Introduction to
Algebra
and
Finance
BYUIdaho
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Arithmetic....1
Section 1.1...2
Addition and Multiplication Facts from 1+1 to 15 15
Section 1.2..10
Rounding and Estimation; Life Plan
Section 1.3..15
Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide Decimals; Income and Expense
Section 1.4..34
Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide Fractions; Unit Conversions
Section 2.2..61
Variables and Formulas
Section 2.3..76
Formulas and Spreadsheet Usage
Chapter 3 Algebra.....89
Section 3.1.90
Linear Equations and Applications
Section 3.2108
Linear Equations with Fractions; Percent Applications
Section 3.3121
Exponents Revisited; Loan Payment and Savings Equations
Section 4.2148
Graphing Lines and Finding Slope
Section 4.3162
Using Slope and Writing Equations of Lines
Chapter 1:
ARITHMETIC
Overview
Arithmetic
1.1 Facts
1.2 Rounding and Estimation
1.3 Decimals
1.4 Fractions
Section 1.1
Everyone has to start somewhere, and that start, for you, is right here.
When you first started learning math, you probably learned the names for
numbers, and then you started to add: 3apples + 7apples equals how many apples? Well 10, of
course.
Facts
My guess is that you caught on to what you were doing and can now add M&Ms,
coconuts, gallons of water, money etc. From the beginning I am going to assume you know how
to add in your head up to 15+15. If you dont, please make up some flash cards and get those in
your brain. It is similar to learning the alphabet before learning to read. We need the addition
facts to be available for instant recall.
Soon after addition was learned, I bet someone told you that there was a shortcut when
you had to add some numbers over and over. For example:
3+3+3+3+3+3+3 = 21
7
If you notice, there are seven 3s.
3, seven times, turns out to be 21, so we write it as 73 = 21.
One of the best coincidences of the world is that 7, three times, is also 21.
37 = 21
Such a switching works for any numbers we pick:
45 = 20 and 54 = 20
313 = 39 and 133 = 39
Since we will be using the multiplication facts almost as much as we will be using the addition
facts, you need to also memorize the multiplication facts up to 1515. Learn them well, and you
will be able to catch on to everything else quite nicely.
Section 1.1
Assignment 1.1a
Addition/Subtraction Monster
Name __________________
12 + 13 =
5+6=
5 + 10 =
12 9 =
5+9=
8 + 11 =
5 + 11 =
14 4 =
6+6 =
7 + 12 =
15 8 =
10 + 10 =
10 7 =
6 + 11 =
6 + 12 =
6 + 13 =
7+7 =
14 7 =
7+9=
9 + 13 =
6 + 14 =
15 5 =
11 + 11 =
7 5 =
12 4 =
10 + 12 =
8 + 10 =
13 8 =
5+5=
8 + 13 =
5 + 12 =
7+8=
9+9 =
5 + 15 =
9 + 11 =
9 + 12 =
15 6 =
13 5 =
9 + 15 =
8 + 15 =
6+7 =
13 9 =
8 + 12 =
10 + 13 =
10 + 14 =
10 + 15
7 + 13 =
11 + 13 =
5+7 =
11 + 12 =
14 9 =
11 + 14 =
11 + 15 =
8+9=
10 6 =
87=
12 + 12 =
6 + 10 =
12 + 14 =
8+8=
12 7 =
12 8 =
14 + 14 =
12 6 =
97 =
13 + 14 =
10 5 =
7 + 14 =
6+9=
13 7 =
13 6 =
9 + 10 =
6+8 =
14 + 15 =
14 10 =
12 + 15 =
14 8 =
8 + 14 =
14 6 =
10 + 11 =
85 =
15 11 =
15 10 =
15 9 =
98=
7 + 10 =
9 + 14 =
13 + 15 =
7 + 11 =
5 + 14 =
6 + 15 =
15 7 =
5 + 13 =
7 + 15 =
5+8=
76=
13 + 13 =
86=
95=
96=
15 4 =
15 + 15 =
13 4 =
14 5 =
Time_________
Assignment 1.1 a
Multiplication Monster
Name __________________
1213=
56=
510=
129=
59=
811=
511=
144=
66=
712=
158=
1010=
107=
611=
612=
613=
77=
147=
79=
913=
614=
155=
1111=
75=
124=
1012=
810=
138=
55=
813=
512=
78=
99=
515=
911=
912=
156=
135=
915=
815=
67=
139=
812=
1013=
1014=
1015
713=
1113=
57=
1112=
149=
1114=
1115=
89=
106=
87=
1212=
610=
1214=
88=
127=
128=
1414=
126=
97=
1314=
105=
714=
69=
137=
136=
910=
68=
1415=
1410=
1215=
148=
814=
146=
1011=
85=
1511=
1510=
159=
98=
710=
914=
1315=
711=
514=
615=
157=
513=
715=
58=
76=
1313=
86=
95=
96=
154=
1515=
134=
145=
Time_________
Assignment 1.1a
Addition/Subtraction Monster 2
96=
12 4 =
5 + 10 =
6 + 15 =
15 5 =
8 + 11 =
12 9 =
14 4 =
6+6=
97=
15 8 =
10 + 10 =
10 7 =
6 + 11 =
13 7 =
5+8=
7+7=
7 + 12 =
15 10 =
9 + 13 =
6 + 14 =
12 + 13 =
75=
13 + 15 =
5 + 11 =
10 + 12 =
8 + 10 =
15 7 =
14 7 =
8 + 13 =
5 + 12 =
7+8=
9+9=
5 + 15 =
9 + 11 =
9 + 12 =
6 + 13 =
5+5=
9 + 15 =
8 + 15 =
6+7=
11 + 15 =
8 + 12 =
13 5 =
10 + 14 =
10 + 15 =
7 + 13 =
11 + 13 =
5+7=
11 + 12 =
11 + 11 =
11 + 14 =
13 8 =
8+9=
10 6 =
5+9=
12 + 12 =
14 9 =
12 + 14 =
8+8=
12 7 =
10 + 13 =
14 + 14 =
12 6 =
15 + 15 =
13 + 14 =
10 5 =
7 + 14 =
12 8 =
6+8=
13 6 =
9 + 10 =
5+6=
14 + 15 =
6 + 10 =
12 + 15 =
14 8 =
8 + 14 =
14 6 =
10 + 11 =
85=
15 11 =
13 9 =
15 9 =
6+9=
7 + 10 =
9 + 14 =
76=
7 + 11 =
5 + 14 =
15 6 =
6 + 12 =
14 10 =
7 + 15 =
98=
7+9=
13 + 13 =
86=
95=
5 + 13 =
15 4 =
87=
13 4 =
14 5 =
Time_________
Assignment 1.1b
Multiplication Monster 2
96=
124=
510=
615=
155=
811=
129=
144=
66=
97=
158=
1010=
107=
611=
137=
58=
77=
712=
1510=
913=
614=
1213=
75=
1315=
511=
1012=
810=
157=
147=
813=
512=
78=
99=
515=
911=
912=
613=
55=
915=
815=
67=
1115=
812=
135=
1014=
1015=
713=
1113=
57=
1112=
1111=
1114=
138=
89=
106=
59=
1212=
149=
1214=
88=
127=
1013=
1414=
126=
1515=
1314=
105=
714=
128=
68=
136=
910=
56=
1415=
610=
1215=
148=
814=
146=
1011=
85=
1511=
139=
159=
69=
710=
914=
76=
711=
514=
156=
612=
1410=
715=
98=
79=
1313=
86=
95=
513=
154=
87=
134=
145=
Time_________
Assignment 1.1b
Addition/Subtraction Monster
Name __________________
12 + 13 =
5+6=
5 + 10 =
12 9 =
5+9=
8 + 11 =
5 + 11 =
14 4 =
6+6 =
7 + 12 =
15 8 =
10 + 10 =
10 7 =
6 + 11 =
6 + 12 =
6 + 13 =
7+7 =
14 7 =
7+9=
9 + 13 =
6 + 14 =
15 5 =
11 + 11 =
75=
12 4 =
10 + 12 =
8 + 10 =
13 8 =
5+5=
8 + 13 =
5 + 12 =
7+8=
9+9 =
5 + 15 =
9 + 11 =
9 + 12 =
15 6 =
13 5 =
9 + 15 =
8 + 15 =
6+7 =
13 9 =
8 + 12 =
10 + 13 =
10 + 14 =
10 + 15
7 + 13 =
11 + 13 =
5+7 =
11 + 12 =
14 9 =
11 + 14 =
11 + 15 =
8+9=
10 6 =
87=
12 + 12 =
6 + 10 =
12 + 14 =
8+8=
12 7 =
12 8 =
14 + 14 =
12 6 =
97 =
13 + 14 =
10 5 =
7 + 14 =
6+9=
13 7 =
13 6 =
9 + 10 =
6+8 =
14 + 15 =
14 10 =
12 + 15 =
14 8 =
8 + 14 =
14 6 =
10 + 11 =
85 =
15 11 =
15 10 =
15 9 =
98=
7 + 10 =
9 + 14 =
13 + 15 =
7 + 11 =
5 + 14 =
6 + 15 =
15 7 =
5 + 13 =
7 + 15 =
5+8=
76=
13 + 13 =
86=
95=
96=
15 4 =
15 + 15 =
13 4 =
14 5 =
Time_________
Assignment 1.1 c
Multiplication Monster
Name __________________
1213=
56=
510=
129=
59=
811=
511=
144=
66=
712=
158=
1010=
107=
611=
612=
613=
77=
147=
79=
913=
614=
155=
1111=
75=
124=
1012=
810=
138=
55=
813=
512=
78=
99=
515=
911=
912=
156=
135=
915=
815=
67=
139=
812=
1013=
1014=
1015
713=
1113=
57=
1112=
149=
1114=
1115=
89=
106=
87=
1212=
610=
1214=
88=
127=
128=
1414=
126=
97=
1314=
105=
714=
69=
137=
136=
910=
68=
1415=
1410=
1215=
148=
814=
146=
1011=
85=
1511=
1510=
159=
98=
710=
914=
1315=
711=
514=
615=
157=
513=
715=
58=
76=
1313=
86=
95=
96=
154=
1515=
134=
145=
Time_________
Assignment 1.1 c
10
Now, you know that some arithmetic problems may get long
and tedious, so you can understand why some folks choose to estimate
Rounding and
and round numbers. Rounding is the quickest, so we will tackle that
Estimation
first.
In rounding, we decide to not keep the exact number that
someone gave us. For example:
Section 1.2
Rounding
Tenths
Hundredths
Thousandths
Ten Thousandths
Hundred Thousandths
Millionths
Hundreds
Tens
Ones
Hundred Thousands
Ten Thousands
Thousands
Hundred Millions
Ten Millions
Millions
Billions
If I have $528.37 in the bank, I might easily say that I have about $500. I have just
rounded to the nearest hundred.
On the other hand, I might be a little more specific and say that I have about (still not
exact) $530. I have just rounded to the nearest ten.
Here are the places:
Just to make sure you are clear on it, here is a big example:
6,731,239,465.726409
Example:
Round to the nearest hundredth:
538.4691
This number is right between 538.46 and 538.47
Which one is nearest? The 9 tells us that we are closer to
538.47
2nd Example:
Round to the nearest thousand:
783,299.4321
This number is right between 783,000 and 784,000
Which one is nearest? The 2 in the hundreds tells us that we are closer to :
783,000
Section 1.2
11
LAST EXAMPLE
Round $4,278.23 to the nearest hundred
$4,300.00
Decide if our number is closer to the nearest
$4,278.23
hundred above the number or below the number
$4,200.00
Change our number to the one it is closer to
$4,278.23 $4,300.00
Answer: $4,300.00
Estimation
Estimation
1. Round to the highest value.
2. Do the easy problem.
Once rounding is understood, it can be used as a great tool to make sure that we have not
missed something major in our computations. If we have a problem like:
3,427,000
87.3
We could see about where the answer is if we estimate first:
Round each number to the greatest value you can
3,000,000
90
Voila! Our answer will be about 270,000,000
We should note that the real answer is:
299,177,100
but the estimation will let us know that we are in the right ball park. It ensures that our
answer makes sense.
LAST EXAMPLE
Multiply by rounding: 986.7 4.9
Round the numbers
986.7 1,000
4.9 5
Multiply the rounded numbers together
1,000 5 = 5,000
Our answer for 986.7 4.9 will be about 5,000
986.7 4.9 5,000
Section 1.2
12
21 3250.07
11. 42 189
12.
369.456 3.987
13. 58 39
14. 351 44
Preparation:
15. Find the monthly income for 5 different jobs and be ready to share them with your group.
Answers:
3,250
1.
2,892.6
2.
40,000
3.
190
4.
3,250.1
5.
2,900
6.
39,450
7.
200
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
About 60,000
About 300,000
About 8,000
About 100
About 2,400
About 16,000
Discuss it together
Assignment 1.2a
13
51 3250.07
12. 32 789
13.
569.456 6.1987
14. 58 391
15. 54,200 12
16. Working with your group, find the yearly income for 10 of the jobs brought in by group
members.
17. As a group, estimate a monthly budget for a family with a few children living in your area.
Please include estimates of costs for housing, transportation, food, utilities, and clothing.
18. Enter the budget into a spreadsheet document.
Answers:
7,250
1.
2,862.84
2.
540,000
3.
190
4.
3,250.6
5.
2,892.564
6.
34,000
7.
189,000,000
8.
d vs. dth, lack of 1th, any others
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
About 150,000
About 1,200,000
About 24,000
About 100
About 24,000
About 5,000
Make sure they are all there.
Should look neat.
Complete when everyone can do it.
Assignment 1.2b
14
41 7250.07
10. 43 9.07
11. 82 2,890
12.
639.456 6.1987
13. 58 391.04
14. 56,200 12
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
8.
190,000,000
17.
9.
About 280,000
18.
About 360
About 240,000
About 100
About 24,000
About 6,000
Include any expenses you can think of.
Save it as Life Plan. You will submit it
to your teacher in this lesson.
Start your record, then report to your
progress to your group by email, phone,
letter, carrier pigeon
Complete when everyone has done it.
15
Section 1.3
Decimals
1) Like things In addition and subtraction we must only deal with like things.
Example: If someone asks you
5 sheep + 2 sheep =
you would be able to tell them 7 sheep.
What if they asked you 5 sheep + 2 penguins =
We really cant add them together, because they arent like things.
2) We do not need like things for multiplication and division.
3) Negative The negative sign means opposite direction.
Example: 5.3 is just 5.3 in the opposite direction
5.3
5.3
16
EXAMPLE
Add. 3561.5 + 274.38
3561.5
+ 274.38
1. Line up decimals
3 5 6 1. 5
+ 2 7 4. 3 8
5. 8 8
2. Add in columns
3 5 6 1. 5
+ 2 7 4. 3 8
3 8 3 5. 8 8
Subtraction of Decimals
1.
2.
3.
4.
Biggest on top
Line up decimals; subtract in columns.
Borrow by 10s
Strongest wins.
