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# Exercise5.

1:SolutionsofQuestionsonPageNumber:159
Q1:Provethatthefunction

iscontinuousat

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=0

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=3

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=5
Q2:Examinethecontinuityofthefunction
.

Thus,fiscontinuousatx=3
Q3:Examinethefollowingfunctionsforcontinuity.
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)Thegivenfunctionis
Itisevidentthatfisdefinedateveryrealnumberkanditsvalueatkisk5.
Itisalsoobservedthat,

Hence,fiscontinuousateveryrealnumberandtherefore,itisacontinuousfunction.
(b)Thegivenfunctionis
Foranyrealnumberk5,weobtain

Hence,fiscontinuousateverypointinthedomainoffandtherefore,itisacontinuousfunction.
(c)Thegivenfunctionis
Foranyrealnumberc5,weobtain

Hence,fiscontinuousateverypointinthedomainoffandtherefore,itisacontinuousfunction.
(d)Thegivenfunctionis
Thisfunctionfisdefinedatallpointsoftherealline.
Letcbeapointonarealline.Then,c<5orc=5orc>5
CaseI:c<5
Then,f(c)=5c

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallrealnumberslessthan5.
CaseII:c=5
Then,

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=5
CaseIII:c>5

Q4:Provethatthefunction

iscontinuousatx=n,wherenisapositive

integer.
Thegivenfunctionisf(x)=xn
Itisevidentthatfisdefinedatallpositiveintegers,n,anditsvalueatnisnn.

Therefore,fiscontinuousatn,wherenisapositiveinteger.
Q5:Isthefunctionfdefinedby

continuousatx=0?Atx=1?Atx=2?

Thegivenfunctionfis
Atx=0,
Itisevidentthatfisdefinedat0anditsvalueat0is0.

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=0
Atx=1,
fisdefinedat1anditsvalueat1is1.
Thelefthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therefore,fisnotcontinuousatx=1
Atx=2,
fisdefinedat2anditsvalueat2is5.

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=2
Q6:Findallpointsofdiscontinuityoff,wherefisdefinedby

Thegivenfunctionfis
Itisevidentthatthegivenfunctionfisdefinedatallthepointsoftherealline.
Letcbeapointontherealline.Then,threecasesarise.

(i)c<2
(ii)c>2
(iii)c=2
Case(i)c<2

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<2
Case(ii)c>2

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>2
Case(iii)c=2
Then,thelefthandlimitoffatx=2is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=2is,

Itisobservedthattheleftandrighthandlimitoffatx=2donotcoincide.
Therefore,fisnotcontinuousatx=2
Hence,x=2istheonlypointofdiscontinuityoff.
Q7:Findallpointsofdiscontinuityoff,wherefisdefinedby

Thegivenfunctionfis

Thegivenfunctionfisdefinedatallthepointsoftherealline.
Letcbeapointontherealline.
CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<3
CaseII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=3
CaseIII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousin(3,3).
CaseIV:
Ifc=3,thenthelefthandlimitoffatx=3is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=3is,

Itisobservedthattheleftandrighthandlimitoffatx=3donotcoincide.
Therefore,fisnotcontinuousatx=3
CaseV:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>3

Hence,x=3istheonlypointofdiscontinuityoff.
Q8:Findallpointsofdiscontinuityoff,wherefisdefinedby

Thegivenfunctionfis

Itisknownthat,
Therefore,thegivenfunctioncanberewrittenas

Thegivenfunctionfisdefinedatallthepointsoftherealline.
Letcbeapointontherealline.
CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx<0
CaseII:
Ifc=0,thenthelefthandlimitoffatx=0is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=0is,

Itisobservedthattheleftandrighthandlimitoffatx=0donotcoincide.
Therefore,fisnotcontinuousatx=0

CaseIII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>0
Hence,x=0istheonlypointofdiscontinuityoff.
Q9:Findallpointsofdiscontinuityoff,wherefis
definedby

Thegivenfunctionfis

Itisknownthat,
Therefore,thegivenfunctioncanberewrittenas

Letcbeanyrealnumber.Then,
Also,
Therefore,thegivenfunctionisacontinuousfunction.
Hence,thegivenfunctionhasnopointofdiscontinuity.
Q10:Findallpointsofdiscontinuityoff,wherefis
definedby

Thegivenfunctionfis
Thegivenfunctionfisdefinedatallthepointsoftherealline.
Letcbeapointontherealline.
CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<1
CaseII:

Thelefthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=1
CaseIII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>1
Hence,thegivenfunctionfhasnopointofdiscontinuity.
Q11:Findallpointsofdiscontinuityoff,wherefisdefinedby

Thegivenfunctionfis
Thegivenfunctionfisdefinedatallthepointsoftherealline.
Letcbeapointontherealline.
CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<2
CaseII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=2
CaseIII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>2
Thus,thegivenfunctionfiscontinuousateverypointontherealline.
Hence,fhasnopointofdiscontinuity.
Q12:Findallpointsofdiscontinuityoff,wherefisdefinedby

Thegivenfunctionfis
Thegivenfunctionfisdefinedatallthepointsoftherealline.

