Chapter 1

Review of Tenses
Tenses which have high frequency of use:
1. The Simple Present Tense
a. Pattern: S + Be (am, is, are) + Adjective/Noun/Adverb
S + V-1 /V-1s(es)
b. Use : to express something that happens in the present
to express habitual activities
c. Adverbs : every............, once/ twice/three times a .........,
always, sometimes, usually, generally, seldom, never
d. Verbs which are only used in simple tenses (not normally used in continuous
tenses)
want like
belong know
suppose
remember
need love see
realize
mean
forget
prefer hate hear
believe
understand
seem
Examples:
- My mother is at home now.
- My father works as a lawyer
- He usually goes to the office by car.
2. The Simple Past Tense
a. Pattern : S + Be (was, were) + Adjective/Noun/Adverb
S + V-2
b. Use : to express something that happened in the past
c. Adverbs : this morning, yesterday, just now, last..............., .................ago
Examples:
- The children were frightened to see the horror film last night.
- All students in my school passed the exam last year.
- Mrs. Andi sent the parcel to Jakarta this morning.
3. The Present Continuous Tense
a. Pattern : S + am, is, are + Verb-ing
b. Use : to express something that is still in progress at the present time or at the
time of speaking
c. Adverbs: now, at present, at this time, at this moment, Look!.... Listen! ....
Examples:
- Look! The children are playing music enthusiastically.
- My father is still working in his office now.
4. The Future Tense
a. Pattern : S + Be going to + V-1
S + Will + V-1
b. Use : To express something that will happen in the future
c. Adverbs : tomorrow, tonight, next.............
Examples:
- We are going to finish the assignment this afternoon.
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- They will help us to finish painting the wall tomorrow.
5. The Past Continuous Tense
a. Pattern : S + was,were + V-ing
b. Use : to express something that was in progress when another activity happened
in the past
c. Adverb : when......................,while.......................
Examples:
- When I arrived home this afternoon, my mother was watching TV.
- While I was studying last night, my brother was talking with his friend.
6. The Present Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : has/have + V-3
b. Use : to express the completion or perfection of an action by now
to express an action which began in the past and continues up to the present
time
c. Adverbs : already, yet, just, lately, recently, since..................., for................
Examples:
-. He has just graduated from senior high school.
- My brother has already got a job.
- We have studied English for more than six years.
7. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
a. Pattern: S + has/have + been + V-ing
b. Use : to express an activity which began in the past and, is still going on at the
present time
c. Adverbs: since.......................... and for...............................
Examples:
- She has been living in that house since 1990.
- They have been arguing for more than half an hour.
8. The Past Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : S + had + V-3
b. Use : to express an activity which was completed before another activity in the
past
c. Adverbs : before................., after................., when................, as soon as...........
Examples:
- When I arrived home yesterday, my mother had finished cooking.
- He had done his homework before he went to bed last night.
9. The Future Perfect Tense
a. Pattern : S + will have + V-3
b. Use : to express an activity which will be completed at a specific time in the
future
c. Adverbs : by the end of this week, by next December, by............
Examples:
- We will have finished our study in this school by the end of this year.
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-

He will have lived in this house for a year by next month.

Exercise 1:
Supply the most suitable tense (Present, Past, or Present Perfect):
1. She (go) away every week-end.
2. He (go) abroad last week.
3. No, he isn’t here. He just (go) out.
4. He (go) downstairs when I (meet) him.
5. “Where is Mr. Green?” “He (go) out ten minutes ago.”
6. This boy never (see) the sea.
7. You (see) my bag? I (lose) it.
8. I (see) you yesterday. You (sit) outside a café.
9. He already (write) a lot of letters, but his sister (not write) many.
10. He is busy now; he (write) a letter.
11. I hope he (get) better now, I (hear) he (have) a bad cold all the week.
12. I usually (not take) sugar in my tea.
13. You (see) a good film lately?
14. He (live) in England since 1980.
15. When I last (see) him, he (lie) in London.
16. He (sit) in the garden when the storm (break).
17. You go to the cinema last night? No, I (not be) for three weeks.
18. I (hear) the news last night, but I (not hear) it today.
19. You (read) that book yet? No, I just (begin) it.
20. I (see) that you (buy) a new hat. How much you (pay) for it?
Exercise 2:
Supply a suitable tense of the verbs in brackets.
1. By next June he (write) his second novel.
2. Before his next visit here he (return) from a world tour.
3. Before you go to see them, they (leave) the country.
4. He (finish) this before you leave.
5. By the end of the summer he (teach) us to speak English.
6. By this time next week you (meet) my friend.
7. When you come back he already (buy) the house.
8. The meeting (finish) by the time we get there.
9. By next month he (sell) all his furniture.
10. By next Sunday you (stay) with us for five weeks.
Exercise 3:
Supply a suitable tense to verbs between brackets into either the Simple Past Tense or the Past
Perfect Tense.
1. They (go) home after they (finish) their work.
2. She said that she already (see) the Pyramids.
3. She just (go) out when I called at her house.
4. You ought to have brought her straight home after she (fall) in the river.
5. They told him that they (not meet) him before.
6. He asked why we (come) so early.
7. She (tell) me his name after he (leave).
8. He (do) nothing after he saw me.
9. My friend enjoyed his food as soon as he (taste) it.
10. He (thank) me for what I (do).
11. I (be) sorry that I (hurt) him.
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12. After they (go), I (sit) down and (rest).
13. Did you (post) the letter after you (type) it?
14. After I (hear) the news, I (hurry) to see him.
15. When we (arrive), the dinner already (begin).
Exercise 4:
Choose the correct answer by crossing either A, B, C, D or E.
1. By the end of this week I...........from Malaysia.
a. am back
d. may be back
b. have been back
e. will have been back
c. would be back
2. I know that one of my students.........in your company since he graduated.
a. work
c. to work
e. have worked
b. working
d. has been working
3. He found the door of his house open, although he.......it before.
a. be locked
c. had been locked
e. had to lock
b. had locked
d. had been locking
4. Hadi looks very tired. He......for hours now.
a. drove
c. was driving
e. has been driving
b. had driven
d. had been driving
5. I hope that by the time my father retires, I.......a job.
a. get
c. have got
e. will have got
b. am getting
d. got
6. I have written three letters. The sentence means........
a. She is still writing now.
b. She is not writing anymore
c. She has not finished writing yet.
d. She hopes to finish writing this morning.
e. She has to write now.
7. For the last five months he........of moving out because the area has become highly polluted.
a. thinks
c. though
e. has been thinking
b. is thinking
d. had thought
8. Suryo had already been working in that company for two years when I started working
there. This means........
a. Suryo wasn’t working in that company anymore.
b. Suryo would be working for two more years.
c. Suryo stopped working in that company.
d. Suryo worked in that company only for two years.
e. Surya was still working in that company.
9. Tina had just watered the flowers when Ali came. From this sentence we know that.........
a. Ali didn’t see Tina watering the flowers.
b. Ali came at the time Tina was watering the flowers.
c. Ali was watching Tina watering the flowers.
d. Ali would come when Tina finished watering the flowers.
e. Ali had come before Tina watered the flowers.
10. Iwan, the national tennis player,.........tennis since he was nine.
a. played
c. plays
e. had played
b. has been playing d. is playing

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............................... He has a very tiring job..... ...... ................. .. ....................... The man injured in the accident was taken to the hospital................ It’s been raining all day..........Chapter 2 Participle There are two types of Participle: 1. The film was disappointing......... .................................. . ...................................... ............................ ............................ .................................. The film was disappointing................................................. See the following examples: 1. Example: The film was not as good as we had expected.......... Read the following examples: 1.. He is always very tired when he gets home... ..... ..... 2....... 5.. 4.............. ...................... The policemen investigating the robbery are looking for three men.................. 3..... ...... Some pairs of Present Participle and Past Participle which are used as adjectives : Present Participle Boring Interesting Exciting Tiring Surprising Amazing Frightening Confusing Disappointing Fascinating Embarrassing Horrifying Terrifying Depressing Worrying Annoying Exhausting Satisfying Meaning ............................................. Past Participle Bored Interested Excited Tired Surprised Amazed Frightened Confused Disappointed Fascinated Embarrassed Horrified Terrified Depressed Worried Annoyed Exhausted Satisfied Meaning ........ ................................................................ None of the people invited to the party can come...... (depress-) a............. 3. b................................... Use an adjective ending in –ing or –ed to complete the sentences.......... Verb-ing and Verb-3 are also used in clauses.................................... ............................. ......... 5 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ...................... We were disappointed with the film.................... Present Participle (Verb-ing) 2... ................ Exercise 1: Complete the following sentences............... ...................... I hate this weather............ Past Participle (Verb-3) Present Participle and Past Participle can be used as adjectives......... .... ........ The ing-form has an active meaning................... ....................................................... while the Verb-3 has a passive meaning...... ........ I was disappointed with the film.... .... ...... Do you know the girl talking to Tom? 2. (disappoint) a............. ....................... .......................... ....... ................ 1.................................. 4................ ................ I expected it to be much better.. . ....... ... This weather is.......... ...... John is bored because his job is boring.....

