servant. a. and my mother does.. Fina passed the examination. My sister cannot sing well. 10. 1. His father does not have 19 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . Exercise 2: Combine the following sentences using “either” and “neither”.Chapter 6 Elliptical Constructions A.. 2. My father could lift the box. The jewellery was stolen. a. I do not trust him anymore. too. b. b. 4. and his mother is too. His mother is a housewife.. and she hasn’t either. My mother is not at home.

..and. neither doesn’t mother e. Ellipsis with others.... My uncle doesn’t smoke...... I do neither e.. a.... The grocery stores don’t either 3... He doesn’t speak Chinese. The grocery stores aren’t either b..... 9.. C. Anton did not pass the exam.. and father doesn’t too d.... and also the teacher e. 5........... You must help your father or your brother must help your father.. Because of the rain.... I didn’t have breakfast this morning but my sister did.. and .........enough money to buy a new car..or..... Examples: 1..... The maid not only sweeps the floor but also washes the clothes............. She washes the clothes. a. 2.... but the teacher not d.. ...... I neither couldn’t d.. also I could not b.... Nor do the grocery stores e....... neither am I c... D or E.... My sister had breakfast this morning.. 8.. so did I c......... C.. The others did not enjoy the party..nor.... 10.. Exercise 3: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A.. You have not paid the rent... I was not interested to watch the movie..but. Nina did not pass the exam.. such as Both...... either do I 4. I didn’t have breakfast this morning. a. I do either b .... I did not enjoy the party..... the teacher couldn’t come on time and ... 4.. and so does father c......... B.. . The maid sweeps the floor. I study English. I couldn’t either 20 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. 1..... Either.. Neither do the grocery stores d.... neither do I d.. No bookstores are open today.. but father does b.... The grocery stores are too c..but also. 3.. Everybody laughed at his jokes. and neither did the teacher b... Either you or your brother must help your father. Not only.. Your friend has not paid the rent.. a. a. Neither. Neither Nina nor Anton passed the exam... I study Japanese.......... and mother does too 2..... but the teacher did not c........ I study both English and Japanese. My friends were not interested to watch the movie... neither did I e... and so the teacher did 5..

... my father will be o000o 21 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . A : “I don’t think your cousin knows anything about computers.. My brother also did c. know d. Andy agreed that everybody had to pay Rp 500. ..... do e. I don’t so d...... Neither don’t I b.. He took a computer course last year..” a. so am I 7.......6..000.. neither was I d... so does my father c. My brother does too. I think that my mother will be interested in reading this novel.for the study tour to Bali. does c.. a..... but I am not e.. d.... a.. I didn’t either c. knows b. my father won’t d.” B : “But he . X : My brother has just bought a new motorcycle. is 8.... so will my father c.... my father is b. b. I don’t either e. a. Also my brother e. So does my brother 10. a.. Y : What a coincidence! .... I don’t also 9. I don’t like bright colours.. So don’t I c. but..... My brother has too. while I didn’t b.

............... 22 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ................ 4............................ He’s not so keen on his studies........................ 10... ......................................................................................... ........ You look. crowded early easily expensive interested near often quiet thin large 1........... The hotel was surprisingly cheap.............................................. It was.... This jacket is too small..................... I expected you to be here.... ..........than usual....size...................... 7........larger........ Have you lost weight? 3.............. PART A PART B The earlier we leave the faster you’ll learn The longer we waited the more you have to pay The more I got to know him the sooner we’ll arrive The more you practice your English the more profit you’ll make The longer the telephone call the more impatient he became The more goods you sell the more I liked him Answers: 1........................? 9...... Exercise 2: Match the clauses in Part A with the suitable clauses in Part B....................... Can you be a bit ........................ He’s ... I wish you lived...... Why don’t you write a bit............ 2.............................. Each time use the comparative form of one of the following adjectives or adverbs.............................................. 4....... You’ll find your way around the town....... You’re making too much noise.. 5...... 3..... It’s a pity you live so far away.... 2............. The earlier we leave.in having a good time.................? 6.......... You hardly ever write to me........ I need a .........if you have a map............ 8................................................ There were a lot of people on the bus......... ............... You’re late..Chapter 7 Degrees of Comparison Observe the following table: POSITIVE One or twoTall syllable adjectives high Clever Three-syllable Beautiful adjectives Interesting Important Irregular Good/well Bad/badly Far Little Many/much COMPARATIVE Taller than Higher than Cleverer than More beautiful than More interesting than More important than Better than Worse than Further (than) Farther than Less than More than SUPERLATIVE The tallest The highest The cleverest The most beautiful The most interesting The most important The best The worst The furthest The farthest The least The most Exercise 1: Complete these sentences........... I expected it to be much..

......................... This is .................. I’ve never slept in such an uncomfortable bed........................... There weren’t.............................. I haven’t had to make such a difficult decision for years............. 7.......... I’ve never had such a big meal.................. He’s never made such a bad mistake................... You........................ 4. 1................. The hotel is cheaper than I expected..................... Exercise 3: Rewrite these sentences so that they have the same meaning...... 3........................................ It is warmer today than yesterday.. but my father is the tallest of all................... 3........ Jack isn’t as old as he looks.. 5. The hotel isn’t.................... That’s the most......... .......... I don’t .............................. Exercise 4: Read these sentences and then write a new sentence with the same meaning... weight............. The examination wasn’t............ personality or the others...... 6......... 1..heard................... 4......... It isn’t. 6...................................... Make more than five sentences.............. 2......................................................................................... That’s............................. For example: In my family I’m taller than my brother.......5... I’ve never met such a generous person as Ann....... Tito... It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen. I go out less than I used to... The station was nearer than I thought........................... 5........ This is. I’ve never heard such a funny story..... I’ve never had such a good friend as you....... Example: I’ve never seen such a boring film.......... 23 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .................................................................. 2... The station wasn’t....... Use a superlative each time and begin each sentence as shown........ It is.............................................. .......... Ann is...... There were fewer people at this meeting than at the last one..... How do they differ from each other on their height....... Example: Jack is younger than he looks........ 6........... Begin as shown. I haven’t tasted such a good coffee for a long time.................................................................................. The examination was easier than we expected.................................................. Exercise 5: Think of your own family and compare all of them...... 8....... That’s ...................

