Chapter 1

Review of Tenses
Tenses which have high frequency of use:
1. The Simple Present Tense
a. Pattern: S + Be (am, is, are) + Adjective/Noun/Adverb
S + V-1 /V-1s(es)
b. Use : to express something that happens in the present
to express habitual activities
c. Adverbs : every............, once/ twice/three times a .........,
always, sometimes, usually, generally, seldom, never
d. Verbs which are only used in simple tenses (not normally used in continuous
tenses)
want like
belong know
suppose
remember
need love see
realize
mean
forget
prefer hate hear
believe
understand
seem
Examples:
- My mother is at home now.
- My father works as a lawyer
- He usually goes to the office by car.
2. The Simple Past Tense
a. Pattern : S + Be (was, were) + Adjective/Noun/Adverb
S + V-2
b. Use : to express something that happened in the past
c. Adverbs : this morning, yesterday, just now, last..............., .................ago
Examples:
- The children were frightened to see the horror film last night.
- All students in my school passed the exam last year.
- Mrs. Andi sent the parcel to Jakarta this morning.
3. The Present Continuous Tense
a. Pattern : S + am, is, are + Verb-ing
b. Use : to express something that is still in progress at the present time or at the
time of speaking
c. Adverbs: now, at present, at this time, at this moment, Look!.... Listen! ....
Examples:
- Look! The children are playing music enthusiastically.
- My father is still working in his office now.
4. The Future Tense
a. Pattern : S + Be going to + V-1
S + Will + V-1
b. Use : To express something that will happen in the future
c. Adverbs : tomorrow, tonight, next.............
Examples:
- We are going to finish the assignment this afternoon.
1

Tyas SMA N 4 Smg

- They will help us to finish painting the wall tomorrow.
5. The Past Continuous Tense
a. Pattern : S + was,were + V-ing
b. Use : to express something that was in progress when another activity happened
in the past
c. Adverb : when......................,while.......................
Examples:
- When I arrived home this afternoon, my mother was watching TV.
- While I was studying last night, my brother was talking with his friend.
6. The Present Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : has/have + V-3
b. Use : to express the completion or perfection of an action by now
to express an action which began in the past and continues up to the present
time
c. Adverbs : already, yet, just, lately, recently, since..................., for................
Examples:
-. He has just graduated from senior high school.
- My brother has already got a job.
- We have studied English for more than six years.
7. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
a. Pattern: S + has/have + been + V-ing
b. Use : to express an activity which began in the past and, is still going on at the
present time
c. Adverbs: since.......................... and for...............................
Examples:
- She has been living in that house since 1990.
- They have been arguing for more than half an hour.
8. The Past Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : S + had + V-3
b. Use : to express an activity which was completed before another activity in the
past
c. Adverbs : before................., after................., when................, as soon as...........
Examples:
- When I arrived home yesterday, my mother had finished cooking.
- He had done his homework before he went to bed last night.
9. The Future Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : S + will have + V-3
b. Use : to express an activity which will be completed at a specific time in the
future
c. Adverbs : by the end of this week, by next December, by............
Examples:
- We will have finished our study in this school by the end of this year.
2

Tyas SMA N 4 Smg

-

He will have lived in this house for a year by next month.

Exercise 1:
Supply the most suitable tense (Present, Past, or Present Perfect):
1. She (go) away every week-end.
2. He (go) abroad last week.
3. No, he isn’t here. He just (go) out.
4. He (go) downstairs when I (meet) him.
5. “Where is Mr. Green?” “He (go) out ten minutes ago.”
6. This boy never (see) the sea.
7. You (see) my bag? I (lose) it.
8. I (see) you yesterday. You (sit) outside a café.
9. He already (write) a lot of letters, but his sister (not write) many.
10. He is busy now; he (write) a letter.
11. I hope he (get) better now, I (hear) he (have) a bad cold all the week.
12. I usually (not take) sugar in my tea.
13. You (see) a good film lately?
14. He (live) in England since 1980.
15. When I last (see) him, he (lie) in London.
16. He (sit) in the garden when the storm (break).
17. You go to the cinema last night? No, I (not be) for three weeks.
18. I (hear) the news last night, but I (not hear) it today.
19. You (read) that book yet? No, I just (begin) it.
20. I (see) that you (buy) a new hat. How much you (pay) for it?
Exercise 2:
Supply a suitable tense of the verbs in brackets.
1. By next June he (write) his second novel.
2. Before his next visit here he (return) from a world tour.
3. Before you go to see them, they (leave) the country.
4. He (finish) this before you leave.
5. By the end of the summer he (teach) us to speak English.
6. By this time next week you (meet) my friend.
7. When you come back he already (buy) the house.
8. The meeting (finish) by the time we get there.
9. By next month he (sell) all his furniture.
10. By next Sunday you (stay) with us for five weeks.
Exercise 3:
Supply a suitable tense to verbs between brackets into either the Simple Past Tense or the Past
Perfect Tense.
1. They (go) home after they (finish) their work.
2. She said that she already (see) the Pyramids.
3. She just (go) out when I called at her house.
4. You ought to have brought her straight home after she (fall) in the river.
5. They told him that they (not meet) him before.
6. He asked why we (come) so early.
7. She (tell) me his name after he (leave).
8. He (do) nothing after he saw me.
9. My friend enjoyed his food as soon as he (taste) it.
10. He (thank) me for what I (do).
11. I (be) sorry that I (hurt) him.
3

Tyas SMA N 4 Smg

12. After they (go), I (sit) down and (rest).
13. Did you (post) the letter after you (type) it?
14. After I (hear) the news, I (hurry) to see him.
15. When we (arrive), the dinner already (begin).
Exercise 4:
Choose the correct answer by crossing either A, B, C, D or E.
1. By the end of this week I...........from Malaysia.
a. am back
d. may be back
b. have been back
e. will have been back
c. would be back
2. I know that one of my students.........in your company since he graduated.
a. work
c. to work
e. have worked
b. working
d. has been working
3. He found the door of his house open, although he.......it before.
a. be locked
c. had been locked
e. had to lock
b. had locked
d. had been locking
4. Hadi looks very tired. He......for hours now.
a. drove
c. was driving
e. has been driving
b. had driven
d. had been driving
5. I hope that by the time my father retires, I.......a job.
a. get
c. have got
e. will have got
b. am getting
d. got
6. I have written three letters. The sentence means........
a. She is still writing now.
b. She is not writing anymore
c. She has not finished writing yet.
d. She hopes to finish writing this morning.
e. She has to write now.
7. For the last five months he........of moving out because the area has become highly polluted.
a. thinks
c. though
e. has been thinking
b. is thinking
d. had thought
8. Suryo had already been working in that company for two years when I started working
there. This means........
a. Suryo wasn’t working in that company anymore.
b. Suryo would be working for two more years.
c. Suryo stopped working in that company.
d. Suryo worked in that company only for two years.
e. Surya was still working in that company.
9. Tina had just watered the flowers when Ali came. From this sentence we know that.........
a. Ali didn’t see Tina watering the flowers.
b. Ali came at the time Tina was watering the flowers.
c. Ali was watching Tina watering the flowers.
d. Ali would come when Tina finished watering the flowers.
e. Ali had come before Tina watered the flowers.
10. Iwan, the national tennis player,.........tennis since he was nine.
a. played
c. plays
e. had played
b. has been playing d. is playing

4

Tyas SMA N 4 Smg

....................... ........ I expected it to be much better................ 3...... We were disappointed with the film.... ................... Example: The film was not as good as we had expected............ Verb-ing and Verb-3 are also used in clauses.... . The ing-form has an active meaning............................................ . while the Verb-3 has a passive meaning..... Past Participle (Verb-3) Present Participle and Past Participle can be used as adjectives................ He is always very tired when he gets home............ ..... .....Chapter 2 Participle There are two types of Participle: 1..................................... The film was disappointing...... None of the people invited to the party can come............................................... .. ..... 4. ....................... .... ................. 3......... 1............. I was disappointed with the film....................................... Past Participle Bored Interested Excited Tired Surprised Amazed Frightened Confused Disappointed Fascinated Embarrassed Horrified Terrified Depressed Worried Annoyed Exhausted Satisfied Meaning .... . ...... It’s been raining all day... 4............. ......... I hate this weather........................................... .......... Exercise 1: Complete the following sentences. (disappoint) a............................ (depress-) a............. The man injured in the accident was taken to the hospital.................................... Present Participle (Verb-ing) 2..... Do you know the girl talking to Tom? 2... John is bored because his job is boring....................... . .... Some pairs of Present Participle and Past Participle which are used as adjectives : Present Participle Boring Interesting Exciting Tiring Surprising Amazing Frightening Confusing Disappointing Fascinating Embarrassing Horrifying Terrifying Depressing Worrying Annoying Exhausting Satisfying Meaning .............. 2........ ..... . b...... ...... ....................................................... Read the following examples: 1.............. The policemen investigating the robbery are looking for three men.............................. ..... 5 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .................................... .......................................... . This weather is......... ........................... See the following examples: 1................................ Use an adjective ending in –ing or –ed to complete the sentences................................. ..... .. The film was disappointing........................................................... ......... He has a very tiring job....... .................... ..... 5... ........ ........................................... ...................... .............