..... (interest-) a................ He’s one of the most ...... Use the information in brackets to make an-ing clause or an –ed clause.......... It’s a hard job..... 7.... (she was crying) 4......... 4.. At the end of the street there is a path... Astronomy is one of Tom’s main interests... b........ I was disappointing/ disappointed with the film....... At the end of the day’s work she is often............ 5..... (exhaust) a.... It was very .experience for her....... (she is talking to Tom) That girl talking to Tom is Australian......... I seldom visit art galleries. b......................................................... 6................. I turned off the television in the middle of the programme.... I was..... 1.... I was ......... b....? 4..? Is your life really so ............ I enjoyed the football match. Why do you always look.......... 8..... I had never expected to be offered the job.. Afterwards everybody was very shocking/shocked.... I’m not very ........ there was a man. She has never been there before......people I’ve ever met..about going........ Some paintings were stolen from the palace. It was quite exciting/excited.... (they belong to the Queen) 6 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. Tom is............ 3. b.... I’m starting a new job next week.. Are you interesting/interested in football? 5........... 9.... Exercise 4: Rewrite the following sentences.................. The man was taken to the hospital. That girl is Australian............. This weather makes me............... 2.... 1.........when I heard they were getting divorced.. I’m quite.... She often finds her job. 6. 2........ I was woken up by the baby.. Diana teaches young children.......... (it was carrying 28 passengers) 2.. She is really..... They had always seemed so happy together......... It’s sometimes embarrassing/embarrassed when you have to ask people for money........ 5. (the path leads to the river) 5...in arts.... Do you easily get embarrassing/embarrassed? Exercise 3: Complete these sentences with an adjective ending in -ing or –ed....... The kitchen hadn’t been cleaned for ages.............. When I was walking home............ Ann is going to America next month... 7..... It was really disgusting/disgusted........... 3...in astronomy............. 4................... 1.... A plane crashed into the sea yesterday............ (he was following me) 3..... b....... He never stops talking and never says something....... (he was injured in the accident) The man injured in the accidents was taken to the hospital.................. He finds astronomy very.. Jane finds her job .. The programme was....... I went for a very long walk.............. Example: a.. (bore) a.........about it.............. It will be an .... It was a really terrifying/terrified experience. We were all horrifying/horrified when we heard about the disaster..... Exercise 2: Choose the right adjectives......2.. b.. I was really amazing/amazed when I was offered it...... 3....She wants to do something different... (excite) a.....

.. Startling b......... If he is an outstanding student d... 4...... He had finished his survey b.. it frightens 5... The underlined words means “........by a boy........ 9.................... the baby woke up and cried.. It is situated d.... Situating e...many children. there was nobody.. The first school day is a frightening experience for many children.. a...... 5...prisoners were caught by the police...near airport... a.... a. be beaten 3... When he is an outstanding student 7.. To be startled 2. blow read call ring invite sit live study offer wait post work 1..of our school”....... (they were made at the meeting) 8............... He has finished his survey c. a. All letters ....down in the storm last night..... 2......Jack phoned while you were out....... was escaped d. escaped b.......... Being an outstanding student in our school..... (it was broken in last night’s storm) 7.. There was a tree .... Situates 7 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. he has been offered a scholarship to study in Australia.......... ....... Two of the ...... ......... B......except for a young man.......... which will frighten b... I was woken up by a bell. None of the people. beat b.me a job..... escape c.. Finished his survey d......... The paintings haven’t been found yet.. that frighten c..... having escape e.. Before he is an outstanding student c. Somebody... D or E. In startling d........ A few days after the interview....... (they were stolen from the museum) Exercise 5: Complete these sentences with the verbs in the box.. Use the correct form of the Present Participle or Past Participle...... the town soon became a popular tourist resort..... Startled c. economics at university in Glasgow.. Sometimes life must be very unpleasant for people. I saw a dog. 8. who frightens d.a magazine. 6...... Most of the suggestions were not very practical....... C. Having finished his survey 4...... is escaped 6...by the window..... When I entered the waiting-room.... As he is an outstanding student b...6.... Situated b.. a............ it is frightening e. I received a letter.......... 7........ The underlined phrase means: an experience .. He finished his survey e.to the party can come... a..by the sudden noise............. Although he is an outstanding student e..... It is startling e. Situated c.. On my way home...... it was beaten e............ The window has now been repaired.. 3.in a bank in London and a sister..near a beautiful beach...... Exercise 6: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A. beating c........ being beaten d.....today should arrive tomorrow.... 1... a..the student prepared a report. Tom has got a brother .

... be living d. The .. a.. they are living b. Sometimes life must be very pleasant for people .. Hiding a treasure e... frightening 9.. a.. hiding 8 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . They hid a treasure d. A treasure.. A hidden treasure c.. they lived 10.8. being frightened b. frighten d.. What have people recently found in the remote village? a.near airport..child ran to his mother when he heard the thunder... live c. frightened c. be living e. The treasure was hidden b... frightens e..

George has to write a lot of letters. is are V-1 Does/do not + V1 Past Tense : Was. 4. I wish I had not been sick. Example: The doctor isn’t in now. You were walking in the country. You don’t know the director. I was sick last week. Exercise 2: Based on the following situation. The sentence with “wish” is unreal. 6. “Wish” in the sentences above is used to express an expectation which was not fulfilled. The students don’t understand the lesson. 8. I wish they had not failed the exams. Mrs. When the fact is in the past. 3. 1.m. 7. write sentences with “wish” like the example.Chapter 3 Sentences with “wish” Observe the sentences below: SITUATION My mother is sick. Paul can’t drive a car. I wish the doctor were in now. 9. WISH I wish my mother were not sick. See the following pattern: FACT Present Tense: Am. It is contrary to the fact. You say : I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. Joe feels very sad. The bus leaves at six p. 5. I wish I didn’t go to school on foot. A good friend of yours visited your town but unfortunately you were away when he 9 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . You’ve just painted the door red. 3. Some students failed the exams. The dentist doesn’t work on Sundays. When the fact is in the present. Tom doesn’t live in the city. I go to school on foot. 10. were V-2 Did not + V1 WISH Past Tense: Were Did not + V1 V-2 Past Perfect Tense : Had been Had not + V3 Had + V3 Exercise 1: Read the following sentences and respond using “wish”. 2. 2. Andi will lend you money. Example: You’ve eaten so much and now you feel sick. John isn’t going with us. the “wish” is in the past. They don’t sell groceries here. They didn’t attend the meeting. 1. Now you decide that it doesn’t look very nice. I wish he lived in the city. I wish they had attended the meeting. You would like to take some photographs but you didn’t bring your camera. the “wish” is in the past perfect.

. He really liked her... My sister was smiling as if she. 5. . 12......(be) lost.........They acted as though they had won the competition... could e. Her father is shouting as though he ... So you didn’t see him... be able to b. 14. You’ve just come back from the holiday.... will be d.. We have a test tomorrow and I still have to study........(be) punctured... 8... He doesn’t like her d..... 6......... B : I wish I ......(find) it amusing... 4.. Everything was fine except for the hotel..... He spoke as if he had liked her..... d.. The sentence means..... but you’d like to. or e..(take) the boxes...(win) the first prize... It seemed as if he .... 13... 5.... 7.. am able c......(want) to run away..... “as if” and “as though”.......... The girl behaved as if she...... 8... 11. You can’t give up smoking.... 10...... My friend was panting as though he..... He appeared to like her c... could be d.. The man looked at us as though we. a..here now to watch our play..(run) a long way. You don’t know anything about cars. b.. “if only”..... be b. You live in London and you hate London. to express unreal condition we may use “would rather”.....(go) mad.. It sounded as though something.. Besides using “wish”..came.. The tyre looks as if it . He orders people about as if he ...(know) a lot about the subject. The child wandered about as if she... For example : ....I would rather my father worked in a bank...... and your car has just broken down.(not meet) each other for ages..... I wish he.. Example: They behaved as if they...... She sat down as if she... a.... He used to like her e... has been e.. will be able to 2.. were 3....... 15..... 9...(be) sick. A : Let’s go swimming. b..... 3. which wasn’t very good.(be) very tired. The girl was talking as if she... He wanted people to think he liked her 10 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ..... Exercise 3: Give the correct form of the words in brackets..(be) angry.... 6.. 4... c....... but you’d like to stay in bed... Exercise 4: Choose the correct form by crossing either a......(be) the manager..(fall)... She looks as though she......... a. ..... The boys were behaving as if they..(want) to tell us something...He always talks as if he knew everything. The boy looked as though he .... 1. 2. 1...... They behaved as if they had not met each other for years...... 7... is c...... You have to work tomorrow.....

...... it has stopped d.. 5. c.. it would stop b. 7. aren’t having to 9.. a.... hadn’t e.. e... had known b.. b. She definitely knew how to solve the problem...her more often. a. From the sentence we know that . She succeeded to solve the problem.. If only his son had studied harder....... d.. didn’t have to c.to stay at home because I’m sure that you would have enjoyed the concert very much.. but it’s raining very hard now. don’t have o000o 11 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . This means. His son had studied harder. She ought to know how to solve the problem. have visited 10.. it had stopped 6. could visit b... She should know how to solve the problem...4. know c. it stops c.. a.... His son has studied harder...raining now. His son never studies harder.. I’m sorry I don’t know the answer but I really wish I .. I wish i... e. it will stop e... I’m planning to go to a party tonight. won’t have to e... am visiting e. She actually can’t solve the problem.. haven’t got to d. I wish you. visit c. would visit d. haven’t had b... knew d.. b.. Mother said to the guest. weren’t having to b....... She went to the blackboard as if she knew how to solve the problem.leave now. His son will not study harder. c.” a.... a. hadn’t had d.... I wish. have known e.. a. a. She is always busy with her work. d... His son didn’t study harder. will know 8. “I wish you. didn’t have to c.