had helped me fight the pickpocket... The umbrella whose colour is red is Mrs..Chapter 8 Relative Pronouns Observe the following sentences: 1. The man whose car was damaged in the accident was hospitalized........ There’s the lady. 9..........I ate yesterday was not so good. The man that is coming here is the principal. ... The lady.whose. The man you talked about is my neighbour... ...... 2................ The girl......... 5..... Object ...... .you are wearing is lovely....I can trust...lives opposite my house is very pretty..... 20.....was here yesterday has gone to London... Possessive .... 3.. The magazine. .....mother I was talking to has left the room.... that......... of which.............................. Wahyu’s..... For the sentences above you may also say: 1.... His wife is a woman ... 16. 3....whose.. That’s the man. The flowers........... ... Thing ... ..... that..... ...............is sitting next to me is very good-looking......... 24 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. The man. The umbrella which you borrow is my sister’s....which..you want has just left.............whose wife was badly wounded in the accident.....whom.......... that......you lent me is very interesting.. I’m looking for somebody.. The man whom you talked about is my neighbour.that..... The fish...............you are smoking is “Jarum”.. The person. The use of Defining Relative Pronouns Subject Person ..............lives next door has just died.. 6.....................who.... I will never forget the man...................... 4.. The umbrella which is in front of the room is mine..... Exercise 1: Add a relative pronoun to the following sentences.....I cut this morning is still very fresh.... 10...... The girl.in hospitals are to be admired...which... The umbrella you borrow is my sister’s.... 1........ The man who is coming here is the principal........ 11....... 18........... 13.....----... 15..................... 6.. Women .... 19..........will lend me the money............. 8.. 12. .. The old man ..lead to school is very wide.. 7.................. 2....... 5... The umbrella that is in front of the room is mine.loves jokes. ..... The street ....... The man that you talked about is my neighbour...........----.... I want to find a man .....purse has been stolen...............was broken is now mended. 4...... 4. 17.. The cigarette . 5. 2...... Use more than one relative pronoun if possible. The umbrella that you borrow is my sister’s.. 14.. The dress ...... The chair...........

has been taught to students in Indonesia since they are in the elementary school... is made up of many gases. Exercise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either a... 1.we met at the party yesterday is the General Manager of a 25 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ...is a bad habit.. English.. Gajah Mada University..... ..... 1.Air....is a wonderful feeling. 7.. Exercise 3: Combine the following pairs of sentences by using a suitable relative pronoun. carry diseases............. that the teacher was talking about it e.. What is the name of the girl? She came here last night... 3..was a great general............ 5..some students dislike. Julius Caesar came to Britain in 55 BC.....became the President of the United States.is a good sport... Julius Caesar........... This is the book....... Thing .. 5....... is situated in Yogyakarta....... I left the cigarettes on the table.....The use of Non-Defining Relative Pronouns: Subject Object Person .come mostly in the summer.. 1..... He was a powerful Roman General. George Washington. 10..we breathe. whom the teacher was talking about 2.... a... b..... the teacher was talking about it d.....whom..which. .... Shakespeare.. makes people strong.. 10...... is very good for them. 8..... The businessman.. Grammar. 9..... Megawati. of which.......... This is the man I gave the money to him this morning.. 3... An old soldier sits begging on the pavement... Swimming. Possessive .. 7.............. 3. Exercise 2: Add the necessary relative pronoun to the following....... Love... who.... about the teacher was talking c.... Is that the new station? You pointed out to me last week............. 2. comes to everyone at some time in his life. ... The table stands by the window.. c... the teacher was talking about b.. ..yesterday.... d or e..is one of the oldest in the world.... 4........ Oxford University. They will grow well in pots indoors.... 6. 2... was born in a little cottage... 4... These cactus plants should not have too much water. who was the first woman to be president of our country....which....... Mozart spent the last ten years of his life in Vienna...... . whose.. One should try to stop smoking... Flies..... The matter has been settled... You were arguing about it last night..... ....... His legs were shot away in the war.. Example: 1.... 2. whose....... His step mother was not very kind to him.. 8... has many different colleges. ... His birth place was Salzburg. 9.is the world’s greatest dramatist..... which is an international language...... was also a writer.... which many students from all over Indonesia attend.. never told a lie.. 6..... He was living with her....... is Sukarno’s daughter.....

.. which I told you d...health hasn’t been good lately. This is the place. where d.. from whom I bought the typewriter e. it was from them the two chapter are e.... a... where he borrowed a car c.is only available in the library... whoever 3... a.. his d.. The student succeeded in getting a scholarship... that I told you b. A : Who called you last night? B : The student. which 10........ to whom d... the person he borrowed a car 5.. he borrowed a car from him b..succeeded in getting a scholarship a. Tom’s father. where e....... about which I told you c... whom b.the Dutch imprisoned Pangeran Diponegoro. which b.... to which c. whom the teachers like b... This is Mr... which d... these two chapters are taken c..... a. which the teachers like him e..... of which 6.. Flash.. the two chapters are taken 7..... The teachers like him... whose c. a. I bought the typewriter from him d.. The above sentence can be joined as follows: The student.... who b... on which c... which I bought the typewriter from b. a. with whom e.... a.. of whom e.... he is liked by the teachers c. his car he borrowed e.. is in hospital now.... his typewriter I bought 26 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .this letter is addressed had moved to another city.. where these two chapters are taken from d.... I told you 9.. from whom he borrowed a car d. from which these two chapters are taken b. the teachers like him d.is a very generous person.... The lady.big company.. The book. is liked by the teachers 4.. His supervisor.. from him I bought the typewriter c.......... a.... a..... whom I told you about e.... who c.. whom e. who is b...... that 8....