EXAMPLE
Subtract. 283.5 3,476.91
 3476.91
283.5
 3 4 7 6. 9 1
2 8 3. 5
3. 4 1
1.Biggest on top
 3 4 17 6. 9 1
2 8 3. 5
3 1 9 3. 4 1
 3 4 17 6. 9 1
2 8 3. 5
 3 1 9 3. 4 1
Section 1.3
17
Multiplication of Decimals
Multiplication of Decimals
1. Multiply each place value
2. Carry by 10s
3. Add
1. Add up zeros or decimals
4. Right size.
2. Negatives
EXAMPLES
Start:
7 5 31
29,742
538
237,936
892,260
+14,871,000
16,001,196
29,742
8
237,936
Next:
22 1
29,742
30
892,260
Last:
43 21
29,742
500
14,871,000
Section 1.3
18
Start:
Final example with decimals:
7414.3
9.46
444858
2965720
+66728700
70139278
2 21
74143
6
444858
Next:
1 11
74143
40
2965720
Last:
3 132
74143
900
66728700
Division of Decimals
Division of Decimals
1. Move decimals
19
EXAMPLES
5
8 429
5
8 429
Step 4.subtract.
40
53
8 429
40
29
53
8 429
40
29
24
5
Step 4: subtract.
8 doesnt go into 5 (remainder)
Example:
5875 22
2
22 5875
44
2
22 5875
Step 4: Subtract.
44
147
27
22 5875
44
147
154
Section 1.3
20
26
22 5875
44
147
132
155
267
22 5875
Subtract.
Bring down the next column.
22 goes into 155 about ????? times.
Estimate.
2 goes into 15 about 7 times. Try 7
44
147
Multiply 227 = 154. It worked.
132
155
Subtract.
154
Remainder 1
1
5875 22 = 267 R 1 or 267 221
Repeating decimal
36
40
36
Step 4: Subtract.
40
36
This could go on forever!
4
4
Thus = .44444. . . which we simply write by .4
9
The bar signifies numbers or patterns that repeat.
Section 1.3
21
5 358400
7
5 358400
35
7
5 358400
35
08
71
5 358400
35
08
 5
34
716
5 358400
35
08
 5
34
30
40
7168
5 358400
35
08
 5
34
30
40
40
00
296 3.1
3.1 296
31 2960.00
Step 4. Subtract
Step 5. Bring down
Repeat steps 25 as necessary
Step 2: Divide into first
Step 3: Multiply down
Step 4: Subtract
Step 5. Bring down
Repeat steps 25 as necessary
Step 2: Divide into first
Step 3: Multiply down
Step 4: Subtract
Step 5. Bring down
9
31 2960.00
279
9
31 2960.00
279
170
95.
31 2960.00
279
170
155
150
95.4
31 2960.00
279
170
155
150
124
26
95.48
31 2960.000
279
170
155
150
124
260
 248
120
Section 1.3
22
71680
5 358400
35
08
 5
34
30
40
40
00
0
0
71,680
95.483
31 2960.000
95.483 . . .
279
170
155
150
124
260
 248
120
93
27
COMMON MISTAKES
Example: Debt is negative and income is positive. If there is more debt than
income, then the net result is debt. If we are $77 in debt and get income of $66
then we have a net debt of $11
77 + 66 = 11
On the other hand if we have $77 dollars of income and $66 of debt, then the net
is a positive $11
77 66 = 11
Section 1.3
23
Example: Falling is negative and rising is positive. An airplane rises 307 feet and
then falls 23 feet, then the result is a rise of 284 feet:
307 23 = 284
If, however, the airplane falls 307 feet and then rises 23 feet, then the result is a
fall of 284 feet:
307 + 23 = 284
1) Percent: Percent can be broken up into two words: per and cent meaning per hundred,
or in other words, hundredths.
7
31
53
= .07 = 7%
= .31 = 31%
= .53 = 53%
100
100
100
Notice the shortcut from decimal to percents: move the decimal right two places.
Example:
Percents
1. If fraction, solve for decimals.
for decimal to %
2. Move decimal 2 places. 1.2. Right
Left for % to decimal
3. OF means times.
EXAMPLES
.25=
25%
24
What is
5 32 = .15625
.15625=15.625%
as a percent?
5
= 15.652%
32
124%=1.24
EXAMPLES
25%=.25
. 25 64 = 16
. 13 25 = 3.25
30%=.30
. 30 90 = 27
25
2.
143.29
+ .923
3.
5,834,906.2
+ 54.3227
Subtract.
4.
7 (2) =
5.
7 2 =
6.
13 (10) =
7.
18 + 5 =
8.
10 57 =
9.
14 8 =
10.
234
57
11.
19.275
74.63
12.
4,386
5,119
13.
2.35
17.986
14.
2,984
 151
15.
Cost:$32.50
Discount:$1.79
Final Price:
16. Temp:67 F
Change:18 warmer
Final:
18.
Cost:$32.50
Tax:$2.08
Final Price:
19. Temp: 17 C
Change: 28 colder
Final:
20. Altitude:300 m
Rise:7,250 m
Final:
2
5
22.
1
4
23.
3
8
24.
1
9
25.
7
8
26.
1
6
Assignment 1.3a
26
Divide.
Example: See examples in section 1.3
27.
7 234
28.
5 135
29.
11 589
30.
.04 56.3
31.
.8 42
32.
2.1 151.2
34.
19
20
35.
15
45
Expenses
Insurance
9%
Food
20%
Car
14%
Fun
10%
House
47%
Using the chart, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $1600.
36.
Insurance
37.
House
38. Fun
40.
Attendees: 2,300
Percent men: 40%
Men:
41. Students: 4
Number of Bs: 3
Percent of Bs:
Preparation.
42. Go to providentliving.org and read the One for the Money and All is Safely Gathered In
pamphlets. Be ready to share thoughts and notes with your group.
Assignment 1.3a
27
Answers:
38,648
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
144.213
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
55.355
5,834,960.5227
9
9
3
13
47
22
177
733
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
52.5
72
75%
95%
33.3%
$144
$752
$160
$1.80
920 men
41. 75%
42. Discuss it together.
15.636
2833
$30.71
85 F
4180 ft
$34.58
11 C
7550 m
.4
.25
.375
.1
.875
.16
33 73 or 33.428571 or 33 R3
27
53 116 or 53.54 or 53 R6
1407.5
Assignment 1.3a
28
2.
153.29
+ .922
3.
8,434,916.7
+ 54.3527
Subtract.
4.
9  (3) =
5.
18 32 =
6.
14 (19) =
7.
18 + 6 =
8.
15 47 =
9.
24 8 =
10.
754
57
11.
29.84
64.643
12.
4,786
5,919
13.
2.35
13.946
14.
23,754
 4,151
15.
Cost:$32.50
Discount:$5.79
Final Price:
16. Temp:67 F
Change:28 warmer
Final:
18.
Cost:$33.50
Tax:$2.18
Final Price:
19. Temp: 27 C
Change: 48 colder
Final:
20. Altitude:300 m
Rise:2,250 m
Final:
4
5
22.
2
9
23.
5
8
24.
1
8
25.
5
6
26.
1
10
Assignment 1.3b
29
Divide.
27.
7 434
28.
6 135
29.
12 789
30.
.04 56.347
31.
.6 453
32.
3.1 125.12
34.
17
20
35.
15
30
Expenses
Insurance
9%
Food
20%
Car
14%
Fun
10%
House
47%
Using the chart, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $1300.
36.
Food
37.
Car
38. Fun
40.
Attendees: 2,400
Percent men: 79%
Men:
41. Students: 12
Number of Bs: 11
Percent of Bs:
Assignment 1.3b
30
Answers:
40,048
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
154.212
11.
12.
34.803
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
11.596
8,434,971.0527
12
50
5
12
32
32
697
1,133
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
755
40.361
58.3%
85%
50%
$260
$182
$130
$4.63
1896 men
41. 91.67%
42. Submit it to your teacher
later in this lesson.
19,603
$26.71
95 F
2150 ft
$35.68
21 C
2550m
.8
.2
.625
.125
.83
.1
62
22.5
65.75
1408.675
Assignment 1.3b
31
71 3250.07
Add.
46,821
7.
+ 3,137
5.
538.9 2,892.07
6.
8.
756.29
+ .522
9.
82 .00000789
8,434.7
+54.3527
Subtract.
10.
115  (3) =
13.
7.54
57
14.
15.
16.
Cost:$44.50
Tax:$3.18
Final Price:
17. Temp: 48 C
Change: 29 colder
Final:
298.4
64.643
3,784
5,919
18. Altitude:300 m
Fall:2,250 m
Final:
1
20
20.
4
9
21.
2
3
Assignment 1.3c
32
Divide.
22.
8 434
23.
6 185
24.
14 689
25.
.02 56.347
26.
.6 553
27.
.31 175.12
29.
38
50
30.
27
25
Expenses
Insurance
8%
Food
30%
Car
15%
Fun
10%
Housing
37%
Using the chart, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $1354.
31.
Insurance
32.
Car
33. Fun
35.
Attendees: 2,413
Percent men: 39%
Men:
36. Students: 15
Number of Bs: 11
Percent of Bs:
Assignment 1.3c
33
Answers:
Titled Budget and Expenses and save
1.
document on your computer. You will turn it in
to your teacher in this lesson.
54,000
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
386,000,000
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
339
About 210,000
About 1,500,000
About .00064
31. $108.32
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
$203.10
$135.40
$4.52
941 men
73.3%
49,958
756.812
8489.0527
118
133
49.46
233.757
2135
$47.68
19 C
1950m
.05
.4
.6
54.25
30.83
49.214
2817.35
921.6
564.903
92.5%
76%
108%
Assignment 1.3c
34
Section 1.4
Fractions
Addition of Fractions
1. Observation
2. Multiply the denominators
3. Prime factorization
1. Common Denominator
2. Add numerators
3. Carry by denominator
EXAMPLE
Add
3 + 2= 5
4 4
Step 2. Now that the denominators are the same, add the
numerators.
Section 1.4
35
5 5
Subtraction of Fractions
1.
2.
3.
4.
Biggest on top
Common Denominator; Subtract numerators
Borrow by denominator
Strongest wins
1. Observation
2. Multiply the denominators
3. Prime factorization
EXAMPLE
Do this:
 3
3
5
9
 3
5
9
 2
5
9
 2
Section 1.4
36
Multiplication of Fractions
Multiplication of Fractions
1. No common denominators
2. Multiply Numerators
3. Multiply Denominators
EXAMPLES
5 1
6 3
=
=
5 1
5
=
6 3 18
Section 1.4
37
Division of Fractions
Division of Fractions
1. Improper Fractions
2. Keep it, change it, flip it.
3. Multiply.
EXAMPLES
Divide 3
25 3
7
2
Divide 1
2 14 3
+
5
4
4
2 7
5 4
KEEP the first fraction the same
Change the division sign to a multiplication sign
Flip the second fractions numerator and
denominator
Multiply straight across the numerator and
denominator
2 4
5 7
1 =
Section 1.4
38
Now that you have had a little time to multiply fractions together and simplify them, you
may have noticed one of the slickest tricks that we can do with fractions, and that is that we can
actually do the simplification before we multiply them. Take for example:
10 21
63 55
Now, we can do this the normal way or we can try to notice if there is anything that we
will be simplifying out later . . . and do that simplification before we multiply:
Normal method:
=
and now we try to simplify
=
which probably took quite a while to get.
25
37
337
=
and we try to see if any factors will cancel
ahead of time
So,
=
511
= = =
What I was hoping to show is that the same answer was obtained and the same cancelling
was done, but if you are able to see it before you multiply, then you will be able to simplify in a
much simpler way. Here is another example:
the 4 and the 8 can simplify before we multiply:
=
This may seem like just a convenient way to make the problem go a bit quicker, but it does much
more than that. It opens the door to a much larger world. Here is an example. If we travelled 180
miles on 12 gallons of gas, then we calculate the mileage by = 15 miles per gallon.
Carrying that example just a bit further, what if gas were $3.2 per gallon? We can
actually find how many miles we can drive for one dollar:
Another example:
Carpet is on sale for 15 dollars per square yard. How much is that in dollars per square
foot (9 ft2 per yd2)?
Now, knowing that we will be able to cancel anything on the top with anything that is the
same on the bottom we write the multiplication so the yd2 will cancel out, leaving us with dollars
per ft2:
Section 1.4
39
1.666
3 5.00
3
20
18
20
18
A rope costs $15 for 8 feet. How much does is cost per inch?
We want to get rid of feet and get inches, so we write the multiplication:
= =
.1562
32 5.00
3 2
180
160
200
192
80
Here are a few numbers that will help you with the conversions:
12 in = 1 foot
1 yd = 3 ft
16 oz = 1 pound
60 minutes = 1 hour
60 seconds = 1 minute
1 yd2 = 9 ft2
1000watts = 1 kilowatt
And also some exchange rates with the American dollar as they were sometime in 2010:
1 Mexican Peso = $0.08
1 Euro = $1.30
1 British Pound = $1.50
1 Brazilian Real = $0.55
Section 1.4
40
1.
3 6 9 12 15 30 3,000
, , , , ,
,
...
11 22 33 44 55 110 11,000
2.
3
7
3.
2
3
4.
7
11
4
9
36
52
6.
27
36
7.
16
56
8.
10
12
9.
15
45
10.
120
280
13.
10
12
Example:
5 83 13 14
Example:
3
1
2 + 7 =
7
14
+ 146 = 13
14
 13 14
 13 82
5 83
5 83
 12 108
5 83
 7 78
Swap to subtract.
Answer is negative
14.
2
5
+ 23 =
15.
17.
1
3
+ 127 =
18.
1
4
+ 85 =
13 34 + 4 56 =
16.
7
30
19.
9 107 3 15 =
253 =
Assignment 1.4a
41
20.
21.
3 149 6 76 =
22.
4 72 + 9 23 =
12 85 9 34 =
Improper
25.
43
8
26.
51
4
8
5
27.
4
7
28.
2
9
29.
 107
30.
7
8
31.
 56
32.
13
33.
13
42
34.
7
3
Divide.
Example:
2 83 54 =
2 83 54 =
Multiply by reciprocal
19
8
54 =
19
8
54 =
95
32
31
or 2 32
35.
2
5
13 =
36.
1
4
83 =
37.
5
6
38.
3
8
127 =
39.
2 34 7 16 =
40.
5 75 3 23 =
41.
7 45 109 =
42.
7
8
43.
2 16 83 =
9 23 =
83 =
Preparation.
44. If you drive 280 miles on 12 gallons of gas, how many miles per gallon do you get?
45. If you drive 280 miles on 12 gallons of gas, and gas is $3.20 per gallon, how many miles
per dollar do you get?
Assignment 1.4a
42
Answers:
6 9 12 21
1.
14 , 21 , 28 , 49 , others...
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
4
6
12
, 96 , 10
15 , 18 , others...
14
22
21 28 35
, 33
, 44 , 55 , others...
8 12 16
18 27 36
, , , 28
63 , others...
9
13
3
4
2
7
5
6
1
3
3
7
6
36
20
36
30
36
1 151 or 16
15
7
8
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
65 or 1 15
1
13
42
13
or 3 133
3
7
6
5
or 1 15
2
3
20
9
or 2 29
9
14
33
86
120
77
43
or 1 77
41. 263 or 8 23
21
42. 232
43. 529 or 5 79
44. Discuss it together.
45. Discuss it together.
17
150
11
12
18 127
6 12
3 143
13 20
21
2 78
719
16
5
5 83
12
7
4
or 1 34
9
2
or 4 12
107 or 1 73
8
7
Assignment 1.4a
43
2
3
2.
7
12
3.
40
48
5.
3
4
+ 79 =
6.
5
12
8.
7 75 + 6 56 =
9.
2 85 9 53 =
2
5
7.
3 23 16 79 =
+ 72 =
78 =
Improper
12.
35
8
13.
57
11
3
5
15.
16.
3 94
17.
