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DEREGULATED ENVIRONMENT

ANIL G. PATIL

Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Co.Ltd., India

(SQP) method is proposed to determine the total transfer capability (TTC) of

power transfers between different control areas in deregulated power systems

.The system has 3 areas with 2 generators in each area. Generators in each area

are assumed to belong to the same owner and the loads belong to the same load

serving entity. Transactions between different control areas are investigated. For

evaluation of the total transfer capability (TTC), a Modeling of IEEE-30 Bus

Test systems is taking in to consideration, simulated the results using Meta-Lab

software & calculated total Transfer capability of network accordingly. Multiobjective optimal power flow (OPF) including TTC& system real power loss to

evaluate the feasible maximum TTC value and minimal power loss within real

and reactive power generation limits, thermal limits, voltage limits and stability

limits. The TTC method is based on full AC power flow solution. The objective

function is to maximize total generation supplied and load demand at specific

buses. The mathematical formulation of the proposed method is presented and the

algorithm is tested on the Modified IEEE- 30 bus system to show its capability

Also presented TTC of Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company Ltd

(MSEITCLs) part of the area i.e. 7-Bus 400 Kv Network and evaluate TTC

accordingly.

Key words:, Optimal Power Flow, Total Transfer Capability.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Power system transfer capability indicates how much inter-area power transfers can be

increased without compromising system security. The progressive policies and enabling

provisions in EA-2003 would open new opportunities for setting up merchant generators,

utilization of captive generation and the market development. With the Act as an enabling

framework, it is expected that the amalgamation of provisions like open access and trading

will lead to emergence of new players competing to supply quality and reliable power to the

consumers at affordable prices.

The concept of competitive industries rather than regulated ones has become

prominent in the past few years. Economists and political analysts have promoted the idea

that free markets can drive down costs and prices thus reducing inefficiencies in power

production. This change in the climate of ideas has fostered regulators to initiate reforms to

restructure the electricity industry to achieve better service, reliable operation, and

competitive rates. Deregulation of the power industry was first initiated in United Kingdom,

followed suit in Norway and Australia.[3]

2

2.

Anil G. Patil

Available transfer capability (ATC) is the measure of the ability of interconnected electric

systems to reliably move or transfer power from one area to another over all transmission

lines or paths between those areas under specified system conditions. ATC can be defined as

ATC = TTC CBM TRM EXISTING TC

In order to obtain ATC, the total transfer capability (TTC) should be evaluated first

where TTC is the largest flow through selected interfaces or corridors of the transmission

network which causes no thermal overloads, voltage limit violations, voltage collapse or any

other system problems such as transient stability. Other parameters involved in ATC

calculations are the Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM) and Capacity Benefit Margin

(CBM). However, since dedicated methodologies for determining TRM and CBM may vary

among regions, sub-regions, and power pools, this Paper addresses the calculation of TTC as

the basis of ATC

One of the most common approaches for transfer capability calculations is the

continuation power flow (CPF). CPF is a general method for finding the maximum value of a

scalar parameter in a linear function of changes in injections at a set of buses in a power flow

problem. In principle, CPF increases the loading factor in discrete steps and solves the

resulting power flow problem at each step. CPF yields solutions at voltage collapse points.

However, since CPF ignores the optimal distribution of the generation and the loading

together with the system reactive power, it can give conservative transfer capability results.

This work features an OPF-based procedure for calculating the total transfer capability

(TTC). The method is based on full AC power flow solution, which accurately determines

reactive power flow, and voltage limits as well as the line flow effect. The objective function

is to maximize total generation supplied and load demand at specific buses. The

mathematical formulation of the proposed method is presented and the algorithm is tested on

the IEEE 30 bus system and to show its transfer capability. Also presented TTC of

Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company Ltd (MSETCLs) part of the area i.e.

7-Bus 400 KV Network and evaluate TTC accordingly.

Optimal Power Flow (OPF) based TTC Calculation

The OPF-based TTC calculation algorithm described below enables transfers by increasing

the load, with uniform power factor, at a specific load bus or every load bus in the sink

control area, and increasing the real power injected at a specific generator bus or several

generators in the source control area until limits are incurred. Fig(.)shows the IEEE 30 BUS

system.

The main assumptions for this method are:

A current state estimation of the power system is available and the operating point is

secure and stable.The system is properly controlled and can provide enough

damping to keep steady-state stability

The system has sufficiently large stability margin; hence it can survive disturbances

and shift to another stable operating point.