..... Are you interesting/interested in football? 5. 1.. We were all horrifying/horrified when we heard about the disaster... I’m not very ........... I was.......... 3...... I seldom visit art galleries.......... 5........ 1. Some paintings were stolen from the palace.. Astronomy is one of Tom’s main interests............ The kitchen hadn’t been cleaned for ages.......... This weather makes me........ 7.about it........... 9....... 6. (it was carrying 28 passengers) 2.. At the end of the street there is a path.. Use the information in brackets to make an-ing clause or an –ed clause.................. 7............ Diana teaches young children........ 6.in astronomy..... Exercise 2: Choose the right adjectives.......experience for her....... I turned off the television in the middle of the programme......... I’m quite.... (he was following me) 3.. there was a man................. He’s one of the most .......... (excite) a........ 2........ I had never expected to be offered the job...... Exercise 4: Rewrite the following sentences..about going. It’s a hard job....... (she is talking to Tom) That girl talking to Tom is Australian.................. She often finds her job.... (they belong to the Queen) 6 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ... It was a really terrifying/terrified experience... Jane finds her job ...............people I’ve ever met.. (she was crying) 4. I enjoyed the football match.......... It will be an .......? 4.............................. Ann is going to America next month.. (he was injured in the accident) The man injured in the accidents was taken to the hospital... I was disappointing/ disappointed with the film................. b. b............ He never stops talking and never says something...in arts. It was really disgusting/disgusted...when I heard they were getting divorced... She has never been there before.................2....She wants to do something different........ (the path leads to the river) 5.............. 3............... Why do you always look.. 4....... 4.. That girl is Australian.... b. They had always seemed so happy together.. I went for a very long walk.................. The programme was..... Afterwards everybody was very shocking/shocked....... It was very ... I was woken up by the baby. 5.................... At the end of the day’s work she is often....................... Tom is... She is really..... (exhaust) a. b.... (interest-) a... The man was taken to the hospital........... I was really amazing/amazed when I was offered it.. A plane crashed into the sea yesterday.. I’m starting a new job next week... Example: a. Do you easily get embarrassing/embarrassed? Exercise 3: Complete these sentences with an adjective ending in -ing or –ed...? Is your life really so ... b....... b.............. When I was walking home. I was . He finds astronomy very.... 1.... It’s sometimes embarrassing/embarrassed when you have to ask people for money.... 2.............. 8............. 3..... (bore) a........... It was quite exciting/excited............

............ If he is an outstanding student d..many children.........to the party can come...... When he is an outstanding student 7...me a job.......... 5.......... it frightens 5...... Although he is an outstanding student e.... he has been offered a scholarship to study in Australia. (it was broken in last night’s storm) 7. a.. Sometimes life must be very unpleasant for people... a...... Startled c.....Jack phoned while you were out...... Two of the .. 9. there was nobody. (they were stolen from the museum) Exercise 5: Complete these sentences with the verbs in the box.. a... Tom has got a brother ... To be startled 2...down in the storm last night... I was woken up by a bell.... He has finished his survey c.................... Having finished his survey 4.........6. Situates 7 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ..... escaped b..... (they were made at the meeting) 8........ Situated b.... I received a letter. The first school day is a frightening experience for many children. the baby woke up and cried. A few days after the interview......except for a young man... 2. Most of the suggestions were not very practical. being beaten d.......... Finished his survey d..........near a beautiful beach. He had finished his survey b........... be beaten 3. As he is an outstanding student b............. There was a tree .... The window has now been repaired. having escape e.. C...... All letters .............. It is startling e.......... which will frighten b.... The paintings haven’t been found yet..... Exercise 6: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A.. beating c.. it is frightening e.today should arrive tomorrow....... When I entered the waiting-room...... 4... 1.by a boy. The underlined words means “...in a bank in London and a sister.. It is situated d..by the sudden noise. He finished his survey e.. D or E. a............ a... who frightens d.....prisoners were caught by the police.. Use the correct form of the Present Participle or Past Participle. beat b. was escaped d... Situated c......... Before he is an outstanding student c. Being an outstanding student in our school.. a. None of the people. 6. that frighten c.. it was beaten e... the town soon became a popular tourist resort.a magazine. . 7.. economics at university in Glasgow.......... Startling b..... ...... blow read call ring invite sit live study offer wait post work 1.. 8.......... Situating e... 3... In startling d..... The underlined phrase means: an experience .....near airport....the student prepared a report...of our school”.... B.. escape c. is escaped 6........... On my way home..... I saw a dog...... a... Somebody...by the window.....

.. They hid a treasure d..... A hidden treasure c. frightening 9.....near airport. Hiding a treasure e.. Sometimes life must be very pleasant for people .8. frighten d. they are living b. they lived 10. The . hiding 8 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . What have people recently found in the remote village? a.. a.. live c. frightened c. a. being frightened b. A treasure. frightens e..child ran to his mother when he heard the thunder.... be living d. be living e.. The treasure was hidden b..

Joe feels very sad. The sentence with “wish” is unreal. 2. 6. Andi will lend you money. When the fact is in the present. The students don’t understand the lesson. Mrs. John isn’t going with us. Example: You’ve eaten so much and now you feel sick. I was sick last week. They didn’t attend the meeting. You say : I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. I wish he lived in the city. It is contrary to the fact. 8. Some students failed the exams. Paul can’t drive a car. The bus leaves at six p. 4. Example: The doctor isn’t in now. Tom doesn’t live in the city. They don’t sell groceries here. A good friend of yours visited your town but unfortunately you were away when he 9 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . George has to write a lot of letters. the “wish” is in the past. The dentist doesn’t work on Sundays. 10. 3. is are V-1 Does/do not + V1 Past Tense : Was. Now you decide that it doesn’t look very nice. I go to school on foot. You were walking in the country. When the fact is in the past. Exercise 2: Based on the following situation. You would like to take some photographs but you didn’t bring your camera. I wish I didn’t go to school on foot. 5. “Wish” in the sentences above is used to express an expectation which was not fulfilled. the “wish” is in the past perfect. 2. 1. See the following pattern: FACT Present Tense: Am. I wish I had not been sick. were V-2 Did not + V1 WISH Past Tense: Were Did not + V1 V-2 Past Perfect Tense : Had been Had not + V3 Had + V3 Exercise 1: Read the following sentences and respond using “wish”. 3. I wish the doctor were in now. I wish they had attended the meeting. I wish they had not failed the exams. 9. You don’t know the director. You’ve just painted the door red. write sentences with “wish” like the example.m. WISH I wish my mother were not sick.Chapter 3 Sentences with “wish” Observe the sentences below: SITUATION My mother is sick. 1. 7.

. For example : ... You don’t know anything about cars. 4....... My sister was smiling as if she.... 1. am able c. I wish he........ So you didn’t see him......... is c..(fall)..... Exercise 3: Give the correct form of the words in brackets.... 8...(be) lost........ The sentence means...... 3. but you’d like to stay in bed..... She sat down as if she.. 13... to express unreal condition we may use “would rather”.. Her father is shouting as though he . A : Let’s go swimming.. has been e. 14...... b..... B : I wish I . Besides using “wish”... Everything was fine except for the hotel. . He used to like her e. We have a test tomorrow and I still have to study.... 6......I would rather my father worked in a bank. 7. 9... a. Example: They behaved as if they.....(be) very tired.(know) a lot about the subject.......(not meet) each other for ages...came. He wanted people to think he liked her 10 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . 4......... be able to b.... 12.....They acted as though they had won the competition...... You live in London and you hate London.(be) the manager... which wasn’t very good...... 15... will be d.. could be d.. c.... 1.. The man looked at us as though we..... You can’t give up smoking....(win) the first prize. My friend was panting as though he... She looks as though she..... He orders people about as if he .......(go) mad........ and your car has just broken down. They behaved as if they had not met each other for years.. will be able to 2. or e.. The girl was talking as if she...... but you’d like to.(find) it amusing... were 3......here now to watch our play.(want) to run away....... He spoke as if he had liked her... “as if” and “as though”.... The boy looked as though he .. It seemed as if he ...... a.... 2... d. The child wandered about as if she... The tyre looks as if it ..... You’ve just come back from the holiday.(run) a long way..(take) the boxes. 7.... be b. He doesn’t like her d.. The girl behaved as if she. “if only”. You have to work tomorrow.... could e.... 6.......(be) sick..... It sounded as though something.... The boys were behaving as if they...(be) angry.. a. 5. 10....... He really liked her.. He appeared to like her c.. 11...(want) to tell us something....He always talks as if he knew everything.. 8. 5.... b...... Exercise 4: Choose the correct form by crossing either a..........(be) punctured. ...

e.. b.. If only his son had studied harder.. visit c... His son has studied harder........ She succeeded to solve the problem. didn’t have to c. didn’t have to c. d. hadn’t e.. haven’t had b. a... but it’s raining very hard now. it has stopped d... a. won’t have to e. will know 8. would visit d.. I wish. know c.. This means... hadn’t had d.. e.. 5.... She actually can’t solve the problem. His son didn’t study harder... “I wish you....... it had stopped 6... She should know how to solve the problem. His son never studies harder.. don’t have o000o 11 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .4. I wish i...her more often. aren’t having to 9. His son had studied harder.. She went to the blackboard as if she knew how to solve the problem... a.. From the sentence we know that .leave now. His son will not study harder..raining now.. She is always busy with her work.. knew d. it will stop e.. She definitely knew how to solve the problem. I’m planning to go to a party tonight... am visiting e. d.. a... Mother said to the guest. it stops c. a. c. have visited 10. haven’t got to d. 7.. had known b. She ought to know how to solve the problem.. weren’t having to b. I wish you... b..” a. I’m sorry I don’t know the answer but I really wish I .... have known e. a... could visit b.... c..to stay at home because I’m sure that you would have enjoyed the concert very much. it would stop b.