 125
Divide.
18.
2
7
53 =
19.
3
4
67 =
20.
21.
2 23 103 =
22.
5
8
4 12 =
23.  2 73 57 =
1
6
94 =
24.
2
5
25.
1
4
26.
3
8
27.
1
9
28.
7
8
29.
1
6
Assignment 1.4b
44
.12 = 12 (100th) =
12
100
= 253
simplify
30.
.5
31.
.7
32. .45
33.
.52
34.
.75
35. .6
36. Cereal cost $4.50 for 2 pounds. How much did it cost per ounce?
37. Fishing line costs $.02 per foot. How much would 200 yards cost?
38. I was able to drive 250 miles on 15 gallons of gas. If gas costs $3.10 per gallon, how many
miles can I drive per dollar?
39. If my sprinkler sends out 5 gallons per minute, and if water costs $0.65 per 1000 gallons,
how much does watering my lawn cost per hour?
40. How many Pesos are equal to 5 Euros? (1 Mexican Peso = $0.08, 1 Euro = $1.30)
41. How many Reais (plural for Real) are equal to 7 Pounds? (1 Brazilian Real = $0.55, 1 British
Pound = $1.50)
42. Create a visual chart for all arithmetic of decimals. Use plenty of examples.
43. Create a visual chart for all arithmetic of fractions including Unit Conversions.
Assignment 1.4b
45
Answers:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
16
24
14
24
20
24
24
35
1 19
36 or
11
24
13 19
23
14 42
6 39
40
239
46
7
4 83
5 112
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
7
10
9
20
13
25
3
4
3
5
5
3
9
31
125
1
7
6
35
7
8
3
8
8 89
5
36
 3 25
.4
.25
.375
.1
.875
.16
1
2
Assignment 1.4b
46
5.
723.3
+ 39.7
6.
13
16 149 + 5 14
=
8.
8 (11) =
9.
13 74 1 67 =
Subtract.
7.
Temp: 35.5 F
Change: 13.4 warmer
Final:
Multiply.
10. Cost: $35.20
Quantity: 17
Total:
Add or Subtract. Simplify.
13. 32 + 59 =
16.
11.
15 16 6 79 =
369(23) =
12.
4
5
11
12
=
14.
11
12
+ 145 =
15.
5
18
17.
5 109 + 13 18 =
18.
12 94 9 142 =
22.
8
9
23.
7 34 ( 54 ) =
25.
7
9
26.
2
7
56 =
Improper
59
6
Divide.
21.
8
9
5
18
4 23 =
5
12
.3
28.
.055
29. .375
Assignment 1.4c
47
Divide.
30.
33.
7 485
.5 47.31
31.
34.
32.
3 781
43 673
.0004 562.4
35. A dishwasher uses about 1400 watts of power. If the power company charges 9 cents per
kilowatthour, how much does it cost to run a dishwasher for 16 hours in the month?
36. I bought 8 yards of rope for $9.84. How much did it cost per foot?
Change into a percent.
37. 24
25
38.
39.
36
40
17
50
Expenses
Insurance
9%
Food
20%
Car
14%
Fun
10%
House
47%
Using the chart, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $3200.
40.
Car
41
House
42
44.
Attendees: 239
Percent men: 29%
Men:
Food
Assignment 1.4c
48
Answers:
About 180,000,000
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
About .00048
About 12,000
37,090.7
763
22 74
22.1 F
3
11 75
$598.40
8,487
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
11
15
2 181
23
1 84
59
8 187
260 13 or 260.3
15 28
43 or 15.65116
94.62
1,406,000
$2.02
$0.41 per foot
96%
90%
34%
$448
$1504
$640
$3.16, $48.36
69 men
$4.59, $10.71
580
19 401
3 19
63
267
9 56
3 15 or
16
5
4
21
11
 9 16
or  155
16
.416
.7
.285714
3
10
11
200
3
8
69 72 or 69.285714
Assignment 1.4c
49
Chapter 2:
CALCULATORS and
FORMULAS
Overview
2.1 Exponents and Calculator Usage
2.2 Variables and Formulas
2.3 More Variables and Formulas  Excel
Note to student: Beginning with this Chapter, unless specifically
requested, answers need not be in a specific form; equivalent answers are
50
Section 2.1
Exponents
While we are on multiplication, did you know that there is some short hand? Remember
when we started multiplication we did:
6+6+6+6+6+6+6+6+6 = 54 but we did it a bit shorter
9
96 = 54
There is a way to write multiplication in shorthand if you do the same thing over and over again:
2222222 = 128
7
For the shorthand we write 2 = 128.
7
That little 7 means the number of times that we multiply 2 by itself and is called
and exponent; sometimes we call it a power. Here are a couple more examples:
53= 125
72 = 49
24 = 16
Pretty slick. You wont have to memorize them . . . yet, but you should be familiar enough with
them to be able to recognize them.
Some of the easiest to calculate are the powers of 10. Try these:
104= 10,000
108 = 100,000,000
103 = 1,000
EXAMPLE
Evaluate 74
7 = 7 7 7 7
49 7 7
343 7
2401
Answer: 2401
Section 2.1
51
Order of Operations
The last small note to finalize all your abilities in arithmetic is to make sure you know
what you need to do when you have multiple operations going on at the same time. For example,
2+345
If you were to read that from left to right you would first add the 2 and the 3 to get 5 and
then multiply by 4 to get 20 and then subtract 5 to get 15.
Unfortunately, that doesnt jive with what we have learned about what multiplication is.
Remember that multiplication is a shorthand way of writing repeated addition. Technically we
have:
2+345=
2 + 4 + 4 + 4 5 = 9.
Ahh, now there is the right answer. It looks like we need to take care of the multiplication
as a group, before we can involve it in other computations. Multiplication is done before
addition and subtraction.
Here is another one:
4 32 7 2 + 4
Now remember that exponents are shorthand for a bunch of multiplication that is hidden, so we
need to take care of that even before we do multiplication:
4 32 7 2 + 4 = Take care of exponents
4972+4=
Take care of multiplication
36 14 + 4 =
Add/Sub left to right.
22 + 4 = 26.
Now division can always be written as multiplication of the reciprocal, so make sure you
do division before addition and subtraction as well.
Look at that. We have established an order which the operations always follow, and we
need to know it if we are to get the answers that the problem is looking for:
1st Exponents
2nd Multiplication and Division (glues numbers together)
3rd Addition and Subtraction (left to right)
Parentheses can change everything. We put parentheses when we intend on grouping (or gluing)
numbers together manually. Though they all have the same numbers and operations, see the
difference between these:
2 3 62 2 =
2 3 36 2 =
2 54 = 52
2 (3 6 ) 2 =
(2 3) 6 2 2 =
2 18 2 2 =
2 324 2 =
1 36 2 =
2 162 = 160
36 2 = 18
(2 3 6)2 2 =
(2 18)2 2 =
( 16)2 2 =
256 2 = 128
Section 2.1
52
14 18 7 94 =
5.
5.871
+ 39.7
6.
17 239 + 5 235 =
8.
5 3 =
9.
23 114 15 118 =
12.
 25 16
11 =
11.
14.
44129 =
272=
17.
5
8
20.
15. 117=
18.
8
15
5 109 + 19 18 =
21.
4 58 5 163 =
25.
5
6
26.
7 58 83 =
28.
3
5
29.
2
9
+ 107 =
79 =
Improper
52
Divide.
24.
11
12
7
18
4 12 =
7
11
Assignment 2.1a
53
.44
32. .625
6 79
35.
Divide.
33.
36.
Evaluate
38.
7 343
.5 4.731
5 3 + 8 2
34.
37.
39.
57 6273
.004 967.4
(5 3) + 8 2
40.
5 (4 + 8) 2
41. Change 60 miles per hour into feet per second. (5280 feet = 1 mile)
Change into a percent.
28
42. 30
43.
44.
41
57
Expenses
Food
17%
37
100
Insurance
9%
Car
16%
Fun
13%
House
45%
Using the chart, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $2437.
45.
Fun
46.
Insurance
47. Food
49.
Attendees: 48
Percent kids: 25%
Kids:
50. Students: 30
Number of As: 24
Percent of As:
Assignment 2.1a
54
Answers:
About 4,000,000
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
About .00028
About 28,000
37,639.23
45.571
22 14
23
45.1 F
8
7 117
$1,036.80
12,789
 32
55
2187
729
19,487,171
1 367
1 13
40
11
45
6 49
72
25 401
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
11
25
5
8
49
13 16 or 13.16
110.0526
9.462
241,850
0
20
7
88 feet per second
93.3%
71.9%
37%
$316.81
$219.33
$414.29
$26.64, $407.14
12 kids
80%
169
81
11
2 12
2 145 or
33
14
5
27
20 13 or
61
3
.63
.6
.2
7
100
Assignment 2.1a
55
2.
4.83
+ 39.7
3.
14 119 + 8 115 =
5.
5 53 =
6.
23 214 15 218 =
8.
15
 25 14
=
10.
372 =
11. (5.8)3 =
13.
(1.07)27 =
14. (1.12)12 =
15. If I place 2 cents on the first square of a chess board, 4 cents on the second square, and keep
doubling the amount on each square, how much money will be on the 30th square?
Fill out the table.
Mixed
16.
5 23
17.
Improper
572
18. A product costs $7 for 20 pounds. How much is that in cents per ounce?
19. Change 17 Euros into pesos. (1 Mexican Peso = $0.08, 1 Euro = $1.30)
20. Change 60 miles per hour into feet per second. (5280 feet = 1 mile)
Change into a percent.
21. 24
35
22.
72
64
23.
14
2000
Using the percentages, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $2437.
24.
Fun 12.3%
25.
Insurance 7.9%
28.
Attendees: 388
Percent kids: 25%
Kids:
56
30. For a savings account that begins with $100 and has a 5% interest rate, fill out the following
table:
Time
Beginning Balance
Interest earned
Ending Balance
1st year
100
.05 100 = 5
105
2nd year
105
.05 105 = 5.25
110.25
3
110.25
.05 110.25 =5.51 115.76
4
115.76
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
31. For a savings account that begins with $100 and has a 6% interest rate, fill out the following
table:
Time
Beginning Balance
Ending Balance
st
1 year
100
100 1.06 = 106
2nd year
106
106 1.06 = 112.36
3
112.36
112.36 1.06 = 119.10
4
119.10
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
32. Discuss in your group why multiplying by .05 and then adding to the balance is the same as
multiplying the balance by 1.05.
33. If a savings account started at $100 and earned 7% per year, how much would be in the
account at the end of 12 years?
34. If a savings account started at $100 and earned 7% per year, how much would be in the
account at the end of 22 years?
35. How can exponents be used to find the balance after many years?
Assignment 2.1b
57
1.
58,179.23
2.
44.53
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
23
215.7 F
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
58
33.
34. $443.04
35. #34 can be done by 100 (1.07)22
$20,236.80
243
1,369
195.112
5.6644
6.214
3.896
$10,737,418.24
 28
2.19 cents per ounce
276.25 Pesos
88 feet per second
68.6%
112.5%
0.7%
$299.75
$192.52
$926.06
$33.64; $514.14
97 kids
58.8%
12 year end balance  $179.59
($179.60 also acceptable)
Assignment 2.1b
58
45 =
3.
872=
4.
(2.7)5=
5.
(5.38)2
6.
(1.06)25
7.
(1.11)13
Improper
373
10. If I place 1 cent on the first square of a chess board, 2 cents on the second square, and keep
doubling the amount on each square, how much money will be on the 20th square?
11. A product sells for $2.50 per square foot. How much is that per square yard?
12. Change 400 Pesos into Pounds. (1 Mexican Peso = $0.08, 1 British Pound = $1.50)
13. Change 50 miles per hour into feet per second. (5280 feet = 1 mile)
Change into a percent.
14.
15.
16.
Using the percentages, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $287.
17.
Fun 17.3%
18.
Insurance 6%
21.
Attendees: 388
Percent kids: 35%
Kids:
Assignment 2.1c
59
22. For a savings account that begins with $350 and has a 5% interest rate, fill out the following
table and place the entries in the Life Plan spreadsheet on Sheet 2:
Time
1st year
2nd year
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Beginning Balance
350
367.50
Ending Balance
350 1.05 = 367.50
23. If a savings account started at $300 and earned 7% per year, how much would be in the
account at the end of 22 years?
24. For a savings account that begins with $100 and has a 6% interest rate and to which you are
able to add $25 per year, fill out the following table and place it on Sheet 2 of your Life Plan
spreadsheet:
Time
Beginning Balance
Ending Balance
1st year
100
100 1.06 + 25 = 131
nd
2 year
131
131 1.06 + 25 = 163.86
3
163.86
163.86 1.06 + 25 =
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
25. If a savings account started at $200 and earned 7% per year, how much would be in the
account at the end of 12 years if you are able to add $40 per year?
Assignment 2.1c
60
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
12
$5,242.88
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
21.33 pounds
66.7%
54.4%
.02%
$49.65
$17.22
$241.08
$5.63; $86.03
(135.8) 136 kids
$628.55
$1329.12
$622.97
$1,165.98
Assignment 2.1c
61
Section 2.2
Variables and
Formulas
1) Variables: These symbols, being letters, actually represent numbers, but the numbers can
change from time to time, or vary. Thus they are called variables.
Example: Tell me how far you would be walking around this rectangle.
24 ft
15 ft
15ft
24 ft
It appears that to get all the way around it, we simply add up the numbers
on each side until we get all the way around.
24+15+24+15 = 78.
So if you walked around a 24ft X 15ft rectangle, you would have
completed a walk of 78 ft. I bet we could come up with the pattern for
how we would do this all of the time.
Well, first of all, we just pick general terms for the sides of the
rectangle:
length
width
width
length
Then we get something like this:
Distance around the rectangle = length + width + length + width
Let's try and use some abbreviations. First, perimeter means
around measure. Substitute it in:
Perimeter = length + width + length + width
Let's go a bit more with just using the first letters of the words:
P=l+w+l+w
Notice now how each letter stands for a number that we could use. The number can
change from time to time. This pattern that we have created to describe all cases is called a
formula.
Section 2.2
62
2) Formula: These are patterns in the form of equations and variables, often with numbers,
which solve for something we want to know, like the perimeter equation before, or like:
Area of a rectangle:
A=BH
Volume of a Sphere:
Pythagorean Theorem:
+ =
Through the same process we can come up with many formulas to use. Though it has all
been made up before, there is much to gain from knowing where a formula comes from and how
to make them up on your own. I will show you on a couple of them.
Distance, rate
If you were traveling at 40mph for 2 hours, how far would you have traveled? Well, most
of you would be able to say 80 mi. How did you come up with that? Multiplication:
(40)(2) = 80
(rate of speed) (time) = distance
or in other words:
rt = d
where
r is the rate
t is the time
d is the distance
Percentage
If you bought something for $5.50 and there was an 8% sales tax, you would need to find
8% of $5.50 to find out how much tax you were being charged.
.44 = .08(5.50)
Amount of Tax = (interest rate) (Purchase amount)
or in other words:
T = rP
Where T is tax
r is rate of tax
P is the purchase amount.
Interest
This formula is a summary of what we did in the last section with interest. If you invested
a principal amount of $500 at 9% interest for three years, the amount in your account at the end
of three years would be given by the formula:
A = 500(1.09)3 = $647.51
Section 2.2
63
A = P(1 + r)Y
where A is the Amount in your account at the end
P is the principal amount (starting amount)
r is the interest rate
Y is the number of years that it is invested.