........ In spite of not having eaten for 24 hours. . 1.............................. a lot of things went wrong..... “Because of” is followed by ....... 2........ “Because”........... a. they enjoyed themselves........ 6........... 2....... d.. Mary wore a raincoat because of the rain............. they enjoyed themselves....... (in spite of) ............. we carried on walking. they enjoyed themselves. Keith decided to give up his job. We lost the match although we were the better team.......... they enjoyed themselves..... she managed to walk to the village.............. ........... 4...... d...... ........... (even though) ...........the heating was full on... b................................... “as” and “since” are followed by..... Although it rained a lot.... this house was till cold..... Notes: “Though”.... Although he has an English name............ Exercise 2: Read these sentences and then write a new sentence with the same meaning.......... 4..... In spite of the rain............... c.................. “Although”............all my careful plans....................................... 3.................. 3.. 5................................................................ Despite the rain.................. a lot of things went wrong...I can’t play a musical instrument...... 2..... he is in fact German..................... In spite of her injured foot............................................... e........... Exercise 3: Read the following sentences and change them using “in spite of” 12 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .............................................. I decided to accept the job although the salary was low................. Mary wore a raincoat as it was raining................................Chapter 4 Conjunctions Though/although/even though...................................................... ............................. and “Even though” are followed by ............................... (despite) ................. they enjoyed themselves............. Mary wore a raincoat since it was raining...... c.................................................................. Though it rained a lot............. Use the word(s) in brackets in your sentences...................... I didn’t feel hungry........... Even though it rained a lot........................................................................................... Mary wore a raincoat because it was raining. 1....... 5...... because of and others Observe the following sentences: 1. “Despite” and “In spite of” are followed by ................I advised him not to............. (despite) ............I had planned everything carefully.......... I love music....................................... b..... Exercise 1: Complete the following sentences with although or in spite of.... 6..........being very tired................................... (despite) ...... (although) ...... a.... despite/in spite of Because/as/since. I couldn’t sleep although I was tired....

B. as a result. on the contrary means “sebaliknya” 4.... We wanted to go there although the road was not good.. We decided to go to Fish Lake although the distance was great. since e..... c. so that means “agar supaya” 6. 8. It started raining when I was walking to the library. nevertheless.. Our football team didn’t win the match .. We started home although Betty wanted to stay longer. 4. 5. 9.. all the same means “namun (demikian)” 2. and it started raining immediately.. 6.my salary is smaller than before. yet. however. 1. unless means “jika. We enjoyed our lunch although the coffee was cold.. B : That’s right. a. 6. A : You look happy with your new job. it was already raining.. Exercise 4: Rewrite the following sentences using “because of”. a. John got home late because the traffic was heavy. 4. although d. on the other hand. because 2... b. till/until means “sampai” 9. Mr. 5. 7.. 3.. C. 10. therefore. accordingly. I came here because I wanted to take the English course..tidak (kecuali)” 8... We swam in the lake although the water was cold.. It started raining as soon as I got to the library... D or E. otherwise means “jika tidak” 7. We sat on the ground although the grass was wet.. Alice is going to Florida because she wants to visit her sister. Mr.. in spite of c. 2.. I stayed home because it was raining.. as long as means “selama/asalkan” 10. Mary stayed home yesterday because she had a headache. consequently means “akibatnya” 5. I got to the library at one o’clock. We got there in an hour although George’s car was very old. 3. 7. When I got to the library. 13 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . Betty went although her mother didn’t want him to. even though 3. 8. despite c. We didn’t wear coats although the weather was cool. in spite of d. a. John can’t go to the movie because he has an exam tomorrow. hence means “oleh karena itu” 3.. when b. if b. as soon as means “segera setelah” Exercise 5: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A. 9. Jones moved to Arizona because the state has a dry climate. 2.. 1. Other conjunctions: 1.. however e..we got a new coach. My family and I are happier. Miller is going to move to California because he likes the weather there. in order that. It had started raining before I got to the library.. d. 10. We went in George’s car although the engine was in bad condition. George couldn’t answer the letter immediately because he had a lot of homework to do. The classes were cancelled because it was a holiday.1...

. I bought the car. when 6... are still washing their clothes there b. a. however d.. I could not buy it.the earthquake had made the region unsafe for living.... a. The sentence means. therefore I will be able b.. The river is highly polluted... because c.. she pretends to ignore him.... nevertheless.. Since b. Because 5... 4. a.. however c. a....... c. When the price went down. but I will not be able c.. I did not buy the car because the price never went down... do not allow the children to play there d.... ....e... Although d. the price went down. d..... so 7.. I had already bought the car before the price went down... otherwise I won’t be able to send my children to college.. are greatly concerned about it 9.. although b. John failed his exam in the national examination . the villagers were willing to transmigrate. the rain started sometime before I went to the library. complain about the danger threatening them c... many people.... The sentence means. Until e.. The price of the car went down. therefore e. Whereas e. ..... because of e..she likes him very much... 8. I certainly be able d.. Since c. and d....he was very lazy to study. a. have become the victim of it e. My uncle doesn’t earn much. Whereas d. if I don’t I won’t be able e. hence b. I could not afford to buy the car until the price went down. e.he can send his children to college. However b. however. . a. After I bough the car.. b... So that 10.. In order that c. besides I will be able o000o 14 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ..... a. I have to save money every month...

6. is. if his wife didn’t work outside. With verb= V-2 c. He is not very happy because his wife works outside. if we study hard. 1. With “be”= were b. He does not go by car because he doesn’t have one. Future Conditional Sentence 2. 3. I cannot fly because I am not a bird. they can stay up late. He didn’t stay at home because he was not sick yesterday. Past Conditional Sentence Observe the following: TYPE MAIN CLAUSE 1 Will/can + Verb-1 Examples: He will go to the doctor We will pass the exam They will fail the exam 2 Would /could+ Verb-1 Examples: I could fly high He would go by car He would be happier 3 Would/could have + Verb-3 Examples: He would have stayed at home They would have won the match IF-CLAUSE USE Simple Present Tense a. b. 2. 3. you would understand it. With “be”= had been b. c. The meanings of conditional sentences types 2 and 3: 2. she (have) more sense. a. They didn’t win the match because they didn’t practice a lot. I (go) if I had known. Simple Past Tense a.Chapter 5 Conditional Sentences There are three types of Conditional Sentences: 1. if he had one. 4. With Verb= V-1/V-1s(es) c. are b. If the children (be) good. With verb= had+V-3 if he had been sick yesterday. With Auxiliary Verb= did not + V-1 To express something that is contrary to the fact of the present if I were a bird. b. 5. I should have caught the train. Present Conditional Sentence 3. With “be”= am. You will be ill if you (eat) so much. To express something that is contrary to the fact of the past if they had practised a lot. Exercise 1 Supply a suitable tense of the verbs in brackets. With Auxiliary Verb= do/does not + V-1 To express something that may or may not happen in the future if he is sick. If my car (not break) down. Past Perfect Tense a. If you (read) that book carefully. if they do not study hard. a. If she were older. 15 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .

You’ll be ill if you drink that water.. 6. 4. 1. 2...He would have come if you had waited. If you didn’t live so far away. 5. I didn’t wake George because I didn’t know he wanted to get up early. If you buy that big house.. If your message had not come. Robinson? 9. 5. Exercise 3 Read the following situation and write sentences with “if”. If you ring the bell. 4.... it (bite) you.. I was able to buy the car because Jim lent me the money.. Why didn’t you do it if. If he wrote to me I’ll write to him...... If a beggar asks you for money.. Example: . 10. he would have drunk some water. 14. You (kill) yourself if you always work as hard as that. People don’t understand him because he doesn’t speak clearly... 4. will you give him any? 14. We (be) pleased if our school won the match..He’ll come if you wait.. You’ll catch the train if you take a taxi.. If you hit the dog. If it (be) fine tomorrow.. 13. my sister will post if for you. Example: We don’t visit you very often because you live so far away.. Exercise 4 Finish the following sentences with your own words... The streets would be wet if it rained. I will come and see you if I have time. 2. What would happen if the bridge broke? 10. 16 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . 11.... 15. 3.. 9...He would come if you waited.. He will not come unless..... If they had waited... 7. I’m not going to buy that book because it’s too expensive. . If he had fallen into the river. 11. The soldiers will fight bravely if they (understand) their orders. you will need several servants. somebody will come...7. 15. 10. 2. 8. If he had been thirsty. they (find) me.. 8... We can’t have lunch in the garden because it’s raining. You would have found the book if you had opened the bag.. 13. Exercise 2 Read the following sentences and change them into the other forms of conditional sentences... I (buy) that hat if it were not so dear. 1. He’s fat because he doesn’t take any exercise.. 6.. 12.. 7..... She wasn’t injured in the crash because she was wearing a seat-belt. What will you do if you meet Mr. If he saw he would speak to you. he would have been drowned.. 12. I can’t meet you tomorrow evening because I have to work. I will play tennis.. I’m sure she will do well if she (go) to the university. 8.... we would visit you more often... If you leave the letter on that table.. The accident happened because the driver stopped so suddenly. 1.. I would not have thought it possible if I (not see) it myself... Answers: .. 3.. If you had worked harder.. 9. She doesn’t go out very often because she can’t walk without help... 3.

.. a. stayed at home c... 7........ a.............. she stayed at home that day c...... We conclude that....... are enjoying the trip e.. b.. If the car were in a better condition.. Exercise 5: Choose the correct answer by crossing either a.. the traffic light often doesn’t work d.. is still looking for another job 7.it in the hotel..... 11....... didn’t leave his present job e...... If you don’t visit me soon.. a........ the first train was late d.... left c... there wouldn’t be so many accidents. despite the traffic lights accidents happen e.. the guests enjoyed the party at their house e..... I would have won the prize if.. If there were traffic lights at this intersection.. she didn’t like the meeting e........... she was too late for the first train 4. They climbed higher.. 9............ the party was not held at their house d.. 13.. the meeting was cancelled b.. drivers were always very careful at this intersection 2.. If I met your friend Mirna in the street...... It may be concluded that we.... d...... have to stay at home d............. so they got a better view... Had the company not raised Andy’s salary. the only accidents occur at this intersection b. a....... We can conclude that............ 6. or e..... doesn’t like his job d. I would not have lost my money if........ the party could have been held at their house. It means that...... have left d.... 1.. enjoyed the trip 5... 15...... would have left b.. She could have attended the meeting if she had taken the first train...... had left 3.... I will be very disappointed if. it was only a small family b..... 14........ Had they invited fewer people.. If he wants to see me..... he would have looked for another job. 8........ this is a dangerous intersection c... c......... their house was crowded with people c.. You would be very angry with us if... If I were you..5.. We may conclude that Andy ....... If I had plenty of money. 10... 12.... a. We would not have lost our bag if we.... we would make a long trip now... couldn’t find a good job c.. found a better-paying job b. not many of the invited people came 6.... 17 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . would leave e........ prefer staying at home b.. If I had known he was here....... Flowers will not grow well unless............. a.

