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Brigham Young University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Science

Fernando S. Fonseca

Paul W. Richards

Brigham Young University

June 2014

All Rights Reserved

ABSTRACT

Optimization of Steel Arch Rib Lateral Bracing

Joseph Garth Eixenberger

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, BYU

Master of Science

This project examines the use of the stress design ratio to optimize the lateral bracing between

arch ribs. Literature review on the design of bracing between arch ribs is given. Using the

design processes set out, an excel worksheet was modified to account for the brace sizing

throughout a long span arch bridge. These values were then checked against the actual design of

the Lupu Bridge.

Keywords: stress design ratio, arch rib lateral bracing, Lupu Bridge.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1

Literature review................................................................................................................... 3

2.1

Out-of-Plane Buckling of Solid Rib Arches Braced with Transverse Bars .................... 3

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

Arches from Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures ............................ 5

2.7

3.1

3.2

Buckling Load................................................................................................................. 8

3.3

4.1

4.2

4.3

5.1

5.2

5.3

Conclusions ................................................................................................................... 16

REFERENCES............................................................................................................................ 17

Appendix A. Design values and layout...................................................................................... 19

v

vi

LIST OF TABLES

vii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2 Brace Model ....................................................................................................................11

Figure 3 Vierendeel and Diagonal Bracing ...................................................................................12

Figure 4 Vierendeel Model ............................................................................................................13

Figure 5 Diagonal Bracing Model .................................................................................................14

viii

INTRODUCTION

Arch bridges have been constructed since about 1300 BC, but it wasnt until the Roman

Empire that they truly were utilized in a meaningful way. During that time those bridges were

used to build roadways and aqueducts. Due to the nature of the arch bridge those structures were

able to span longer distances than previous bridges with limited material use and last a long

period of time. In fact many of the bridges built during that time are still in use today.

The arch bridge works by building the structure in such a way that the majority of it is in

compression and the tension forces are negligible. This makes concrete and masonry great

materials for construction as they are both strong in compression. However, due to the material

properties, the span length of an arch was limited to about 40 meters. To overcome this

limitation viaducts, or a bridge composed of several small spans, were used.

To span even greater distances in modern construction steel has replaced concrete and a

truss style bridge is utilized instead of a solid structure. Using these methods spans up to 552

meters has been achieved. However, by using the trusses between arch ribs, it becomes more

susceptible to out-of-plane buckling.

This project examined steel arch bridges for the out-of-plane buckling, and their need for

lateral braces between the steel arch ribs. Research on the different loads that affect the lateral

bracing was examined and are presented in this project report. An excel worksheet was created

to optimize the amount of steel needed for these braces using the stress ratio method. These

results were then compared with the actual design of the Lupu Bridge.

1

LITERATURE REVIEW

In preparation of carrying this project several articles and books were read on the design

process for the lateral bracing between arch ribs. The following is a brief review of this

literature.

2.1

In this article Tatsuro Sakimoto and Yoshio Namita explored a numerical analysis of the

buckling load caused by the out-of-plane buckling in a solid circular arch rib bridge. Using the

transfer matrix method general equations the out-of-plane buckling were derived dependent on

the flexural rigidity of the arch ribs and the transverse bars, the number of transverse bars, and

the end conditions of the arch ribs. The numerical analyses were then compared to results from a

model test and were found to be within 90% of the experimental values. In addition to these

results it was found that the number of transverse bars wasnt as important as the location of

these braces.

2.2

In this article Tatsuro Sakimoto and Sadao Komatsu explained the study of lateral braces

in increasing the structural stability of an arch bridge to lateral loads. In the traditional design

method lateral bracing is based on simple beam theory and treated independently of the design of

the arch ribs. This article presented a method to design these systems together, and simplified

numerical method to estimate forces on the lateral bracing. These methods and numerical

analysis were designed and valid for a through type two-hinged, circular solid steel arch bridges

of uniform depth. Model tests were done and compared to these numerical results. These test

found that the proposed numerical analysis provide a conservative estimate of the combined

vertical and lateral forces on the bridge. Surprisingly, the model tests also found that the shear

force due to wind was almost double of conventional design methods.