Temperature Conversion
Most of us know that there is a difference between Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees, but
not everyone knows how to get from one to the other. The relationship is given by:
C = 5 (F 32)
9
Money
If you have a pile of quarters and dimes, each quarter is worth 25 (or $.25) and each
dime is worth 10 ($.10), then the value of the pile of coins would be:
V = .25q + .10d
where V is the Total Value of money
q is the number of quarters
d is the number of dimes
3) Common Geometric Formulas: Now that you understand the idea, these are some basic
geometric formulas that you need to know:
P is the perimeter
w
Rectangle
P = 2l + 2w
A = lw
l is the length
w is the width
A is the Area
Section 2.2
64
P = 2a + 2b
P is the perimeter
a is a side length
a
h
A = bh
Parallelogram
A is the Area
h is the height
P is perimeter
b
a
P = b+a+B+d
A = 1 h(B+b)
2
a is a leg
d is a leg
A is the Area
Trapezoid
h is the height
P = s1+s2+s3
A = 1 bh
2
h
b
Triangle
P is the perimeter
s is a side
A is the Area
b is the base
h is the height
a is one angle
b
c
a + b + c = 180
b is another angle
c is another angle
a
Triangle
Section 2.2
65
SA = 2lw+2wh+2lh
H
w
l
l is the length
w is the width
V = lwh
h is the height
Rectangular Solid
V is volume
C is the Circumference or
Perimeter
C = 2r
r
is a number, about
3.14159 . . . it has a button
on your calculator
A = r2
LSA = 2rh
Circle
SA =2rh+2r
is a number, about
3.14159 . . . it has a button
on your calculator
r is the radius of the circle
Cylinder
V = r2h
h is the height
SA is total surface area
V is Volume
Section 2.2
66
LSA = rl
h l
SA = r2+ rl
V = 1 r2h
3
Cone
is a number, about
3.14159 . . . it has a button
on your calculator
r is the radius of the circle
h is the height
l is the slant height
SA is total surface area
SA = 4r2
V = 4 r3
3
Sphere
V is the Volume
Section 2.2
67
6 78 13 83 =
2.
7 125 + 187 34 =
3.
21 56 97 152 =
4.
3.7 9.574
5.
6000 254.7
6.
.008 37.65
Divide.
7. If a wood floor costs $4.50 per square foot, how much is that per square yard?
8. How much does it cost to run a 700 watt microwave for 17 hours if the power
company charges 12 cents per kilowatthour?
45(7.8)
10.
Price: $2,736.00
Percent off: 35%
Amount saved:
Final Price:
13.
5d 7 p
14.
5(3 9) 2 3 (5 + 4)
16.
37 m 2
17
2(32)+5(4)+8 m
19.
20.
17
15
14
9
11
19
19
5
k12
13
t+3
3t  7
22.
2(n+9)
23.
3 28a + m2
Assignment 2.2a
68
24.
12 a3
25.
m 12
26. 2n 3a + 5t
Use the formula for distance, rate and time to calculate the distance.
Example:
r=3
t = 14
d=
27.
r=7
t = 15
d=
28.
r = 55
t = 7.2
d=
29. r = 45
t = 2 13
d=
Use the formula for angles in a triangle to calculate the measure of the remaining angle.
30.
a = 73
b = 24
c=
31.
a = 38
b=
c = 59
32. a =
b= 24
c= 48
Use the formulas for Money totals (you may have to make up your own) when q stands for
quarters (1 quarter = $0.25), d for dimes (1 dime = $0.10), n for nickels (1 nickel = $0.05)
and p for pennies (1 penny = $0.01).
33.
q=9
d = 12
V=
34.
p = 19
d = 17
V=
35. n = 37
q = 23
V=
F = 75
C=
37.
F = 15
C=
38. F = 23
C=
Preparation:
39. If the formula for area of a circle is
A=r2
What is the area of a circle with radius 7?
40. Where did come from? (Try finding out using dictionaries or the internet)
Assignment 2.2a
69
Answers:
6 12
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
195 16
75 103
2.5876
.04245
4,706.25
$40.50 per square yard
$1.43
$1.97 and $41.45
$957.60 and $1,778.40
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
83
108
$3.45
$1.89
$7.60
23.9 C
9.4 C
30.6 C
Discuss together.
Discuss together.
33.6%
60
35dp
102
351
42m
38 + 8m or 8m + 38
58 + t or t + 58
k + 21 or 21 + k
42 + r or r + 42
38
32
30
52
9
77
105
396
105
83
Assignment 2.2a
70
12 + a3
2.
2
3
, and a = 3.
10a  12
3r
3.
5r 7p + 6t
Use the formula for Interest to calculate the amount in the account at the end of the time
period.
P = 520
P = 35,000
5.
6. P = 200
4.
r = 6.2%
r = 6%
r = 8.9%
Y=4
Y = 9.3
Y=7
A=
A=
A=
Use the formulas for Money totals (you may have to make up your own) when q stands for
quarters, d for dimes, n for nickels and p for pennies.
7.
p=p
q = 25
8.
9. p = p
d = q13
q=q
d = 17
n = 15
V=
n = q+7
V=
V=
Use the formula for Temperature Conversion to calculate the temperature in degrees
Celsius.
10.
F = 300
C=
11.
F = 45
C=
12. F = 102
C=
r=6
h = 11
V=
14.
r=5
l=9
SA =
15. r = 3
l=8
LSA =
b = 24
h=5
A=
17.
b = 15
h=4
A=
21. b = 7
B = 15
a = 12
d=8
P=
Assignment 2.2b
71
Use the formulas for a rectangular solid to calculate the missing information.
22.
l=6
w=9
h=7
SA =
23.
l=4
w = 15
h=7
SA =
24. l = 6
w = 14
h=2
V=
8y + 5y
7(x 5) +15x
8 12x2 + 5 + 3x2
26.
29.
32.
4a 9 + 4a
7t + 4(t + 12)
7x2 5x 9x2 + 13x
Simplify.
25.
28.
31.
Assignment 2.2b
72
Answers:
39
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
76
87
$661.46
$60,174.51
$363.27
$8.70
V = .01p + .1(q13)
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
9x2 + 13
2x2 + 8x
55xy 28x
m3 cubic meters
in2 square inches
mm millimeters
mi2 square miles
yd3 cubic yards
Assignment 2.2b
73
6t f3
2.
2
3
, and a = 2.
10a  12
2f
+t
3.
6.
P = 1,300
r = 8.9%
Y=7
A=
P = $15,000
r = 6.2%
Y=7
A=
5.
P = 2,300
r = 6%
Y = 8.7
A=
Use the formulas for Money totals (you may have to make up your own) when q stands for
quarters, d for dimes, n for nickels and p for pennies.
7.
p = 15
q = t+5
8.
9. p = h+9
d=9
q=7
d=m
n = 13
V=
n = x  20
V=
V=
Use the formula for Temperature Conversion to calculate the temperature in degrees
Celsius.
10.
F = 20
C=
11.
F = 59
C=
12. F = 32
C=
r = 6 in
h = 12 in
V=
14.
r=9m
h=5m
SA =
15. r = 3 yd
h = 8 yd
LSA =
b = 6 ft
h = 5 ft
A=
17.
b = 15 cm
h = 4 cm
A=
b = 9 km
B = 11 km
h = 7 km
A=
20.
b = 8 mm
B = 15 mm
h = 5 mm
A=
21. b = 12 ft
B = 25 ft
a = 13 ft
d = 17 ft
P=
Assignment 2.2c
74
Simplify.
22.
25.
28.
9y 11y
2(x 5) +7
8x2 34x3 + 9x2 + 10x3
23.
26.
29.
31.
If tile costs $1.50 per square foot, how much is that per square yard?
10a 2b + 4a 9b
8m+ 4(m + 15t)
12x4 5x 4x4 + 13x
32. How much does it cost to run an 800 watt microwave for 17 hours if the power
company charges 11 cents per kilowatthour?
33.
34.
Change 66 feet per second into miles per hour. (5280 feet = 1 mile)
Assignment 2.2c
75
Answers:
121
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
38
15
or 2 158
38
$22,854.03
31.
32.
33.
34.
3,818.47
2,361.23
.25t + .1m + 1.9
$1.05
.01h + .05x + .84
28.9 C
15 C
0 C
1,357.17 in3 or 432 in3
791.68 m2 or 252 m2
150.8 yd2 or 48 yd2
15 ft2
30 cm2
56
70 km2
115
2
or 57.5 mm2
67 ft
2y
14a 11b
56r 48t
2x 3
12m + 60t
49p 21
24x3+17x2
8x4 + 8x
32xy + 28xm
Assignment 2.2c
76
Excel Basics
Microsoft
Microsoft Excel is spreadsheet software that allows you to perform calculations that help solve
math problems in this course. You supply key figures and Excel automatically makes the
calculations for you.
Open Excel on your computer by clicking Start then Programs then Microsoft Excel. The
main spreadsheet in Excel will appear. The spreadsheet is divided into cells each of which has a
column and row address. Excel identifies columns by alphabetical letters and rows by numbers.
The first cell in the upper left corner is A1. The cell to the right of it is B1 and so forth. The cell
below A1 is A2 and so forth. You enter numbers, formulas, or words into the cells.
Use the following guidelines as you enter data into Excel.
It is easiest to enter numerical data in cells by using the number keypad on your keyboard.
Be sure the Num Lock key is pressed and the Num Lock light is on.
The number keypad also has four arithmetic functions you will need which are + (add), (subtract), * (multiply), and / (divide). It also has the numbers and an enter key so you can
enter data rapidly using the keypad.
Enter the = (equal) sign in the cell before you perform any calculation in Excel. This tells
Excel you want it to perform a calculation.
Use the following guidelines to format data in Excel.
Never enter dollar signs ($) or commas (,) when entering data in Excel. Enter these by
formatting the cell.
Right click the cell or range of cells and select Format Cells. This opens a window that
allows you to set the format in number, general, currency, percent, etc. You can set the
number of decimal points you want to use and you can set alignment, font, etc. in this
window. The cell format already has been set in most of the exhibits you will be using in this
course.
TIP: You can also format data in cells by clicking the cell or range of cells then clicking the
appropriate symbol on the formatting tool bar.
Section 2.3
77
In Cell
E3
Enter
15
Results
$15.00
E5
=40*52
2080
=E3*E5
$31,200.00
When you click on a cell that has a calculation set up, the formula for that cell appears in the
formula line (to the right of the = sign) at the top of the page. For example, the formula line for
the calculation performed in step 5 above would be: =E3*E5
Once your calculations are in place, Excel can save you time and effort if changes are required.
If you were to change the beginning rate per hour to $10.00 and you have used the cell addresses
in each of your formulas, Excel will recalculate all of the numbers and give you the new values.
Try it. Enter 10 in E3 and watch what happens to the Income.
Section 2.3
78
To help get you used to formulas in Excel and how they work, we will use some of our familiar
formulas from last week:
Circle Example
Pick a cell where you will enter the radius say B2. Put 2 in B2 as a starting radius.
Then we write the formula for area in a cell next to it C2. Remember the formula for area of a
circle is
=
So, in C2 we write
=PI()*B2^2
exponent in Excel
Then you will notice that the area 12.56637 pops up in C2.
Change the radius to 7 and you will be able to see that the area automatically changes. Nifty,
isnt it? You can change the radius to any number you would like and the area calculation will
automatically update.
Now, the power of Excel doesnt stop just there. We can see the areas of a whole bunch of radii
at the same time. List out several numbers in the cells beneath the 7 in B2. Now, if you copy
the formula from C3 and paste it in C4, C5, C6, etc. you will notice that we can make a whole
table of areas. If you label the columns, then others that see your spreadsheet will be able to tell
what you did. It should look something like this:
Circle
Radius
2
4
6
8
10
12
Area
12.56637
50.26548
113.0973
201.0619
314.1593
452.3893
79
Copy and paste the formula into the cells next to the list of temperatures. See if it looks
something like this:
Fahrenheit Celsius
40
40.0
20
28.9
0
17.8
15
9.4
32
0.0
38
3.3
45
7.2
72
22.2
100
37.8
150
65.6
212
100.0
Section 2.3
80
Volume
Assignment 2.3a
81
10. If the unit for radius, height and slant height in #9 is inch, what are the units for Lateral
Surface Area, Surface Area, and Volume?
11. If the unit for radius, height and slant height in #9 is centimeter, what are the units for Lateral
Surface Area, Surface Area, and Volume?
12. Using the formula for a cone and a spreadsheet, fill out the table in #9 using the formula
abilities of the spreadsheet.
13. Open your, Budget and Expense spreadsheet. Make sure that all budgets and expenses are
updated. Using the sum formula, create cells that are the totals of your expenses and incomes.
This spreadsheet will be submitted in your portfolio.
Assignment 2.3a
82
Answers:
1.
length
5
14
7.2
13
15
16
281
2.
3.
4.
5.
radius
3
12
5.1
17
4
38
114
6.
7.
8.
9.
radius
3
5
15
24
6
10.
11.
12.
13.
width
7
3
18.34
2.5
17
33
541.5
Perimeter
24
34
51.08
31
64
98
1645
Area
35
42
132.048
32.5
255
528
152,161.5
P in; A in2
P cm; A cm2
On Spreadsheet
Circumference
18.85
75.40
32.04
106.81
25.13
238.76
716.28
Area
28.27
452.39
81.71
907.92
50.27
4,536.46
40,828.14
C ft; A ft2
C km; A km2
On Spreadsheet
height
4
12
8
7
8
slant height
5
13
17
25
10
LSA
SA
47.12
204.20
801.11
1884.96
188.50
Volume
75.40
282.74
1507.96
3694.51
301.59
37.70
314.16
1884.96
4222.30
301.59
Assignment 2.3a
83
84
9. Using a spreadsheet fill out the table for a savings account that has a beginning balance of
$150 and grows at 7% with an additional $25 added at the end of each year:
year
Beginning Balance
Ending Balance
1
150
150 1.07 + 25 = 185.5
2
185.5
185 1.07 + 25 =
.
.
.
15
10. As a group, select a typical job that one of you anticipates having in the next five years. Then
open a spreadsheet document and go through the lifelong income example in this section. How
much money do you expect to earn over your lifetime?
Assignment 2.3b
85
Answers:
1.
radius
5
14
7.2
13
15
16
281
2.
3.
4.
5.
radius
3
12
5.1
17
4
38
114
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
height
7
3
18.34
2.5
17
33
541.5
Surface Area
Volume
376.99
1,495.40
1,155.40
1,266.06
3,015.93
4,926.02
1,452,185.50
549.78
1,847.26
2,986.86
1,327.32
12,016.59
26,540.17
134,326,275.61
SA in2; V in3
SA cm2; V cm3
On Spreadsheet
Surface Area
113.10
1,809.56
326.85
3,631.68
201.06
18,145.84
163,312.55
Volume
113.10
7,238.23
555.65
20,579.53
268.08
229,847.30
6,205,877.00
SA ft2; V ft3
SA km2; V km3
On Spreadsheet
At the end of 15 years you should
have $1,042.08
Complete when everyone can do it
on their own.
Assignment 2.3b
86
2.
2v9m
3.
6(3 7) 4 2 (7 + 4)
6.
18
5.
12
18
7
11
s4
13
8
f+2
21
t+3
r9
12 a3
2
3
, and a = 4.
8.
7a  12
4
9.
2r 3p + 9t
r = 6 m/h
t = 19 hours
d=
11.
r = 65 km/h
t = 4.3 hours
d=
14.