System voltage limit is reached before the system loses voltage stability.

Only thermal limits and bus voltage limits are considered as well as generator active

and reactive power limits. Mathematically, TTC calculation problem can be represented as:

Maximize

J=f (x,u)

(1)

g(x,u)=0;

hmin h (x,u) hmax

Where f(x, u) is the objective function, x represents the system state variable vector and u

the control parameter vector. g(x, u) is the equality constraint function vector and h(x, u) the

inequality constraint function vector. The cost function J is defined to be the sum of total

generation of a specific generator or a group of generators (designated as S) and total load of

a specific load bus or a cluster of load buses (designated as R),

i..e

J PGk PLd

k s

(2)

d R

Where PGk is the generation at bus k and the PLd is the load at bus d. The g(x, u) = 0

is the power flow equality constraint which is

N

p Pi Vi Vj (G ij cos ij B ij sin ij ) 0

i 1

Q Q i Vi Vj (G ij sin ij B ij cos ij ) 0

(3)

i 1

Where Pi ,Qi are the active and reactive power injection at Bus V i&Qiis the voltage

at bus i and j ij i j is the corresponding element in system Y-matrix. The power

injection at bus i is defined as

Pi = PGi PLi

Qi = QGi QLi

(4)

Where PGi and QGi are the real and reactive power generation at bus i, while PLi and

QLi the real and reactive load at bus i. With bus voltages magnitudes, including the Ref. Bus,

and bus voltage phase angles, except the Reference

The inequality constraints are as follows,

(a) The generation and load limits:

Anil G. Patil

min

max

PGk

PGk PGk

(kS)

min

max

Q Gk

Q Gk Q Gk

(kS)

0 PLd P

max

Ld

min

Gk

Where P

min

Gk

max

Gk

&P

(5a)

(dR )

are the upper and lower limits of the generator active power

max

Gk

max

& Q are reactive power limits for generator PLd is the upper limit of

at bus k. Q

the of the load active power which is constrained by distribution facility capacity.

(b) The bus voltage limits applied to all buses in the network

Vimin Vi Vimax

(5b)

0 I ij I ijmax

(5c)

Equations (1) to (5) constitute the mathematical model of the OPF-based TTC

computation. In this study, the system state variables are:

Voltage magnitudes and phase angels of all buses except Ref. bus phase angle which is set to

be zero. The control variables are:

Real power output of generator

Real power of load d (PLd)

Reactive power of each generator (QGi).

The advanced Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP)[8] method is selected to

solve the TTC-OPF problem since it was recently developed and proven to be an effective

method for constrained nonlinear programming [7]. For the general purpose optimization

problem in the form given as (here both x and u in Eq. (1) are considered as x):

min f(x)

s.t

gi(x) = 0 (i = 1,2..p)

hj(x0 0 (j = 1,2.m)

(6)

The corresponding Lagrangian function ) , L( x) ,L is formed as

P

i 1

j1

L ( x , ) f ( x ) i g i ( x ) p j j ( x )

(7)

Where (i=1,2,,(p+m)) is the Lagrange multiplier for the active ith equality and

inequality constraint. We can define a corresponding approximate quadratic programming

subproblem. It can be proven that the QP sub-problem at the k-th iteration is equivalent to

another QP sub-problem defined as:

min f (xk)TS + 0.5sT [Hk]s

s.t.

gi(xk) + gi(xk) T sk = 0 (i = 1,2,..P)

hi(xk) + hi(xk) T sk = 0 (j = 1,2,..P)

.

(8)

Where [Hk] is a positive definite matrix that is taken initially as an identity matrix

and updated in subsequent iterations so as to converge to the real Hessian matrix of the

Lagrangian function of Eq. (7) which will be explained below. The vector sk to be optimized

is served as the search direction, i. e.

xk+1 = xk + k sk

(9)

Where is the optimal step length along the search direction sk found by

minimizing the merit function & The update of the Hessian matrix H after the k-th iteration

to improve the quadratic approximation is given as

Hk+1 =

Hk - H TK dk.d Tk H k /(d Tk H k d k ) T /(d Tk d k )

Where

dk = xk+1 - xk

= Qk+(1+)Hkdk , Qk = Vx L (xk+1 - k+1) x L (xkk)

Methodology Adopted For TTC CALCULATION [8]

(i) Calculate base load flow to get x(0) and assume initially the Hessian matrix is unity

(ii) Evaluate the gradients of the objective function and constraint functions

(iii) Solve QP sub-problem to get optimal search direction s

(iv) Find optimal step length and update x

(v) Update the Hessian matrix [H]

(vi) Check convergence. If it is converged, then output results and stop; otherwise

go to step( ii)to next iteration.