..................... 1... “Because of” is followed by ........................... (in spite of) .. 1................... I didn’t feel hungry.................. (despite) .......... they enjoyed themselves.................... he is in fact German... 2.......................................... this house was till cold.... In spite of the rain...............being very tired.... “Despite” and “In spite of” are followed by ... 2.......... .......... e........................................ a.Chapter 4 Conjunctions Though/although/even though........... I love music................ ..................... Although it rained a lot... Despite the rain..... 3.............. “as” and “since” are followed by. 6....... Exercise 1: Complete the following sentences with although or in spite of... Even though it rained a lot.......................... c............ 4...... d...... 6...... Mary wore a raincoat since it was raining...... 5............................................. In spite of not having eaten for 24 hours....................... b................... “Because”................................ d................................. We lost the match although we were the better team. a... they enjoyed themselves......... a lot of things went wrong............ 3.I advised him not to.......................... (despite) ......... b.................. I couldn’t sleep although I was tired...... Mary wore a raincoat as it was raining.........all my careful plans...... In spite of her injured foot... Notes: “Though”........................................ (even though) ... (although) ............... Exercise 2: Read these sentences and then write a new sentence with the same meaning....... they enjoyed themselves.. c........................................................ 4.........the heating was full on......................... Use the word(s) in brackets in your sentences......... we carried on walking... Though it rained a lot......................................................... I decided to accept the job although the salary was low. despite/in spite of Because/as/since................... “Although”............. because of and others Observe the following sentences: 1............................................ (despite) ............................................ she managed to walk to the village...................... Mary wore a raincoat because of the rain....I can’t play a musical instrument................................ Although he has an English name................... and “Even though” are followed by ....I had planned everything carefully... ............ Mary wore a raincoat because it was raining............................... Exercise 3: Read the following sentences and change them using “in spite of” 12 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ............... they enjoyed themselves.......... . they enjoyed themselves. Keith decided to give up his job..................... 2.................. a lot of things went wrong... 5.......

Mr. 8.. It started raining when I was walking to the library.. therefore. b. yet. 13 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . as a result. consequently means “akibatnya” 5. A : You look happy with your new job.. C.1.. We started home although Betty wanted to stay longer. in spite of d. D or E. 10.. 6. as long as means “selama/asalkan” 10. however e.. We went in George’s car although the engine was in bad condition. as soon as means “segera setelah” Exercise 5: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A. since e. George couldn’t answer the letter immediately because he had a lot of homework to do. Alice is going to Florida because she wants to visit her sister.. in order that. 10. on the contrary means “sebaliknya” 4... 2... it was already raining.. Other conjunctions: 1. 7. 3..tidak (kecuali)” 8. It started raining as soon as I got to the library. nevertheless.. 2. Exercise 4: Rewrite the following sentences using “because of”... The classes were cancelled because it was a holiday. John got home late because the traffic was heavy. Miller is going to move to California because he likes the weather there.... 7. and it started raining immediately. We enjoyed our lunch although the coffee was cold. on the other hand. Mary stayed home yesterday because she had a headache. all the same means “namun (demikian)” 2... Mr.we got a new coach.. 3. 1. B : That’s right.. hence means “oleh karena itu” 3. even though 3. because 2. 4. a. John can’t go to the movie because he has an exam tomorrow. We didn’t wear coats although the weather was cool. When I got to the library. however. 5. Betty went although her mother didn’t want him to. B. although d. unless means “jika. I came here because I wanted to take the English course.. 4. 1. when b. if b. Our football team didn’t win the match .. 6. a. We wanted to go there although the road was not good... Jones moved to Arizona because the state has a dry climate. 5.. in spite of c. a. We decided to go to Fish Lake although the distance was great. We got there in an hour although George’s car was very old... accordingly. otherwise means “jika tidak” 7.. I got to the library at one o’clock. c. It had started raining before I got to the library.. despite c. 8.. We swam in the lake although the water was cold. d. so that means “agar supaya” 6. I stayed home because it was raining. 9. We sat on the ground although the grass was wet.. till/until means “sampai” 9.. My family and I are happier.my salary is smaller than before. 9.

are still washing their clothes there b.. So that 10.... My uncle doesn’t earn much.he can send his children to college. b. she pretends to ignore him. however d. .. I have to save money every month... are greatly concerned about it 9. I could not buy it.. Whereas e. Since c. hence b. the villagers were willing to transmigrate.she likes him very much. many people. and d. a... the price went down. c.e.. because c. however. because of e. The sentence means.. In order that c..... The river is highly polluted.. I bought the car. The sentence means...... John failed his exam in the national examination . therefore I will be able b. although b... nevertheless.... I could not afford to buy the car until the price went down..... a...he was very lazy to study... 8... d.. 4. otherwise I won’t be able to send my children to college. do not allow the children to play there d.. I had already bought the car before the price went down.... Because 5. I did not buy the car because the price never went down.. if I don’t I won’t be able e. After I bough the car. Since b. Although d.. Whereas d. e. but I will not be able c.. I certainly be able d.. The price of the car went down.. . besides I will be able o000o 14 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. therefore e... when 6. complain about the danger threatening them c.. a.. However b.the earthquake had made the region unsafe for living... a.... have become the victim of it e. so 7...... a. a.. the rain started sometime before I went to the library... a. When the price went down... Until e. .. however c....

a. 5. 2. c. a. you would understand it. is. if they do not study hard. 3. He didn’t stay at home because he was not sick yesterday. if we study hard. b. The meanings of conditional sentences types 2 and 3: 2. Exercise 1 Supply a suitable tense of the verbs in brackets. I should have caught the train. With “be”= were b. With verb= V-2 c. With Auxiliary Verb= do/does not + V-1 To express something that may or may not happen in the future if he is sick.Chapter 5 Conditional Sentences There are three types of Conditional Sentences: 1. Simple Past Tense a. With Verb= V-1/V-1s(es) c. If she were older. b. If my car (not break) down. He is not very happy because his wife works outside. 6. If you (read) that book carefully. You will be ill if you (eat) so much. With “be”= had been b. With Auxiliary Verb= did not + V-1 To express something that is contrary to the fact of the present if I were a bird. 15 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . they can stay up late. she (have) more sense. if he had one. He does not go by car because he doesn’t have one. if his wife didn’t work outside. Present Conditional Sentence 3. Past Conditional Sentence Observe the following: TYPE MAIN CLAUSE 1 Will/can + Verb-1 Examples: He will go to the doctor We will pass the exam They will fail the exam 2 Would /could+ Verb-1 Examples: I could fly high He would go by car He would be happier 3 Would/could have + Verb-3 Examples: He would have stayed at home They would have won the match IF-CLAUSE USE Simple Present Tense a. They didn’t win the match because they didn’t practice a lot. 3. I (go) if I had known. With “be”= am. If the children (be) good. With verb= had+V-3 if he had been sick yesterday. Past Perfect Tense a. 4. To express something that is contrary to the fact of the past if they had practised a lot. are b. I cannot fly because I am not a bird. Future Conditional Sentence 2. 1.

I will come and see you if I have time. She wasn’t injured in the crash because she was wearing a seat-belt.. 11. I didn’t wake George because I didn’t know he wanted to get up early. 3. 7. 8.. 3. 9.. 2. He’s fat because he doesn’t take any exercise. If it (be) fine tomorrow... 4. You (kill) yourself if you always work as hard as that.. 6. 15. 13. If you had worked harder..... 10..... somebody will come.. I would not have thought it possible if I (not see) it myself. 3. 5. 6. You’ll be ill if you drink that water. If you hit the dog. Exercise 2 Read the following sentences and change them into the other forms of conditional sentences. 15. You’ll catch the train if you take a taxi.. Robinson? 9.. I’m not going to buy that book because it’s too expensive.. will you give him any? 14.. I’m sure she will do well if she (go) to the university.. He will not come unless. I was able to buy the car because Jim lent me the money. 1... People don’t understand him because he doesn’t speak clearly.He would have come if you had waited. If you didn’t live so far away. 2. they (find) me. If he wrote to me I’ll write to him... 9.... my sister will post if for you. 4.. If they had waited. What would happen if the bridge broke? 10. If your message had not come........ If you buy that big house. I can’t meet you tomorrow evening because I have to work. If you leave the letter on that table. If he had fallen into the river... If he had been thirsty.. 7.... 13....He’ll come if you wait.. it (bite) you. 5. Why didn’t you do it if. We can’t have lunch in the garden because it’s raining.... Exercise 3 Read the following situation and write sentences with “if”. 16 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ... You would have found the book if you had opened the bag. She doesn’t go out very often because she can’t walk without help. he would have drunk some water.... Example: . I will play tennis.... I (buy) that hat if it were not so dear. We (be) pleased if our school won the match.. If you ring the bell. 8. The streets would be wet if it rained.. 4. he would have been drowned... Answers: . What will you do if you meet Mr. If he saw he would speak to you. you will need several servants. Exercise 4 Finish the following sentences with your own words... . we would visit you more often. 1. 12. 10.. 1. If a beggar asks you for money..7.. 14. Example: We don’t visit you very often because you live so far away. The accident happened because the driver stopped so suddenly. 11.. 12. The soldiers will fight bravely if they (understand) their orders. 2.He would come if you waited. 8...

. we would make a long trip now.... We would not have lost our bag if we.... If you don’t visit me soon...... had left 3... 11. found a better-paying job b.. You would be very angry with us if... c.... not many of the invited people came 6. 6.... 15. Had the company not raised Andy’s salary.......... this is a dangerous intersection c.. We may conclude that Andy ... doesn’t like his job d. We can conclude that...... it was only a small family b.. 14...... a.....it in the hotel.......... Flowers will not grow well unless...... would have left b.. so they got a better view............. 8..... a......... there wouldn’t be so many accidents. If I had known he was here.. If I had plenty of money..... couldn’t find a good job c. she was too late for the first train 4.. a....... 7......... drivers were always very careful at this intersection 2. 10.. If I met your friend Mirna in the street... have left d. prefer staying at home b... she stayed at home that day c.. would leave e... the only accidents occur at this intersection b. a... We conclude that... didn’t leave his present job e.. She could have attended the meeting if she had taken the first train. Exercise 5: Choose the correct answer by crossing either a. he would have looked for another job.. 17 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .......... stayed at home c.... Had they invited fewer people. the party could have been held at their house. 9.. have to stay at home d. I will be very disappointed if.............. the traffic light often doesn’t work d....... I would not have lost my money if............. I would have won the prize if............. is still looking for another job 7....... 13... It may be concluded that we.. If he wants to see me.. 12..... If I were you..... If there were traffic lights at this intersection.. left c.5.. are enjoying the trip e........ enjoyed the trip 5...... It means that.. If the car were in a better condition................... she didn’t like the meeting e... 1.... despite the traffic lights accidents happen e. the party was not held at their house d. the meeting was cancelled b... or e.......... the first train was late d...... a.... b.. d.... their house was crowded with people c...... They climbed higher.. a.. the guests enjoyed the party at their house e.

c. If they won’t climb higher. o000o 18 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . If they had not climbed higher... John promised to go with me c. If I had not quarrelled with John. If the company’s personnel department had mailed the letter earlier. I didn’t want to be interviewed b.. a. 8... b. a... I went with John. he didn’t have the potential of a good swimmer 10. the company didn’t send the letter c. they wouldn’t get a better view. I missed the interview 9. It can be concluded that . perhaps I’ll go with John b. a. he succeeded to become a good swimmer d.. he could have become a good swimmer... If they didn’t climb higher. John would like to go with me.to the party.. they won’t get a better view.. he was afraid of swimming c... I went through the interview d.We can also say. they didn’t get a better view. If he had taken the swimming lesson seriously... they don’t get a better view... If they climb higher. e. he liked swimming very much b. I would not have been too late for the interview.. If they don’t climb higher... I could have gone to the party.... The sentence means. the letter came too early e.. d.... they would not have got a better view... he was not interested in becoming a good swimmer e... From the sentence we may conclude that. a.... I didn’t go with John d... e....