P = $5,000
r = 6%
t=9
A=
15. P = $300
r = 13%
t=7
A=
P = $2,800
r = 7%
t=4
A=
Use the formulas for Money totals (you may have to make up your own) when q stands for
quarters, d for dimes, n for nickels and p for pennies.
16.
q = 15
d = 27
V=
17.
p = 30
d = 25
V=
18. p = 37
q = 23
n=7
V=
Assignment 2.3c
87
F = 212
C=
20.
F = 98.6
C=
21. F = 40
C=
23.
r = 9 ft
l = 12.8 ft
SA =
24. r = 3 in
l = 7.9 in
LSA =
26.
l = 10.7 cm
w = 4 cm
A=
27. l = 8.6 mm
w = 9 mm
P=
29.
r = 15 in
A=
30. r = 7 m
C=
l = 4.2 mi
w = 5 mi
h = 7mi
V=
33. l = 6 km
w = 8 km
h = 2 km
SA =
r=6m
h= 7 m
V=
l = 3 yd
w = 5 yd
A=
r = 4 in
C=
l = 7 cm
w = 2 cm
h = 8 cm
SA =
32.
34. Create a Visual Chart on one side of a piece of paper for Chapter 2 material including
information and examples relating to Calculator and Spreadsheet Usage and Formulas.
Assignment 2.3c
88
Answers:
321
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
18vm
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
279.5
200
30 + s + t
f + 33
r + 45
52
4
35
114
84
$3,670.23
$8,447.39
$705.78
$6.45
$2.80
$6.47
100 C
37 C
40 C
263.89 m3 or 84 m3
616.38 ft2
74.46 in2
15 yd2
42.8 cm2
35.2 mm
25.13 in or 8 in
706.86 in2 or 225 in2
43.98 m or 14 m
Assignment 2.3c
89
Chapter 3
ALGEBRA
Overview
Algebra
3.1 Linear Equations and Applications
3.2 More Linear Equations
3.3 Equations with Exponents
90
91
x=5
What would you do to 20 to get 5? Divide by 4. Holy smokes! That is the exact opposite
of what the equation is doing. Here is another:
x
=4
7
What number divided by 7 equals 4? Thats it, 28. We times 4 by 7 to get that answer.
Multiplying by 7 is the exact opposite of dividing by 7.
This leads us to a couple of conclusions that form the basis for everything we will do in Algebra:
x=6
x3=24
+3 +3
x = 27
x
5
=7
(5) (5)
x = 35
You may ask why we go through all of that when the answers are obvious. The answer is
that these problems will not be so easy later on, and we need to practice these easy ones so that
when we get the hard ones, they crumble before our abilities. Now to some which are a little
tougher.
When we have one like this:
2x 7 = 11
We could think about it long enough to find a number that works, and maybe you can do
that, but I have to tell you that in just a little while we are going to have a problem that you wont
be able to do that with too quickly. So, lets use what we learned to get rid of the 2 and the 7 so
that x will be left by itself. If you remember the order of operations, you will remember that the 2
and the x are stuck together by multiplication, so we cant get rid of the 2 until the 7 has been
taken care of like this:
2x 7 = 11
2x = 18
(we added 7 to both sides)
x=9
(divided both sides by 2)
Section 3.1
92
To illustrate the idea of undoing operations, I would like to try to stump you with math
tricks.
We begin. I am thinking of a number, and it is your job to guess what the number is.
I am thinking of a number.
I times the number by two.
I get 10.
Not too hard to figure out, you say? You're right. The answer is 5 and you obtained that
by taking the result and going backwards. Try the next one:
I am thinking of a number.
I times the number by 3.
Then I subtract 5.
Then I divide that number by 2.
Then I add 4 to that.
I get 18.
What was the number I started with?
Aha. A little tougher don't you think? Well, If you think about it just one step at a time,
then the thing falls apart. What number would I add 4 to to get 18? 14 (notice that it is just 18
subtract 4). We can just follow up the line doing the exact opposite of what I did to my number.
Here you go:
Start with 18
Subtract 4 = 14
Multiply by 2 = 28
Add 5 = 33
Divide by 3 = 11.
That's it! Most of Algebra is summed up in the concept of undoing what was done.
I am thinking of a number.
I times it by 4.
Then I add 5.
Then I divide by 9.
Then I subtract 7.
I get 2. What did I start with?
This one is done the same way as the other one but I wanted to show you how you make
that into an equation that will be useful in the rest of your math career. Instead of writing each
Section 3.1
93
step out, we construct an equation. We write it again but this time we will write the equation
along with it:
I am thinking of a number.
I times it by 4.
Then I add 5.
Then I divide by 9.
Then I subtract 7.
I get 2. What did I start with?
We call that x.
4x
4x+5
4 x+5
9
4 x+5
9
4 x+5
9
7
7 = 2
That looks like a nasty equation, but it is done in exactly the same way. We just go backwards
and undo all of the things that were done to the original number. We are using the rule that we
can add, subtract, multiply or divide both sides of the equation by the same thing.
I know you can do it when it is all written out, so I will show you what it looks like using the
equation:
Notice here that we are
4 x+5
still undoing in the
7
=
2
9
opposite order of what
4 x +5
=5
add 7 to both sides
9
was there.
4x + 5 = 45
times both sides by 9
4x = 40
subtract 5 from both sides
divide both sides by 4.
x = 10
10 is the number I started with! Go ahead and make sure by sticking it into the original
problem, and you will see that we found the right number. We call that number a solution,
because it is the only number that solves the equation.
Section 3.1
94
Another example:
Solve for x:
y = bx +c
y c = bx
subtract c from both sides
yc
=x
Divide both sides by b.
b
Done. x is by itself.
Section 3.1
95
2(3+x)+5(x7)
8.
5(a3b) 4(a5)
9.
10.
2s(t7) 6t(s+3)
11.
3x+4y7z+7y3x+18z
Example:
4x + x 7 = 1
Solve.
5x 7 = 1
Combine xs
+7 on both sides
5x = 8
x=
8
5
13.
3x 1
5
+ 2 = 35
7
14.
2x 8
3
+ 7 3 = 12
6
15. 3 + m = 18
16.
7
3
17.
13 = 5x + 7
18.
19.
83 x 4 = 20
20.
12 + 2p = 3
21. .4y = 78
t = 14
5x 6
=3
4
Assignment 3.1a
96
22.
5x + 3 7x = 15
23.
3x 9 + 2x =  3
24. .3p + 5 = 19
25.
r + 9 = 15
26.
4f + 9 = 9
27.
28.
t + t + 4t 7 = 17
29.
5x 8
3
+ 7 3 = 18
6
2x + 3
= 11
5
y = mx + b
32.
A = 2rh
34.
C = 59 (F 32)
for b
for h
for F
31.
5m 7
=r
3
33.
A=
35.
V = 13 r2h
1
2
bh
for m
for b
for h
Preparation.
36. After reading some from the next section, Try to solve this problem.
Two numbers add up to 94 and the first is 26 more than the second one. Find the two numbers.
37. Find the missing variable for a cone:
r=9
l=
SA = 622.04
Assignment 3.1a
97
Answers:
30 in3
1.
78.4 ft3
29. x = 85 or 1.6
30. b = y mx
31. m = 3r + 7
2.
3.
194.4 m3
4.
87.5
32.
5.
48
33.
6.
7.
125
7x 29
34.
35.
8.
9.
10.
a 15b + 20
36.
11y + 11z
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
A
2r
2A
b=
h
9
F = 5 C + 32
h=
3V
r 2
Discuss together.
h=
18
5
or 3.6
x = 64
p =  92
y = 195
x = 6
x=
6
5
or 1.2
p = 46.6
r = 24
f=0
x = 26
t=4
Assignment 3.1a
98
D Data. Write down all the numbers that may be helpful. Also, note any
other clues that may help you unravel the problem.
E Equation. Once you know how the data and variable fit together.
Write an equation of what you know. Then solve it. This turns out to be
the easy part.
Once you have mastered the techniques in solving linear equations, then the fun begins.
Linear equations are found throughout mathematics and the real world. Here is a small outline of
some applications of linear equations. You will be able to solve any of these problems by the
same methods that you have just mastered.
Translation
The first application is when you simply translate from English into math. For example:
Seven less than 3 times what number is 39?
Since we dont know what the number is, we pick a letter to represent it (you can pick what you
would like to); I will pick the letter x:
3x 7 = 39 then solve
3x = 46
x = 463
(or 15 13 or 15.3)
Thats the number.
Substitution
Sometimes you are given a couple of different things to find. Example:
Two numbers add to 15, and the second is 7 bigger than the first. What are the
two numbers?
99
Pick some letters to represent what you dont know. Pick whatever is best for you. I will
choose the letter f for the first number and s for the second. I then have two equations to
work with:
f + s = 15 and s = f + 7
The letter s and f+7
f + f + 7 = 15
are exactly the same and
2f + 7 = 15
can be changed places.
2f = 8
f=4
4 must be the first number, but we need to stick it back in to one of the original equations
to find out what s is.
s=f+7
=4+7
= 11.
4 and 11 are our two numbers.
These kind of problems often take the form of an object being cut into two pieces. Here, I will
show you what I mean.
Example:
A man cuts a 65 inch board so that one piece is four times bigger than the other.
What are the lengths of the two pieces?
Now, I would personally pick f for first and s for second. We know that
f + s = 65 and that s = 4f
Thus,
f + 4f = 65
5f = 65
f = 13, so the other piece must be 52.
The pieces are 13in and 52in.
Shapes
With many of the problems that you will have, pictures and shapes will play a very
important role. When you encounter problems that use rectangles, triangles, circles or any other
shape, I would suggest a few things:
1. Read the problem
2. READ the problem again.
3. READ THE PROBLEM one more time.
Once you draw a picture to model the problem read the problem again to make sure that your
picture fits.
The formulas for the shapes that we will be discussion are found in Section 2.2.
100
Seeing all of the xs scattered throughout the equation sometimes looks daunting, but it
isnt as bad as all that. We know a couple of ways to make it look a bit more simple.
3x 5 +2x 3 = 4x + 7(x 8) becomes
5x 8 = 4x + 7x 56
5x 8 = 11x 56
6x 8 = 56
Which now is able to be undone easily:
6x = 48 (add 8 to both sides)
x=8
(divide both sides by 6)
101
0=0
5=5
3 = 3
solution is all real
numbers
0=1
5=7
3 = 2
No solution
1=1
Ahh! The xs all vanished.
Well, what do you think about that? This statement is always true no
matter what x is. That is the point. x can be any number it wants to be
and the statement will be true. All numbers are solutions.
Section 3.1
102
4s(t9) t(s+11)
2.
3.
4.
6x 4
5
+ 2 = 30
5
5.
2x + 8
7
+ 5 2 = 12
6
6.
3 7m = 18
7.
7
2
8.
15 = 3x + 9
9.
2x 7
= 33
3
11.
5x 8
9
+ 7 3 = 42
6
Solve.
10.
t = 14
t +5t + 4t 7 = 17
y = mx + b
14.
6 = 7b pb
16.
P = 2l + 2w
for x
for b
for l
13.
5m + 9
=r
2
15.
3t + nt = y
17.
SA = 2rh+2r2
for m
for t
for h
Assignment 3.1b
103
23. I have created a triangular garden such that the largest side is 6ft less than twice the smallest
and the medium side is 5ft larger than the smallest side. If the total perimeter of the garden is
47ft, what are the lengths of the three sides?
24. If a rectangles length is 5 more than twice the width and the perimeter is 46 mm, what are
the dimensions or the rectangle?
25. If a cone has a Lateral Surface Area of 250 in2, a radius of 8in, what is the slant height of the
cone? Use a calculator.
26. Two numbers add to 589 and the first is 193 bigger than the second. What are the two
numbers?
27. If a cylinder has a volume of 538 cm3 and a radius of 6 cm, how tall is it?
28. Find the missing variable for a rectangle:
P = 39 ft
w = 7.2 ft
l=
29. Find the missing variable for a cylinder:
SA = 800 in2
h=
r = 9 in
Solve.
Example:
x + 4 5x = 7x + 1
4x + 4 = 7x + 1
+4x
+4x
4 = 11x + 1
1
1
3 = 11x
3
=x
11
30. 4p + 2 = 7p  6
31.
4n + 5 = n
32. 2x 7 = x + 5
33. x 42 = 15x
34.
35. 7x = 13 + 7x
37.
2(x 4) = 3x  14
Assignment 3.1b
104
Answers:
3st 36s 11t
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
8x2 57n
14nj 7j + 11n
x=4
x = 13
m = 3
t = 4
x = 8
x = 53
t=
12
5
or 2.4
x =  45
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
l = 12.3 ft
h = 5.15 in
p = or 2.67
n=1
x = 12
x = 3
x=0
No solution
x =  12
37. x = 6
38. All numbers
yb
m
2r 9
m=
5
6
b=
7 p
y
t=
3+ n
p 2w
l=
2
SA 2r 2
h=
2r
7
x=
14
14, 23
102, 136
69.73 in2
12, 17, 18
l = 17mm; w = 6mm
= 9.95 in
198, 391
4.76 cm
Assignment 3.1b
105
3x + 4
5
+ 2 = 65
5
2.
2x + 8
3
3 + 17 = 20
5
3.
17 7m = 18
4.
3
7
5.
9 = 3x +17
6.
5x + 7
= 13
4
8.
5x + 8
7
+ 9 3 = 18
2
7.
t + 1 = 11
p= fx + bn
11. M = 5t 3p
13.
E= Q
T1
T2
for f
10.
for t
12.
LSA = rl
14.
3s 4 g
=c
7
for Q
F=
xf xz
2
for f
for r
for g
Assignment 3.1c
106
21. If a rectangles length is 7 more than 4 times the width and the perimeter is 54 what are the
dimensions or the rectangle?
22. If a cone has a volume of 338 cm3 and a radius of 6 cm, how tall is it?
23. Find the missing variable for a parallelogram:
A = 64 in2
h=
b = 12.6 in
Solve.
Example:
x + 4 5x = 7x + 1
4x + 4 = 7x + 1
+4x
+4x
4 = 11x + 1
1
1
3 = 11x
3
=x
11
24. 5p + 12 = 33 p
25.
7n + 18 = 5(n 2)
26. 5x 10 = 5x + 7
27. x 7 = 15x
28.
31.
.3x 9 + 2x = 4x  3
33. 7(x 5) 3x = 4x 35
34.
9x 4(x 3) = 15x
35. 2x 3x + 7x = 9x +8x
Assignment 3.1c
107
Answers:
x = 17
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
x = 6
1
7
m=
t = 28
x =  83
x=9
t=0
x = 4
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
6
5
or 1.2
x=0
p bn
x
2 F + xz
f=
x
M + 3p
t=
5
LSA
r=
l
T
Q=E+ 1
T2
7c 3s
3s 7 c
g=
or
4
4
x = 13
f=
x = 14
65, 86
151, 285
129.9 cm2
21, 28, 33
w = 4, l = 23
h = 8.97 cm
h = 5.08 in
p=
7
2
or 3.5
n = 14
no solution
x =  12
Assignment 3.1c
108
Percents
Section 3.2
If you scored 18 out of 25 points on a test, how well did you do.