Optimal Power Flow Simulation of Modified IEEE-30 Bus System

Using Newtons Raphsons (N-R) Power flow method , Optimal power flow of IEEE-30

Bus(fig1) is calculated.i.e lfnewton ,which is preceded by lfybus(load flow bus)& is followed

by busout and lineflow. In following simulation , some of the buses are found overloaded &

subsequent bus voltages also found below level, To avoid voltage problems, reactive

compensation is recommended for particular buses . The advanced Sequential Quadratic

Anil G. Patil

Programming (SQP) method is selected to solve the TTC-OPF problem since it was recently

developed and proven to be an effective method for constrained nonlinear programming .The

system has 3 areas with 2 generators in each area. Generators in each area are assumed to

belong to the same owner and the loads belong to the same load serving entity. Transactions

between different control areas are investigated.

Following Simulation Shows, how to calculate Area-wise Total transfer capability (TTC) in

[7]interconnected system. Accurate identification of this capability provides vital information

for both planning and operation of the bulk power market.

Modified IEEE-30 Bus System

AREA -1

AREA-2

AREA-3

Fig(1). IEEE-30 Bus System

Generators & Loads connected to various buses in Area-I is as follows :

Table 1.0

Bus

No.

Area No.

V

(p.u)

Angle

(deg)

Generation

P

Load

P

CASE-1AREA-1

Transaction of power from Area-2 to Area-1& enhancement of TTC

1

1.0

0.0

00

0.0

4.0

1.0

1.0

-0.93

20.0

10.0

15.0

10.7

0.98

-1.70

2.4

1.2

0.97

-1.98

7.6

0.98

-0.85

2.0

1.5

0.97

-2.18

4.0

0.0

0.98

-0.99

50.0

22.8

10.9

0.96

-2.38

15.0

10.0

0.98

-3.44

0.0

0.0

11

0.98

-3.69

2.0

28

0.97

-2.76

Total-->

70

23.0

33

74.8

1.6

0.0

0.0

36.9

Table-2.0

BUS#

Before

After

1

4.0

42.91

2

15.0

5.0

3

2.4

2.4

4

7.6

7.6

5

2.0

2.0

6

4.0

4.0

7

22.8

27.0

8

15.0

15.0

11

2.0

2.0

Ttc

74.8

107.91

Using the proposed OPF-based TTC method, the generation of area 2 increases from 45 MW

to 75.0 MW and the load at area 1 from 74.8 MW to107.91 MW. The loads are modeled as a

constant power factor load. The active loading vector of area 1, excluding intermediate or

zero loading buses, after and before this transaction is shown in Table-2. TTC is 107.91 MW

and the limit was the overloading of line 21-22. Since the objective function maximizes the

total generation in area 2 and the total load in area 1, both the generation and load increments

are not uniformly distributed in each area.

Generators & Loads connected to various buses in Area-2 is as follows :

8

Bus

No.

Anil G. Patil

Area No.

V

(p.u)

Angle

(deg)

Generation

P

Load

AREA-1

1

1.0

0.0

00

0.0

4.0

1.0

1.0

-0.93

20.0

10.0

15.0

10.7

0.98

-1.70

2.4

1.2

0.97

-1.98

7.6

0.98

-0.85

2.0

1.

6

1.5

0.97

-2.18

0.98

-0.99

50.0

0.96

-2.38

0.98

11

28

4.0

0.0

22.8

10.9

15.0

-3.44

0.0

0.98

-3.69

2.0

0.97

-2.76

10.

0

0.

0

0.

0

0.

0

Total-->

Bus

No.

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

23

Area No.