Letcbeapointontherealline.
CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<1
CaseII:
Ifc=1,thenthelefthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Itisobservedthattheleftandrighthandlimitoffatx=1donotcoincide.
Therefore,fisnotcontinuousatx=1
CaseIII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>1
Thus,fromtheaboveobservation,itcanbeconcludedthatx=1istheonlypointofdiscontinuity
off.
Q13:Isthefunctiondefinedby

acontinuousfunction?
Thegivenfunctionis
Thegivenfunctionfisdefinedatallthepointsoftherealline.
Letcbeapointontherealline.

CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<1
CaseII:

Thelefthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Itisobservedthattheleftandrighthandlimitoffatx=1donotcoincide.
Therefore,fisnotcontinuousatx=1
CaseIII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>1
Thus,fromtheaboveobservation,itcanbeconcludedthatx=1istheonlypointofdiscontinuity
off.
Q14:Discussthecontinuityofthefunctionf,wherefisdefinedby

Thegivenfunctionis

Thegivenfunctionisdefinedatallpointsoftheinterval[0,10].
Letcbeapointintheinterval[0,10].

CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousintheinterval[0,1).
CaseII:

Thelefthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Itisobservedthattheleftandrighthandlimitsoffatx=1donotcoincide.
Therefore,fisnotcontinuousatx=1
CaseIII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsoftheinterval(1,3).
CaseIV:

Thelefthandlimitoffatx=3is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=3is,

Itisobservedthattheleftandrighthandlimitsoffatx=3donotcoincide.
Therefore,fisnotcontinuousatx=3
CaseV:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsoftheinterval(3,10].

Hence,fisnotcontinuousatx=1andx=3
Q15:Discussthecontinuityofthefunctionf,wherefisdefinedby

Thegivenfunctionis

Thegivenfunctionisdefinedatallpointsoftherealline.
Letcbeapointontherealline.
CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<0
CaseII:

Thelefthandlimitoffatx=0is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=0is,

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=0
CaseIII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsoftheinterval(0,1).
CaseIV:

Thelefthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Itisobservedthattheleftandrighthandlimitsoffatx=1donotcoincide.
Therefore,fisnotcontinuousatx=1
CaseV:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>1
Hence,fisnotcontinuousonlyatx=1
Q16:Discussthecontinuityofthefunctionf,wherefisdefinedby

Thegivenfunctionfis

Thegivenfunctionisdefinedatallpointsoftherealline.
Letcbeapointontherealline.
CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<1
CaseII:

Thelefthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=1
CaseIII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsoftheinterval(1,1).
CaseIV:

Thelefthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=1is,

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=2
CaseV:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>1
Thus,fromtheaboveobservations,itcanbeconcludedthatfiscontinuousatallpointsofthereal
line.
Q17:Findtherelationshipbetweenaandbsothatthe
functionfdefinedby

iscontinuousatx=3.
Thegivenfunctionfis
Iffiscontinuousatx=3,then

Therefore,from(1),weobtain

Therefore,therequiredrelationshipisgivenby,

Q18:Forwhatvalueof isthefunctiondefinedby

Thegivenfunctionfis
Iffiscontinuousatx=0,then

Therefore,thereisnovalueofforwhichfiscontinuousatx=0
Atx=1,
f(1)=4x+1=41+1=5

Therefore,foranyvaluesof,fiscontinuousatx=1
Q19:Showthatthefunctiondefinedby
Here

isdiscontinuousatallintegralpoint.

denotesthegreatestintegerlessthanorequaltox.

Thegivenfunctionis
Itisevidentthatgisdefinedatallintegralpoints.
Letnbeaninteger.
Then,

Thelefthandlimitoffatx=nis,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=nis,

Itisobservedthattheleftandrighthandlimitsoffatx=ndonotcoincide.
Therefore,fisnotcontinuousatx=n
Hence,gisdiscontinuousatallintegralpoints.
Q20:Isthefunctiondefinedby
atx= ?

continuous

Thegivenfunctionis
Itisevidentthatfisdefinedatx= .