. he was afraid of swimming c........ a. If they won’t climb higher. If I had not quarrelled with John. If he had taken the swimming lesson seriously.. If they climb higher... 8. e.. he didn’t have the potential of a good swimmer 10.... I would not have been too late for the interview.. they wouldn’t get a better view. he was not interested in becoming a good swimmer e. he succeeded to become a good swimmer d. If the company’s personnel department had mailed the letter earlier.. The sentence means.. o000o 18 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. they didn’t get a better view. John promised to go with me c. From the sentence we may conclude that. I could have gone to the party. It can be concluded that . he liked swimming very much b. I missed the interview 9..We can also say.. the company didn’t send the letter c. perhaps I’ll go with John b. d. a. c. b. a.. I didn’t want to be interviewed b... If they don’t climb higher. If they didn’t climb higher. a. I went with John.... If they had not climbed higher. I went through the interview d....... they don’t get a better view. they would not have got a better view.... the letter came too early e. he could have become a good swimmer. I didn’t go with John d.. they won’t get a better view...to the party.. e. John would like to go with me.

.. She will not be moving out after all..either” or “and neither.. b.. Dewi has not graduated. 2. and his mother is too. His father does not have 19 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . and my mother does. a.” Observe the following sentences: 1. My father is not a civil servant. b... The jewellery was stolen. and my mother is not either.. too. Her friends have read the book. We’ll attend the meeting.. My mother is a housewife. 5. The back door is locked..Chapter 6 Elliptical Constructions A.. a.. I knew the answer quite well. They knew the answer quite well. My father could lift the box. and neither is my mother. and she hasn’t either. too. 6.... b.. My father is not a civil servant. My sister cannot sing well. His mother is a housewife. My mother is not a civil servant... 3.. 7.. I haven’t finished my homework. Ellipsis with “and. His parents work hard to support the family.”. and my cousin cannot either.too” and “and so.. My father loves durian. My mother loves durian... and Fina did.. 10.. My mother is a housewife. My father loves durian.. Ellipsis with “and. I tried to persuade her to come. She hasn’t finished her homework. The money was stolen. Andi passed the examination. and so did Fina. and neither has she.. The apples she bought were spoilt. My father loves durian.” Observe the following sentences: 1. 8. He will not be moving out after all. He did not break the vase. 1. Andi passed the examination.. I haven’t finished my homework. 3. 2. Her friends tried to persuade her to come. 2. a. 3. Andi passed the examination. Mia has read the book. My sister does not trust him anymore.. My sister has never met her before. b. 7. They’ll attend the meeting. a. The mangoes she bought were spoilt. My mother is not at home. and so does my mother. 4. 4. a. My father does not have enough money to buy a new car.. My brother could lift the box. a. The front door is locked. 1. b... I do not trust him anymore. My cousin cannot sing well. 2. Exercise 2: Combine the following sentences using “either” and “neither”. I have never met her before. 5. The umbrella belongs to her. The purse belongs to her. 9. I did not break the vase. I haven’t finished my homework. My father is not at home. My parents work hard to support the family. My father is not a civil servant.. and so is his mother.. Exercise 1: Join the following pairs of sentences using “and. Cindi has not graduated. and neither can my cousin. 3... My sister cannot sing well...too” or “and so.. Fina passed the examination. 6... B.. My mother is a housewife.. b. My sister cannot sing well.

and .. I didn’t have breakfast this morning.. My friends were not interested to watch the movie.... I study both English and Japanese... and so the teacher did 5.... a. but father does b........ a..... I couldn’t either 20 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . 4. Your friend has not paid the rent. and father doesn’t too d... Either you or your brother must help your father... B. so did I c. I do neither e. and neither did the teacher b. C. He doesn’t speak Chinese. but the teacher did not c.. neither am I c.. Exercise 3: Choose the correct answer by crossing either A.. I study Japanese.. also I could not b... I do either b .. Nina did not pass the exam. The grocery stores are too c.. and mother does too 2... but the teacher not d.. The others did not enjoy the party. The grocery stores don’t either 3.. Neither do the grocery stores d... C....or. 10....and... D or E. 2... I study English.... 3... such as Both....... a............ Neither....but..... and also the teacher e. Everybody laughed at his jokes... a..... My sister had breakfast this morning.. The grocery stores aren’t either b..but also... neither doesn’t mother e.....nor.....enough money to buy a new car.. My uncle doesn’t smoke.... neither did I e.... Either.. 1........ Nor do the grocery stores e. Not only..... Because of the rain..... neither do I d...... You must help your father or your brother must help your father... 9...... No bookstores are open today..... 5.... Anton did not pass the exam. Examples: 1... ........ She washes the clothes... I neither couldn’t d. You have not paid the rent....... I did not enjoy the party... ..... Ellipsis with others........ and so does father c. the teacher couldn’t come on time and . The maid sweeps the floor...... Neither Nina nor Anton passed the exam.. I was not interested to watch the movie. a.......... I didn’t have breakfast this morning but my sister did. The maid not only sweeps the floor but also washes the clothes... 8. either do I 4.

... I don’t either e.for the study tour to Bali. My brother has too.6.. Andy agreed that everybody had to pay Rp 500. X : My brother has just bought a new motorcycle. a.. while I didn’t b... so will my father c...... I don’t so d... .. so am I 7. but. do e...... but I am not e. knows b.. know d.... a.. my father is b.” a. Neither don’t I b. My brother does too..... my father won’t d. A : “I don’t think your cousin knows anything about computers. I don’t like bright colours. is 8. neither was I d. Y : What a coincidence! . My brother also did c. d. does c...... my father will be o000o 21 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. I didn’t either c. So don’t I c.. Also my brother e. So does my brother 10.” B : “But he . a.. a. so does my father c. b........ He took a computer course last year. I think that my mother will be interested in reading this novel. I don’t also 9......000..

..... The hotel was surprisingly cheap................ Have you lost weight? 3...? 6................................................ I expected you to be here....... 8.. Each time use the comparative form of one of the following adjectives or adverbs. It was.. This jacket is too small................................... He’s not so keen on his studies..........................size................................? 9......................................................................................................................... ....................... I expected it to be much........... ........................ You’re making too much noise... I need a .Chapter 7 Degrees of Comparison Observe the following table: POSITIVE One or twoTall syllable adjectives high Clever Three-syllable Beautiful adjectives Interesting Important Irregular Good/well Bad/badly Far Little Many/much COMPARATIVE Taller than Higher than Cleverer than More beautiful than More interesting than More important than Better than Worse than Further (than) Farther than Less than More than SUPERLATIVE The tallest The highest The cleverest The most beautiful The most interesting The most important The best The worst The furthest The farthest The least The most Exercise 1: Complete these sentences........ It’s a pity you live so far away........ crowded early easily expensive interested near often quiet thin large 1. You look...................... PART A PART B The earlier we leave the faster you’ll learn The longer we waited the more you have to pay The more I got to know him the sooner we’ll arrive The more you practice your English the more profit you’ll make The longer the telephone call the more impatient he became The more goods you sell the more I liked him Answers: 1.........than usual............. He’s ..........................in having a good time...................... 22 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ........................ You hardly ever write to me......... There were a lot of people on the bus.........larger.. 2..... Why don’t you write a bit... Can you be a bit ........... Exercise 2: Match the clauses in Part A with the suitable clauses in Part B........... 3............... 4............. The earlier we leave.. 10... ..................if you have a map................... 4.............. 5.............. ........... 7...... You’ll find your way around the town......... I wish you lived.. 2................ You’re late.............

.............................................................. That’s the most................ It isn’t.... There were fewer people at this meeting than at the last one.................................... I’ve never heard such a funny story.......... but my father is the tallest of all......................... This is ................................... Exercise 4: Read these sentences and then write a new sentence with the same meaning........ weight............. Exercise 5: Think of your own family and compare all of them................................ I don’t .......... 7.. I haven’t tasted such a good coffee for a long time.......... 3....... .......... Make more than five sentences.................... That’s .. Example: I’ve never seen such a boring film. 2............. 3.. 6................. 5............... This is........... personality or the others............. I’ve never had such a big meal............................................................ The station was nearer than I thought.. The hotel is cheaper than I expected....... For example: In my family I’m taller than my brother.......... The station wasn’t...................................... Begin as shown..... 5..... Example: Jack is younger than he looks................... 6......... 4............. I’ve never slept in such an uncomfortable bed.....................5........................ 1....................... 8............................ ........ 4......... He’s never made such a bad mistake.................. It is warmer today than yesterday......... I go out less than I used to............ 2.....................................heard... How do they differ from each other on their height............................................... The examination wasn’t.............................. Use a superlative each time and begin each sentence as shown...... Ann is.... I’ve never met such a generous person as Ann..... Jack isn’t as old as he looks... Exercise 3: Rewrite these sentences so that they have the same meaning............................... 23 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .............. The hotel isn’t.......... 1. You... The examination was easier than we expected... I’ve never had such a good friend as you......... 6...................... Tito............... I haven’t had to make such a difficult decision for years.......... There weren’t................... It is..................... That’s...................................... It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen.............