AREA-2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Total-->

23.0

70

V

(p.u)

Angle

(deg)

1.00

1.0

1.03

1.00

0.99

0.98

0.99

0.99

1.00

1.0

-3.65

-3.81

-2.84

-3.65

-4.09

-4.25

-3.82

-3.72

-3.36

-3.71

Table 3.0

33

74.8

Generation

P

0

0

25.0

0

0

0

0

0

20.0

0

45

Load

P

0

0

10.0

0

0

0

0

0

8.0

0

18

36.9

11.2

2.0

6.2

8.2

3.5

9.0

3.2

9.5

2.2

3.2

58.2

Q

7.5

0.0

1.6

2.5

1.8

5.8

0.9

3.4

0.7

1.6

25.8

CASE 2 Active loading of Area2& The transfer capability from area 3 to area 2

Table 4.0

BUS#

Before

After

12

11.2

11.2

13

2.0

2.0

14

6.2

18.8

15

8.2

8.2

16

3.5

3.5

17

9.0

9.0

18

3.2

3.2

19

9.5

9.5

20

2.2

17.8

23

3.2

3.2

Ttc

58.2

86.4

From Table 4.0 shows that , The generation of area 3 increases from 45 MW to 71.0 MW and

the load at area 2 from 58.2 MW to 86.4 MW The Total transfer capability between area 3

and area 2 is 86.4 MW using the proposed technique. The overload that took place in line 2122 hindered the algorithum . The loads on bus 14 and bus 20 are the only ones to experience

an increase during the optimization process. The transfer capability between area 1and area 3

is 69.0 MW.The critical overloads observed in Area-3. Hence to avoid voltage violations at

bus 10, 21 &22 ,Reactive compensation at particular area is required

Practical Application in

MSETCL Network7 Bus 400 KV System TTC

Computation

7 Bus 400 Kv Network of MSETCL System alongwith interconnected - tie lines &

Generators is as follows: CASE-EXAMPLES(Fig(2) 7-Bus 400 Kv System) . TTC of 7bus system is evaluated is as per availability of data, for taking into consideration a Typical

day for case study & shown in Table 5.0

10

Anil G. Patil

Korady

449 MW

71 MVAR

4.01 delta

Chdpr

1854 MW

417 MVR

G

Table 5.0

TTC- 7 bus of MSETCL

G

3

Parli2

406 MW

32MVAR

Bhswl2

902 MW

48. MVAR

23.8

4

BUS#

Ttc

TTC

MW

902

79

1389

406

38.4

461

1554

4829.4

SINGLE LINEL

DIAGRAM-7 BUS

Sarni

38 MW

Fig

26 MVAR

Single L

461 MW

52 MVAR

Bhilai

Bhadravati

1554 MW

13 MVAR

CONCLUSION

Transmission open access enables power transactions to take place between remote locations

which may be separated by one or more control areas. It is therefore necessary to have a

central entity to oversee the overall system operation so that the power transactions between

different locations can be managed securely and without congestion. Total Transfer

Capability (TTC) is an important indicator of how much power can be exchanged between

two points in the system . While the TTC calculation involves several considerations

including the contingency analysis and checking stability limits, in this study only the line

power flow limits will be considered.

The OPF-based TTC calculation is one of the advanced technique which enables

transfers by increasing the load, with uniform power factor, at a specific load bus or every

load bus in the sink control area, and increasing the real power injected at a specific

generator bus or several generators in the source control area until limits are incurred. In

present deregulated area every market players playing a vital role in trading of Active

Power . After simulation, Computer results show that the proposed method is very effective,

and with good convergence characteristics in determining the TTC The main conclusions in

the paper is as follows

A new formulation for OPF is used to calculate the total transfer capability

The Objective function is the total generation and load increase on specific source and

sink nodes

The thermal limits of transmission lines ,Voltage bounds on buses ,and upper and

lower limits of generator power are considered as well as load flow Equations.

The advanced sequential quadratic programming method is extended for TTC

Calculation

11

An algorithum has been developed and tested on the IEEE-30 bus system Important

aspects shown in the paper i.e. Application of IEEE-30 bus TTC is also tested on

MSETCLs 7-Bus Network & compute the TTC accordingly.

Finally also concluded that, OPF based TTC approach can re-dispatch generator reactive

power outputs and optimally distribute the increment of loads and generationson the specific

buses, therefore it can reach the maximum TTC ,While the CPF technique usually gives a

conservative estimation of TTC for the lack of optimization function

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Author sincerely express thanks to Shri A.K.Lade, Superientending Engineer, Area Load

Centre, Ambazari for his moral support & permitting me for presentation. Also

very much thankful to the Chief Engineer, MSLDC,Kalwa for there

encouragement.