Therefore,thegivenfunctionfiscontinuousatx=
Q21:Discussthecontinuityofthefollowingfunctions.
(a)f(x)=sinx+cosx
(b)f(x)=sinxcosx
(c)f(x)=sinxxcosx
Itisknownthatifgandharetwocontinuousfunctions,then
arealsocontinuous.
Ithastoprovedfirstthatg(x)=sinxandh(x)=cosxarecontinuousfunctions.
Letg(x)=sinx
Itisevidentthatg(x)=sinxisdefinedforeveryrealnumber.
Letcbearealnumber.Putx=c+h
Ifxc,thenh0

Therefore,gisacontinuousfunction.
Leth(x)=cosx
Itisevidentthath(x)=cosxisdefinedforeveryrealnumber.
Letcbearealnumber.Putx=c+h
Ifxc,thenh0
h(c)=cosc

Therefore,hisacontinuousfunction.
Therefore,itcanbeconcludedthat
(a)f(x)=g(x)+h(x)=sinx+cosxisacontinuousfunction
(b)f(x)=g(x)h(x)=sinxcosxisacontinuousfunction
(c)f(x)=g(x)h(x)=sinxcosxisacontinuousfunction
Q22:Discussthecontinuityofthecosine,cosecant,secantandcotangent
functions,

Itisknownthatifgandharetwocontinuousfunctions,then

Ithastobeprovedfirstthatg(x)=sinxandh(x)=cosxarecontinuousfunctions.
Letg(x)=sinx
Itisevidentthatg(x)=sinxisdefinedforeveryrealnumber.
Letcbearealnumber.Putx=c+h
Ifx

c,thenh

Therefore,gisacontinuousfunction.
Leth(x)=cosx
Itisevidentthath(x)=cosxisdefinedforeveryrealnumber.
Letcbearealnumber.Putx=c+h
Ifxc,thenh0
h(c)=cosc

Therefore,h(x)=cosxiscontinuousfunction.
Itcanbeconcludedthat,

Therefore,cosecantiscontinuousexceptatx=np,nZ

Therefore,secantiscontinuousexceptat

Therefore,cotangentiscontinuousexceptatx=np,nZ
Q23:Findthepointsofdiscontinuityoff,where

Thegivenfunctionfis
Itisevidentthatfisdefinedatallpointsoftherealline.

Letcbearealnumber.
CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<0
CaseII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>0
CaseIII:

Thelefthandlimitoffatx=0is,

Therighthandlimitoffatx=0is,

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=0
Fromtheaboveobservations,itcanbeconcludedthatfiscontinuousatallpointsoftherealline.
Thus,fhasnopointofdiscontinuity.
Q24:Determineiffdefinedby

isacontinuousfunction?
Thegivenfunctionfis

Itisevidentthatfisdefinedatallpointsoftherealline.
Letcbearealnumber.
CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx0
CaseII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=0
Fromtheaboveobservations,itcanbeconcludedthatfiscontinuousateverypointofthereal
line.
Thus,fisacontinuousfunction.
Q25:Examinethecontinuityoff,wherefisdefinedby

Thegivenfunctionfis
Itisevidentthatfisdefinedatallpointsoftherealline.
Letcbearealnumber.
CaseI:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx0
CaseII:

Therefore,fiscontinuousatx=0
Fromtheaboveobservations,itcanbeconcludedthatfiscontinuousateverypointofthereal
line.
Thus,fisacontinuousfunction.
Q26:Findthevaluesofksothatthefunctionfiscontinuousattheindicatedpoint.

Thegivenfunctionfis

Thegivenfunctionfiscontinuousat

,iffisdefinedat

andifthevalueofthefat

equalsthelimitoffat

Itisevidentthatfisdefinedat

and

Therefore,therequiredvalueofkis6.
Q27:Findthevaluesofksothatthefunctionfiscontinuousattheindicatedpoint.

Thegivenfunctionis
Thegivenfunctionfiscontinuousatx=2,iffisdefinedatx=2andifthevalueoffatx=2equals
thelimitoffatx=2
Itisevidentthatfisdefinedatx=2and

Therefore,therequiredvalueof

Q28:Findthevaluesofksothatthefunctionfiscontinuousattheindicatedpoint.

Thegivenfunctionis
Thegivenfunctionfiscontinuousatx=p,iffisdefinedatx=pandifthevalueoffatx=pequals
thelimitoffatx=p
Itisevidentthatfisdefinedatx=pand

Therefore,therequiredvalueof

Q29:Findthevaluesofksothatthefunctionfiscontinuousattheindicatedpoint.