The money was stolen. My father does not have enough money to buy a new car. My mother is a housewife. and so does my mother. 6. 1.. 7. My sister cannot sing well.. Andi passed the examination. My father is not a civil servant.. His father does not have 19 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . 4.. B. The jewellery was stolen. 7. 3. My mother is not at home. Cindi has not graduated.. 3.either” or “and neither.. Dewi has not graduated. 2. My sister cannot sing well. I have never met her before. My mother is not a civil servant.. My father loves durian. 2. a. 1. Ellipsis with “and.... a. and neither can my cousin. too.. 5.. His parents work hard to support the family..” Observe the following sentences: 1.. They’ll attend the meeting. I knew the answer quite well. b. My sister does not trust him anymore.” Observe the following sentences: 1. and my mother does.. The front door is locked. The mangoes she bought were spoilt. They knew the answer quite well. 10..... My parents work hard to support the family. My father loves durian. The purse belongs to her.. I haven’t finished my homework. and my cousin cannot either. too.. 3. Exercise 1: Join the following pairs of sentences using “and. Mia has read the book. 2. My mother loves durian. My father loves durian. Fina passed the examination. My father is not a civil servant. The umbrella belongs to her. b. I haven’t finished my homework. b... and she hasn’t either.. He did not break the vase. a. My father could lift the box... b. a. He will not be moving out after all. 9. The apples she bought were spoilt. I haven’t finished my homework. and my mother is not either... 8. and neither has she. My cousin cannot sing well.. My father is not a civil servant. 3. and his mother is too. I do not trust him anymore. I tried to persuade her to come. Ellipsis with “and. My father is not at home. 4. Andi passed the examination. Her friends tried to persuade her to come. Her friends have read the book. 2.too” or “and so. and so did Fina. and neither is my mother.. and so is his mother... Exercise 2: Combine the following sentences using “either” and “neither”. a... My sister cannot sing well... My sister has never met her before. Andi passed the examination.. My brother could lift the box. My mother is a housewife. She hasn’t finished her homework.. 5.. I did not break the vase.Chapter 6 Elliptical Constructions A. My mother is a housewife. His mother is a housewife. 6. She will not be moving out after all. We’ll attend the meeting. b. b. and Fina did.. a..”..too” and “and so.. The back door is locked.

. neither do I d. The maid not only sweeps the floor but also washes the clothes..... Your friend has not paid the rent........but also........and. 4. Because of the rain.. I didn’t have breakfast this morning....... the teacher couldn’t come on time and ..but...... Anton did not pass the exam.... either do I 4.... You have not paid the rent. My uncle doesn’t smoke. and father doesn’t too d...or.. Either you or your brother must help your father. but the teacher not d... Neither Nina nor Anton passed the exam........ such as Both. a...... neither doesn’t mother e... . I couldn’t either 20 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. Neither do the grocery stores d.. No bookstores are open today..... My sister had breakfast this morning.. and . Neither.. and also the teacher e....... Ellipsis with others.... 9... a.. The others did not enjoy the party. 3... I study both English and Japanese........ I do either b .. also I could not b........enough money to buy a new car. 2.... I neither couldn’t d. Examples: 1. a... I study English.. My friends were not interested to watch the movie. and so does father c........ 8...... The grocery stores are too c..... and so the teacher did 5. You must help your father or your brother must help your father... a. C. a...nor. so did I c. 1... The maid sweeps the floor. neither am I c. Not only... and mother does too 2. Nor do the grocery stores e... and neither did the teacher b..... but the teacher did not c. Everybody laughed at his jokes. B... I did not enjoy the party..... C... Exercise 3: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A.. I do neither e..... 5.. . Nina did not pass the exam. The grocery stores don’t either 3.. I didn’t have breakfast this morning but my sister did.......... He doesn’t speak Chinese..... Either. The grocery stores aren’t either b...... neither did I e........ She washes the clothes.. D or E...... 10.. I was not interested to watch the movie...... I study Japanese... but father does b..

Also my brother e.... d.. so am I 7. is 8. knows b.” a. but I am not e...... so does my father c.. I don’t either e. I didn’t either c. So does my brother 10.... does c. Neither don’t I b.... b... neither was I d.. my father will be o000o 21 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. Andy agreed that everybody had to pay Rp 500. a.... my father won’t d. X : My brother has just bought a new motorcycle.. A : “I don’t think your cousin knows anything about computers... I don’t so d.... I think that my mother will be interested in reading this novel.. while I didn’t b. a.. My brother has too.. I don’t like bright colours.. a. my father is b.for the study tour to Bali... a...... .6. Y : What a coincidence! .. My brother does too.” B : “But he . know d.. but... He took a computer course last year.. I don’t also 9.. My brother also did c...000. So don’t I c. do e... so will my father c.

.. Each time use the comparative form of one of the following adjectives or adverbs.............. This jacket is too small.............................. 4....than usual...... Why don’t you write a bit............... There were a lot of people on the bus........ It was..? 6........................... You’re making too much noise...........larger................. You’re late.............. 8......... I expected you to be here............ Exercise 2: Match the clauses in Part A with the suitable clauses in Part B........................ The hotel was surprisingly cheap.. I need a ......... 3... . ...... 2...................................... PART A PART B The earlier we leave the faster you’ll learn The longer we waited the more you have to pay The more I got to know him the sooner we’ll arrive The more you practice your English the more profit you’ll make The longer the telephone call the more impatient he became The more goods you sell the more I liked him Answers: 1........................................... 5..in having a good time............................... The earlier we leave........................ 4......if you have a map.. You’ll find your way around the town.. 10..... 7.............. I wish you lived....... .................. I expected it to be much................................. It’s a pity you live so far away............... 22 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ................size..Chapter 7 Degrees of Comparison Observe the following table: POSITIVE One or twoTall syllable adjectives high Clever Three-syllable Beautiful adjectives Interesting Important Irregular Good/well Bad/badly Far Little Many/much COMPARATIVE Taller than Higher than Cleverer than More beautiful than More interesting than More important than Better than Worse than Further (than) Farther than Less than More than SUPERLATIVE The tallest The highest The cleverest The most beautiful The most interesting The most important The best The worst The furthest The farthest The least The most Exercise 1: Complete these sentences. Can you be a bit ......... You look............... He’s not so keen on his studies..... crowded early easily expensive interested near often quiet thin large 1........................................ Have you lost weight? 3...............................................? 9................ He’s ........ .......................... You hardly ever write to me............................. 2............................

............................ .............. The station was nearer than I thought.... 6...... 23 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . That’s the most.......................... 7............. Exercise 3: Rewrite these sentences so that they have the same meaning.............. Ann is.. The examination was easier than we expected....................... 8....... This is .................................................................. I’ve never slept in such an uncomfortable bed.......... The station wasn’t...... Example: I’ve never seen such a boring film........... 3....................................... Begin as shown............. 2................. I’ve never had such a big meal..... Tito.............................. 2. There were fewer people at this meeting than at the last one............. You................................. weight.............................................. Jack isn’t as old as he looks... 5... I haven’t had to make such a difficult decision for years........... That’s ...... This is.............. 3. It isn’t............... I haven’t tasted such a good coffee for a long time...................................................... 6.. I’ve never met such a generous person as Ann........ The hotel isn’t............................ For example: In my family I’m taller than my brother.....heard........ I go out less than I used to.......... 1................ Use a superlative each time and begin each sentence as shown........................ Example: Jack is younger than he looks.........5.... personality or the others.................................................. The examination wasn’t. but my father is the tallest of all........................ The hotel is cheaper than I expected................ There weren’t............. 6.................. Exercise 5: Think of your own family and compare all of them... Exercise 4: Read these sentences and then write a new sentence with the same meaning................... I don’t ............................. Make more than five sentences....... 5. It is...................... ........................................ I’ve never had such a good friend as you.................. It is warmer today than yesterday. That’s.............. 4........... He’s never made such a bad mistake... How do they differ from each other on their height................... 4......................................................... It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen............... I’ve never heard such a funny story..... 1...