have + Verb 3 Has. were + Verb 3 The house was cleaned yesterday. are + Verb 3 The house is cleaned every day.Chapter 9 Passive Voice Observe the following : 1. PASSIVE Am. The police must punish the criminals. The Tower of London (formerly use) as a prison. This exercise (do) very carefully. Sentences with Modal Auxiliary ACTIVE Can. Present Continuous 4. are + Verb-ing Was. 3. could. could. will etc. 2. Present Perfect Tense / Past Perfect Tense ACTIVE PASSIVE Has. is. Two of my dinner plates (break). The servant was washing the plates when I arrived home. She had returned the books to the library The books had been returned to the before she went home. have + BEEN + Verb 3 Had + Verb 3 Had + BEEN + Verb 3 Example: He has finished his homework. Simple Past Tense ACTIVE Verb 2 Example: Someone cleaned the house yesterday. 4. will etc. Present / Past Continuous Tense ACTIVE Am. Exercise 1: Complete the following passive voice sentences in the tense suggested. The plates were being washed when I arrived home. The box (not open) for the last hundred years. Present 2. Present Perfect 5. Past 3. is. His leg (hurt) in an accident. Simple Present Tense ACTIVE Verb 1/ Verb 1s(es) Example: Someone cleans the house every day. were + Verb-ing Example: Someone is cleaning the house now. is. PASIVE Was. were + BEING + Verb 3 The house is being cleaned now. PASSIVE Am. are + BEING + Verb 3 Was. PASSIVE Can. Present Perfect 27 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . This picture (always admire). Past 6. His homework has been finished. 1. The criminals must be punished. 5. + BE + Verb 3 The letter will be sent tomorrow. + Verb 1 Example : I will send the letter tomorrow. library before she went home.

. 4. still selecting c. Dear ! .. Exercise 3: Choose the best answer by crossing either a... are still selecting e... c. 12. Auxiliary 9. Present 10. a. Somebody accused of stealing the money. 3. Somebody might have stolen your car if you had left the keys in it. People don’t use this road very often. An electric fault could have caused the fire.... Kelly can’t use his room at this moment... They shouldn’t have played the football match in such bad weather. I didn’t realize that someone was recording our conversation. 5. took e.. 7.. The bill includes service. being taken d. 1. 15.. They are building a new ring-road round the city... They cancelled all flights because of fog. has to sell 28 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . d...The stolen car (find) in another town. Anything took 5.. has been sold c.. Was anything being taken c.. Milk (use) for making butter and cheese. As he was badly hurt in the accident.. 11. Present perfect Exercise 2: Change the following sentences into passive.. has to be sold e. Anything to take b..7.. was taken 2.... They have changed the date of the meeting. needing to be remodelled b... 9. 10. a.. X : I want the red dress displayed in the window? Y : I’m sorry. 13. Was anything taken e.? a.. 1... he. needed to remodel 3. are still being selected d.... is needed to remodel e. has sold b. still be selected 4.. X : Last night someone broke into our house. Y : Oh...to the nearest hospital. Somebody had robbed and attacked him in the street.. they .. We need to remodel our school building.. needs to be remodelled d.. People should send their complaints to the head office. is needing remodelled c... A :Which painting will be exhibited tomorrow? B : I don’t know yet.... was taking c. Did anything take d.. The answer must (write) on one side of the paper.. 14. They had to postpone the meeting because of his illness.” a. 6.. b. 2. The bridge (build) last year. or e. They are going to hold the congress in San Francisco... It.. Mr. We can also say “Our school building. still selected b.. 8. be taken b.. a. Past 8..by a team... has been selling d. madam...

is being watched b. I’m sorry but you can’t swim today...... being unloaded 11. a.. cleans e... a.. Every week it.. a. built e. a. tore e.. a.. watches d.. was being recorded c... were being unloaded e. My father offered someone d.from the truck. a.. was build c..... promised d.. a..by millions of people........a new watch... being recorded 13. it.. My father had offered e.. was to tear 8.. is tearing b.. a. A : How old is the mosque? B : Well.... has been building d. has watched c. My father was offered between two posts. is being cleaned b. has been promised b... they were unloading b... be cleaned d..... The pool. build b.6... was built 12. cleaned 9.. the choice between two posts. This is a very popular TV program..”. unloaded c.when she jumped over a fence. Somebody was offered my father c.. They would offer someone b.. was to record d. was torn d. has been promising e. watched 10.... has promised c.. were unloading d... is watched e.... I became quite nervous when I knew that my speech... We can also say “.. being promised 7... to be recording b. A : What happened to her skirt? B : It........ Someone offered my father 29 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . Anin is looking forward to her birthday because she. X : When did the accident happen? Y : When the goods...... has torn c.in 1980... is cleaning c.. is recording e.

My mother always has the clothes washed by the servant......... S + GET + O + .... b......his friends to bring back some food for him. 1. 3.. so he... Mind the form of the tense.. c.. S + HAVE + O + ..... 2........+ O... Answer the questions: 1. We lost our way at first. My mother always gets the clothes washed by the servant. but I will..Chapter 10 Causative ‘Get’ and ‘Have” Observe the following sentences: 1. 7. 5.. Answers: a... 9..him to take the prize.... 3.........some workmen come to paint their house while they were away on holiday...her brother to repair the toy for her yesterday. We must..... Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks with causative ‘get’ or ‘have’. Exercise 2: Change the following sentences into the other forms of causative active and passive............her to say something. 8...the maid serve you some drinks while I am on the telephone.......... 10...... but I will HAVE somebody represent me at the ceremony and GET him to take the prize..... They . My mother always has the servant wash the clothes. Answer: I cannot go to receive the prize myself.. b... 4. 4...the frightened woman to tell them where she kept all her valuables.... Complete the following patterns: ACTIVE : a. I will ... She. S + GET + O + .. b.. We had the mechanic repair the television set..... and I .......... Example: I cannot go to receive the prize myself... but later we.. I bought her a watch. 1.....her father to buy her the piano... The girl will.... 2.... 30 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .......... I will get the children to pick the mangoes.............. He had the car towed away by the man....somebody represent me at the ceremony and . What is the difference between sentences numbers 1 and 2 and sentences numbers 3 and 4? 3...... The burglars. What are the meanings of the verbs ‘get’ and ‘has’ in the sentences above? 2....... He was too busy to go out for lunch......Fita clean up the mess before she goes out. S + HAVE + O + ....+ O.............. He got the man to tow away the car.a passer-by give us the correct direction.... 2.the goldsmith carve her name on it...... That girl is too quiet.. Example : He had the man tow away the car.... My mother always gets the servant to wash the clothes... PASSIVE : a.... 6....... He got the car towed away by the man.. I must....