. The umbrella that you borrow is my sister’s...lives opposite my house is very pretty........... 2.... 15..whose wife was badly wounded in the accident..... The magazine..you are smoking is “Jarum”........... . that...... 3........ 12. I’m looking for somebody. 17....... ..lives next door has just died. .......... I will never forget the man... Exercise 1: Add a relative pronoun to the following sentences....... The girl. ........ 19....... For the sentences above you may also say: 1.. 18....loves jokes.in hospitals are to be admired..... I want to find a man ..................... The use of Defining Relative Pronouns Subject Person ..I can trust.........is sitting next to me is very good-looking............ 9..... 5..... The dress ......mother I was talking to has left the room.----... 4........... The girl................... The umbrella which is in front of the room is mine. The person. 4....... The cigarette ..you lent me is very interesting............ That’s the man........ 4..... Possessive ..lead to school is very wide... The fish... 2........... 16..... that....who.. ........purse has been stolen.......you want has just left.... 5....was broken is now mended. The old man . . 6..................will lend me the money.... There’s the lady...... 10.. The flowers.... Thing .... The chair..... Women .. The man.you are wearing is lovely.......................... The man you talked about is my neighbour.. .. ....Chapter 8 Relative Pronouns Observe the following sentences: 1.. The man that you talked about is my neighbour... ..... 2....was here yesterday has gone to London....I cut this morning is still very fresh.......----.....had helped me fight the pickpocket....... 13. 20........ 7..... 11. The man whose car was damaged in the accident was hospitalized.......... 5..... The man that is coming here is the principal.. The lady.. The man who is coming here is the principal..... 6.. 14......... that.whose... 24 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .... The man whom you talked about is my neighbour............ of which................ 1....... 3......... The umbrella which you borrow is my sister’s..I ate yesterday was not so good.. His wife is a woman ... Wahyu’s.. The umbrella that is in front of the room is mine..........whom...................... The umbrella you borrow is my sister’s...which...whose...................that. Object .... Use more than one relative pronoun if possible. The umbrella whose colour is red is Mrs...........which... 8. The street ...

.. 6.. Flies.... 3. Exercise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either a. 8. He was a powerful Roman General.... Thing ..... .. ...... which many students from all over Indonesia attend......The use of Non-Defining Relative Pronouns: Subject Object Person ..... They will grow well in pots indoors....... 5. is very good for them...... carry diseases.........was a great general..... The matter has been settled. 1..which. 1... 9. 5............. 3... c.... 10.... .......is a wonderful feeling..... Is that the new station? You pointed out to me last week.some students dislike..is a good sport. 6....... You were arguing about it last night.yesterday... who was the first woman to be president of our country.. Megawati.. I left the cigarettes on the table.. was also a writer.. a. An old soldier sits begging on the pavement...... d or e.. Oxford University.... What is the name of the girl? She came here last night.....whom.. who... 2... Possessive ... This is the man I gave the money to him this morning... 7.......is the world’s greatest dramatist.. These cactus plants should not have too much water. has been taught to students in Indonesia since they are in the elementary school. Swimming..is one of the oldest in the world... His birth place was Salzburg...... One should try to stop smoking... comes to everyone at some time in his life. Love. that the teacher was talking about it e. makes people strong... The table stands by the window..Air. 3.. Exercise 2: Add the necessary relative pronoun to the following....... English. 9.... whose........is a bad habit.... 4.. b... 4..we met at the party yesterday is the General Manager of a 25 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ... He was living with her.. about the teacher was talking c... was born in a little cottage. 1. Julius Caesar..... 10.... His step mother was not very kind to him..became the President of the United States..... 2. Shakespeare. of which..come mostly in the summer... . Gajah Mada University.... has many different colleges... Exercise 3: Combine the following pairs of sentences by using a suitable relative pronoun.... 8. Mozart spent the last ten years of his life in Vienna. never told a lie.. the teacher was talking about it d........ This is the book.. whom the teacher was talking about 2.... is situated in Yogyakarta.............. which is an international language............... Grammar....... is made up of many gases. George Washington..... His legs were shot away in the war........... 7...which. ..... Example: 1.... is Sukarno’s daughter. the teacher was talking about b....... ......we breathe.. The businessman... 2........ Julius Caesar came to Britain in 55 BC. whose... .....

.. whom b... where e.. the two chapters are taken 7. which the teachers like him e... whoever 3..is only available in the library. of whom e... on which c....... about which I told you c....... The student succeeded in getting a scholarship....big company.. I told you 9. where d. the person he borrowed a car 5.health hasn’t been good lately. who b... which I bought the typewriter from b.. The teachers like him. he borrowed a car from him b. His supervisor. The book....... who c.. it was from them the two chapter are e..... Flash..... from whom I bought the typewriter e.... which b.... from which these two chapters are taken b.... a... from him I bought the typewriter c... that 8.is a very generous person. A : Who called you last night? B : The student.... his car he borrowed e.. that I told you b. a..... with whom e... a. his d.. from whom he borrowed a car d..... a..... whom I told you about e. which d.... his typewriter I bought 26 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. to which c.. This is Mr. whose c. a..... Tom’s father. where he borrowed a car c.... The above sentence can be joined as follows: The student. is liked by the teachers 4..this letter is addressed had moved to another city.... This is the place.. a. I bought the typewriter from him d. whom e.. where these two chapters are taken from d. which 10... is in hospital now.. a..the Dutch imprisoned Pangeran Diponegoro. the teachers like him d. whom the teachers like b. he is liked by the teachers c. who is b..succeeded in getting a scholarship a..... these two chapters are taken c.. The lady..... to whom d... of which 6..... which I told you d...... a..

PASSIVE Am. The box (not open) for the last hundred years. 2. PASIVE Was. were + BEING + Verb 3 The house is being cleaned now. were + Verb 3 The house was cleaned yesterday. + Verb 1 Example : I will send the letter tomorrow. 1. Past 3. 4. Simple Present Tense ACTIVE Verb 1/ Verb 1s(es) Example: Someone cleans the house every day. Present Perfect Tense / Past Perfect Tense ACTIVE PASSIVE Has. are + Verb-ing Was. Simple Past Tense ACTIVE Verb 2 Example: Someone cleaned the house yesterday. is. Present Perfect 27 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . The police must punish the criminals. library before she went home. PASSIVE Can. could. were + Verb-ing Example: Someone is cleaning the house now. 3. His homework has been finished. Exercise 1: Complete the following passive voice sentences in the tense suggested. This picture (always admire).Chapter 9 Passive Voice Observe the following : 1. Present / Past Continuous Tense ACTIVE Am. is. will etc. are + Verb 3 The house is cleaned every day. The Tower of London (formerly use) as a prison. Present Continuous 4. The plates were being washed when I arrived home. Present 2. have + BEEN + Verb 3 Had + Verb 3 Had + BEEN + Verb 3 Example: He has finished his homework. is. are + BEING + Verb 3 Was. Sentences with Modal Auxiliary ACTIVE Can. have + Verb 3 Has. PASSIVE Am. will etc. 5. She had returned the books to the library The books had been returned to the before she went home. This exercise (do) very carefully. His leg (hurt) in an accident. Two of my dinner plates (break). The servant was washing the plates when I arrived home. + BE + Verb 3 The letter will be sent tomorrow. could. Present Perfect 5. The criminals must be punished. Past 6.

still selected b... We need to remodel our school building. Present 10.7.. madam..The stolen car (find) in another town. Y : Oh. 4.. They have changed the date of the meeting. has to sell 28 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . Past 8.. Present perfect Exercise 2: Change the following sentences into passive. An electric fault could have caused the fire... has been selling d. he... has sold b.... Anything took 5. are still selecting e.to the nearest hospital.? a... They cancelled all flights because of fog. They had to postpone the meeting because of his illness. It. Milk (use) for making butter and cheese... Was anything taken e.. 12.. 7. 5.. being taken d.. Dear ! .. 14. People should send their complaints to the head office. needs to be remodelled d. 1.. be taken b. Was anything being taken c... 1.. They are going to hold the congress in San Francisco... Exercise 3: Choose the best answer by crossing either a..by a team. needing to be remodelled b. I didn’t realize that someone was recording our conversation. A :Which painting will be exhibited tomorrow? B : I don’t know yet..... are still being selected d.. was taking c. They shouldn’t have played the football match in such bad weather.. X : Last night someone broke into our house... As he was badly hurt in the accident. is needing remodelled c. They are building a new ring-road round the city. still selecting c. is needed to remodel e.. 10. 2. or e..” a. a..... 3. 11. took e.. still be selected 4. Mr.. We can also say “Our school building. d.. The answer must (write) on one side of the paper. Auxiliary 9. a.. Somebody might have stolen your car if you had left the keys in it.. has been sold c.. 9. needed to remodel 3... People don’t use this road very often. a... Somebody had robbed and attacked him in the street.. X : I want the red dress displayed in the window? Y : I’m sorry.. Did anything take d. 15. Kelly can’t use his room at this moment. 8. was taken 2. Anything to take b. they . 13... Somebody accused of stealing the money.. b. c. The bill includes service. The bridge (build) last year... 6.. has to be sold e..

..by millions of people. build b.. My father was offered between two posts. a. a. was build c..... was torn d. built e. cleans e. has been building d. Every week it. watches d.. has torn c. a... to be recording b... Somebody was offered my father c... I’m sorry but you can’t swim today.”.. Someone offered my father 29 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . was to record d.. being recorded 13..6. being promised 7. promised d. was built 12.. is being cleaned b... watched 10. This is a very popular TV program.. has been promised b..... the choice between two posts..in 1980.... The pool. X : When did the accident happen? Y : When the goods.. I became quite nervous when I knew that my speech....... unloaded c... cleaned 9. is watched e. A : What happened to her skirt? B : It.......... has watched c.. My father had offered e.. is being watched b. being unloaded 11. be cleaned d.when she jumped over a fence.. has promised c. was being recorded c.. were unloading d. is tearing b. They would offer someone b. is recording e.... is cleaning c.... a.. a. Anin is looking forward to her birthday because she. has been promising e.. it. a....... were being unloaded e.. We can also say “..from the truck.. they were unloading b. My father offered someone d........ was to tear 8.. a... a.a new watch. tore e. A : How old is the mosque? B : Well....