........... 9..... The umbrella you borrow is my sister’s.. .. The girl........ ...... I will never forget the man.......was here yesterday has gone to London. 1.... Exercise 1: Add a relative pronoun to the following sentences..purse has been stolen....... .....I cut this morning is still very fresh........ ..loves jokes......... 5.......................... The old man . His wife is a woman .............whose wife was badly wounded in the accident. 19.......----........ The man that you talked about is my neighbour. Women ....................... The man that is coming here is the principal... The man you talked about is my neighbour..had helped me fight the pickpocket.....mother I was talking to has left the room..... 7... 15... that.. The umbrella whose colour is red is Mrs... The street .. Thing . The man who is coming here is the principal. The man whose car was damaged in the accident was hospitalized... 4..... 3..........which...... The cigarette .. .............. 4.. There’s the lady... ..that....... 24 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ...who......whom.... The dress .................. 16.... .. The umbrella which is in front of the room is mine..... 5....... 6. The fish... The umbrella that you borrow is my sister’s.in hospitals are to be admired..................you lent me is very interesting...lives opposite my house is very pretty. The flowers...which.... The use of Defining Relative Pronouns Subject Person ..I can trust......................lives next door has just died... That’s the man.... .. of which. 12.... 10......... 2......... The man.........you want has just left.. 8.....is sitting next to me is very good-looking....whose.. 5......... The man whom you talked about is my neighbour............... 13....... The person. Object ... 18.. The umbrella that is in front of the room is mine.... 14. 17. ..... 2...........you are wearing is lovely..was broken is now mended..----....... 11............... 6............. 3........Chapter 8 Relative Pronouns Observe the following sentences: 1... that... 4..... Possessive ..I ate yesterday was not so good. Wahyu’s.whose......... For the sentences above you may also say: 1..............will lend me the money. Use more than one relative pronoun if possible..... The girl.. The chair.......lead to school is very wide. 2... The lady...you are smoking is “Jarum”.. I want to find a man .... The umbrella which you borrow is my sister’s.. 20.......... The magazine........ I’m looking for somebody... that..........

10... His legs were shot away in the war.. has been taught to students in Indonesia since they are in the elementary school....... 2.. 2..... 3. was also a writer.. This is the man I gave the money to him this morning... 4... You were arguing about it last night... Love.... the teacher was talking about b.. Oxford University..... 2.. .... I left the cigarettes on the table....... English...The use of Non-Defining Relative Pronouns: Subject Object Person .............. 6..... a....... was born in a little cottage.... who was the first woman to be president of our country.. What is the name of the girl? She came here last night..........yesterday.. .is a wonderful feeling. makes people strong. Exercise 3: Combine the following pairs of sentences by using a suitable relative pronoun.. about the teacher was talking c....we met at the party yesterday is the General Manager of a 25 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .... One should try to stop smoking.. His birth place was Salzburg...whom....... 8. Gajah Mada University.... His step mother was not very kind to him.. 5. Possessive . . Megawati......... whose... Swimming. the teacher was talking about it d..........is one of the oldest in the world.is the world’s greatest dramatist. The businessman................ 9... Exercise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either a...is a good sport.. Shakespeare........ They will grow well in pots indoors.. Flies.......... 7. has many different colleges.. is Sukarno’s daughter. Julius Caesar came to Britain in 55 BC...was a great general.. George Washington....... whom the teacher was talking about 2. never told a lie...is a bad habit.. is made up of many gases.. Is that the new station? You pointed out to me last week... He was a powerful Roman General.. An old soldier sits begging on the pavement. .. He was living with her.... Grammar.... d or e. carry diseases....... 9..... 10....... whose.. Example: 1....Air. that the teacher was talking about it e... is situated in Yogyakarta... 3.... which is an international language. ...... This is the book. These cactus plants should not have too much water.. ..we breathe..... 3... c.. 7..... Exercise 2: Add the necessary relative pronoun to the following. Mozart spent the last ten years of his life in Vienna...... b..which... 8.... 1. which many students from all over Indonesia attend..... of which.. 4..... who... Julius Caesar..........some students dislike...which.come mostly in the summer. is very good for them... comes to everyone at some time in his life.... .... The matter has been settled.......... 1........ The table stands by the window. 5.. Thing .. 6....became the President of the United States. 1..

. a... The lady... His supervisor.. who b... where he borrowed a car c.... where e.. he is liked by the teachers c. to whom d..... A : Who called you last night? B : The student... his d.... who c...this letter is addressed had moved to another city.. This is Mr. his car he borrowed e... The book.. whom I told you about e. which d... a....is a very generous person. is liked by the teachers 4. which b. a.. whoever 3. the two chapters are taken 7.... from whom he borrowed a car d...big company.... these two chapters are taken c..the Dutch imprisoned Pangeran Diponegoro. from him I bought the typewriter c.... that I told you b..... The teachers like him.. of which 6. whom the teachers like b. whom e.......... which I told you d.. where these two chapters are taken from d....... This is the place... who is b. that 8.. a.... a. whom b.... of whom e. with whom e... to which c.. is in hospital now... The student succeeded in getting a scholarship.. which 10. I bought the typewriter from him d. I told you 9... from whom I bought the typewriter e.... where d. which I bought the typewriter from b. Flash..is only available in the library...... on which c..succeeded in getting a scholarship a... it was from them the two chapter are e. Tom’s father.. the person he borrowed a car 5........ a. the teachers like him d.health hasn’t been good lately...... about which I told you c.. his typewriter I bought 26 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . The above sentence can be joined as follows: The student.. whose c.. a.. a....... which the teachers like him e. from which these two chapters are taken b. he borrowed a car from him b...

PASSIVE Am. This exercise (do) very carefully. 5. Two of my dinner plates (break). could. were + Verb-ing Example: Someone is cleaning the house now. will etc. The plates were being washed when I arrived home. The servant was washing the plates when I arrived home. will etc. library before she went home. The Tower of London (formerly use) as a prison. Exercise 1: Complete the following passive voice sentences in the tense suggested. Simple Present Tense ACTIVE Verb 1/ Verb 1s(es) Example: Someone cleans the house every day. The police must punish the criminals. Present Perfect 5. Past 3. were + BEING + Verb 3 The house is being cleaned now. + BE + Verb 3 The letter will be sent tomorrow. have + BEEN + Verb 3 Had + Verb 3 Had + BEEN + Verb 3 Example: He has finished his homework. are + Verb 3 The house is cleaned every day. have + Verb 3 Has. is. is. The box (not open) for the last hundred years. This picture (always admire). His leg (hurt) in an accident. 3. 4. Present 2. PASIVE Was.Chapter 9 Passive Voice Observe the following : 1. PASSIVE Can. could. PASSIVE Am. His homework has been finished. are + Verb-ing Was. Present Continuous 4. are + BEING + Verb 3 Was. 2. Sentences with Modal Auxiliary ACTIVE Can. is. were + Verb 3 The house was cleaned yesterday. Present Perfect Tense / Past Perfect Tense ACTIVE PASSIVE Has. + Verb 1 Example : I will send the letter tomorrow. The criminals must be punished. Present / Past Continuous Tense ACTIVE Am. She had returned the books to the library The books had been returned to the before she went home. 1. Past 6. Present Perfect 27 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . Simple Past Tense ACTIVE Verb 2 Example: Someone cleaned the house yesterday.

. madam. Was anything taken e. 14. We need to remodel our school building. a. 10... 13.. X : I want the red dress displayed in the window? Y : I’m sorry.. Dear ! .... 1. b.. A :Which painting will be exhibited tomorrow? B : I don’t know yet. The bridge (build) last year. took e.. needed to remodel 3.... I didn’t realize that someone was recording our conversation.? a... a. Present 10. Was anything being taken c.. 2. or e. Somebody accused of stealing the money. is needed to remodel e... Anything took 5.. 1. 15. 3. 8. Present perfect Exercise 2: Change the following sentences into passive. he. are still being selected d.. Somebody had robbed and attacked him in the street.7.by a team.. still selecting c. has been sold c..to the nearest hospital.. a. Past 8.... being taken d. Y : Oh. has sold b. We can also say “Our school building. still selected b. was taking c.. People don’t use this road very often. needing to be remodelled b. was taken 2. Anything to take b..... 7... They shouldn’t have played the football match in such bad weather. Mr. Kelly can’t use his room at this moment... be taken b. They had to postpone the meeting because of his illness.. They are building a new ring-road round the city. has been selling d. needs to be remodelled d. is needing remodelled c.” a.. It..The stolen car (find) in another town... People should send their complaints to the head office. Milk (use) for making butter and cheese. Exercise 3: Choose the best answer by crossing either a.... Did anything take d. An electric fault could have caused the fire. c.. Auxiliary 9. has to sell 28 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ... The bill includes service. As he was badly hurt in the accident.... 6. has to be sold e. still be selected 4. d. 9. The answer must (write) on one side of the paper. They cancelled all flights because of fog. 5...... 4. are still selecting e. X : Last night someone broke into our house... They have changed the date of the meeting.. 11.. They are going to hold the congress in San Francisco.. Somebody might have stolen your car if you had left the keys in it. 12. they ....

. a..by millions of people.”.. be cleaned d... Someone offered my father 29 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . has been promising e. was build c. being unloaded 11. Somebody was offered my father c. build b. being promised 7. they were unloading b.. We can also say “. a.. is being watched b. My father offered someone d. were unloading d. is recording e... Anin is looking forward to her birthday because she. is being cleaned b. unloaded c....... cleans e..from the truck.. has been promised b. cleaned 9. has watched c.. was to tear 8. a.. the choice between two posts.. a.. The pool. a.... A : What happened to her skirt? B : It. was torn d. Every week it.. They would offer someone b.. a. to be recording b.6. was being recorded c.... has promised c. This is a very popular TV program...... built e. watched 10... a.......... a. was to record d. is tearing b..... A : How old is the mosque? B : Well.. promised d.. My father had offered e. watches d.. has been building d. was built 12.when she jumped over a fence........in 1980.... has torn c..... My father was offered between two posts... I’m sorry but you can’t swim today.... being recorded 13.... tore e. were being unloaded e....a new watch. I became quite nervous when I knew that my speech. is watched e. it.... X : When did the accident happen? Y : When the goods. is cleaning c..