. The police got the man reveal the secret plans of his gang... she wants .. The sentence means. 3. had to do the job of the gardener c. 1.... 9.. had done the job by the gardener 5. 6. 2.. a. He had changed the oil of his car.. Someone has mended the pipe.. e. My mother will get my brother to help us.to the passage twice before they answered the questions. she has brought her meals b. a... listen c. You don’t need someone to mend the pipe.. 6.. b.. d. 9..... 31 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . My father had the fence repaired. He gets his hair trimmed once a month... have listened b.. b.. She will have this dress altered to fit her. 7..... had the gardener do the job b. Exercise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either am. We had our car repaired at the garage. 10. The soldier had his wound examined by the doctor. so she. c. The owner had the house renovated.... 7..... 5.... 4.. c.. to have her meals brought d. 8.” means.. My mother was not strong enough to clear the old tree trunks from the shed.. My mother had all her dresses sewn by a seamstress.. so we had it sawn into two. 10.. to have brought her meals e. d. He had to change the oil of his car. The pipe is leaking. listening e.... to listen 4... That old man had his grandson take him around the town...into her room. or e. Exercise 3: Replace the active causative in these sentences into passive and vice versa. Fitria got me to carry her books. 2. a. 4. had the gardener doing the job d.. You have mended the pipe.. You must have it mended.. had been doing the gardener’s job e. We had the plumber fix the leaking tap.. c. a. She will have the maid iron the suit as soon as possible. The teacher had the students. The plank was too long. He changed the oil of his car. You have to find someone to mend the pipe. 1.The students have their clothes washed and ironed at the laundry. a. 8. she brings her meals 3... “My father had the oil of his car changed. A plumber has mended the pipe. 5... The man always gets his wife to wake him up. Because she is ill. having her meals brought c. The boys usually get other people to replace them... She got her fortune told by that man.. b.3. listened d..

.. e.. b.. have made it c....... My niece has to lengthen her old dresses herself.. have to do it e.. a. to have done everything 7. to have everything done c.d.. having done everything e... my niece has her old dresses lengthened. Someone changed the oil of his car. The sentence means..... The curtains are dirty.. a... everything has done d. it has been done b. do it myself d. must have them washed c... we. He always wants. a.. Sugeng is a very lazy boy.. 6. I don’t know how to arrange the flowers so I’d rather. had made it 8... My niece has been asked by someone to lengthen her old dresses.. must have washed them d... a... had it made e.for him. Someone asked my father to change the oil of his car.. are washing them b. have it done o000o 32 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ..at the dry-cleaner’s..... everything having been done b.. Now that she has grown up..... have to make it d........ have washed them e. had to make it b... My niece has lengthened her old dresses. X : What a lovely evening gown you’re wearing! Did you make it yourself? Y : No.. c.. My niece has been told to lengthen her old dresses.... e. d.. have done it c.. I ... 9.. a. My niece asked someone to lengthen her old dresses. must be washing them 10.

...... He might have missed the bus... probability It is very probable that.. perhaps) Should obligation................ Might have + V3 (mungkin telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kemungkinan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau...... 4.. conclusion.. ..... TOMORROW.. Look at the examples.He came late...........(It is possible that...... Could have + V3 (sebenarnya bisa) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sebenarnya bisa dilakukan pada waktu lampau tetapi karena sesuatu alasan kegiatan itu tidak dilakukan................ Should = ought to ............. She could have bought something at the mall.She should have helped her mother (but she didn’t) 2......... It must have rained last night.......... .. ...... Will future time .... Paul and George are going to play tennis tomorrow....... 3....... Tono went to a mall last Sunday............ Examples: Paul is going to write PAUL WILL WRITE A LETTER a letter tomorrow..... Should have + V3 (seharusnya telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan tindakan yang seharusnya dilakukan tetapi tidak dilakukan... VERY WELL................ .......(I conclude that... have permission to...........Mrs.....(be able to) May permission ...) necessity ....... George is able to speak GEORGE CAN SPEAK FRENCH French very well... EXERCISE IN THE LIBRARY 1... Exercise 1: Form sentences using the modals.... She had enough money with her but she didn’t buy anything... be allowed to) Might possibility .... .(have to) Modals with Perfect: Observe the following: 1.. The students have permission THE STUDENTS MAY DO THE to do the exercise in the library...... 33 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .........(be going to) Can ability .....Chapter 11 Modal Auxiliaries Notice the forms and meanings of the modal auxiliaries........... Must have + V3 (pasti telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kesimpulan dari peristiwa yang terjadi pada waktu lampau...........Look at the ground! It’s wet.....(ought to) desirability Must inference............(be permitted to.........