REFERENCES

[1]

A.D. Papalexopoulos, C.F. Imparato and F.F. Wu, "Large-Scale Optimal Power Flow: Effects of

Initialization, Decoupling and Discretization," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.

PWRS-4, pp. 748-759, May 1989.

[2]

E. Liu, A.D. Papalexopoulos, W.F. Tinney, "Discrete Shunt Controls in A Newton Optimal Power Flow,"

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 1519-1528, NOV. 1992.

[3]

Transmission Transfer Capability Task Force, Available Transfer Capability Definitions and

Determination, North American Electric Reliability Council, Princeton, NJ, June 1996.

[4]

V. Ajjarapu and C. Chrity, The Continuation Power Flow: A Tool for Steady State Voltage Stability

Analysis, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 416-423, February 1992.

[5]

H. D. Chinag, A. J. Flueck, K. S. Shah and N. Balu, CPFLOW: A practical Tool for Tracing Power System

Steady-State Stationary Behavior Due to the Load and Generation Variations, IEEE Transactions on Power

Systems, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 623- 634, May 1995.

[6]

G. C. Ejebe, J. Tong, J. G. Waight, J. G. Frame, X. Wang and W. F. Tinney, Available Transfer Capability

Calculations, PE-321- PWRS-0-10-97.

[7 ]

M. Shaaban, Y. Ni, H. Dai and F. Wu, Considerations in Calculating Total Transfer Capability, Proc. Of

the International Conference on Power System Technology, Beijing, Vol. 2, pp. 1356-1360, August 1998.

[8]

Mohamed Shaaban (St. M. IEEE) Yixin Ni (S. M. IEEE) Felix F. Wu ( Fellow, IEEE Transfer Capability

Computations in Deregulated Power Systems, Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on

System Sciences - 2000

[9]

R. Burchett, H. H. Happ, D. R.Vierath, and D. R.Vierath, Quadratic ally convergent optimal power flow,

IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-103, no. 11, pp. 32673275, Nov. 1984.

[10]

D. Sun et al., Optimal power flow by Newton approach, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems,

vol. PAS-103, no. 10, pp. 28642875, Oct. 1984.

[11]

S. Granville, Optimal reactive power dispatch through interior point methods, IEEE Trans. on Power

Systems, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 17801787, Nov. 1994.

[12]

G. Torres and V. H. Quintana, An interior point method for nonlinear optimal power flow using voltage

rectangular coordinates, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 12111218, Nov. 1998.

[13]

B. Stott and O. Alsac, Experience with successive linear programming for optimal rescheduling of active

and reactive power, in Proceedings of CIGRE, Florence, Italy, 1983, paper 104-01, pp. 12191225.

12

Anil G. Patil

[14]

B. Stott and J. L. Marinho, Linear programming for power system network security applications, IEEE

Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 837848, 1979.

[15]

N. Dandachi, M. Rawlins, 0. Alsac, M. Prais and 3. Stott, "OPF for reactive pricing studies on the NGC

system", IEEE PICA Conf., pp. 11-17, Salt Lake City, May1995.

[16]

J.A.Momoh, R.J.Koessler, M.S.Bond, B.Stott, D.Sun, "Challenges to Optimal Power Flow" , IEEE

Transaction on Optimum Power Flow , Dec1995.

Anil G. Patil graduated in Instrumentation Engineering from the Marathwada University of Aurangabad in 1987.

From 1987-89 he was a Lecturer in PVP college Pravaranagar. Joined in 1989 MSEB in T&D. Acquired additional

qualifications in PGDBM in 1992 from Nagpur University & also acquired M.E.(Electrical) . From 1994-2000 He

worked as a Assistant Engineer in State Load Despatch Centre Kalwa (M.S.) India in System

Operation/maintenance. Specialized worked in EMS system at Kalwa in 1998.From 2002-05 Worked in Area Load

Despatch centre Nagpur in System Operation. From Oct2005 Worked as Deputy Executive Engineer in ALDC

Nagpur, newly formed Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission company Limited (MSETCL) . He is also Guest

faculty in National Power training Institute (NPTI),Nagpur ,Ordinance Factory (Defence) ,YASHDA-Pune,

MSPGCL Koradi Training Centre, also Govt institutions etc. Special areas of Interest SCADA,Power System

Operation & Control, Energy Audit ,Power Trading etc. Presented various research papers on International Level in

power system era

13

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