. I will .. b.. 7.. 2. but I will HAVE somebody represent me at the ceremony and GET him to take the prize..her brother to repair the toy for her yesterday... but I will.. The burglars.... 4.him to take the prize... 3......... 1........ We must.... 2. Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks with causative ‘get’ or ‘have’........ Exercise 2: Change the following sentences into the other forms of causative active and passive.. S + GET + O + ... 4.... b... b.. 8........+ O. What are the meanings of the verbs ‘get’ and ‘has’ in the sentences above? 2...Chapter 10 Causative ‘Get’ and ‘Have” Observe the following sentences: 1... Example : He had the man tow away the car... Example: I cannot go to receive the prize myself.....the goldsmith carve her name on it....her father to buy her the piano....... My mother always gets the servant to wash the clothes............. PASSIVE : a.the maid serve you some drinks while I am on the telephone..... c. My mother always has the servant wash the clothes.. My mother always has the clothes washed by the servant........... She. 30 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ... but later we..... What is the difference between sentences numbers 1 and 2 and sentences numbers 3 and 4? 3... I will get the children to pick the mangoes... He was too busy to go out for lunch........ and I .. so he...... He got the man to tow away the car... We lost our way at first.......... 1....... I bought her a watch. Answers: a.... He got the car towed away by the man. S + HAVE + O + . S + HAVE + O + ....some workmen come to paint their house while they were away on holiday...her to say something.. They . 2.his friends to bring back some food for him.... 5..... Answer the questions: 1. The girl will.. S + GET + O + . I must........a passer-by give us the correct direction... 10.the frightened woman to tell them where she kept all her valuables....somebody represent me at the ceremony and .... Mind the form of the tense..... 6. Answer: I cannot go to receive the prize myself....... My mother always gets the clothes washed by the servant........+ O. That girl is too quiet. Complete the following patterns: ACTIVE : a........ 3.......Fita clean up the mess before she goes out. We had the mechanic repair the television set. 9.... He had the car towed away by the man.......

. A plumber has mended the pipe.The students have their clothes washed and ironed at the laundry...” means. a. She will have the maid iron the suit as soon as possible.... Because she is ill. e. c... You must have it mended... she wants . listening e... so she. she brings her meals 3. 7.. had the gardener do the job b. had the gardener doing the job d. d.... 9. d... b. The sentence means.... had to do the job of the gardener c.. having her meals brought c. 4.. b. 2. 9. He changed the oil of his car. 5. He had to change the oil of his car.. My mother had all her dresses sewn by a seamstress. The plank was too long. a. a. Exercise 3: Replace the active causative in these sentences into passive and vice versa. Fitria got me to carry her books.. 2. b.. She will have this dress altered to fit her... The soldier had his wound examined by the doctor.. My mother will get my brother to help us.. You have to find someone to mend the pipe. c. 1.. 10. My mother was not strong enough to clear the old tree trunks from the shed... 8..to the passage twice before they answered the questions. The boys usually get other people to replace them. He had changed the oil of his car. 1. Someone has mended the pipe.. You have mended the pipe. 5. or e.. 6.... to listen 4.. c. The police got the man reveal the secret plans of his gang.. You don’t need someone to mend the pipe.. That old man had his grandson take him around the town. 4. We had the plumber fix the leaking tap. The teacher had the students.. had done the job by the gardener 5. 10. He gets his hair trimmed once a month... The owner had the house renovated. 3.. to have brought her meals e.. The pipe is leaking.... listen c..into her room. 6. a. have listened b. “My father had the oil of his car changed.. to have her meals brought d. We had our car repaired at the garage.. 7. My father had the fence repaired.. had been doing the gardener’s job e... a.. so we had it sawn into two. she has brought her meals b. She got her fortune told by that man....3... The man always gets his wife to wake him up. Exercise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either am. 31 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . 8. listened d..

The sentence means.. a.. everything has done d.. 6.. had made it 8.. Someone changed the oil of his car. a.. Now that she has grown up. have washed them e.... must be washing them 10.. He always wants....... having done everything e. d. c.... a. must have washed them d. My niece has been told to lengthen her old dresses. 9.. have to make it d. everything having been done b... My niece has lengthened her old dresses.. My niece asked someone to lengthen her old dresses.. have it done o000o 32 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . The curtains are dirty...... had to make it b. are washing them b.. have made it c. it has been done b.at the dry-cleaner’s..for him.. had it made e.. must have them washed c. have done it c. My niece has to lengthen her old dresses herself. do it myself d. b.... My niece has been asked by someone to lengthen her old dresses... Someone asked my father to change the oil of his car.... to have everything done c.... e.. to have done everything 7... I don’t know how to arrange the flowers so I’d rather. e... I . a. we. have to do it e.d.. X : What a lovely evening gown you’re wearing! Did you make it yourself? Y : No. my niece has her old dresses lengthened........ Sugeng is a very lazy boy..... a...

.....She should have helped her mother (but she didn’t) 2.......... Should = ought to ..(It is possible that..................Mrs........... .... Paul and George are going to play tennis tomorrow... 3...... ..... ... Should have + V3 (seharusnya telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan tindakan yang seharusnya dilakukan tetapi tidak dilakukan..... Might have + V3 (mungkin telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kemungkinan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau............................(be permitted to..(I conclude that. TOMORROW..... EXERCISE IN THE LIBRARY 1..Chapter 11 Modal Auxiliaries Notice the forms and meanings of the modal auxiliaries..(have to) Modals with Perfect: Observe the following: 1.... perhaps) Should obligation.. conclusion...... The students have permission THE STUDENTS MAY DO THE to do the exercise in the library........ Look at the examples.. Will future time ..) necessity .. have permission to. 33 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . probability It is very probable that... ............................................... She could have bought something at the mall...........(be able to) May permission .. He might have missed the bus.... Tono went to a mall last Sunday. Could have + V3 (sebenarnya bisa) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sebenarnya bisa dilakukan pada waktu lampau tetapi karena sesuatu alasan kegiatan itu tidak dilakukan..... George is able to speak GEORGE CAN SPEAK FRENCH French very well........ Examples: Paul is going to write PAUL WILL WRITE A LETTER a letter tomorrow..... Exercise 1: Form sentences using the modals................. Must have + V3 (pasti telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kesimpulan dari peristiwa yang terjadi pada waktu lampau.... She had enough money with her but she didn’t buy anything..(be going to) Can ability ......He came late.(ought to) desirability Must inference....... 4. It must have rained last night.....Look at the ground! It’s wet.......... be allowed to) Might possibility .......... VERY WELL.. ......

5. Did she invite her uncle on her birthday? It was desirable but she didn’t. He spoke Italian very well when he came back from Europe. 3. 1. Fitri own a new house? I conclude that she does. 4... 4. She. 2. X : Does she live in an apartment now? Y : I suppose she does. Did Mr. Did she ride with us in the car? She had that opportunity but she didn’t. You ought to send messages to your parents regularly. Ridwan sell his car? I conclude that he did. 3.. Rini is very thin and pale. X : Did she live in the dorm last year? Y : I conclude that she did. This morning he left suddenly and went to the dentist’ office.2. The students have to join an English course. 10.. ought to be 34 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . Did your brother forget to mail the letter? I think it’s possible. 5. Mr. 4. Does Mrs. Example : Your sister laughed after she talked with Budi. 7. 7. 9. ‘should’ or ‘could’ according to the situation. b.. Did she stay with her sister? She had that opportunity but she didn’t. Examples: 1. Brown has to get a new passport soon. shall be d. 2. 1.. His glasses were broken and his nose was bleeding. Did she decide to get a job? I think that’s possible. He came back from the city with lots of money and no car. 8... 7. 8.. 6. Did she save her money? It was desirable.. d or e. 8. Answer : SHE MUST HAVE LIVED IN THE DORM LAST YEAR.Mary is able to play the violin well. He had to write the check with a pencil.. I conclude that you know him. He knew what was going to happen every minute during the whole movie. ‘might’.. It is possible that George is a very good tennis player. We have to get up at six tomorrow. He was very sleepy this morning. You have permission to come and see the doctor. 9. 2. she didn’t. His music teacher told him that he played the piano like an expert. Answer : He must have told her something funny. He had souvenirs and photographs of many different cities all over the world. 6. Exercise 2: Make sentences with ‘must’. 6. John is able to swim very well. 5. That’s the only reasonable conclusion. Is the new student a very good dancer? I conclude she is. 10.. c. Answer : SHE MUST LIVE IN AN APARTMENT NOW. 1..ill. Did you aunt shop by phone? She had the opportunity but she didn’t. 9. Tom was coughing and sneezing yesterday. a. 3. Execise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either a. Exercise 3: Use ‘must have’ in your response to the sentences. My brother is in your class. 10.

. Y : No....... must be having e.... they. are to have c.” There....it for a long time.. X : Then.” a. could not be cleaning e. 3.. used to have b. e.” The sentence means. must be 2... had better be c... has to be practising c. could not have afforded 10.... could have d.... b.. When we got home. d. will have arrived d... We can also say.... must have been practising b...a hard time now... The sentence means. ought to have arrived c. should not have cleaned it b. a... ought to have b. they.... otherwise. could have arrived b. My brother was perhaps very busy. should practice e. a.. The teacher said to Iwan : “You can go now... can’t afford d.. Iwan was advised to go.. may be b.. must be d.a rise in the price of petrol soon...... My brother would be very busy. will have practice 9. His English is very good.... would have been c. we found the front door open. Her house is very dirty. X : Hello! Is your Mom home? This is from her office... a... Iwan was requested to go. 5. a... may have had d... did not clean 4. ought to practice d... has to be 35 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . E... It is possible that there will be a rise in the price of petrol soon. He might have been very busy. should be e.... must have arrived 6. will be e. My brother will be very busy. should have 7.. Somebody. My brother did not keep his promise to send us a message soon.. He.. She.. wouldn’t afford c...... must not have cleaned it c. c. a. would have arrived e. b. would have e. Iwan was ordered to go.. She left home an hour ago... My brother was certainly busy.quite a lot. d...entered the house while we were away. My brother is expected to be very busy.. ought to have 8... Iwan was allowed to go c.. must have c.......... does not clean d.. will afford b.. a.at the office by now. a. They lost all their possession in the fire. Iwan was supposed to go..... she.. could afford e. Last year the couple could save much money.to make a tour around the world this year....b... a.