. 8. 3. 10. Did she ride with us in the car? She had that opportunity but she didn’t. Mr. Did she invite her uncle on her birthday? It was desirable but she didn’t. 9. 5. You ought to send messages to your parents regularly. His glasses were broken and his nose was bleeding.. 3. shall be d.ill. Tom was coughing and sneezing yesterday. Exercise 3: Use ‘must have’ in your response to the sentences. she didn’t.2.. 2. Answer : SHE MUST LIVE IN AN APARTMENT NOW. Execise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either a.. b. That’s the only reasonable conclusion. 9. We have to get up at six tomorrow. 6.. Exercise 2: Make sentences with ‘must’. 7. Answer : SHE MUST HAVE LIVED IN THE DORM LAST YEAR. Answer : He must have told her something funny. Did she decide to get a job? I think that’s possible. ‘might’. 1.. His music teacher told him that he played the piano like an expert. Examples: 1.. 9. 3... ‘should’ or ‘could’ according to the situation. Did she stay with her sister? She had that opportunity but she didn’t. Example : Your sister laughed after she talked with Budi. This morning he left suddenly and went to the dentist’ office. 1. X : Does she live in an apartment now? Y : I suppose she does. 6..Mary is able to play the violin well. a. 7. 10. You have permission to come and see the doctor. 6. Fitri own a new house? I conclude that she does. The students have to join an English course. 2. He spoke Italian very well when he came back from Europe. 5. Is the new student a very good dancer? I conclude she is. John is able to swim very well.. He was very sleepy this morning.. 2. 4. He had to write the check with a pencil. My brother is in your class. It is possible that George is a very good tennis player. Ridwan sell his car? I conclude that he did. 5. 4. She. 4. Did you aunt shop by phone? She had the opportunity but she didn’t. Brown has to get a new passport soon. He came back from the city with lots of money and no car. 10.. Did she save her money? It was desirable. I conclude that you know him. Did Mr. He knew what was going to happen every minute during the whole movie. d or e. X : Did she live in the dorm last year? Y : I conclude that she did. He had souvenirs and photographs of many different cities all over the world. Rini is very thin and pale. Did your brother forget to mail the letter? I think it’s possible. 7. c. ought to be 34 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. 8. 1. 8. Does Mrs.

has to be practising c. are to have c..... could have d. ought to practice d. has to be 35 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . they.at the office by now. Her house is very dirty. Iwan was allowed to go c. a. 3....... ought to have arrived c. should practice e. When we got home. will have arrived d. she. they.. She.... Iwan was ordered to go.. could not be cleaning e. c. My brother is expected to be very busy. 5... ought to have b. will be e. a.. X : Hello! Is your Mom home? This is from her office... must have been practising b. e. b. The teacher said to Iwan : “You can go now....to make a tour around the world this year. We can also say. d. should not have cleaned it b.... otherwise. does not clean d. could not have afforded 10.. may have had d....... His English is very good. My brother was perhaps very busy. Y : No.. a. ought to have 8.. a... may be b.. Iwan was advised to go.........” The sentence means. My brother did not keep his promise to send us a message soon... must have c..” There.it for a long time... Iwan was supposed to go. He.... wouldn’t afford c. did not clean 4.... used to have b. must have arrived 6. Iwan was requested to go.. She left home an hour ago... X : Then. a.. Somebody.quite a lot. It is possible that there will be a rise in the price of petrol soon.. should be e... could have arrived b... b. we found the front door open. must be 2. would have been c. would have e... had better be c.. E.b.. can’t afford d. must be d. a.. My brother was certainly busy.. will have practice 9.. The sentence means. must be having e.... d.a hard time now...a rise in the price of petrol soon..... My brother will be very busy.. a.entered the house while we were away.. My brother would be very busy.... could afford e....” a.. must not have cleaned it c..... He might have been very busy... They lost all their possession in the fire...... a.... should have 7... would have arrived e.. Last year the couple could save much money. will afford b.

.3....4.. Either of these buses goes to the university..... 2.. The pyjamas he is wearing now........ which. 6......... 4. A series of tests...... Notes: Along with... Agreement of noun and pronoun Singular male person : he.. The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anyone neither anything no one each nothing either what everyone.. Twenty dollars is the price of the watch... It is easier to talk about the problem than it is to resolve it. The cattle. accompanied by my father. 3. 1. If one knew about a fact.. when the subject is plural..... Agreement of subject and verb: When the subject is singular.... The police........3. these cameras take very good pictures... the verb must be plural..... hers Singular thing/animal : it...dollars class public 2. his Singular female person : she.... we are now awaiting 36 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ......Chapter 12 Agreement/Concord A... In spite of their small size... The traffic on the road today..... their. 7...(be) brought to us yesterday by a friend. 3... Exercise 1: Fill in the correct form of the bracketed words (plural or singular).. the verb must be singular..... her... its Plural people/animals/ things : they.(belong) to my brother... them Examples: 1.(have) been made on the animals.. His knowledge about mathematics and natural science has made him successful.4.....(have) all been driven to the market this morning for sale.... 5..... too....(be) very heavy........ 2... whatever everything whoever The following collective subjects agree with singular verbs: audience group 2.(be) very heavy....... Examples: 1. My mother. is going to visit my grandmother in Jakarta. with and accompanied by do not cause singular subjects to be plural. him....miles committee staff faculty team family B.. 4.. 2... 3...... he will not be so quick to criticize.... The news ..(have) now finished questioning the suspect. She had to hire a porter to carry the luggage.....