Simple division tells us that you got 72%. As a review, 18/25 = .72
If we break up the word percent we get per which means divide
72
and cent which means 100. Notice that .72 is really the fraction 100
. We
see that when we write is as a percent instead of its numerical value, we move the decimal 2
places. Here are some more examples to make sure that we get percents:
.73 = 73%
.2 = 20%
.05 = 5 %
1 = 100%
2.3 = 230%
The next reminder, before we start doing problems, is that the word of often means times. It
will be especially true as we do examples like:
What is 52% of 1358?
All we need to do is multiply (.52)(1358)
which is
706.16
Linear Equations
w/ fractions
Sometimes however, it isnt quite that easy to see what needs to be done. Here are three
examples that look similar but are done very differently. Remember what means x, is
means = and of means times.
What is 15% of 243?
15 = x (243)
.062 = x
6.2% = x
x = .15(243)
x = 36.45
15 is 243% of what?
15 = 2.43x
6.17 = x
Once we have that down, we have the ability to solve tons of problems involving sales tax, markups, and discounts. Here are two examples:
amount of discount
subtract discount
109
Solve.
10. 7p + 13 = 33 4p
11.
5n + 48 = 7n 2(n 2)
12. 5x 10 = 7(x 2)
13. 3x 7 = 12x
14.
17.
.2q 7 + 2q = 3q  5
Assignment 3.2a
110
19. 6(x 5) x = 5x 20
20.
9x 2(x 3) = 15x +7
22.
23.
24.
34 is 56% of what?
25.
26.
119 is 8% of what?
27.
28.
Original Price:$92.56
Tax: 7.3%
Final Price:
29.
Original Price:
Discount: 40%
Final Price: $43.90
30.
Original Price:
Tax: 5%
Final Price: $237.50
31.
32. If the population of a town grew 21% up to 15,049. What was the population last year?
33. If the price of an object dropped 25% down to $101.25, what was the original price?
Preparation.
34. After reading some from the next section, try to solve this equation.
x
+ 137 = 157 27x
7
35. Solve.
x
3
Assignment 3.2a
111
Answers:
x = 11
1.
2.
3.
x = 19
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
106, 230
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
No solution
105, 146
136.71 cm
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
$99.32
$73.17
$226.19
$40.95
12,437
$135
Discuss together.
Discuss together.
13ft = b
p=
20
11
x=2
x = 79
All numbers
x = 62.5
26
m =  23 or  39
q = 2.5
t = 3.879
No solution
x =  18
x=0
31%
46.98
60.7
10.27
1487.5
31%
Assignment 3.2a
112
2 x3
=5
7
4
looks scary.
You have the ability to wipe out all of the fractions. Fractions are simply statements of
division. The opposite of division is multiplication and you have the power to multiply both
sides of the equation by anything you want to. The question is, what will undo a division by 7
and by 4; the answer is multiplication by 28. Here is what it looks like:
1. Simplify
2 x3
=5
7
4
x 3
2
(28) (28)
= 5(28)
7
4
(4)2 (7)(x 3) = 140
8 7x + 21 = 140
(Combine numbers)
2. Subtract
7x = 111
3. Divide
x=
111
7
right!)
Section 3.2
113
Linear Equations
1. Simplify
1. Parentheses
2. Fractions
3. Combine like terms
2. Add/Subtract
3. Multiply/Divide
Section 3.2
114
Solve.
3.
7p + 12 = 33 4p
4.
3n + 48 = 7 2(n 2)
5.
5x 10 = 5(x 2)
6.
3x 7 = 15x
7.
8.
.09x = 13  .18x
9.
.8(3x 2) = 9.5x + 1
10.
.2x 7 + 2x = 3x  5
13.
9x 4(x 3) = 15x +7
12. 5(x 5) x = 4x 20
15.
16.
85 is 54% of what?
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
Original Price:$72.56
Tax: 7.3%
Final Price:
22.
Original Price:
Discount: 30%
Final Price: $49.70
23.
Original Price:
Tax: 5%
Final Price: $339.50
24.
25. If the population of a town grew 31% up to 17,049. What was the population last year?
26. If the price of an object dropped 35% down to $101.25, what was the original price?
Assignment 3.2b
115
Solve.
Example:
+ 4 = +
(12)
+ 4
(12) (12)
=
x
+(12)
4(x+4) 30 = 3x + 10
4x + 16 30 = 3x + 10
x 14 = 10
x = 24
27.
7
3
t 5 = 19
28.
83 (x 7) = 5 + 3x
29.
2
3
30.
4
5
x = 2x 
5
3
31.
3
5
32.
3x+2
7
35.
x+7
4
34.
2
5
(x3) = 15 x +3
x6=3+
1
2
4 x 1
5
= 8 56 x
Preparation.
36. Describe the best way to get rid of fractions in an equation.
Assignment 3.2b
116
Answers:
19
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
140, 211
p=
21
11
n = 375 or 7.4
All numbers
x = 127
no solution
x = 48.15
x = .366
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
x =  19
27
x = 54
x=
25
18
no solution
x=
17
13
x =  105
61
x=
9
7
x=
75
13
Discuss together.
x = 2.5
m = 6.03
no solution
x=
1
2
x=0
218%
157.4
444.6
18.17
661.1
24.7%
$77.86
$71.00
$323.33
$33.30
13,015
$155.77
t=
72
7
Assignment 3.2b
117
Linear Equations
1 Simplify
Parentheses
Fractions
Combine like terms
2 Add/Subtract
3 Multiply/Divide
Word Problems
D,V,P,E
Section 3.2
118
3x 1
5
2 = 70
5
2.
6x + 4
3
+ 3 5 = 19
2
3.
4 9m = 22
4.
6
7
5.
19 = 3x 7
6.
5x 7
= 9
3
t = 24
2s at 2
=V
2t
d=
LR2
R2 + R1
8.
for s
10.
for R1
r=
I
pt
for p
9s 5 g
=c
11
for s
18.
4n + 68 = 7 2(n 2)
19. 7x 10 = 5(x 2)
Assignment 3.2c
119
20. 9x 4 = 15x
21.
8x 7(x+3) = x 21
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Original Price:$192.56
Tax: 7.3%
Final Price:
28.
Original Price:
Discount: 35%
Final Price: $43.90
29. If the price of a meal after a 20% tip was $28.80? What was the price of the meal before the
tip was added?
30. If the price of an object dropped 15% down to $59.50, what was the original price?
Solve.
31.
7
3
34.
5
2
t 2 = 19 + 5t
(4x 2) =
3
4
x+6
32.
34 (x 4) = 5 + 2x
33.
1
6
35.
x 5
3
36.
x +7
14
5 x +8
6
x4=3+
3
10
= 6 73 x
Assignment 3.2c
120
Answers:
x = 27
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
x = 1
m=2
t = 28
x=
26
3
x = 4
2Vt + at 2
2
I
p=
rt
LR 2 dR2
R1 =
d
11c + 5 g
s=
9
26
s=
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
$67.54
$24
$70
t =  638
x =  118
x = 52.5
x =  44
43
35. x = 6
36. x = 11
182, 256
62.38 in2
18mm X 79mm
l = 16.95 ft
17 in
p=
1
14
n = 9.5
x=0
x =  23
All numbers
x = 34.21
20.6%
278.98
661.1
36.5%
$206.62
Assignment 3.2c
121
Section 3.3
= x0
But, we know that anything divided by itself is equal to 1. Thus:
x0 = 1
Secondly, what happens if the number on the bottom is larger than the one on the top.
For example:
Section 3.3
122
Thus we have our next definition. A negative exponent puts the number on the bottom.
x3 =
= 2 = 2 = 8
=8
Look at that. The rules really work for any number. Here are some more examples to be able to
simplify some expressions:
(3x5)3 = 27x15 by use of the second rule.
(4y5)(7y12) = 28y17 by use of the first rule.
26 =
62 =
=
= 49
=
=
= = =
Rule
Official
Example
Why
Multiplication
add exponents
Exponent to a
power multiply
exponents
aman = am+n
Division subtract
exponents
Exponent of 0
m n
mn
a
=a
a!
(a ) = a
a0 = 1 if a 0
Negative exponent
an =
%&
(5x ) = 125x
36x
= 9x
4x
36xxxxxxxx
= 9xx = 9x
4xxxxxx
2 3
= x $ by division rule
70 = 1; x0 = 1
1=
24 = = ;
1
= x
x
1
xx
x
=
=
= x
x xxxxxxx x
Section 3.3
123
2.
x7x11
3.
(
4.
t8t5
5.
34
6.
3x7 4x
7.
)
8.
170
9.
(g8)2
10.
*
11.
(2m2n5g8)7
12.
5x2 4x7
(
*
16.
5n + 48 = 7n 2(n 2)
18. 2(x 5) x = 4x 7
19.
21.
22.
85 is 24% of what?
23.
24.
25.
Original Price:
Tax: 5%
Final Price: $239.40
26.
27. If the population of a town grew 41% up to 7,191. What was the population last year?
Assignment 3.3a
124
28. If the price of an object dropped 35% down to $11.44, what was the original price?
Solve.
t + 5 = 19
30.
83 (x + 7) = 5 + 3x
31.
2
3
33.
34.
x +7
4
29.
7
3
x6=7+
1
2
= 4 56 x
Preparation.
35. Simplify the following (so that there are no negative exponents).
% + ,  (
. / 0 1
Assignment 3.3a
125
Answers:
243m10
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
18
t13
12x8
)
8.
9.
.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
$17.60
t=6
x=
x = 78
x = 3
x = 45
x=
5g h j
k
7a b c d f <

128m14n35g56
20x9
14
105,146
p=3
No solution
x=0
x = 1
<
m=
x=
115.4%
354.17
668.23
11.27
$228
$42.74
5,100
Assignment 3.3a
126
Quarterly
Monthly
Daily
Rate: .10/4
Changing the rate to 2.5% or .025
Rate: .10/12 Changing the rate to .83% or .0083
Rate: .10/365 Changing the rate to .0274% or .000274
If you assume you put $50 into savings and you are comparing savings accounts where the 10%
annual interest rate is compounding quarterly, monthly, or daily. You can compare the amount
of interest you will earn using Excel as follows:
Quarterly
Rate: .1/4 or .025
Nper: 10*4 or 40
Pmt: 0
Pv: 50
Rate:
Nper:
Pmt:
Pv:
Monthly
.1/12 or .00833
10*12 or 120
0
50
Daily
Rate: .1/365or .000274
Nper: 10*365 or 3650
Pmt: 0
Pv:
50
Future Value = $135.90
The more frequently interest is added to your savings and compounded, the more interest
you will earn. The above illustration involves a small amount of savings. The more the savings
and the more often you add to your savings the more difference it will make when the interest in
added and compounded more frequently. The following example illustrates saving $100 per
month for ten years at 10% interest rate compounded monthly versus annually.
Annually
Rate: .1 or 10%
Nper: 10
Pmt: 1200
Pv: 0
Monthly
Rate: .1/12 or .00833
Nper: 10*12
Pmt: 100
Pv: 0
127
A = Final Amount
PMT = monthly payment
P = Principal amount
(beginning balance)
r = annual interest rate
n = number of compounding
per year
Y = number of years
A BC
? + B ?
H
= = >DE F
A
B
BC
So,
I
= periodic interest rate (rate
J
used in spreadsheet)
nY = number of periods (nper)
A BC
? + B ?
+ >DE F
H
A
B
Spreadsheets normally have this formula built into their functions. It is known as
Future Value (FV), so you wont need to use this one if you learn the spreadsheet
well.
A
B
A BC
? ? +
B
Spreadsheets also normally have this formula built into their functions. It is known
as Payment (PMT).
Final note using a spreadsheet: The formulas are built so that money going out from you is
negative and money coming in to you is positive. When you are entering Savings into the
spreadsheet, the payment and Principal (Present Value) will be negative. However, for a loan, the
payment will be negative but the Principal (Present Value) will be positive, because it represents
money coming to you.
Section 3.3
128
When you have paid the monthly payment for fortyeight months you will own the car
and the future value of the loan is zero because the loan in paid off.
.06/12
4*12
15000
0
Monthly Payment = $352.28
Total Payment = $352.28*48 (Payments) = $16,909.22
Section 3.3
129
.06/12
39
350
0
FV = $15,030.44
Amount Deposited in Savings = $350*39 (deposits) = $13,650.00
Interest Earned on Savings = $15,030.44$13,650.00 = $1,380.44
Again, you can double click on the cell containing the FV calculation and subtract
350*39 and enter this formula giving you the amount of interest earned. You can make
the same adjustment to the formula in the formula bar. The resulting formula is as
follows:
=FV(0.06/12,39,350)350*39
Total Savings From Saving Versus Borrowing
Here is how you benefited by saving and paying cash for the car rather than borrowing
the money to buy the car:
Interest Earned
Interest Not Paid
Financial Advantage
$1,380.44
$1,909.22
$3,289.66
You are wealthier by $3,289.66 because you collected interest rather than paying interest.
This practice will make a major difference in your financial well being throughout your
Section 3.3
130
life. If you put the money you save by paying cash for major purchases to work for you
by investing it for your retirement you will add greatly to your independent wealth. You
can estimate that using the FV function in Excel as follows assuming a 6% return on your
investment for 30 years:
Rate: .06
Nper 30
Pv:
3289.66
FV = $18,894.13
This addition to your wealth along with the other additions resulting from saving rather
than borrowing will make a major impact on your ultimate wealth.
TIP: In all of the Excel functions you will be using, you only need three entries or factors to
calculate the fourth factor you are after. Notice that there are only three entries in each of the
above Excel functions. You can leave blank any factor not needed and Excel will assume it is
zero.
Section 3.3
131
2.
(x7x11)3
3.
4.
t8m5t5m3
5.
24
6.
7.
8.
9.
(5p5g8)2
11.
10.
12.
Using your calculator and the Savings Plan formulas, fill out the table for a savings account.
18. Simple n = 1 19. Quarterly n = 4 20. Monthly n = 12
21. Daily n = 365
P = 300
P = 300
P = 300
P = 300
r = 7%
r = 7%
r = 7%
r = 7%
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
A=
A=
A=
A=
Using a spreadsheet and the Future Value (FV) formula, fill out the table for a savings account.
Put your results in a spreadsheet called Savings and Loan Practice.
22. Simple n = 1 23. Quarterly n = 4 24. Monthly n = 12
25. Daily n = 365
P = 200
P = 200
P = 200
P = 200
r = 7%
r = 7%
r = 7%
r = 7%
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
A=
A=
A=
A=
Assignment 3.3b
132
Using a spreadsheet and the Future Value (FV) formula, fill out the table for a savings account.
Put your results in a spreadsheet called Savings and Loan Practice.
26. Simple n = 1 27. Quarterly n = 4 28. Monthly n = 12
29. Daily n = 365
P = 300
P = 300
P = 300
P = 300
r = 8%
r = 8%
r = 8%
r = 8%
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
A=
A=
A=
A=
Using your calculator, find the monthly (n = 12) payment for the following loans.
30.
31.
32.
33.
P = 300
P = 3000
P = 1500
P = 23,000
r = 8%
r = 9%
r = 15%
r = 8%
Y=2
Y=5
Y = 12
Y = 30
PMT =
PMT =
PMT=
PMT =
Using a spreadsheet and the Payment (PMT) formula, find the monthly (n = 12) payment for the
following loans. Put your results in a spreadsheet called Savings and Loan Practice.
36.
37.
34.
35.
P = 1500
P = 23,000
P = 300
P = 3000
r = 8%
r = 9%
r = 15%
r = 8%
Y = 30
Y=2
Y=5
Y = 12
PMT =
PMT =
PMT =
PMT=
Using a spreadsheet and the Payment (PMT) formula, find the monthly (n = 12) payment for the
following loans. Put your results in a spreadsheet called Savings and Loan Practice.