4.... The cattle. Either of these buses goes to the university. 2. them Examples: 1. Agreement of subject and verb: When the subject is singular...(have) all been driven to the market this morning for sale. It is easier to talk about the problem than it is to resolve it...... Agreement of noun and pronoun Singular male person : he.. when the subject is plural. 7. Examples: 1.... its Plural people/animals/ things : they......dollars class public 2......... we are now awaiting 36 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . his Singular female person : she.miles committee staff faculty team family B..(be) very heavy. 3. 3.... 4.. The pyjamas he is wearing now...... the verb must be singular... her. 5....3..... In spite of their small size. My mother...... A series of tests.... him..(be) brought to us yesterday by a friend..... Notes: Along with.. 1.. His knowledge about mathematics and natural science has made him successful.....(be) very heavy..... 2. Twenty dollars is the price of the watch....(belong) to my brother.(have) now finished questioning the suspect. is going to visit my grandmother in Jakarta. the verb must be plural. these cameras take very good pictures.... Exercise 1: Fill in the correct form of the bracketed words (plural or singular)..4...... with and accompanied by do not cause singular subjects to be plural... too... accompanied by my father..... which... The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anyone neither anything no one each nothing either what everyone......... If one knew about a fact..... 4. their..... 6.Chapter 12 Agreement/Concord A...... 2... 3...... whatever everything whoever The following collective subjects agree with singular verbs: audience group 2.3. She had to hire a porter to carry the luggage..(have) been made on the animals... The news .... hers Singular thing/animal : it. The traffic on the road today.... he will not be so quick to criticize......... The police...

. it has become d....... .. 8. neither of them......going on vacation... were 2.. it meets the requirements e. Exercise 2 : Choose the best answer by crossing either a.. have become 5.. The school has a lot of classroom... why does he not give the trousers away? 9. them b... Neither the students nor the professor.. each of them.. b..on. 1...... a.now. were e... Economics. its e.... is d.. a..... was 3.... are repairing b... are c.. meets the requirements d. is c.. a........ have been repaired 10. a.. meeting the requirements b.. is being repaired c.. 10.the title of a very popular Indonesian song...... were c... The machinery..... is e. a..skills and creativity..... they are d..... is requires c.. have been c.......... their 37 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . to have become b....equipped with an overhead projector...... a. d.... c. a. My family .. were e.. it c. have been e..... will b... Producing fine paintings..expected next year. Neither of the schools ... is d.. have been d... The bridge designed by the young engineers ..for the results.. or e..(work) only when the electric current is on... have b........................... has become e.(be) tight for him... was 4... are b. are e.. are being b.a difficult subject for many people. The name of a river passing through some big towns ..... they meet the requirements 8... meets the requirements c... I’ll try .. is require 6.... they d...for our pilot projects.. are d. they require e.. require d... is repairing d... An increase in the number of students. was 7. requires b.............. That pair of trousers. having become c. These shoes look good. to be b. Although the boys have enough money... was 9.. a... are being repaired e.happy about the result of the experiments.......... are c.(be) a united one...... a... a..

When adverbs of Manner. Rarely did we eat rice when we were in England. Time Manner Place 4. Manner Place Time 2. The adverbial of time is often placed at the very beginning of a sentence. An inversion form is used. comes immediately after the verb. With verbs of movement. this is particularly useful when there are many adverbials in the sentences and also to emphasize the time. Manner Place Time He is studying hard in the room now. Place and Time come together in one sentence. A negative adverb of frequency is often placed at the beginning of a sentence to emphasize the negative meaning. in the order Manner. B. He is often late to school. Examples: She danced gracefully at the concert last night. Example : He was born at seven o’clock on Christmas morning in 1993. Examples: Never has she met us.Chapter 13 Word Order A. Order of Adverbs of MANNER. Adverbs of Frequency Always Sometimes Usually Often Generally Occasionally rarely seldom scarcely hardly ever never Adverbs of frequency usually come after the subject or to be. Order of Adjectives 38 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . the adverbial place acts as a kind of object notionally. Place Manner 3. PLACE AND TIME 1. The more particular expressions of time come before the more general. C. Example : He went to the station by taxi. the normal order is at the end of a sentence. Examples: She always studies hard. Place and Time. Place Manner She walked to school slowly. Example : Last night my sister performed very beautifully at the concert.

(hardly) 10. this morning)... this morning)... 2. beautifully. (never) Task 3: Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position. She drinks coffee (at hone.m.. He was born (in the year 1995. all day..DETERMINER A R T I C L E A/an First Two The Second three My Third Another Your Only Several her some A lot of his our this that SIZE AGE SHAPE COLOR ORIGIN HEAD WORD Interesting Boring Beautiful Pretty ugly Handsome Clever Etc Big Small Little Short Tall Wide Narrow Etc.. there).. Mary can swim now.. (generally) 4. The porter was able to carry my luggage. I saw my friend off (at 7 o’clock. (never) 7. He gets up before half past nine....... Mrs. 1. (usually) 6. Our teacher spoke to us (in class. tomorrow.. The buses are full in this town.. I will meet you (outside your office... (quite) 12. every morning).. They have heard of it. 3. on Saturday) 10.. (always) 2.. at the station. Bani was working (at her office.. Her death has upset me. (always) 3. On June 14th). (scarcely) 9...... very late. (often) 5. in the concert)... in Tawang Station)... at 2 o’clock).. The train arrived (this morning. last night. 5. 8. 9... 39 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg Car Book House Dress Ring Etc ..... all day yesterday). at 10 a. to Switzerland. 4. We are very busy.. We try to work well. My mother goes for a walk on Sundays. They stayed (quietly. 1. He played (at the Town Hall.. We are going (for a week. very rudely. She is a good student... She knows what to say about it. (often) 11.The children quarrel with each other. Task 2: Put the adverb of frequency in the following sentences into the correct place.. Example: a beautiful table (wooden round) a beautiful round wooden table 1.. (nearly) 8. an unusual ring (gold) . 7. very hard.. Old Round Young square New etc Cold Hot Warm modern Red Yellow Green Blue Brown etc Iron Stone Paper Brick Wood Gold etc Task 1: Put the adverbials at the correct place.. 6....

................................................... Has your brother been injured in a football match ever? 4.......... c........... d. Does sometimes he read English good books? e.... I think he is not strong enough to lift that box alone. 40 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ...... Clearly last night Andi told me everything in the library............. e........... ... I think he is not strong enough alone to lift that box.. I think he is not enough strong to lift that box alone........ an old lady (nice) 3... b...... Last night Andi told me everything clearly in the library..... “You shouldn’t write such a criticized articles..... a hot bath (nice) 10....... Seldom they are published. Which one is true? a....... ... They are seldom published... In the library Andi clearly told me everything last night................................................. They published are seldom.............. a good – looking man (young) 4............... Seldom published the are....... Choose the correct sentence........... Does he sometimes read English good books? b.............. a sunny day (lovely) 9. Does he read sometimes good English books? c.............. ..... .. c... e.. 3........ Choose the correct sentence! a. ................................ Has ever your brother been injured in a football match? b..... ...... b.. a long face (thin) 14........... an American film (old) 7....... Has your brother been injured ever in a football match? e. Andi in the library clearly last night told me everything............. Does he sometimes read good English books? 5........ ... c.... I think he alone is not strong enough to lift that box............. Everything Andi told me clearly last night in the library......... ... Which of the following statements is true? a................ ..... a...... a modern house (attractive) 5....... or e............ an ugly dress (orange) 11...................................................... d......... Does sometimes he read good English books? d............ .. 1................ d............. d....... They seldom are published. b..... ..................2............. c.. a red car (old/little) 12.......... a wide avenue (long) ... 2..... e..... I think he is alone not strong enough to lift that box. Task 4: Choose the correct answer by crossing either a.... a metal box (black/small) 13. Has your brother ever been injured in a football match? c. Has your brother been ever injured in a football match? d.. b..................................” a............ a large nose (red) 8.. ........... black gloves (leather) 6...

c. He took her last night to the movies.. 7. To send me a birthday card Tia forgets never.. b. He took her to the movies last night. Which of the statements is right? a. Tia never forgets. 10. The farmer left home in the morning early.. e. Tia forgets never to send me a birthday card. e. Usually a long letter Ati writes me on my birthday. a. d. Tifa came home late last night. Ati usually writes me on my birthday a long letters. The farmer left home early in the morning.. To the movies he took her last night. d. Last night she took him to the movies. Which of the following sentences is true? a. e. Tia never forgets to send me a birthday card. wooden Japanese style house b.. She took him to the movies last night. b. b. wooden style Japanese house 9.6.. Ati usually writes me a long letter on my birthday. Never forgets Tia to send me birthday card. o000o 41 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . wooden house Japanese style d. Japanese wooden house style e. d. b. c.. Japanese style wooden house c. c. To send me a birthday card. Usually Ati on my birthday writes me a long letter. d. 8. c. What is so special about Rini’s house? It is a. A long letter usually Ati writes me on my birthday. The farmer in the morning left home early. e. In the morning the farmer left early home.. Early the farmers left home in the morning. Which of the following statements is true? a. Where did her boy friend take her to? a..