... they require e.... a........ is e..... or e...... their 37 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .... are c. My family .. Neither the students nor the professor.....skills and creativity. a...... I’ll try ... it meets the requirements e... are e. Producing fine paintings.... they meet the requirements 8. have been c.... a... it has become d... they are d.for the results. are being b..for our pilot projects..... Although the boys have enough money...... a... it c.. b... have been e....... a..on.... have b.. were 2..(be) tight for him.now.. a. to have become b.....the title of a very popular Indonesian song... they d... Economics..(work) only when the electric current is on.. is require 6.. 10. d.. why does he not give the trousers away? 9.... Neither of the schools ..... has become e. are being repaired e.... meets the requirements c... requires b.. 8... having become c. That pair of trousers.... a.happy about the result of the experiments. are d.. require d.. was 9.... were e.....a difficult subject for many people. a...... c. These shoes look good.. will b..... have been d. its e.... is d... each of them..(be) a united one. a.... was 7. The name of a river passing through some big towns . were e...... An increase in the number of students... The school has a lot of classroom. meeting the requirements b..equipped with an overhead projector. The machinery........... ........... were c...going on vacation. The bridge designed by the young engineers ....... 1.... is d...... was 4.. a.. are c. have become 5.. is requires c.. Exercise 2 : Choose the best answer by crossing either a.... to be b.expected next year. meets the requirements d..... are b.. are repairing b..... is being repaired c. neither of them.. is repairing d...... was 3. have been repaired 10. them b.. is c..

comes immediately after the verb. the adverbial place acts as a kind of object notionally. B.Chapter 13 Word Order A. Place and Time come together in one sentence. Adverbs of Frequency Always Sometimes Usually Often Generally Occasionally rarely seldom scarcely hardly ever never Adverbs of frequency usually come after the subject or to be. When adverbs of Manner. An inversion form is used. Place Manner She walked to school slowly. He is often late to school. PLACE AND TIME 1. A negative adverb of frequency is often placed at the beginning of a sentence to emphasize the negative meaning. Place Manner 3. Time Manner Place 4. Examples: She always studies hard. Manner Place Time He is studying hard in the room now. C. Example : Last night my sister performed very beautifully at the concert. Example : He went to the station by taxi. Order of Adjectives 38 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . Rarely did we eat rice when we were in England. Example : He was born at seven o’clock on Christmas morning in 1993. The adverbial of time is often placed at the very beginning of a sentence. this is particularly useful when there are many adverbials in the sentences and also to emphasize the time. Manner Place Time 2. With verbs of movement. Examples: She danced gracefully at the concert last night. Examples: Never has she met us. in the order Manner. the normal order is at the end of a sentence. The more particular expressions of time come before the more general. Place and Time. Order of Adverbs of MANNER.

. My mother goes for a walk on Sundays. We are going (for a week. 9. They have heard of it. tomorrow.... She is a good student.. (never) 7.. in Tawang Station).m. He gets up before half past nine.DETERMINER A R T I C L E A/an First Two The Second three My Third Another Your Only Several her some A lot of his our this that SIZE AGE SHAPE COLOR ORIGIN HEAD WORD Interesting Boring Beautiful Pretty ugly Handsome Clever Etc Big Small Little Short Tall Wide Narrow Etc... very late. We try to work well. at 10 a.... on Saturday) 10. (generally) 4. all day.. every morning).... in the concert).. Bani was working (at her office.. (often) 5. to Switzerland. all day yesterday). last night.. They stayed (quietly. Our teacher spoke to us (in class. (hardly) 10. 4. Example: a beautiful table (wooden round) a beautiful round wooden table 1. 39 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg Car Book House Dress Ring Etc ... I will meet you (outside your office. at the station. Old Round Young square New etc Cold Hot Warm modern Red Yellow Green Blue Brown etc Iron Stone Paper Brick Wood Gold etc Task 1: Put the adverbials at the correct place.. (usually) 6. 7. very rudely.The children quarrel with each other. 3. 2. He was born (in the year 1995. this morning). (scarcely) 9.. 8. The porter was able to carry my luggage... 1. Task 2: Put the adverb of frequency in the following sentences into the correct place. Her death has upset me.... She knows what to say about it. (often) 11. We are very busy.... very hard... On June 14th). The buses are full in this town. 5.. (quite) 12.. an unusual ring (gold) . 1.. this morning)... (never) Task 3: Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position. (always) 3... The train arrived (this morning. (nearly) 8... He played (at the Town Hall... (always) 2. Mrs. beautifully... I saw my friend off (at 7 o’clock. Mary can swim now.. at 2 o’clock). 6. there).. She drinks coffee (at hone....

............ Does sometimes he read English good books? e.. a...................... b......... “You shouldn’t write such a criticized articles.............. d.......... c............. Has your brother been ever injured in a football match? d. I think he alone is not strong enough to lift that box... e.......................................................... a long face (thin) 14......... Has your brother ever been injured in a football match? c........ Has your brother been injured in a football match ever? 4............... ... Does he sometimes read good English books? 5.... In the library Andi clearly told me everything last night. b. e............ d............. a hot bath (nice) 10....... ...................2.. They published are seldom..... Does he sometimes read English good books? b.. Does sometimes he read good English books? d.. I think he is not strong enough alone to lift that box.... c.................. a wide avenue (long) .. a metal box (black/small) 13.... Does he read sometimes good English books? c... Choose the correct sentence! a.............. an ugly dress (orange) 11................................. d..... ........... a red car (old/little) 12.... an American film (old) 7..... Seldom they are published. a good – looking man (young) 4.. ................. Seldom published the are. or e........... ... .. 3............ ............................... Has your brother been injured ever in a football match? e.. 40 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ......... c........ Which of the following statements is true? a..... 1.. 2..............” a....... Which one is true? a.. d............ Last night Andi told me everything clearly in the library......... I think he is not strong enough to lift that box alone............... ........... They seldom are published.... a modern house (attractive) 5................... Task 4: Choose the correct answer by crossing either a................. I think he is alone not strong enough to lift that box....... an old lady (nice) 3........ black gloves (leather) 6........................ Choose the correct sentence. I think he is not enough strong to lift that box alone.... .. They are seldom published.. e... . b.................. Has ever your brother been injured in a football match? b.... b........ a sunny day (lovely) 9......... ........ Everything Andi told me clearly last night in the library..... a large nose (red) 8... Andi in the library clearly last night told me everything......... ......... c...................... Clearly last night Andi told me everything in the library...

