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Math 100G/L

Introduction to
Algebra
and
Finance
BYU-Idaho

MESSAGE FROM THE


FIRST PRESIDENCY
Dear Brothers and Sisters:
Latter-day Saints have been counseled for many years to prepare for
adversity by having a little money set aside. Doing so adds immeasurably to
security and well-being. Every family has a responsibility to provide for its own
needs to the extent possible.
We encourage you wherever you may live in the world to prepare for
adversity by looking to the condition of your finances. We urge you to be modest
in your expenditures; discipline yourselves in your purchases to avoid debt. Pay
off debt as quickly as you can, and free yourselves from this bondage. Save a little
money regularly to gradually build a financial reserve.
If you have paid your debts and have a financial reserve, even though it be
small, you and your family will feel more secure and enjoy greater peace in your
hearts.
May the Lord bless you in your family financial effort.
The First Presidency
(From the pamphlet ALL IS SAFELY GATHERED IN: FAMILY FINANCES published by
the Church.)

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Arithmetic....1
Section 1.1...2
Addition and Multiplication Facts from 1+1 to 15 15

Section 1.2..10
Rounding and Estimation; Life Plan

Section 1.3..15
Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide Decimals; Income and Expense

Section 1.4..34
Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide Fractions; Unit Conversions

Chapter 2 Calculators and Formulas49


Section 2.1..50
Exponents Introduction, Order of Operations, Calculator Usage

Section 2.2..61
Variables and Formulas

Section 2.3..76
Formulas and Spreadsheet Usage

Chapter 3 Algebra.....89
Section 3.1.90
Linear Equations and Applications

Section 3.2108
Linear Equations with Fractions; Percent Applications

Section 3.3121
Exponents Revisited; Loan Payment and Savings Equations

Chapter 4 Graphs and Charts.....137


Section 4.1138
Maps and Coordinate Graphs

Section 4.2148
Graphing Lines and Finding Slope

Section 4.3162
Using Slope and Writing Equations of Lines

Chapter 1:
ARITHMETIC

Overview
Arithmetic
1.1 Facts
1.2 Rounding and Estimation
1.3 Decimals
1.4 Fractions

Section 1.1

Everyone has to start somewhere, and that start, for you, is right here.
When you first started learning math, you probably learned the names for
numbers, and then you started to add: 3apples + 7apples equals how many apples? Well 10, of
course.
Facts

My guess is that you caught on to what you were doing and can now add M&Ms,
coconuts, gallons of water, money etc. From the beginning I am going to assume you know how
to add in your head up to 15+15. If you dont, please make up some flash cards and get those in
your brain. It is similar to learning the alphabet before learning to read. We need the addition
facts to be available for instant recall.
Soon after addition was learned, I bet someone told you that there was a shortcut when
you had to add some numbers over and over. For example:
3+3+3+3+3+3+3 = 21
7
If you notice, there are seven 3s.
3, seven times, turns out to be 21, so we write it as 73 = 21.
One of the best coincidences of the world is that 7, three times, is also 21.
37 = 21
Such a switching works for any numbers we pick:
45 = 20 and 54 = 20
313 = 39 and 133 = 39
Since we will be using the multiplication facts almost as much as we will be using the addition
facts, you need to also memorize the multiplication facts up to 1515. Learn them well, and you
will be able to catch on to everything else quite nicely.

Section 1.1

Section 1.1 Exercises Part A


1. Make flash cards up to 15+15 and 1515.
2. Memorize the addition and multiplication facts up to 15+15 and 1515.
3. Fill out the Addition/Subtraction Monster. Time yourself. Write the time it takes on the
paper. Correct the Addition/Subtraction Monster using your flashcards.
4. Fill out the Multiplication Monster. Time yourself. Write the time on the paper. Correct
the Addition/Subtraction Monster using your flashcards.