... but I will...his friends to bring back some food for him... b.. S + HAVE + O + ..her to say something. I bought her a watch.... PASSIVE : a.. He had the car towed away by the man. The burglars.... We had the mechanic repair the television set.... 9. Answer the questions: 1..Chapter 10 Causative ‘Get’ and ‘Have” Observe the following sentences: 1.some workmen come to paint their house while they were away on holiday. That girl is too quiet..somebody represent me at the ceremony and ........ I will ...............+ O... He was too busy to go out for lunch..... I will get the children to pick the mangoes.. What are the meanings of the verbs ‘get’ and ‘has’ in the sentences above? 2..... 6...... 8....... My mother always has the clothes washed by the servant... S + GET + O + . 4............. and I ...a passer-by give us the correct direction...... S + GET + O + . Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks with causative ‘get’ or ‘have’...Fita clean up the mess before she goes out.. She.... The girl will.. 7......... c... Answer: I cannot go to receive the prize myself..... My mother always gets the servant to wash the clothes.... but later we......... so he..the maid serve you some drinks while I am on the telephone..... They .him to take the prize........ 1... but I will HAVE somebody represent me at the ceremony and GET him to take the prize.. We lost our way at first. Example: I cannot go to receive the prize myself..... We must.. b...the goldsmith carve her name on it........ 4..+ O. 30 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ....... b....... Example : He had the man tow away the car. 3. Complete the following patterns: ACTIVE : a.. Answers: a.........her brother to repair the toy for her yesterday.. He got the car towed away by the man. He got the man to tow away the car.... I must. 2... 1... Exercise 2: Change the following sentences into the other forms of causative active and passive...... What is the difference between sentences numbers 1 and 2 and sentences numbers 3 and 4? 3.... 5.. My mother always has the servant wash the clothes.. My mother always gets the clothes washed by the servant... 2...............the frightened woman to tell them where she kept all her valuables... S + HAVE + O + . 10.her father to buy her the piano.. 2. Mind the form of the tense....... 3.

. The owner had the house renovated... 2. a. having her meals brought c.......” means.. 4. 5. That old man had his grandson take him around the town. had done the job by the gardener 5.. she has brought her meals b. We had the plumber fix the leaking tap... You don’t need someone to mend the pipe.3.. 5.... to have brought her meals e. My mother was not strong enough to clear the old tree trunks from the shed... Fitria got me to carry her books.The students have their clothes washed and ironed at the laundry.. so she. 1. 10. Exercise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either am.. c. He had changed the oil of his car. 9. had been doing the gardener’s job e.. Someone has mended the pipe. c. to listen 4.. listened d... Because she is ill... My father had the fence repaired. He gets his hair trimmed once a month..to the passage twice before they answered the questions. had the gardener do the job b..... d.... “My father had the oil of his car changed.. a. a.. had to do the job of the gardener c.. c. Exercise 3: Replace the active causative in these sentences into passive and vice versa.. 4. or e.. A plumber has mended the pipe. My mother will get my brother to help us.... she brings her meals 3. so we had it sawn into two. 6.. listening e. 2... She got her fortune told by that man. b... The soldier had his wound examined by the doctor. You have mended the pipe. 3.. to have her meals brought d.. had the gardener doing the job d. The police got the man reveal the secret plans of his gang. The boys usually get other people to replace them. 10. He changed the oil of his car.. He had to change the oil of his car. 31 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .into her room. 7. The sentence means. e. The plank was too long... she wants . 1. You have to find someone to mend the pipe. listen c. 8. The teacher had the students. 8... a.. b. You must have it mended. a.... have listened b. The man always gets his wife to wake him up. She will have this dress altered to fit her. d. 6.. b. 9.. 7. My mother had all her dresses sewn by a seamstress. She will have the maid iron the suit as soon as possible.. We had our car repaired at the garage. The pipe is leaking..

My niece has been told to lengthen her old dresses.. we. a.. have it done o000o 32 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ....for him. My niece has been asked by someone to lengthen her old dresses.. Someone changed the oil of his car... everything having been done b. having done everything e. I . 9. Sugeng is a very lazy boy... He always wants. to have done everything 7. have to do it e.. to have everything done c. are washing them b..... a.. My niece has lengthened her old dresses... I don’t know how to arrange the flowers so I’d rather. My niece has to lengthen her old dresses herself... X : What a lovely evening gown you’re wearing! Did you make it yourself? Y : No. Now that she has grown up. d. it has been done b.. Someone asked my father to change the oil of his car. a. had made it 8. everything has done d..... e. c.. 6. have done it c.... have washed them e... a.at the dry-cleaner’s. b.. have made it c. must have washed them d.... had to make it b.... my niece has her old dresses lengthened.... e... My niece asked someone to lengthen her old dresses. The curtains are dirty.. must be washing them 10.. must have them washed c...... have to make it d.. had it made e..... The sentence means. do it myself d.... a.....d..

. Will future time ...... TOMORROW......... Must have + V3 (pasti telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kesimpulan dari peristiwa yang terjadi pada waktu lampau. Should = ought to ... George is able to speak GEORGE CAN SPEAK FRENCH French very well. 3... Tono went to a mall last Sunday........ VERY WELL... It must have rained last night........ ... The students have permission THE STUDENTS MAY DO THE to do the exercise in the library.....................(I conclude that... ..Mrs..... 4.. have permission to....... He might have missed the bus....He came late. Could have + V3 (sebenarnya bisa) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sebenarnya bisa dilakukan pada waktu lampau tetapi karena sesuatu alasan kegiatan itu tidak dilakukan..................... probability It is very probable that.... Look at the examples....She should have helped her mother (but she didn’t) 2..Look at the ground! It’s wet. .....(ought to) desirability Must inference................. ........................) necessity ............ Might have + V3 (mungkin telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan kemungkinan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau. Paul and George are going to play tennis tomorrow... Examples: Paul is going to write PAUL WILL WRITE A LETTER a letter tomorrow........ perhaps) Should obligation....Chapter 11 Modal Auxiliaries Notice the forms and meanings of the modal auxiliaries.(It is possible that. Should have + V3 (seharusnya telah) : digunakan untuk menyatakan tindakan yang seharusnya dilakukan tetapi tidak dilakukan....... Exercise 1: Form sentences using the modals.. ......... be allowed to) Might possibility .......... She had enough money with her but she didn’t buy anything......... She could have bought something at the mall.. conclusion.....(be able to) May permission ....(be permitted to............................(have to) Modals with Perfect: Observe the following: 1...... 33 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . EXERCISE IN THE LIBRARY 1...........(be going to) Can ability ....

3. Ridwan sell his car? I conclude that he did. Answer : SHE MUST LIVE IN AN APARTMENT NOW. Did you aunt shop by phone? She had the opportunity but she didn’t.. Does Mrs. 6. Answer : He must have told her something funny. ‘should’ or ‘could’ according to the situation. That’s the only reasonable conclusion. 10.. He knew what was going to happen every minute during the whole movie. He had to write the check with a pencil. she didn’t.. 9. Fitri own a new house? I conclude that she does.. 8. 8. 5. Mr. X : Does she live in an apartment now? Y : I suppose she does. a. 5. You ought to send messages to your parents regularly. 1. His music teacher told him that he played the piano like an expert. 8. He had souvenirs and photographs of many different cities all over the world. Example : Your sister laughed after she talked with Budi.. Did she stay with her sister? She had that opportunity but she didn’t. 4. Rini is very thin and pale. Answer : SHE MUST HAVE LIVED IN THE DORM LAST YEAR. 3. He came back from the city with lots of money and no car. My brother is in your class. Did your brother forget to mail the letter? I think it’s possible.. Examples: 1. 9. He was very sleepy this morning. 4. His glasses were broken and his nose was bleeding. Did she save her money? It was desirable. The students have to join an English course. She. b. 10. 10. 1.. Exercise 3: Use ‘must have’ in your response to the sentences.2. Did she decide to get a job? I think that’s possible. 2.. Did Mr.. This morning he left suddenly and went to the dentist’ office. John is able to swim very well.. 2. 6. You have permission to come and see the doctor. 2. 7. We have to get up at six tomorrow..Mary is able to play the violin well. 7. Did she invite her uncle on her birthday? It was desirable but she didn’t. Execise 4: Choose the best answer by crossing either a.. I conclude that you know him. He spoke Italian very well when he came back from Europe. 4.. 1. Brown has to get a new passport soon. Tom was coughing and sneezing yesterday. d or e. 6. 7. X : Did she live in the dorm last year? Y : I conclude that she did. 5. It is possible that George is a very good tennis player. c. Is the new student a very good dancer? I conclude she is. ought to be 34 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . Did she ride with us in the car? She had that opportunity but she didn’t.. 9. 3. shall be d. Exercise 2: Make sentences with ‘must’. ‘might’.ill.

may be b.. can’t afford d... They lost all their possession in the fire.... must be d. would have been c.. It is possible that there will be a rise in the price of petrol soon. E.. may have had d..b.entered the house while we were away... must have c. will be e.. My brother was certainly busy. d. He might have been very busy. did not clean 4.. they..... My brother did not keep his promise to send us a message soon.... a. does not clean d. must be having e... should practice e..at the office by now. The teacher said to Iwan : “You can go now. a... must have arrived 6.. should not have cleaned it b.... a... could not have afforded 10. a. ought to practice d..... used to have b. c. she.it for a long time. He. will have arrived d. could afford e..... must have been practising b.. ought to have 8.” a. has to be practising c.. we found the front door open... Iwan was supposed to go..” The sentence means.. My brother was perhaps very busy... should be e. Iwan was allowed to go c... would have arrived e. 5... Iwan was requested to go......” There.. My brother would be very busy. a. had better be c..... b. She. a. they... Iwan was advised to go....... Iwan was ordered to go.. e... ought to have b.quite a lot. 3.. must not have cleaned it c. should have 7.to make a tour around the world this year.... ought to have arrived c.. Y : No... Last year the couple could save much money. would have e.... His English is very good.... Somebody......... otherwise... wouldn’t afford c.a hard time now.. We can also say.. could not be cleaning e. are to have c.... My brother will be very busy.. must be 2. When we got home. could have arrived b.. d... My brother is expected to be very busy. The sentence means. X : Then. b.. could have d. a. has to be 35 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. She left home an hour ago. Her house is very dirty. a.a rise in the price of petrol soon.. X : Hello! Is your Mom home? This is from her office. will afford b. will have practice 9..