... c. Usually Ati on my birthday writes me a long letter. She took him to the movies last night. A long letter usually Ati writes me on my birthday. 10. To send me a birthday card Tia forgets never... What is so special about Rini’s house? It is a.6. b.. He took her to the movies last night.. c. b. Tia forgets never to send me a birthday card. o000o 41 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ... The farmer in the morning left home early. Which of the following sentences is true? a. In the morning the farmer left early home. Early the farmers left home in the morning. d. Ati usually writes me a long letter on my birthday. Where did her boy friend take her to? a. wooden Japanese style house b. Tia never forgets. 7. Tifa came home late last night. He took her last night to the movies. Never forgets Tia to send me birthday card. To the movies he took her last night. Japanese style wooden house c. Which of the statements is right? a. wooden house Japanese style d. c. c. The farmer left home in the morning early. e. Japanese wooden house style e. Tia never forgets to send me a birthday card. d. e. e. Ati usually writes me on my birthday a long letters. 8. d. To send me a birthday card. wooden style Japanese house 9. b. Which of the following statements is true? a. d. Usually a long letter Ati writes me on my birthday. e. The farmer left home early in the morning. a. Last night she took him to the movies. b.

However. in the past such as : told. “Pay attention”. when the reporting verb is in the past.” I asked her. has told. 2. Commands or Imperative See the following examples: 1. “I’m a good dancer”. When the reporting verb is in the present. except for eternal truth and natural laws. “The sun rises in the east”. Changes that happen from direct into indirect speech when the reporting verb is in the past. The teacher explained that the sun rises in the est. 1. 4. “Wash your face. Present Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense am. “The sun rises in the east”. c. had told. Past Continuous Tense Past perfect Continuous Tense was. “Don’t be afraid. Simple Past Past perfect Tense V2 had + V3 Did + V1 had + V3 c. b. said etc. Statements In reported statements there are two types of introducing verbs: 1. The teacher explains. there is no change of tenses from direct into indirect sentence. she said. were + V-ing d. The teacher explained. She said that she was a good dancer. she often says. has said etc 2. I told her not to sit on that chair. Changes of Tenses a. are + V-ing was. Changes that happen from direct command to indirect command : V1 to V1 Don’t V1 not to V1 B. says. is. the teacher said. will tell. She told the sleepy student to wash his face. “Don’t sit on this chair. were + V-ing Had been +V-ing e. The teacher explains that the sun rises in the east. there is always a change of tense from direct into indirect sentence. Simple Present Tense Simple Past Tense V1 V2 Do/does + V1 did + V1 b. Examples: a. she told the sleepy student. Present Perfect tense Past Perfect Tense has/have + V3 had + V3 42 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .Chapter 14 Direct and Indirect Speech A. please”. “I’m a good dancer”. I asked her not to be afraid. d. 3.” I told her. She often says that she is a good dancer. in the present such as: tell. The teacher told us to pay attention.

... “Will you attend the party?. f.... may c.2..... next.. last. Yes/No Questions Observe the following: 1..... “Do you go to school on foot?”.. WH-Questions Observe the following sentences: 1... 2.... They wanted to know if/whether I went to school on foot. will b. this c. now c.... Changes of Modals a.. 3.. Changes of Adverbs of Time a.. here b. the ..... The boy asked me. I asked her if/whether her mother was a housewife.. She asked me...... 2......... The policeman said....after the previous... must 4....... the ..... yesterday e. 43 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ... these would could might had to there that those C. today b... The changes from direct to indirect in YES/NO questions: Direct Yes/No Question TO BE/AUX + S+ V/N/ADJ Indirect Yes/No Questions IF/WHETHER S + TO BE/AUX+V/N/ADJ D... can c...before 3........ “How did the accident happen?” The policeman wanted to know how the accident had happened... “Is your mother a housewife?”. tomorrow d.ago that day then the following day the next day the day after the previous day the day before the following. they wanted to know.... ............. She asked me if/whether I would attend the party......... I asked her. “Where is your brother?” The boy asked me where my brother was. Other changes a.

“You can do it if you try. “Will the taxi be here at eight o’clock?” father asked the waiter. “Don’t try to be funny”. 4. 5. “Fasten your safety belt”. 1. “I am going to town with my sister. the teacher told the naughty students. “Must the door be kept shut?” the shop assistant asked me. “I lost my temper yesterday morning. 8. 9.” I told the teacher. “They went away yesterday. 2. “You may see the photograph if you like. “They do not know you. 44 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . The teacher asked Intan. 2.” he confessed. 7. 10. “Does she always wear Moslem clothes?” I asked him. “We have finished our work. “Have you ever seen my new bag?” she asked me. 4. they said to me. 1. I told my brother.” I said to her.” Leave it on the piano”. Task 2: Change the following sentences into reported statements.” the teacher said.” Intan said. “She has done her homework well. “Did you meet the minister when you were in Jakarta?” she asked me. 4.” Fahmi said. 9. Father told the gardener. “Don’t sit on my bed. “Did the greengrocer have any fresh vegetables?” mother asked me. 6.” I said to her. “Clean it yourself.” he said. Task 4: Change the following sentences into the reported questions. 9. 5. “Have the children put away their toys?” mother wanted to know. “He is ready to come with us. The changes from direct to indirect speech in WH-QUESTIONS: Direct WH-Question WH + TO BE/AUX + S + V/N/ADJ Indirect WH-Question WH + S + TO BE/AUX + V/N/ADJ Task 1: Rewrite the following sentences into indirect commands. 7. 8. 2. 1. “May I use your telephone?” my friend asked me. “Wrap it in a piece of paper. The pilot told the passengers. “Do you sleep in the afternoon?” I asked her. “I want to speak to you. 10. 8. 3. 10. “Cut the grass in the garden”. 3. “Was the train very full last Sunday?” the man asked the officer.” I told the shop assistant. “Don’t speak until you are asked”.” my sister asked me.’ he asked her 7.” I advised him. Task 3: Put the following sentences into the reported speech. 6.” they said. “Don’t spill the ink on the carpet”. she asked me. “Why were you absent yesterday?” The teacher asked Intan why she had been absent the day before. “Wait there till I come. 3.” mother told my brother. 5.3. 6.