2.3

In this article H. De Backer Outtier and Ph. Van Boaert discusses how finite element

models of several steel tied-arch bridges were created and used to calculate the lateral buckling

strength of steel tied-arch bridges. To model a more real world application several out-of-plane

imperfections were included in the finite element model of the bridge. Based on the calculated

values, the resistance to out-of-plane buckling was calculated. The results of the calculations

were compared to the existing buckling curves for straight beams, which are generally used in

the European Nations. From this comparison it was found that out-of-plane buckling of arches is

less critical than when calculated using buckling curves from a straight beam as per the code in

these nations. The article also elaborated in the lack of consensus on how to deal with the lateral

buckling of arch bridges.

2.4

Yue Guiping details many of the design aspects of the Lupu Bridge in Shanghai. The

design plans of the bridge are laid out and discussed. The key aspects of the design process of

the bridge both for construction and operation of the bridge are discussed.

4

2.5

Arthur W. Hedgren, Jr. discusses many of the design aspects for steel arch bridges. Details

on what needs to be considered for the design of the deck, arch rib, tie, hangers, deck lateral

bracing, and rib lateral bracing are presented. Example designs are also provided using the

LRFD design method.

2.6

Ronald D. Ziemian presents the considerations for the structural design of arch for both in-

plane and out-of-plane stability. For both types of stability design standards, structural analysis,

and numerical methods are discussed. The differences that need to be considered for different

type of arches are discussed and general design methods to account for these differences are

given.

2.7

Arch Bridges

In this article Douglas A. Nettleton emphasizes aspects of arch bridge design such as

wind stress analysis and deflection, stress amplification due to deflection, consideration of rib

shortening moments, plate stiffening, and calculations for preliminary design. The article

discusses the three major types of arches in use today, mainly steel, concrete, and covered

arches. In the steel arch bridges a discussion is given on how to calculate the loads from winds

as well as the preliminary design methods. Examples of the design methods are then given.

In the design process it is first necessary to identify and estimate the forces acting on the

structure. When designing lateral bracing in bridges two types of forces usually control the

design: wind and seismic forces. However, these two forces are assumed to act separately. In

general design practice this means that one type would be assumed to control and after designing

against that type the other force would be checked. For this project only the wind force was

considered and no check was done in regards to the seismic design. This decision was made as

wind loads are generally considered to control in long span bridges (Barker, 2007).

In conjunction with the wind or seismic force it was also necessary to consider a nominal

force that accounts for the buckling of the arch ribs, as well as the gravity force of the braces

themselves.

3.1

Wind Loads

To estimate the wind loads the procedures in ASCE 7 were followed as stated in section

6.5.3. Usually a wind speed is estimated based on geographic location; for this project an

assumed velocity of 178 mph was used. All other factors were assumed to be 1. Then a wind

pressure, q, was found using the equation:

.00256

3.1

portance facctor, kz is tthe height ffactor, kzt iis the

topographic factor, and kd is the directionalit

d

ty factor.

Using

U

this wiind pressure acting on th

he rib was foound at everry brace poinnt by multipplying

this presssure by the depth

d

of the arch rib and

d the averagee distance beetween bracee points. A wind

reduction

n coefficient was consideered to accou

unt for trusss style ribs coompared to ssolid ribs.

To

T find how the

t wind forrces act on th

he braces first the shear force on thee arch rib is ffound

by modeling the arch

h as a simply

y supported beam as shoown in Figuure 1. Wheree V1, V2, ettc are

d forces at th

he brace points. The sh

hear force att any point aalong the arcch rib is theen the

the wind

summatio

on of all win

nd forces to the

t half-span

n point minuus any of thee wind forcess up to that ppoint.

ng on Arch R

Rib

3.2

uckling Loa

ad

Bu

The

T buckling load is an assumed

a

nom

minal force thhat is estimaated to deal w

with the archh ribs

kle part of tthe vertical force from the rib, hanngers,

nd other com

mponents of the bridge then

t

have a lateral compponent due to the deflecction.

struts, an

The best method to estimate this force is still under debate and dependent on the type of arch

bridge (De Backer 2007).