Assignment 1.1a

Addition/Subtraction Monster

Name __________________

12 + 13 =

5+6=

5 + 10 =

12 9 =

5+9=

8 + 11 =

5 + 11 =

14 4 =

6+6 =

7 + 12 =

15 8 =

10 + 10 =

10 7 =

6 + 11 =

6 + 12 =

6 + 13 =

7+7 =

14 7 =

7+9=

9 + 13 =

6 + 14 =

15 5 =

11 + 11 =

7 5 =

12 4 =

10 + 12 =

8 + 10 =

13 8 =

5+5=

8 + 13 =

5 + 12 =

7+8=

9+9 =

5 + 15 =

9 + 11 =

9 + 12 =

15 6 =

13 5 =

9 + 15 =

8 + 15 =

6+7 =

13 9 =

8 + 12 =

10 + 13 =

10 + 14 =

10 + 15

7 + 13 =

11 + 13 =

5+7 =

11 + 12 =

14 9 =

11 + 14 =

11 + 15 =

8+9=

10 6 =

87=

12 + 12 =

6 + 10 =

12 + 14 =

8+8=

12 7 =

12 8 =

14 + 14 =

12 6 =

97 =

13 + 14 =

10 5 =

7 + 14 =

6+9=

13 7 =

13 6 =

9 + 10 =

6+8 =

14 + 15 =

14 10 =

12 + 15 =

14 8 =

8 + 14 =

14 6 =

10 + 11 =

85 =

15 11 =

15 10 =

15 9 =

98=

7 + 10 =

9 + 14 =

13 + 15 =

7 + 11 =

5 + 14 =

6 + 15 =

15 7 =

5 + 13 =

7 + 15 =

5+8=

76=

13 + 13 =

86=

95=

96=

15 4 =

15 + 15 =

13 4 =

14 5 =

Time_________
Assignment 1.1 a

Multiplication Monster

Name __________________

1213=

56=

510=

129=

59=

811=

511=

144=

66=

712=

158=

1010=

107=

611=

612=

613=

77=

147=

79=

913=

614=

155=

1111=

75=

124=

1012=

810=

138=

55=

813=

512=

78=

99=

515=

911=

912=

156=

135=

915=

815=

67=

139=

812=

1013=

1014=

1015

713=

1113=

57=

1112=

149=

1114=

1115=

89=

106=

87=

1212=

610=

1214=

88=

127=

128=

1414=

126=

97=

1314=

105=

714=

69=

137=

136=

910=

68=

1415=

1410=

1215=

148=

814=

146=

1011=

85=

1511=

1510=

159=

98=

710=

914=

1315=

711=

514=

615=

157=

513=

715=

58=

76=

1313=

86=

95=

96=

154=

1515=

134=

145=

Time_________

Assignment 1.1a

Section 1.1 Exercises Part B

Addition/Subtraction Monster 2
96=

12 4 =

5 + 10 =

6 + 15 =

15 5 =

8 + 11 =

12 9 =

14 4 =

6+6=

97=

15 8 =

10 + 10 =

10 7 =

6 + 11 =

13 7 =

5+8=

7+7=

7 + 12 =

15 10 =

9 + 13 =

6 + 14 =

12 + 13 =

75=

13 + 15 =

5 + 11 =

10 + 12 =

8 + 10 =

15 7 =

14 7 =

8 + 13 =

5 + 12 =

7+8=

9+9=

5 + 15 =

9 + 11 =

9 + 12 =

6 + 13 =

5+5=

9 + 15 =

8 + 15 =

6+7=

11 + 15 =

8 + 12 =

13 5 =

10 + 14 =

10 + 15 =

7 + 13 =

11 + 13 =

5+7=

11 + 12 =

11 + 11 =

11 + 14 =

13 8 =

8+9=

10 6 =

5+9=

12 + 12 =

14 9 =

12 + 14 =

8+8=

12 7 =

10 + 13 =

14 + 14 =

12 6 =

15 + 15 =

13 + 14 =

10 5 =

7 + 14 =

12 8 =

6+8=

13 6 =

9 + 10 =

5+6=

14 + 15 =

6 + 10 =

12 + 15 =

14 8 =

8 + 14 =

14 6 =

10 + 11 =

85=

15 11 =

13 9 =

15 9 =

6+9=

7 + 10 =

9 + 14 =

76=

7 + 11 =

5 + 14 =

15 6 =

6 + 12 =

14 10 =

7 + 15 =

98=

7+9=

13 + 13 =

86=

95=

5 + 13 =

15 4 =

87=

13 4 =

14 5 =

Time_________
Assignment 1.1b