38.
39.
40.
41.
P = 500
P = 4800
P = 2500
P = 23,000
r = 4%
r = 9%
r = 15%
r = 8%
Y=2
Y=5
Y = 12
Y = 20
PMT =
PMT =
PMT=
PMT =
42. Ensure that every member of the group is able to put in the formulas and use the spreadsheet
to do the calculations.
Assignment 3.3b
133
Answers:
216m12
1.
2.
3.
x54
4.
5.
6.
7.
t13m8
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
28. 992.08
29. 995.90
30. 13.57
31.
32.
33.
34.
62.28
22.51
168.77
13.57
35. 62.28
36. 22.51
37. 168.77
38. 21.71
39. 99.64
40.
37.52
41. 192.38
42. Complete only when everyone understands
and can enter the formulas on their own.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
661.38
663.94
827.71
849.54
854.68
857.21
551.81
566.36
569.79
571.47
951.65
984.31
Assignment 3.3b
134
3x 1
5
2 = 10
5
2.
6x + 4
3
+ 3 5 = 25
2
3.
7 9m = 22
4.
6
7
5.
19 = 7x  39
6.
4x 7
= 9
3
t = 48
2s + at 2
=V
5t
d=
LR2
R2 + R1
8.
for s
10.
for L
r=
I
pt
for t
9s 5 g
=c
11
for g
18.
3n + 68 = 7 2(n 2)
19. 2x 10 = 5(x 4)
Assignment 3.3c
135
20.
21.
22.
23.
Original Price:
Discount: 35%
Final Price: $13.90
24. If the price of a meal after a 20% tip was $16.08? What was the price of the meal before the
tip was added?
25. If the price of an object dropped 15% down to $413.10, what was the original price?
Solve.
26.
5
2
(3x+ 2) =
3
4
x+6
27.
x 5
3
4 x +8
6
28.
2 x +7
21
= 6 73 x
29. Find the price, interest rate and years of a loan for homes in your area. In your Life Plan
spreadsheet, enter the Price, Number of years, and Interest Rate, then use the PMT formula to
figure out how much it will cost to own a home. Report to your group when you have completed
it.
30. Using the PMT formula in your Life Plan spreadsheet, find the cost of owning your own
transportation. Report results to your group.
31. Create a Visual Chart on one side of a piece of paper for Chapter 3 material including
information and examples relating to Linear Equations and Applications.
Assignment 3.3c
136
Answers:
x=7
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
x=
28.
29.
30.
31.
t = 56
<
x=
Will be submitted in Portfolio
Will be submitted in Portfolio
Make it nice.
x=
x = 5
s=
RS %S
T=
X=
]=
6
VW
*YZ [Z \
Z
<^ M
255, 183
55.73in2
l = 73mm, w = 17mm
21.95 ft
3.32 in
p=
$
n=
x=
26.5%
425
$99.32
$21.38
$13.40
$486.00
x=
x = 9
Assignment 3.3c
137
Chapter 4
CHARTS, GRAPHS, and
LINES
Overview
Algebra
4.1 Charts and Maps
4.2 Lines and Slope
4.3 Writing Equations of Lines
138
Section 4.1
Graphs and Charts
Using coordinates is also valuable in being able to read charts and see trends that arent
so readily picked up by only seeing the numbers. Here is an example of a savings account and
how it has grown:
139
$100.00
$80.00
$60.00
$40.00
$20.00
$0.00
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
y  axis
tick marks so you wont lose
your place
x  axis
Keeping things in order, when you are given a set of numbers like (6,2), we have the following:
Parentheses tell us that these two numbers go together to make a single set of coordinates
6 comes first and so matches up with the x
2 comes second and matches up with y
So, we go to where we are at 6 on the x and 2 on the y to find the right location of the point like
this:
(6,2)
Section 4.1
140
Profit
7. In what year did the
company make $450?
600
400
200
500
300
100
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
155
195
205
170
Assignment 4.1a
141
Answers:
On maps
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
On maps
On maps
On maps
On maps
On maps
2003
About $350
2004(maybe), 2009, 2010
Amount
250
200
150
100
50
0
Amount
1119
(1,8) (3,8)
(2,4)
(5,1)
(0,1)
(1,1)
(5,0)
(2,4)
(3,7)
Assignment 4.1a
142
Profit
7. In what years did the
company make about $400?
600
400
200
500
300
100
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
420
447
439
480
11. As a group, use a spreadsheet to make a table of the growth of a savings account for 20 years
that begins with $200 and receives a $25 deposit each month and grows at 6%. The table should
show the yearly values at the end of each year.
12. As a group, use the spreadsheet to make a graph of the 20year table.
13. How much money was paid into the savings account over the 20 years? How much interest
was earned?
Graph the following points on a Cartesian coordinate system.
14. (5,1)
15. (3,7)
16. (0,1)
17. (12,4)
18. (1,1)
19. (5,0)
Assignment 4.1b
143
Answers:
On maps
1.
On maps
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
On maps
On maps
On maps
On maps
Amount
600
500
400
300
Amount
200
100
0
0
1419
(12,4)
(5,0)
(1,1)
(0,1)
(5,1)
(3,7)
Assignment 4.1b
144
Answer to #11:
t
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
r
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
n
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
P
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
PMT
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
rate
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
nper
12
24
36
48
60
72
84
96
108
120
132
144
156
168
180
192
204
216
228
240
Amount
$520.72
$861.23
$1,222.74
$1,606.54
$2,014.02
$2,446.63
$2,905.92
$3,393.54
$3,911.24
$4,460.86
$5,044.39
$5,663.90
$6,321.63
$7,019.92
$7,761.29
$8,548.37
$9,384.01
$10,271.18
$11,213.08
$12,213.06
Answer to #12:
Amount
$14,000.00
$12,000.00
$10,000.00
$8,000.00
Amount
$6,000.00
$4,000.00
$2,000.00
$0.00
1
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Assignment 4.1b
145
Value
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Value
73
68
72
85
11. Use a spreadsheet to make a table of the growth of a savings account for 20 years that begins
with $200 and receives a $50 deposit each month and grows at 6%. The table should show the
yearly values at the end of each year.
12.Use the spreadsheet to make a graph of the 20year table.
13. How much money was paid into the savings account over the 20 years? How much interest
was earned?
14. How much interest is earned if the account grows at 9% instead of 6%?
Graph the following points on a Cartesian coordinate system.
15. (7,1)
16. (13,7)
17. (0,4)
18. (8,4)
19. (1,1)
20. (8,0)
21. Create a realistic savings plan for yourself. Make a table of the growth of your savings for 20
years. Create a graph of the table. Include it in your portfolio.
Assignment 4.1c
146
Answers:
On maps
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
On maps
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
On maps
11.
12.
13.
14.
On maps
On maps
On maps
3rd year
About $2000
From the 1st to 2nd year
Amount
100
80
60
Amount
40
20
0
0
1520.
(8,0)
(0,4)
(1,1)
(8,4)
(7,1)
21.
(13,7)
Include in Portfolio
Assignment 4.1c
147
r
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
n
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
P
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
PMT
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
rate
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
nper
12
24
36
48
60
72
84
96
108
120
132
144
156
168
180
192
204
216
228
240
Amount
$829.11
$1,497.03
$2,206.14
$2,958.99
$3,758.27
$4,606.85
$5,507.77
$6,464.26
$7,479.73
$8,557.85
$9,702.45
$10,917.66
$12,207.81
$13,577.54
$15,031.75
$16,575.66
$18,214.79
$19,955.01
$21,802.57
$23,764.09
Amount
$25,000.00
$20,000.00
$15,000.00
Amount
$10,000.00
$5,000.00
$0.00
1
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Assignment 4.1c
148
Section 4.2
3(1)+2(1)=5
3(3)+2(2) =5
3(1)+2(4)=5
3(5)+2(2)=5
3(5)+2(5)=5
solution
nope
solution
nope
solution
If you try all of these, you will realize that some of them work as solutions and some of
them dont. In any case, you should be able to realize that there are a whole lot of solutions, tons
of them! One way to get them is to keep guessing. When you get tired of that there is an
algorithm that might make things a little easier. If we pick a number for x and stick it in, then
we will have an equation that we can solve for y. For example, if we say in this example we
want x to be 7, we stick it in to get:
3(7)+2y=5
21+2y=5
2y=16
y=8
Which means that when x is 7, y will be 8, or in other words,
the pair (7,8) is a solution. What would we get if we made y = 9? The equation would be:
3x+2(9)=5
149
You will notice that all of the solutions are in a straight line.
If we connect them, we get all of the solutions for the
equation. It is important to realize that if we draw the line
that connects the dots, all of the points on that line are
solutions. The problems will simply ask you to graph the
line 3x+2y=5 or something similar.
.
For the next one, find four points on the line and then graph it:
y = 14 x 2
x y
when x = 4 we have y = 14 (4) 2 which means y = 1.
4
when x = 0 we have y = 14 (0) 2 which means y = 2.
0
0 when y = 0 we have 0 = 1 (x) 2 which means x = 8.
4
3
1
when y = 3 we have 3 = 4 (x) 2 which means x = 20.
x y
4 1
0 2
8 0
20 3
Notice that we really only need two points to
get the pattern. For convenience, we often select 0 for x, and
then 0 for y.
When x is 0 the point is on the yaxis. Likewise, when y is 0
the point is on the xaxis. In the previous example, the point
(0,2) lies on the yaxis and is called the yintercept; the point
(8,0) lies on the xaxis and is called the xintercept.
An xintercept happens
when y is zero, and a yintercept happens when x
is zero.
Section 4.2
150
x y
0
0
x y
0 83
2 0
There are a couple of particular kinds of lines that may give you a bit of trouble when you first
see them. Your first reaction when asked to graph the line:
x=4
is probably something like, Hey, where is the y? or, How do I do that? It looks
different.
Relax, these kind are actually a bit easier than the other ones. Watch:
What is x when y is 7? Answer: 4
The points (4,7) (4,0)
What is x when y is 0? Answer: 4
and (4,3) are part of
What is x when y is 3? Answer: 4
the line and help us
graph it.
Do you see how nice that is? Since y is not in the equation it can be
anything it wants to be, but x is always 4. The graph is as follows:
Here is the line x = 4; notice that it is vertical and hits where x is 4.
151
For future reference you can remember that all equations that only have an x will be vertical.
The other special case that may seem difficult at first looks like:
y = 2
But I think you can see that it will be very similar to the previous example:
What is y when x is 0? Answer: 2
What is y when x is 5? Answer: 2
What is y when x is 3? Answer 2
7%
Now that we can graph any lines, there is one particular property of lines that is most
useful. We introduce this by bringing to mind a familiar road sign. This sign warns
7
of steepness, but take a look at what it is really saying. 7% means the fraction 100
.The interpretation of the sign means that the road falls vertically 7 feet for
every 100 feet that you travel horizontally. In this way the highway
department uses fractions to denote the steepness of roads. We are going
to do the same thing with the steepness of lines.
When we have a couple of points on the graph we can find the steepness
between them. Here are a couple of examples.
The steepness of the line between point A(2,1) and B(3,3) is found by
taking how much it changes up and down (distance
C (1,7)
st
between 1 and 3 = 2) over how much it changes
1 Example
left and right(distance between 2 and 3 = 5).
That makes a steepness of 52 . The name for steepness is
B (3,3)
slope, and the symbol is m (as in a mountain). We would
A (2,1)
write that m = 52 .
2nd Example
D (5,3)
Section 4.2
152
The slope of the line through A(2,1) and D(5,3) would be 4 (the distance from 1 down
to 3) over 7 (the distance from 2 to 5); m =  74 .
There are some properties that you should start to see from these examples.
1. Bigger numbers for slope correspond to steeper lines.
2. Positive slopes head up as you go to the right.
3. (Opposite of #2) Negative slopes will head down as you go to the right.
In the first example we obtained the 2 as the distance from 1 to 3. What operation finds distance?
Answer: Subtraction.
Aha! Seeing that, we can start to see a pattern in how to find slopes a little more quickly. Lets
look at those three examples, using subtraction this time:
1st Example:
3 1
2
=
3 2 5
2nd Example:
7 1
6
= =2
1 2 3
3rd Example:
4
3 1
=
5 2
7
Now, see if you can find the slope between two general points:
Point 1 and point 2 with coordinates that we dont know.
We would like to call them both just (x,y), but then subtraction
would give us zero. This is a good place to introduce you to how
subscripts can be very helpful. We will call point #1 (x1,y1) showing that
the x and the y come from the 1st point. Similarly we will call point #2
(x2,y2).
Now you can find the slope just like we did in the previous examples:
y y1
m= 2
x 2 x1
Voila! You have just created the formula for finding slope between two points. Practice using it
quite a bit until it almost becomes natural. Memorize it!
Sometimes formulas are written in a few different ways. Here are some of the others:
m=
y1 y 2
x1 x 2
m=
ychange
xchange
m=
rise
run
m=
y
x
Section 4.2
153
Original Price:$292.50
Discount:20%
Final Price:
5.
Original Price:
Discount: 40%
Final Price: $73.90
6. The perimeter of a rectangle is 82 cm. If the length of the rectangle is 6 more than 4 times the
width, what are the dimensions of the rectangle?
3(2) + 4y = 7
4y = 1
y = 14
7. x + y = 9
x
5
4
y
0
1
5
3(0) + 4y = 7
4y = 7
y = 74
3
0
7
Solution:
3x + 4(0) = 7
3x = 7
x = 73
x
2
7
3
1
 134
0
3x + 4(1) = 7
3x = 3
x=1
1
4
1
5
7
4
3x + 4(5) = 7
3x = 13
x =  133
8. 2x y = 5
x
2
0
1
0
4
9. 5x + 4y = 9
x
1
0
3
0
5
10. x7y = 13
x
y
1
3
2
0
1
Assignment 4.2a
154
. ..
y
(0, 73 ) (1, 17 ) (2,1)
11. 3x + y = 10
12. y = 2x
13. x 4y = 7
14. x = 3
15. y =  73 x + 4
16. 6x 5y = 12
17.
18. 5x + 2y = 6
y = 4
Preparation
19. After reading a bit of section 4.2, try to find the slope between (4,1) and (7,11).
Assignment 4.2a
155
Answers:
17, 40
1.
2.
3.
27 minutes
4.
5.
6.
$234
17m, 35m
$123.17
7cm X 34cm
7.
x
5
4
6
9
2
8.
x
2
0
1
9.
y
1
5
7
0
x
1
0
y
1
3
6
0
x
20
34
2
0
6
19. m =
10.
y
1
3
1
Assignment 4.2a
156
4.
4(x7) = 2x + 15
Original Price:$392.50
Discount:20%
Final Price:
5.
Original Price:
Discount: 45%
Final Price: $73.90
6. If my vehicle can get 32 miles per gallon and fuel costs $2.75 per gallon. How many miles per
dollar do I get?
3
0
7
8.
y = 5x+2
x
2
0
1
0
4
9. x + 4y = 9
x
1
0
3
10. y = x  13
x
y
2
5
2
0
0
5
1
11. 3x + 2y = 10
12. y = 2x  7
13. y = x
14. x = 6
15. y =  73 x  2
16. 2x 5y = 12
Assignment 4.2b
157
17.
y=5
18. 5x + y = 6
52
37
3
=10
m=
25. Explain the difference between a slope of zero and an undefined slope.
Preparation
26. Find two points of each line and then use those points to find the slope.
2x 3y = 1
y = x + 4
Assignment 4.2b
158
Answers:
205 Oaks, 414 Aspen,
1.