.(be) very heavy... 4.. If one knew about a fact. A series of tests. Agreement of subject and verb: When the subject is singular. these cameras take very good pictures................. 4.. is going to visit my grandmother in Jakarta..... Exercise 1: Fill in the correct form of the bracketed words (plural or singular). 1.. too. 2..Chapter 12 Agreement/Concord A....3.... The pyjamas he is wearing now.. The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anyone neither anything no one each nothing either what everyone......dollars class public 2..... them Examples: 1... 2.(have) now finished questioning the suspect... 3. him.. whatever everything whoever The following collective subjects agree with singular verbs: audience group 2..... when the subject is plural..(be) very heavy.......(belong) to my brother.. 7... his Singular female person : she.miles committee staff faculty team family B.. he will not be so quick to criticize......... we are now awaiting 36 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. She had to hire a porter to carry the luggage.... its Plural people/animals/ things : they.(be) brought to us yesterday by a friend....4.3... My mother.... which. hers Singular thing/animal : it.... In spite of their small size.. 5...... It is easier to talk about the problem than it is to resolve it. the verb must be singular... Agreement of noun and pronoun Singular male person : he....... their.. The traffic on the road today.......... His knowledge about mathematics and natural science has made him successful. The cattle.. with and accompanied by do not cause singular subjects to be plural.(have) all been driven to the market this morning for sale.(have) been made on the animals. The news ..... 3.... 2... 6.. accompanied by my father.. Either of these buses goes to the university... Twenty dollars is the price of the watch. Examples: 1. The police.......4... her...... Notes: Along with. 3.. the verb must be plural.

....happy about the result of the experiments. was 9........ it c.. a..... b. Economics.. Neither the students nor the professor. have been d. were c.now.. The name of a river passing through some big towns . or e.. Although the boys have enough money....going on vacation.. meets the requirements d. .. is d. were e..... These shoes look good.. are e....the title of a very popular Indonesian song.(work) only when the electric current is on. is require 6...... 1. they meet the requirements 8... require d. will b.... are being repaired e. have been c. having become c.. a. are b.a difficult subject for many people... it meets the requirements e...... is c.(be) a united one..... My family . neither of them.. That pair of trousers. have b. was 7.. are c. are repairing b. its e..... a. were e.........skills and creativity.. was 4... a...........for the results. a............. they require e................ it has become d. have become 5. An increase in the number of students. are d. Neither of the schools .... I’ll try ....... is d... Producing fine paintings.... their 37 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ..... they are d.. have been e.... d... a. why does he not give the trousers away? 9. is e.. to have become b.......... is being repaired c.(be) tight for him..... a. them b. to be b....... is requires c. The machinery. were 2. they d. The school has a lot of classroom...... requires b..... are being b. is repairing d.... Exercise 2 : Choose the best answer by crossing either a.... meets the requirements c.... have been repaired 10... The bridge designed by the young engineers ... each of them.. are c....equipped with an overhead projector.. a... c... was 3.. a.expected next year.. meeting the requirements b..on..for our pilot projects. 8. has become e.. a............... 10..

The more particular expressions of time come before the more general. With verbs of movement. comes immediately after the verb. Example : Last night my sister performed very beautifully at the concert. Manner Place Time 2. Examples: She danced gracefully at the concert last night. the normal order is at the end of a sentence. Time Manner Place 4. Order of Adverbs of MANNER.Chapter 13 Word Order A. He is often late to school. Examples: She always studies hard. Example : He was born at seven o’clock on Christmas morning in 1993. the adverbial place acts as a kind of object notionally. Order of Adjectives 38 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . this is particularly useful when there are many adverbials in the sentences and also to emphasize the time. in the order Manner. Examples: Never has she met us. Place and Time come together in one sentence. Place Manner She walked to school slowly. A negative adverb of frequency is often placed at the beginning of a sentence to emphasize the negative meaning. Place and Time. Example : He went to the station by taxi. C. Rarely did we eat rice when we were in England. PLACE AND TIME 1. Adverbs of Frequency Always Sometimes Usually Often Generally Occasionally rarely seldom scarcely hardly ever never Adverbs of frequency usually come after the subject or to be. When adverbs of Manner. Place Manner 3. B. Manner Place Time He is studying hard in the room now. The adverbial of time is often placed at the very beginning of a sentence. An inversion form is used.

5. beautifully. She drinks coffee (at hone.DETERMINER A R T I C L E A/an First Two The Second three My Third Another Your Only Several her some A lot of his our this that SIZE AGE SHAPE COLOR ORIGIN HEAD WORD Interesting Boring Beautiful Pretty ugly Handsome Clever Etc Big Small Little Short Tall Wide Narrow Etc. He gets up before half past nine... tomorrow. Task 2: Put the adverb of frequency in the following sentences into the correct place. We are very busy.. We try to work well.. 4. My mother goes for a walk on Sundays...... I saw my friend off (at 7 o’clock.. 7. He was born (in the year 1995... (often) 5. 39 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg Car Book House Dress Ring Etc . (hardly) 10. She knows what to say about it.. (quite) 12. (never) 7... 1.. (usually) 6.. The train arrived (this morning.. Bani was working (at her office.. We are going (for a week.. every morning).. (never) Task 3: Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position. Example: a beautiful table (wooden round) a beautiful round wooden table 1. 1.. (nearly) 8.. last night. this morning).. all day. 8.. The buses are full in this town.. at 2 o’clock).. in Tawang Station)..m..... at 10 a. (always) 2.. She is a good student.. They stayed (quietly. I will meet you (outside your office.. all day yesterday). very late. at the station. (often) 11.. They have heard of it. in the concert). 9. He played (at the Town Hall.. an unusual ring (gold) .. this morning). very hard.The children quarrel with each other... 2. there)... (generally) 4.. Mrs.. 6. very rudely. Her death has upset me.. On June 14th). Our teacher spoke to us (in class... 3. Mary can swim now. (always) 3. to Switzerland. on Saturday) 10. The porter was able to carry my luggage... (scarcely) 9. Old Round Young square New etc Cold Hot Warm modern Red Yellow Green Blue Brown etc Iron Stone Paper Brick Wood Gold etc Task 1: Put the adverbials at the correct place..

...... 2.. Has your brother been injured in a football match ever? 4... Choose the correct sentence.... Does sometimes he read good English books? d..... Has your brother been ever injured in a football match? d.. They seldom are published................. Does sometimes he read English good books? e............... d..................... an ugly dress (orange) 11............... Choose the correct sentence! a.................. ....... Last night Andi told me everything clearly in the library.... a hot bath (nice) 10............... I think he is not enough strong to lift that box alone...2... e.. c..............” a.... They are seldom published... c. ........... Does he sometimes read English good books? b...... 1...... Andi in the library clearly last night told me everything........ I think he is alone not strong enough to lift that box.. Seldom they are published.... a sunny day (lovely) 9....... .. d................... .................................................... Does he read sometimes good English books? c.... .. 3....................... Does he sometimes read good English books? 5...... ......... or e.. Task 4: Choose the correct answer by crossing either a.... b.... In the library Andi clearly told me everything last night. I think he alone is not strong enough to lift that box.......... b. .......... .......................... They published are seldom..... b.............. d....................... black gloves (leather) 6.......................... a large nose (red) 8....... a long face (thin) 14........... a good – looking man (young) 4............ I think he is not strong enough to lift that box alone...... Has ever your brother been injured in a football match? b.............. .......... ..... d. an American film (old) 7..... c...... Has your brother ever been injured in a football match? c...... a red car (old/little) 12............. . a wide avenue (long) . Which one is true? a........ an old lady (nice) 3... 40 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ........ a................................ Which of the following statements is true? a.. e............ c.......... .. I think he is not strong enough alone to lift that box.. Clearly last night Andi told me everything in the library.................... Seldom published the are.................. Everything Andi told me clearly last night in the library...... a modern house (attractive) 5........... e....... Has your brother been injured ever in a football match? e... b.......... “You shouldn’t write such a criticized articles........ a metal box (black/small) 13.....

Early the farmers left home in the morning. b. In the morning the farmer left early home. c. Where did her boy friend take her to? a. c. A long letter usually Ati writes me on my birthday. Usually Ati on my birthday writes me a long letter. Tia never forgets to send me a birthday card. wooden Japanese style house b. 10. Which of the following sentences is true? a.. The farmer left home early in the morning. The farmer in the morning left home early. Tia forgets never to send me a birthday card. a. He took her last night to the movies.6. Which of the following statements is true? a. To send me a birthday card Tia forgets never. d. Tia never forgets. wooden style Japanese house 9. Ati usually writes me on my birthday a long letters.. Tifa came home late last night. Which of the statements is right? a. d. o000o 41 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg ... e. To the movies he took her last night. 7. d. b. wooden house Japanese style d. c. Ati usually writes me a long letter on my birthday.. She took him to the movies last night. Usually a long letter Ati writes me on my birthday.. The farmer left home in the morning early. Japanese wooden house style e. b. Last night she took him to the movies. e. e.. d. He took her to the movies last night.. 8. c. Never forgets Tia to send me birthday card.. What is so special about Rini’s house? It is a. To send me a birthday card. b. e. Japanese style wooden house c.

the teacher said.” I told her. is. The teacher explained that the sun rises in the est. Changes that happen from direct into indirect speech when the reporting verb is in the past. She told the sleepy student to wash his face. will tell. except for eternal truth and natural laws. in the present such as: tell. she often says. When the reporting verb is in the present. I told her not to sit on that chair. please”. Changes that happen from direct command to indirect command : V1 to V1 Don’t V1 not to V1 B. there is no change of tenses from direct into indirect sentence. were + V-ing Had been +V-ing e. b. Present Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense am. are + V-ing was. 2. 4. Statements In reported statements there are two types of introducing verbs: 1. Present Perfect tense Past Perfect Tense has/have + V3 had + V3 42 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . She said that she was a good dancer. The teacher explains that the sun rises in the east. there is always a change of tense from direct into indirect sentence. has told. She often says that she is a good dancer. “Pay attention”. “The sun rises in the east”. Simple Past Past perfect Tense V2 had + V3 Did + V1 had + V3 c. Changes of Tenses a.Chapter 14 Direct and Indirect Speech A. 1. “I’m a good dancer”. c. has said etc 2. d. The teacher told us to pay attention. Examples: a. in the past such as : told. The teacher explains. said etc.” I asked her. The teacher explained. I asked her not to be afraid. “The sun rises in the east”. 3. “I’m a good dancer”. Simple Present Tense Simple Past Tense V1 V2 Do/does + V1 did + V1 b. Commands or Imperative See the following examples: 1. were + V-ing d. “Don’t be afraid. had told. However. says. when the reporting verb is in the past. “Wash your face. she said. “Don’t sit on this chair. Past Continuous Tense Past perfect Continuous Tense was. she told the sleepy student.