Many methods have been developed to estimate the buckling load on the bracing between

the arch ribs. These methods depend on the shape of the arch, parabolic or circular, the rib depth,

the incline of the arch ribs, the type of arch, and the foundation conditions. Though this project

mainly looked at the Lupu Bridge in comparison where one of the numeric methods could be

utilized, the goal was to make the equations used be universal enough to be used on several

bridges. Therefore, this project utilized the 2% rule, which states: Bracing systems shall be

proportioned to have strength perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the braced member in the

plane of buckling equal to 0.02 times the factored compressive force at each brace point in the

member being braced, unless a detailed analysis is carried out (AASHTO 2012). Though this

method can be universally applied to many bridges its major drawback is that it is considered

highly conservative, and is usually not used in long span bridges as a more accurate load force

can be found. The buckling force was then found using:

.02

3.2

Where Fbuckling is the buckling force and Fcomp is the compressive force in the arch rib.

3.3

Gravity Load

The gravity load is to account for the self-weight of the brace. As the brace is secured

between 2 arch ribs it is modeled as a fixed-fixed beam. The equation from the moment caused

by gravity, Mgrav, is then:

3.3

Where A is the area of the brace, is the density of steel, and d is the length of the brace.

Though there are many types of braces that can be utilized, this project concentrated on box

girder braces. This was done as box girder braces are one of the most common brace types used

in arch bridges and previous assumptions that exist in the excel worksheet could continue to be

used. The brace is modeled as shown in Figure 2, where all the area of the brace is assumed to

be in the four corners of the brace that are connected by webs of negligible size.

These braces are then considered to be laid out in two different patterns. The first pattern is

vierendeel, or transverse bars, as shown in Figure 3. The second pattern is a diagonal truss that

is also shown in Figure 3.

The depth of the brace is assumed to be a function of the arch rib depth. A reduction factor

is multiplied by the arch rib depth to calculate the brace depth.

11

4.1

A

on thee Brace

Kn

nowing the shear

s

on the arch rib it is

i possible too solve for tthe force acting on the bbrace

F

mechan

nics the forcee is:

4.1

Where is the shear stress, s is th

he spacing between bracce points, andd b is the wiidth of the brrace.

can be found using the shear fo

ormula:

4.2

Where V is the sheaar at any po

oint, Q is the first mom

ment of a plaane area, I iis the momeent of

inertia, an

nd b is the width

w

of the brace.

b

The moment

m

of innertia is solvved using:

4.3

Where A is the areaa of the bracce, and h iss the distancce between tthe two archh ribs. Thee first

moment of a plane arrea is:

4.4

Using theese other vallues the sheaar stress can be written:

4.5

The forcee in the brace from the wind

w

can then

n be written as:

4.6

12

d

the stress raatio but is ussed differenntly dependinng on

the bracin

ng pattern.

4.2

Vieerendeel Brracing

The vierendeel bracing

b

is treated like finding the str

tress in the w

web of an I-bbeam. The bbrace

is modeleed as shown

n in Figure 4.

4 As the fo

orce from thee wind acts on both endds of the braace in

opposite directions a couple is crreated. To resist

r

this coouple a mom

ment at the ennd of the braace is

created and

a is calculaated using:

4.7

nt, and s is thhe spacing beetween bracees.

To optimize

o

thee brace, the stress

s

ratio method

m

is ussed. The strress ratio is solved usinng the

following

g:

4.8

Where A is the area of

o the brace,, t is the deptth of the braace, and alloww is the allow

wable stress..

The stress ratio is

i then multiiplied by thee original areea to find thee new area oof the brace. This

is continu

ued until thee stress ratio is equal to 1.

1

13

4.3

Dia

agonal Braccing

The diagonal bracing is mod

deled as sho

own in Figurre 5. The forrce in each m

member from

m the

hen:

wind is th

4.9

Where V is the sheaar at that braace point, s is

i the spacinng between bbraces, and d is the lenggth of

the bracee.

To optimize

o

thee brace, the stress

s

ratio method

m

is ussed. The strress ratio is solved usinng the

following

g:

4.10

Where A is the area of

o the brace,, t is the deptth of the braace, and alloww is the allow

wable stress.

The stress ratio is

i then multiiplied by thee original areea to find thee new area oof the brace. This

ued until thee stress ratio is equal to 1.