255 Maple
w=7, l=31
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
$134.36
11.64 miles per dollar
1
x
2
0
1

10.
9.
x=
$314
x
5
4
3
8.
y
1
17
3
0
7
y
12
2
3
0
4
x
y
1
2
0
3
3
0
9
11 5
x
35
42
2
y
2
5
0
28
13
1
m =
m = 
m =
m=0
m = 
m = undefined
Undefined is straight up and
down, vertical.
0 is horizontal, straight across
26. m =
m=
Assignment 4.2b
159
4.
5(x7) = x + 15
Original Price:$92.50
Discount:20%
Final Price:
5.
Original Price:
Discount: 25%
Final Price: $174.30
6. What is the Volume of a Cylinder with radius 8cm and height 12cm?
3
0
7
8.
y = 5x+2
x
2
0
1
0
4
9. x  7y = 9
x
1
0
3
10. y = x
0
5
y
2
5
2
0
1
11. 4x + 2y = 10
12. y = 2x  7
13. y = x
14. x = 5
15. y =  73 x  2
16. 7x 5y = 12
17.
18. 5x + 2y = 6
y = 3
Assignment 4.2c
160
25. Explain the difference one more time between a slope of zero and an undefined slope.
Find two points of each line and then use those points to find the slope
28. 5x y = 10
26. 2x 3y = 1
27. y = x + 4
29. 2x + 7y = 1
30. y =  x + 3
Assignment 4.2c
161
Answers:
205 Birch, 414 Aspen,
1.
255 Pine
w = 6, l = 31
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
$232.40
2412.74 cm3
x
5
4
0
6
x
2
0
1

9.
10.
x=
$74.00
8.
y

3
0
7
y
8
2
7
0
4
y



0
5
y
2
5
2
0

x
1
0
3
9
44
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
m =
m =
m is undefined
m =
m=0
m=4
Undefined is straight up and
down, vertical.
0 is horizontal, straight across
26. (0,
) ( , 0) m =
0
1
162
Section 4.3
Graphing
Equations with
Slope
Okay, now that you know how to graph a line by getting some
points, and you know how to find the slope between two points, you should
be able to find the slope of a line once you have an equation:
Then finding the slope, we can just use the same method
that we have done the other ones we get the slope
m = 6412 = 34 .
(6,4)
(2,1)
Trying this a couple of times on various equations, you might get something like the following:
Equation
3x 5y = 10
Slope:
m= 35
Here is a pattern for another common way of writing lines. Pick out the pattern here:
Equation:
y = 2x 5
y = 73 x + 4
Slope:
m = 2
m = 73
y =  94 x 13
y = 7x  2
m =  94
m=
The pattern here is even easier than the first one. When y is by
itself, the slope is simply the number in front of x. No change.
1
7
Section 4.3
163
Since these are two very common ways of writing lines, they need some comparison.
Slopeintercept Form:
Standard Form:
 Written in the form y = mx+b.
 It is written in the form Ax+By = C where
 m is the slope without any adjustment.
A, B, and C are integers (usually).
 Intercepts are found by putting in 0 for
 (0,b) is the yintercept.
either x or y so each is relatively easily
found as (0, CB ) and ( CA ,0).

Slope is always m =  BA
Advantages:
It has no fractions.
Both x and y intercept have same amount of
calculation
Disadvantages:
Minor calculation for yintercept.
Remembering to put the negative sign on the
slope.
Advantages:
Slope is most easily found.
Yintercept is most easily found.
Prepares you for function f(x) notation.
Disadvantages:
Fractions are often part of the equation.
Since both of them will be given to you to graph, you should be able to work with both of them.
Important Note: You should also see that we can change from Standard form into Slopeintercept
form (and viceversa) simply by solving for y. In the example 3x4y=2, we get:
3x4y=2
4y=3x+2
Standard: 3x4y=2 Slopeintercept: y= 34 x  12
3
1
y= 4 x  2
Slope: m= 3
Slope: m= 3
4
1
2
5
3
Section 4.3
164
7
2
Another example:
Graph the line and find the slope of 2x7y=4
Well the slope is the opposite of 2 over 7, so m= 27 = 72
It appears that the easiest point in this one is the xintercept, so we
stick in zero for y and get x=2: (2,0). Following the slope we move
up 2 and over 7 to the next point (9,2), and then draw the line.
That covers graphing and finding the slope for the vast majority of
equations. As you will recall, there were a couple of special cases
where either the x or the y were missing. We now look to find the slope of these.
We will work two examples of this:
First: y= 2
Remember how to find a couple of points that work: (3,2)
and (1,2). It gives us the graph of a horizontal line where
y is always 2:
Putting those two points in to the formula for finding
slope, we get:
0
2 2
m=
=
=0
1 3
4
which means that all horizontal lines will have a slope of
0.
Second: x=5
Remember how to find a couple of points that work: (5,2) and (5,6).
It gives us the graph of a vertical line where x is always 5:
Now if we put the points in the slope formula, we get:
62
4
= = bad news. (Division by zero is
55
0
undefined.)
which means that all vertical lines have undefined slope.
Section 4.3
165
m = undefined
m = 15
m=2
To get a feel for slope a little bit better, we are going to take
a little time to look at some slopes. You will notice that
the higher the number, the steeper it is. Common
m =1
sense from that will tell you that a slope of 0 will
belong to a line that is completely flat. Also, you
should see that since numbers get bigger as
1
the slope gets steeper, the slope of a vertical
m= 2
line would have to be far greater than a billion.
On the other hand, numbers get increasingly
m = 13
large in the negative direction for lines that
are heading down ever steeper. That means
that vertical lines would have to have a slope
that is less than negative one billion.
m=0
Hmmmmmm. greater than a billion and
less than negative a billion at the same
1
time. No wonder that division by zero
m= 5
cant be done and is undefined.
m = 23
Section 4.3
166
Now that we can go from the equation of a line to the finding of points, getting the slope and
graphing the line, we are going to work on how to go backwards. It really isnt as difficult as it
seems. Since from an equation we can get the slope, we can certainly write an equation from the
slope.
Example:
Write an equation of the line that has slope m= 35 , and goes through the point (5,2).
There are two ways to do this. Remember with standard form, the slope is the negative of the
first number over the second. In slopeintercept, the slope is right in front of the x when y is by
itself.
Standard
Since the slope is 35 , we know that an
equation would have to be:
3x 5y = something but what? Ahhh,
here is where we use the fact that
(5,2) has to work in the equation. If
we stick in 5 for x and 2 for y we get:
3(5) 5(2) = 15 10 =5
3x 5y = 5
SlopeIntercept
Since the slope is 35 , we know that an
equation would have to be:
y = 35 x+b but what is b? Ahhh, here
is where we use the fact that (5,2) has
to work in the equation. If we stick in
5 for x and 2 for y we get:
2 = 35 (5) + b
2=3+b
1 = b
Thus our equation must be
y = 35 x  1
7
2
7
Section 4.3
167
Slope
Parallel slope
Perpendicular
3x+2y=7
m=  32
m=  32
m= 23
y = 5x2
m=5
m=5
m=  15
4x7y=7
m= 74
m= 74
m=  74
x=7
m = undefined
m = undefined
m=0
y=3
m=0
m=0
m = undefined
168
4.
Original Price:$392.50
Tax: 6%
Final Price:
5.
Original Price:
Tax: 7%
Final Price: $73.90
3
0
7
7.
y = x+2
x
2
0
1
0
4
8. 5x + 2y = 10
9. y = x  6
10. y = x
11. x = 10
12. y =  73 x +4
13. 7x y = 14
Assignment 4.3a
169
Graph the following lines giving one point and the slope.
Ex.
2x 7y = 3
Find one point: ( 32 ,0) and the slope: m = 72 .
Then graph the point. Then go up 2 and over 7 for the next one:
20. 6x + y = 10
21. y = 4x + 3
22. y = x  4
23. x = 6
24. y =  73 x  2
25. 3x 4y = 12
26. 5x + 3y = 10
27. x + 4y = 9
28. y = 7
Preparation
29. Write down 5 equations of lines that have the slope:
m= 
Assignment 4.3a
170
Answers:
56 Quarterhorses, 106
1.
10.
Clydesdales, 120 Arabian
slant height = 9 in
2.
3.
41in X 19in
4.
5.
6.
$416.05
$69.07
x
5
4
9
x
2
0
1

y
9
2

0
4
(0,0) (3,8)
20. (0,10); m = 6
21. (0,3); m = 4
12. (0,4) (
,0)
22. (0,4); m =

3
0
15 7
7.
8.
(0,5) (2,0)
9.
,0)
(0,6) (
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
m = 5
m = 
m = undefined
m =
m =
m=0
24. (0,2); m = 
Assignment 4.3a
171
25.
(4,0); m =
27. (9,0); m = 
26.
(2,0); m = 
28. (15,7); m = 0
Assignment 4.3a
172
Slope Monster
Equation
2x 5y = 7
Slope
Equation
4x y = 7
y= x4
y= x4
5x 3y = 7
8x 3y = 12
2x + 7y = 19
 4x + 7y = 19
x = 13
x = 19
y= x8
y= x4
y = 5x 8
y = 3x 8
3x + 9y = 4
10x + 6y = 4
y = 3
y = 15
y=
x4
7x 3y = 7
y=
x4
2x 8y = 17
y= x4
y= x+6
5x 3y = 7
4x + 7y = 7
4x + 7y = 19
2x  9y = 19
x=3
x=7
y= x4
y= x4
y = 2x 8
y = 4x + 13
3x + 6y = 4
3x  6y = 4
y = 5
y=7
y= x4
Slope
y =  x + 15
173
Slope
2x 5y = 7
m=
m=
5x 3y = 7
m=
2x + 7y = 19
m=
x = 13
Undefined
y = 5x 8
m=5
3x + 9y = 4
m=
y = 3
m=0
y=
x4
m=
y= x4
m=
5x 3y = 7
m=
4x + 7y = 19
m=
x=3
Undefined
y = 2x 8
m=2
3x + 6y = 4
m=
y = 5
m=0
8x 3y = 12
m=
 4x + 7y = 19
m=
x = 19
Undefined
y= x4
m=
y = 3x 8
m = 3
10x + 6y = 4
m=
y = 15
m=0
y=
x4
m=
m=
y= x+6
m=
4x + 7y = 7
m=
2x  9y = 19
m=
x=7
Undefined
m=
m=
m=
2x 8y = 17
y= x4
y= x4
y= x4
m=
7x 3y = 7
m=4
m=
4x y = 7
y= x8
Slope
y= x4
Equation
m=
y = 4x + 13
m =4
3x  6y = 4
m=
y=7
m =0
y =  x + 15
y= x4
m=
174
3
0
7
2.
y = x+6
x
2
0
1
0
4
3. 4x  2y = 10
4. y =  x  6
5. y = 5x
7. (9,1) (7,6)
8. (5,1) (3,8)
9. (2,9) (2,3)
12. Explain the difference between a slope of zero and an undefined slope.
Graph the following lines giving one point and the slope.
13. 3x + 4y = 10
14. y = 2x  7
15. y = x  4
16. y = 17
17. y =  73 x  2
18. 2x 6y = 12
Write the equations of the lines with the slopes and points:
Ex.
Write an equation of the line that has slope m = 74 , and goes through the point (2,1). Put the
answer in Standard Form.
From the slope m = 74 , I know that the equation must look like:
4x 7y = something, so I put in the point to see what it is.
4(2) 7(1) = 1.
Assignment 4.3b
175
4
7
4
7
x+b
(2) + b
8
7
1
7
1 = b
 =b
Thus the answer is y =
4
7
x
1
7
19. Write an equation of the line that has slope m= 3, and goes through the point (4,6). Put the
answer in Standard Form.
20. Write an equation of the line that has slope m= 85 , and goes through the point (3,6). Put the
answer in Standard Form.
21. Write an equation of the line that has slope m= 23 , and goes through the point (1,3). Put the
answer in SlopeIntercept Form.
22. Write an equation of the line that has slope m= 54 , and goes through the point (5,3). Put the
answer in SlopeIntercept Form.
23. Write an equation of the line that has slope m= 2, and goes through the point (0,5). Put the
answer in SlopeIntercept Form.
24. Write an equation of the line that has slope m= 17 , and goes through the point (4,7). Put the
answer in Standard Form.
Assignment 4.3b
176
Answers:
1.
x y
5

4 
13 3
23 7
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
m =
m = 
m =
m = undefined
m =
m=0
13.
(0,) m =
14.
(0,7) m = 2
15.
(0,4) m =
16.
(0,17) m = 0
17.
(0,2) m = 
Undefined is vertical
0 is horizontal
2.
3.
4.
5.
x
2
0
1

y
13
6

18. (6,0) m =
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
3x + y = 6
5x 8y = 33
y =  x 
y =  x + 1
y = 2x + 5
x + 7y = 45
(0,5) (,0)
,0)
(0,6) (
(0,0) (2,10)
Assignment 4.3b
177
50
75
102
130
161
174
205
240
Profit
2. In what year did the
company make $450?
600
400
200
500
300
100
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
5. Graph the growth of a savings account in Excel, using the savings formula, over the course of
20 years of a savings account that starts out at $200 and adds $50 per month and gets 7%
interest.
3
0
7
y = x  2
7.
x
2
0
1
0
4
8. 5x  y = 10
9. y =  x  5
10. y = 2x
Assignment 4.3c
178
17. Explain the difference (again) between a slope of zero and an undefined slope.
Graph the following lines giving one point and the slope.
18. 3x + 5y = 10
19. y =  x  2
21. y = 5
22. y =  x  2
20. y = x  1
23. 12x 6y = 12
Write the equations of the lines with the slopes and points:
24. Write an equation of the line that has slope m = 2, and goes through the point (4,1). Put the
answer in Standard Form.
25. Write an equation of the line that has slope m = ,and goes through the point (14,6). Put the
answer in Standard Form.
26. Write an equation of the line that has slope m =  23 , and goes through the point (0,0). Put the
answer in SlopeIntercept Form.
27. Write an equation of the line that has slope m =  , and goes through the point (2,3). Put
the answer in SlopeIntercept Form.
28. Write an equation of the line that has slope m = 7, and goes through the point (0,5). Put the
answer in SlopeIntercept Form.
29. Write an equation of the line that has slope m =  , and goes through the point (4,7). Put
the answer in Standard Form.
30. Create a Visual Chart on one side of a piece of paper for Chapter 4 material including
information and examples relating to Charts, Graphs, and Lines.
Assignment 4.3c
179
Answers:
1.
20. (0,1) m =
9.
300
(0,5) ( ,0)
200
100
21. (0,5) m = 0
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
10.
2.
3.
4.
5.
2003
about $340
2004(?), 2009, 2010
On Spreadsheet
6.
x
5
4
7.
x
2
22. (0,2) m = 
y
1
y
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
m =
m = 
m = undefined
m = undefined
m =
m=
17.
18.
(0,2) m =
2

0
Undefined is vertical
0 is horizontal
(0,10) (2,0)
19.
23. (1,0) m = 2
0
1
8.
(0,0) (2,4)
(0,2) m = 1
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
2x y = 9
3x 7y = 84
y =  x
y =  x + 2
y = 7x + 5
x + 4y = 24
Make it nice.
Assignment 4.3c