.. Changes of Modals a. Changes of Adverbs of Time a........2..before 3........ 2. may c. They wanted to know if/whether I went to school on foot..ago that day then the following day the next day the day after the previous day the day before the following. the ...after the previous.. 43 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . WH-Questions Observe the following sentences: 1. I asked her. these would could might had to there that those C....... now c. they wanted to know. Yes/No Questions Observe the following: 1..... “Where is your brother?” The boy asked me where my brother was. She asked me.. .... “How did the accident happen?” The policeman wanted to know how the accident had happened... must 4........ “Do you go to school on foot?”.... this c. “Will you attend the party?.... Other changes a... The policeman said.......... can c... last. 3.. today b. tomorrow d...... the ............ yesterday e... next.. f. The boy asked me. “Is your mother a housewife?”. will b.. here b..... 2. The changes from direct to indirect in YES/NO questions: Direct Yes/No Question TO BE/AUX + S+ V/N/ADJ Indirect Yes/No Questions IF/WHETHER S + TO BE/AUX+V/N/ADJ D.... She asked me if/whether I would attend the party. I asked her if/whether her mother was a housewife..........

3. “You can do it if you try. The changes from direct to indirect speech in WH-QUESTIONS: Direct WH-Question WH + TO BE/AUX + S + V/N/ADJ Indirect WH-Question WH + S + TO BE/AUX + V/N/ADJ Task 1: Rewrite the following sentences into indirect commands.” mother told my brother. “She has done her homework well. 2. “Fasten your safety belt”. 4.” they said. 6.” he said. “Wait there till I come. 6. “I want to speak to you.” I advised him. 10.” I told the teacher. 6.” Leave it on the piano”. “They went away yesterday. 1. “Don’t sit on my bed. “Have the children put away their toys?” mother wanted to know. “Must the door be kept shut?” the shop assistant asked me. “We have finished our work. “Wrap it in a piece of paper. 8. “They do not know you. they said to me. Father told the gardener. 10. “Do you sleep in the afternoon?” I asked her. 4. 4.” Intan said. “You may see the photograph if you like. “Don’t spill the ink on the carpet”. The teacher asked Intan. “Clean it yourself. 9. she asked me. 1. 9.’ he asked her 7.” I said to her. 7. “Why were you absent yesterday?” The teacher asked Intan why she had been absent the day before. 5. 5. the teacher told the naughty students. “Cut the grass in the garden”. “He is ready to come with us. 8. “Did you meet the minister when you were in Jakarta?” she asked me. “I lost my temper yesterday morning.” he confessed. “Was the train very full last Sunday?” the man asked the officer. The pilot told the passengers. 5. “Will the taxi be here at eight o’clock?” father asked the waiter. 3. Task 2: Change the following sentences into reported statements. 2.” the teacher said.3. 2. “Does she always wear Moslem clothes?” I asked him.” I told the shop assistant. 9.” my sister asked me. Task 3: Put the following sentences into the reported speech. “May I use your telephone?” my friend asked me. 10. Task 4: Change the following sentences into the reported questions.” Fahmi said. I told my brother.” I said to her. 3. “I am going to town with my sister. “Don’t speak until you are asked”. 1. 7. 8. “Have you ever seen my new bag?” she asked me. “Did the greengrocer have any fresh vegetables?” mother asked me. 44 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . “Don’t try to be funny”.

“How long have you been waiting here?” 7. Andi asked me. b.. “Why do they go abroad so often?” Farhan asked me.. she would call you e.. you called her d. e....” a.....” a.. “How could you be so unkind to that poor man?” 8. if they went abroad so often d. whether my mother was at home yesterday 45 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg .. Sita answered that she was writing letters. My mother said that she didn’t waste my money on cigarettes.. 4.. Ira asked Dino.. “You do not leave the ship” d. e. she said. My mother advised me not to waste my money on cigarettes.... or e. “Didn’t leave the ship”. My mother allowed me to waste my money on cigarettes.. “Did she leave a message for me?” “ Yes. “Which book is yours?” 6. My mother asked me if I had wasted my money on cigarettes. I asked Ida. The captain said.. 6. c. The teacher asked Sinta. d. “How is the condition of your car now?” 10. c.. “I’ve been writing letters. b.. A : “What did she ask you just now?” B : “.. My brother asked.. “How often do your family visit your grandmother?” 5. “Don’t leave the ship”. “Where will we spend our holiday next week?” 2.. Sita answered that she has been writing letters. The captain said.. The direst sentence is a. why they went abroad so often e. The captain told the sailors not to leave the ship. My friend asked me.. “Not leave the ship”. Sita answered that I’ve been writing letters. 1.... The captain said. My grandmother asked me. b. We asked the boy.. “How do you usually go to the office?” 3.” Sita answered. she called you b... “When were you born?” 4. a. why do they go abroad so often b. b. The captain said. e. d. she would call her c. Farhan said to me. a. a. “Why didn’t she come to your party?” 9. “What will you do if you do not pass the exam?” Task 5: Choose the best answer by crossing either a.. I asked the lazy students. Mother said.. The captain said. “Don’t waste your money on cigarettes.. c.. c. 2. I asked Andika.. Sita answered that she wrote letters.1. did they go abroad so often c.. “You didn’t leave the ship”.tonight”. I would call you 5... why did they go abroad so often 3..... My mother told me that she didn’t waste my money on cigarettes. d.. whether I was absent yesterday b. Sita answered that she had been writing letters..

.. Mother warned us . not touching b.. 9......... “You must not smoke here”... d. not to touched c..the new painted wall.. I saw someone smoking at the petrol station.. not touch e.. a.. whether all the students passed the exam last year d.. “You will not smoke here”....c. c. whether he is going with us 8. a. “You cannot smoke here”. “You may not smoke here”.. “You need not smoke here”.. if the principal had announced the result of the exam e. whether he goes with us e. not to touching 10.. if he is coming tonight c...... did I grow my own b\vegetables d...... if he could go with us b.... c.... a. not to touch d.. if all students are present today 7.. He asked me. if he went with us d... so I said.. “Is John coming to the party tonight?’ “Yes.. if I did grow my own vegetables o000o 46 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . you grow your own vegetables c.. he asked me. whether I grew my own vegetables b.. b.” a. I grew my own vegetables e.

won’t etc. haven’t you? You have to finish your work. V1 do V1 s/es  does V2  did 4. the tag must be added with the auxiliary verb do. 2.Chapter 15 Question-Tags Observe the following sentences: 1. The students haven’t done their homework. have. Tag aren. will you? Study hard for your test. should they? 5. has and had” are auxiliaries when followed by V3. they are considered as verbs. Special Question-Tags: No. a. When the statement is negative. the tag is negative. d. does and did.. we. the tag is positive. In commands. The children could do the test. “Have. When they are not. i. The show will end soon. has etc. have they? Rules of Question Tag: 1. it) 5. does or did. b. haven’t you? 2. can. the tag uses the fist auxiliary verb. shouldn’t they? 7.t I? shall we? hadn’t he? wouldn’t he? wouldn’t he hadn’t he isn’t he hasn’t he shouldn’t Exercise 1: Add suitable question-tags to the following statements. Girls should not go out at night alone. couldn’t they? 3. the tag is either “will you ?” (rising intonation) Or “won’t you?” (falling intonation) Example : Study hard for your test. f. c. When there are two auxiliary verbs used in the sentence. won’t it? 4. You have been living here for years. 3. they. e.) 6.. Negative tag is always in the contracted form ( isn’t. doesn’t. you. don’t you? You have a happy family. she. won’t you? 8. 47 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . When there is no be or auxiliary verb. were) or auxiliary verb (will. he.. g. Example : You have finished your work. Statement I am Let’s He’d better He’d rather He’d go He’d gone He’s taking He’s taken He ought to. To be (am. is. are. don’t you? 9.) in the statement is repeated in the tag. so we have to add the auxiliaries of do. The subject in the tag is always the same as the subject in the statement but in the form of personal pronoun (I. was. For example : The students should have studied. When the statement is positive. h.

11. Our teachers speak English better than yours. 17. 15. 14. They arrived yesterday. He always has breakfast at nine. 21. Anton has your book. 30. You have heard about that. He has an English-English dictionary. You never come to class on time. You broke the window. The roof was leaking. 22. Let’s have something to eat in the restaurant. 19. He won’t fall down. This winter hasn’t been cold. They didn’t see you 3. 10. You will have finished your study by the end of this school year. You ought to go there yourself. 24. He has lived in his present home for years. 27. He used to go with his wife. 12. 16. 9. I am very late. 7. Let’s pretend we’re not here. I am not a good worker. Come and see me tomorrow. Those children should not have gone without the teachers. He didn’t have to speak to me. 4. 13. 23. 18. 25. You’d rather I didn’t say anything. People think that he won’t fall down. You shouldn’t have been such a fool. Your sister won’t fall down. 48 Tyas SMA N 4 Smg . I have to buy some matches. Your grandmother wouldn’t like the window open.1. 2. 28. Let me read the letter for you. 26. 5. 8. 20. 6. 29.