1

is continu

14

The Lupu Bridge is a steel arch bridge built in Shanghai, China. The main span of the

bridge is 550 meters long and was the part of the bridge that was investigated. Using the

modified spreadsheet values were compared to the actual design of the Lupu Bridge.

Comparisons to several parts of the bridge are made to give an overall accuracy.

5.1

Design Values

All values that were used in the spreadsheet tried to reflect the actual values that were used

in the design. Where actual values could not be found, best estimates were used. As the brace

depth is roughly half of the depth of the arch rib, the brace/rib ratio was assumed to be 0.5. The

other values used as well as the design layout are given in Appendix A.

5.2

The actual area of the arch rib, the force in each hanger, the force in the ties, and the max

and minimum brace size areas were found and compared to the spreadsheets values (Guiping,

2008).

15

Force in hanger (KN)

1245

1.97

1184.33

Error

(%)

10.5

4.87

199280.32

203701.36

2.22

Min Brace Area (m^2)

0.24

0.18

0.203

0.019

15.4

89.4

For the most part the values obtained from the spreadsheet area are fairly close to the

actual values. However, there are some parts of the bridge that arent accounted for that might

explain the error. On the top of the arch ribs lies a viewing platform, as well as the lighting

system over the bridge. The weight from these would increase the overall dead weight as well as

live load put on to the arch ribs as well as the braces. As a check when a higher load is placed on

the ribs the error decreases. The only area which is not impacted in any meaningful way is the

minimum brace area. The high error here is most likely due to a minimum amount of steel that is

required in the braces by code. No code reference to the minimum required area for braces was

found and was therefore not included in the spreadsheet.

5.3

Conclusions

The modifications to the spreadsheet were successful in finding roughly the area of the

maximum brace size. It was also successful in being able to be implemented to several types of

bridges that will be investigated using the spreadsheet.

determining the minimum brace size. Further research on the minimum area of steel required

would need to be investigated for the area of the bridge, as well as any other source of error.

16

REFERENCES

A. Outtier, H. De Backer and Ph. Van Bogaert. Numerical approach to the lateral buckling of

steel tied-arch bridge. 5th International Conference on Arch Bridges, 2007.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO LRFD Bridge

Design Specifications. 2012

Barker, Richard and Jay Puckett. Deisgn of Highway Bridges: An LRFD Approach. New Jersey:

John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

Guiping, Yue. Key Technology Design of Lupu Bridge. 2008.

Hedgren, Arthur. Section 14 Arch Bridges. In Structural Steel Designers Handbook. New

York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 2006.

Nettleton, Douglas. Arch Bridges. 2002.

Sakimoto, Tatsuro and Yoshio Namita. Out-of-Plane Buckling of Solid Rib Arches Braced with

Transverse Bars. 1971.

Sakimoto, Tatsuro and Sadao Komatsu. Ultimate Strength of Steel Arch Bridges Under Lateral

Loads. 1979.

Ziemian, Ronald. Chapter 17 Arches. In Guide to Stability Design Criteria of Metal

Structures. 6th edition. John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

17

High-Strength Wires

allowable stress (KPa)

density (KN/m^3)

1180000

77

Structural Steel

allowable stress (KPa)

density (KN/m^3)

247000

77

Load Data

wind pressure (KPa)

wind pressure reduction coeff

lane load (KN/m)

number of lanes

deck dead load (KPa)

brace weight (Kpa)

brace depth / rib depth

3.88

1

19.5

7

3.59

1.00

0.5

http://www.bath.ac.uk/ace/uploads/StudentProjects/Bridgeconference2007/conference/mainpage/Ellis_Lupu.pdf

39.5 w ide and 3m high bridge deck road surface is 28.7 m w ide

http://www.arch-bridges.com/conf2008/pdf/431.pdf

deck is 46 meters above supports as shown in figure arch inclines at 5/1 slope so is 51 width at base and 11 m at top

The overall height of the web of arch rib has a transition from 9m at the skewback to 6m at

the arch crown. http://www.arch-bridges.com/conf2008/pdf/431.pdf

19

20

APPEND

DIX B. SCR

REEN SHOT

TS OF SPR

READSHEE

ET

y Dr. Balling

g, and can bee accessed byy request to him.

21

22

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