Statements In reported statements there are two types of introducing verbs: 1. The teacher told us to pay attention. Examples: a. “Pay attention”. Present Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense am.Chapter 14 Direct and Indirect Speech A. c. the teacher said. The teacher explained. She said that she was a good dancer. I asked her not to be afraid. When the reporting verb is in the present. Changes that happen from direct into indirect speech when the reporting verb is in the past. She told the sleepy student to wash his face. “I’m a good dancer”. “The sun rises in the east”. when the reporting verb is in the past. were + V-ing Had been +V-ing e. 4.” I told her. will tell. 3. Changes that happen from direct command to indirect command : V1 to V1 Don’t V1 not to V1 B. Changes of Tenses a. d. “Wash your face. b. please”. were + V-ing d. “I’m a good dancer”. there is always a change of tense from direct into indirect sentence. is. She often says that she is a good dancer. Commands or Imperative See the following examples: 1. said etc. The teacher explains that the sun rises in the east. “The sun rises in the east”.” I asked her. 1. has said etc 2. except for eternal truth and natural laws. Simple Past Past perfect Tense V2 had + V3 Did + V1 had + V3 c. had told. has told. Past Continuous Tense Past perfect Continuous Tense was. there is no change of tenses from direct into indirect sentence. Simple Present Tense Simple Past Tense V1 V2 Do/does + V1 did + V1 b. The teacher explained that the sun rises in the est. she often says. she told the sleepy student. “Don’t sit on this chair. “Don’t be afraid. are + V-ing was. in the past such as : told. she said. The teacher explains. However. says. I told her not to sit on that chair. in the present such as: tell. 2. Present Perfect tense Past Perfect Tense has/have + V3 had + V3 42 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .

.. 2....... “How did the accident happen?” The policeman wanted to know how the accident had happened..after the previous........ 3....... they wanted to know.......2.. Changes of Adverbs of Time a..... “Where is your brother?” The boy asked me where my brother was... Yes/No Questions Observe the following: 1.. may c... can c..... 2. The boy asked me...... Other changes a.. the ..... They wanted to know if/whether I went to school on foot. this c.. last..... The changes from direct to indirect in YES/NO questions: Direct Yes/No Question TO BE/AUX + S+ V/N/ADJ Indirect Yes/No Questions IF/WHETHER S + TO BE/AUX+V/N/ADJ D... today b. “Is your mother a housewife?”.... f. “Will you attend the party?.... the ... . here b... will b.....before 3.... I asked her if/whether her mother was a housewife.. She asked me. She asked me if/whether I would attend the party.. these would could might had to there that those C.... now c. next... yesterday e.. tomorrow d..... “Do you go to school on foot?”. Changes of Modals a.. 43 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . WH-Questions Observe the following sentences: 1...... The policeman said...ago that day then the following day the next day the day after the previous day the day before the following. I asked her. must 4.....

1. “Did you meet the minister when you were in Jakarta?” she asked me.” I told the teacher.’ he asked her 7. 8. Task 3: Put the following sentences into the reported speech. 44 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . 10.” the teacher said. 8. 2. “Do you sleep in the afternoon?” I asked her. “Wrap it in a piece of paper. “Cut the grass in the garden”. “Will the taxi be here at eight o’clock?” father asked the waiter. “I am going to town with my sister.” I said to her. Father told the gardener. 4.3. 1. 7. 2. “They do not know you. 2. 8.” Fahmi said. the teacher told the naughty students. “You can do it if you try.” Leave it on the piano”. “Does she always wear Moslem clothes?” I asked him. “I want to speak to you. 3. 5. “She has done her homework well. “Don’t spill the ink on the carpet”. The teacher asked Intan. The changes from direct to indirect speech in WH-QUESTIONS: Direct WH-Question WH + TO BE/AUX + S + V/N/ADJ Indirect WH-Question WH + S + TO BE/AUX + V/N/ADJ Task 1: Rewrite the following sentences into indirect commands. 9. 6. “Was the train very full last Sunday?” the man asked the officer. 3. 5. “Clean it yourself. “Must the door be kept shut?” the shop assistant asked me. “Why were you absent yesterday?” The teacher asked Intan why she had been absent the day before. 7. 5. 4. “You may see the photograph if you like.” I advised him. “May I use your telephone?” my friend asked me. I told my brother.” he confessed. “Fasten your safety belt”. “I lost my temper yesterday morning. 6. “Wait there till I come.” Intan said. 10. “Don’t sit on my bed. they said to me. “They went away yesterday. she asked me. “Don’t speak until you are asked”. “Did the greengrocer have any fresh vegetables?” mother asked me. 6. 4. The pilot told the passengers. 1. 9. Task 4: Change the following sentences into the reported questions. “Have the children put away their toys?” mother wanted to know. Task 2: Change the following sentences into reported statements. “Don’t try to be funny”. 3.” my sister asked me. 9.” I told the shop assistant.” I said to her. “He is ready to come with us.” mother told my brother. “We have finished our work. “Have you ever seen my new bag?” she asked me.” they said.” he said. 10.

. she would call you e. why they went abroad so often e... b... “Don’t leave the ship”. “You didn’t leave the ship”. “Which book is yours?” 6. Sita answered that she wrote letters. My mother allowed me to waste my money on cigarettes. a. c. “When were you born?” 4. Farhan said to me. “How could you be so unkind to that poor man?” 8.. I asked Andika. or e. “How do you usually go to the office?” 3.. Sita answered that she had been writing letters. if they went abroad so often d. e. “What will you do if you do not pass the exam?” Task 5: Choose the best answer by crossing either a.. My mother asked me if I had wasted my money on cigarettes. A : “What did she ask you just now?” B : “. b. 1. did they go abroad so often c.tonight”. I asked Ida. e. 2.. b. I asked the lazy students. 6.. e. “How often do your family visit your grandmother?” 5.” a. Andi asked me... b. d. why did they go abroad so often 3. c.. Sita answered that she has been writing letters. My friend asked me. a........ Sita answered that she was writing letters. c.. d. 4. you called her d. d. We asked the boy. The captain said. The captain said. “How is the condition of your car now?” 10. My mother said that she didn’t waste my money on cigarettes.. My grandmother asked me. why do they go abroad so often b... The teacher asked Sinta. “Did she leave a message for me?” “ Yes. she called you b.. The captain said.. The direst sentence is a. a. “How long have you been waiting here?” 7.. c... “You do not leave the ship” d. The captain told the sailors not to leave the ship. Sita answered that I’ve been writing letters. “Don’t waste your money on cigarettes. “Didn’t leave the ship”. whether I was absent yesterday b. My mother told me that she didn’t waste my money on cigarettes.... The captain said.. “I’ve been writing letters.” Sita answered.. Ira asked Dino.. My mother advised me not to waste my money on cigarettes.” a. “Why do they go abroad so often?” Farhan asked me. she would call her c. My brother asked. “Why didn’t she come to your party?” 9.... I would call you 5. whether my mother was at home yesterday 45 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. “Where will we spend our holiday next week?” 2.. she said..1.. The captain said.. “Not leave the ship”.... Mother said..

not touch e. “You will not smoke here”........ “You cannot smoke here”..... I saw someone smoking at the petrol station.... if he could go with us b. so I said. b.. Mother warned us . if he is coming tonight c..... a. c... he asked me. “Is John coming to the party tonight?’ “Yes......... not to touching 10. whether I grew my own vegetables b.. did I grow my own b\vegetables d. not to touched c...... I grew my own vegetables e... 9.... if he went with us d..” a.. a. whether all the students passed the exam last year d. “You must not smoke here”. d.. not touching b. if I did grow my own vegetables o000o 46 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . “You need not smoke here”... whether he is going with us 8. a.the new painted wall. not to touch d. if all students are present today 7... if the principal had announced the result of the exam e. c.c. “You may not smoke here”.. He asked me.. you grow your own vegetables c. whether he goes with us e.

was. we. Girls should not go out at night alone. have. the tag must be added with the auxiliary verb do. The subject in the tag is always the same as the subject in the statement but in the form of personal pronoun (I. shouldn’t they? 7. d. has etc. won’t etc. a. so we have to add the auxiliaries of do. should they? 5. When the statement is positive. won’t it? 4. will you? Study hard for your test. V1 do V1 s/es  does V2  did 4. the tag uses the fist auxiliary verb. The children could do the test. In commands.. i. can. does and did. When there is no be or auxiliary verb. For example : The students should have studied. To be (am. does or did. the tag is either “will you ?” (rising intonation) Or “won’t you?” (falling intonation) Example : Study hard for your test. the tag is positive. the tag is negative. won’t you? 8. “Have. don’t you? 9. You have been living here for years. Negative tag is always in the contracted form ( isn’t. you. Example : You have finished your work. couldn’t they? 3. is. h. The students haven’t done their homework.) in the statement is repeated in the tag. When they are not..Chapter 15 Question-Tags Observe the following sentences: 1. he. haven’t you? 2. c. have they? Rules of Question Tag: 1.) 6. e. they are considered as verbs. Statement I am Let’s He’d better He’d rather He’d go He’d gone He’s taking He’s taken He ought to.t I? shall we? hadn’t he? wouldn’t he? wouldn’t he hadn’t he isn’t he hasn’t he shouldn’t Exercise 1: Add suitable question-tags to the following statements. has and had” are auxiliaries when followed by V3. Special Question-Tags: No. Tag aren. When there are two auxiliary verbs used in the sentence. haven’t you? You have to finish your work. f. b. don’t you? You have a happy family. doesn’t. it) 5. are. The show will end soon. 2. were) or auxiliary verb (will.. g. she. they. 3. When the statement is negative. 47 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .

16. 19. People think that he won’t fall down. 26. Our teachers speak English better than yours. 21. This winter hasn’t been cold. 22. He used to go with his wife. 8. 17. 48 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . 15. He has lived in his present home for years. 11. He has an English-English dictionary. Let’s have something to eat in the restaurant. 25. 6. Let’s pretend we’re not here. 2. You broke the window.1. 13. You will have finished your study by the end of this school year. You shouldn’t have been such a fool. 20. 7. 30. Anton has your book. You have heard about that. 18. I am not a good worker. He won’t fall down. 23. 9. 24. I am very late. 29. Let me read the letter for you. Your grandmother wouldn’t like the window open. I have to buy some matches. 5. You ought to go there yourself. 27. 12. You never come to class on time. 4. He always has breakfast at nine. You’d rather I didn’t say anything. The roof was leaking. Come and see me tomorrow. 14. Your sister won’t fall down. 10. Those children should not have gone without the teachers. They didn’t see you 3. 28. He didn’t have to speak to me. They arrived yesterday.