Thegivenfunctionfis
Thegivenfunctionfiscontinuousatx=5,iffisdefinedatx=5andifthevalueoffatx=5equals
thelimitoffatx=5
Itisevidentthatfisdefinedatx=5and

Therefore,therequiredvalueof

Q30:Findthevaluesofaandbsuchthatthefunctiondefinedby

isacontinuousfunction.
Thegivenfunctionfis

Itisevidentthatthegivenfunctionfisdefinedatallpointsoftherealline.
Iffisacontinuousfunction,thenfiscontinuousatallrealnumbers.
Inparticular,fiscontinuousatx=2andx=10
Sincefiscontinuousatx=2,weobtain

Sincefiscontinuousatx=10,weobtain

Onsubtractingequation(1)fromequation(2),weobtain
8a=16
a=2
Byputtinga=2inequation(1),weobtain
22+b=5
4+b=5
b=1
Therefore,thevaluesofaandbforwhichfisacontinuousfunctionare2and1respectively.

Q31:Showthatthefunctiondefinedbyf(x)=cos(x2)isacontinuousfunction.
Thegivenfunctionisf(x)=cos(x2)
Thisfunctionfisdefinedforeveryrealnumberandfcanbewrittenasthecompositionoftwo
functionsas,
f=goh,whereg(x)=cosxandh(x)=x2

Ithastobefirstprovedthatg(x)=cosxandh(x)=x2arecontinuousfunctions.
Itisevidentthatgisdefinedforeveryrealnumber.
Letcbearealnumber.
Then,g(c)=cosc

Therefore,g(x)=cosxiscontinuousfunction.
h(x)=x2
Clearly,hisdefinedforeveryrealnumber.
Letkbearealnumber,thenh(k)=k2

Therefore,hisacontinuousfunction.
Itisknownthatforrealvaluedfunctionsgandh,suchthat(goh)isdefinedatc,ifgis
continuousatcandiffiscontinuousatg(c),then(fog)iscontinuousatc.
Therefore,

isacontinuousfunction.

Q32:Showthatthefunctiondefinedby

isacontinuousfunction.

Thegivenfunctionis
Thisfunctionfisdefinedforeveryrealnumberandfcanbewrittenasthecompositionoftwo
functionsas,
f=goh,where

Ithastobefirstprovedthat

arecontinuousfunctions.

Clearly,gisdefinedforallrealnumbers.
Letcbearealnumber.
CaseI:

Therefore,giscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<0
CaseII:

Therefore,giscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>0
CaseIII:

Therefore,giscontinuousatx=0
Fromtheabovethreeobservations,itcanbeconcludedthatgiscontinuousatallpoints.
h(x)=cosx
Itisevidentthath(x)=cosxisdefinedforeveryrealnumber.
Letcbearealnumber.Putx=c+h
Ifxc,thenh0
h(c)=cosc

Therefore,h(x)=cosxisacontinuousfunction.
Itisknownthatforrealvaluedfunctionsgandh,suchthat(goh)isdefinedatc,ifgis
continuousatcandiffiscontinuousatg(c),then(fog)iscontinuousatc.
Therefore,

Q33:Examinethat

isacontinuousfunction.

isacontinuousfunction.

Thisfunctionfisdefinedforeveryrealnumberandfcanbewrittenasthecompositionoftwo
functionsas,
f=goh,where

Ithastobeprovedfirstthat

arecontinuousfunctions.

Clearly,gisdefinedforallrealnumbers.
Letcbearealnumber.
CaseI:

Therefore,giscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<0

CaseII:

Therefore,giscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>0
CaseIII:

Therefore,giscontinuousatx=0
Fromtheabovethreeobservations,itcanbeconcludedthatgiscontinuousatallpoints.
h(x)=sinx
Itisevidentthath(x)=sinxisdefinedforeveryrealnumber.
Letcbearealnumber.Putx=c+k
Ifxc,thenk0
h(c)=sinc

Therefore,hisacontinuousfunction.
Itisknownthatforrealvaluedfunctionsgandh,suchthat(goh)isdefinedatc,ifgis
continuousatcandiffiscontinuousatg(c),then(fog)iscontinuousatc.
Therefore,

isacontinuousfunction.

Q34:Findallthepointsofdiscontinuityoffdefinedby

Thegivenfunctionis
Thetwofunctions,gandh,aredefinedas

Then,f=gh
Thecontinuityofgandhisexaminedfirst.

Clearly,gisdefinedforallrealnumbers.
Letcbearealnumber.
CaseI:

Therefore,giscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<0
CaseII:

Therefore,giscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>0
CaseIII:

Therefore,giscontinuousatx=0
Fromtheabovethreeobservations,itcanbeconcludedthatgiscontinuousatallpoints.

Clearly,hisdefinedforeveryrealnumber.
Letcbearealnumber.
CaseI:

Therefore,hiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx<1
CaseII:

Therefore,hiscontinuousatallpointsx,suchthatx>1
CaseIII:

Therefore,hiscontinuousatx=1
Fromtheabovethreeobservations,itcanbeconcludedthathiscontinuousatallpointsofthereal
line.