My mother told me that she didn’t waste my money on cigarettes. I asked Andika. 1. 2. I asked Ida. b. “Which book is yours?” 6. My grandmother asked me.. “Did she leave a message for me?” “ Yes. Sita answered that she had been writing letters...tonight”.. “Don’t leave the ship”. did they go abroad so often c... My mother advised me not to waste my money on cigarettes. My friend asked me..” Sita answered. “Didn’t leave the ship”. a.. b. My brother asked. “How long have you been waiting here?” 7. The captain told the sailors not to leave the ship.” a.. “Why didn’t she come to your party?” 9. d. d.. I would call you 5. b. “You didn’t leave the ship”. or e. We asked the boy. Farhan said to me. she said. The teacher asked Sinta.. c. Sita answered that she was writing letters... The captain said. “Not leave the ship”.. My mother asked me if I had wasted my money on cigarettes. “How often do your family visit your grandmother?” 5. b. “How is the condition of your car now?” 10. she would call her c. she would call you e. 6. Andi asked me... why they went abroad so often e. “Don’t waste your money on cigarettes. c. whether I was absent yesterday b. “Where will we spend our holiday next week?” 2. you called her d. My mother said that she didn’t waste my money on cigarettes... “When were you born?” 4. A : “What did she ask you just now?” B : “.... My mother allowed me to waste my money on cigarettes..” a...1. c. Sita answered that she has been writing letters.. The captain said. The captain said.... whether my mother was at home yesterday 45 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . I asked the lazy students.... “How could you be so unkind to that poor man?” 8. a. she called you b. “Why do they go abroad so often?” Farhan asked me. d. Sita answered that she wrote letters...... “How do you usually go to the office?” 3. if they went abroad so often d.. Ira asked Dino. e.. Mother said. 4. Sita answered that I’ve been writing letters... c.. a. The captain said. why did they go abroad so often 3. why do they go abroad so often b. e.. e. “You do not leave the ship” d. “What will you do if you do not pass the exam?” Task 5: Choose the best answer by crossing either a.. The direst sentence is a.... “I’ve been writing letters.. The captain said.

. c... “Is John coming to the party tonight?’ “Yes.. so I said. d.” a.. if I did grow my own vegetables o000o 46 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ... “You may not smoke here”.... “You need not smoke here”. a... not to touched c.... if he is coming tonight c. “You cannot smoke here”. not touch e.... “You must not smoke here”... I grew my own vegetables e.the new painted wall. did I grow my own b\vegetables d...... if he could go with us b. whether he is going with us 8.. He asked me.... if the principal had announced the result of the exam e.. Mother warned us .. not to touch d... not to touching 10.. whether all the students passed the exam last year d... not touching b. whether he goes with us e. 9.... c. I saw someone smoking at the petrol station. a. if he went with us d. a.. “You will not smoke here”.. whether I grew my own vegetables b.... you grow your own vegetables c. if all students are present today 7.... he asked me. b...c.

. d.) in the statement is repeated in the tag. has etc. haven’t you? 2. the tag is negative. Special Question-Tags: No. were) or auxiliary verb (will. b. h. we. Girls should not go out at night alone. won’t it? 4. g. haven’t you? You have to finish your work. The subject in the tag is always the same as the subject in the statement but in the form of personal pronoun (I. the tag uses the fist auxiliary verb. the tag is positive. couldn’t they? 3. The children could do the test. he. 2.t I? shall we? hadn’t he? wouldn’t he? wouldn’t he hadn’t he isn’t he hasn’t he shouldn’t Exercise 1: Add suitable question-tags to the following statements. i. can. have. was. the tag must be added with the auxiliary verb do. shouldn’t they? 7. are. won’t you? 8. they. V1 do V1 s/es  does V2  did 4. does or did. In commands. When there is no be or auxiliary verb. don’t you? 9. has and had” are auxiliaries when followed by V3. does and did. don’t you? You have a happy family.Chapter 15 Question-Tags Observe the following sentences: 1. e. The show will end soon. When they are not. You have been living here for years. When the statement is negative. f. she. you. won’t etc. is. have they? Rules of Question Tag: 1. 3. When there are two auxiliary verbs used in the sentence. Negative tag is always in the contracted form ( isn’t.) 6. Statement I am Let’s He’d better He’d rather He’d go He’d gone He’s taking He’s taken He ought to. To be (am. should they? 5. c. When the statement is positive. so we have to add the auxiliaries of do. it) 5. Tag aren. For example : The students should have studied. Example : You have finished your work. 47 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . they are considered as verbs. “Have. doesn’t. The students haven’t done their homework. the tag is either “will you ?” (rising intonation) Or “won’t you?” (falling intonation) Example : Study hard for your test. a... will you? Study hard for your test.

9. 30. 12. 4. You will have finished your study by the end of this school year. 16. You have heard about that. This winter hasn’t been cold. People think that he won’t fall down. Anton has your book. 21. 2. 6. I am not a good worker. The roof was leaking. He has lived in his present home for years. Your sister won’t fall down. 10. 23. Let me read the letter for you. Our teachers speak English better than yours. He always has breakfast at nine. They didn’t see you 3. 20. 13. He has an English-English dictionary. Let’s pretend we’re not here. 19. I am very late. 48 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . 27. Come and see me tomorrow. You broke the window. Those children should not have gone without the teachers. 15. Your grandmother wouldn’t like the window open. 5. He didn’t have to speak to me. 17. 7. 24. You never come to class on time. 22. 26. You’d rather I didn’t say anything. I have to buy some matches.1. 8. He used to go with his wife. You ought to go there yourself. 11. 18. Let’s have something to eat in the restaurant. 28. 25. 14. They arrived yesterday. 29. You shouldn’t have been such a fool. He won’t fall down.