Multiplication Monster 2
96=

124=

510=

615=

155=

811=

129=

144=

66=

97=

158=

1010=

107=

611=

137=

58=

77=

712=

1510=

913=

614=

1213=

75=

1315=

511=

1012=

810=

157=

147=

813=

512=

78=

99=

515=

911=

912=

613=

55=

915=

815=

67=

1115=

812=

135=

1014=

1015=

713=

1113=

57=

1112=

1111=

1114=

138=

89=

106=

59=

1212=

149=

1214=

88=

127=

1013=

1414=

126=

1515=

1314=

105=

714=

128=

68=

136=

910=

56=

1415=

610=

1215=

148=

814=

146=

1011=

85=

1511=

139=

159=

69=

710=

914=

76=

711=

514=

156=

612=

1410=

715=

98=

79=

1313=

86=

95=

513=

154=

87=

134=

145=

Time_________
Assignment 1.1b

Section 1.1 Exercises Part C

Addition/Subtraction Monster

Name __________________

12 + 13 =

5+6=

5 + 10 =

12 9 =

5+9=

8 + 11 =

5 + 11 =

14 4 =

6+6 =

7 + 12 =

15 8 =

10 + 10 =

10 7 =

6 + 11 =

6 + 12 =

6 + 13 =

7+7 =

14 7 =

7+9=

9 + 13 =

6 + 14 =

15 5 =

11 + 11 =

75=

12 4 =

10 + 12 =

8 + 10 =

13 8 =

5+5=

8 + 13 =

5 + 12 =

7+8=

9+9 =

5 + 15 =

9 + 11 =

9 + 12 =

15 6 =

13 5 =

9 + 15 =

8 + 15 =

6+7 =

13 9 =

8 + 12 =

10 + 13 =

10 + 14 =

10 + 15

7 + 13 =

11 + 13 =

5+7 =

11 + 12 =

14 9 =

11 + 14 =

11 + 15 =

8+9=

10 6 =

87=

12 + 12 =

6 + 10 =

12 + 14 =

8+8=

12 7 =

12 8 =

14 + 14 =

12 6 =

97 =

13 + 14 =

10 5 =

7 + 14 =

6+9=

13 7 =

13 6 =

9 + 10 =

6+8 =

14 + 15 =

14 10 =

12 + 15 =

14 8 =

8 + 14 =

14 6 =

10 + 11 =

85 =

15 11 =

15 10 =

15 9 =

98=

7 + 10 =

9 + 14 =

13 + 15 =

7 + 11 =

5 + 14 =

6 + 15 =

15 7 =

5 + 13 =

7 + 15 =

5+8=

76=

13 + 13 =

86=

95=

96=

15 4 =

15 + 15 =

13 4 =

14 5 =

Time_________
Assignment 1.1 c

Multiplication Monster

Name __________________

1213=

56=

510=

129=

59=

811=

511=

144=

66=

712=

158=

1010=

107=

611=

612=

613=

77=

147=

79=

913=

614=

155=

1111=

75=

124=

1012=

810=

138=

55=

813=

512=

78=

99=

515=

911=

912=

156=

135=

915=

815=

67=

139=

812=

1013=

1014=

1015

713=

1113=

57=

1112=

149=

1114=

1115=

89=

106=

87=

1212=

610=

1214=

88=

127=

128=

1414=

126=

97=

1314=

105=

714=

69=

137=

136=

910=

68=

1415=

1410=

1215=

148=

814=

146=

1011=

85=

1511=

1510=

159=

98=

710=

914=

1315=

711=

514=

615=

157=

513=

715=

58=

76=

1313=

86=

95=

96=

154=

1515=

134=

145=

Time_________
Assignment 1.1 c

10

Now, you know that some arithmetic problems may get long
and tedious, so you can understand why some folks choose to estimate
Rounding and
and round numbers. Rounding is the quickest, so we will tackle that
Estimation
first.
In rounding, we decide to not keep the exact number that
someone gave us. For example:

Section 1.2

Rounding

Tenths
Hundredths
Thousandths
Ten Thousandths
Hundred Thousandths
Millionths

Hundreds
Tens
Ones

Hundred Thousands
Ten Thousands
Thousands

Hundred Millions
Ten Millions
Millions

Billions

If I have $528.37 in the bank, I might easily say that I have about $500. I have just
rounded to the nearest hundred.
On the other hand, I might be a little more specific and say that I have about (still not
exact) $530. I have just rounded to the nearest ten.
Here are the places:
Just to make sure you are clear on it, here is a big example:

6,731,239,465.726409
Example:
Round to the nearest hundredth:
538.4691
This number is right between 538.46 and 538.47
Which one is nearest? The 9 tells us that we are closer to
538.47
2nd Example:
Round to the nearest thousand:
783,299.4321
This number is right between 783,000 and 784,000
Which one is nearest? The 2 in the hundreds tells us that we are closer to :
783,000

Section 1.2

11

LAST EXAMPLE
Round $4,278.23 to the nearest hundred
$4,300.00
Decide if our number is closer to the nearest
$4,278.23
hundred above the number or below the number
$4,200.00
Change our number to the one it is closer to
$4,278.23 $4,300.00
Answer: $4,300.00

Estimation
Estimation
1. Round to the highest value.
2. Do the easy problem.

Once rounding is understood, it can be used as a great tool to make sure that we have not
missed something major in our computations. If we have a problem like:
3,427,000

87.3
We could see about where the answer is if we estimate first:
Round each number to the greatest value you can
3,000,000

90
Voila! Our answer will be about 270,000,000
We should note that the real answer is:
299,177,100
but the estimation will let us know that we are in the right ball park. It ensures that our
answer makes sense.

LAST EXAMPLE
Multiply by rounding: 986.7 4.9
Round the numbers
986.7 1,000
4.9 5
Multiply the rounded numbers together
1,000 5 = 5,000
Our answer for 986.7 4.9 will be about 5,000
986.7 4.9 5,000

Section 1.2

12

Section 1.2 Exercises Part A


1. Round 3,254.07 to the nearest ten.
2. Round 2,892.56 to the nearest tenth.
3. Round 39,454 to the nearest ten thousand.
4. Round 189 to the nearest ten.
5. Round 3,250.07 to the nearest tenth.
6. Round 2,892.56 to the nearest hundred.
7. Round 39, 454 to the nearest ten.
8. Round 189 to the nearest hundred.

Estimate the following.


9.

21 3250.07

10. 138.9 2892

11. 42 189

12.

369.456 3.987

13. 58 39

14. 351 44

Preparation:
15. Find the monthly income for 5 different jobs and be ready to share them with your group.

Answers:
3,250
1.
2,892.6
2.
40,000
3.
190
4.
3,250.1
5.
2,900
6.
39,450
7.
200
8.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

About 60,000
About 300,000
About 8,000
About 100
About 2,400
About 16,000
Discuss it together

Assignment 1.2a

13

Section 1.2 Exercises Part B


1. Round 7,254.07 to the nearest ten.
2. Round 2,862.843 to the nearest hundredth.
3. Round 538,484 to the nearest ten thousand.
4. Round 189.59 to the nearest ten.
5. Round 3,250.647 to the nearest tenth.
6. Round 2,892.56385 to the nearest thousandth.
7. Round 34,454 to the nearest thousand.
8. Round 189,364,529.83 to the nearest million.
9. Describe what possible problems students could have with rounding.

Estimate the following.


10.

51 3250.07

11. 438.9 2,892.07

12. 32 789

13.

569.456 6.1987

14. 58 391

15. 54,200 12

16. Working with your group, find the yearly income for 10 of the jobs brought in by group
members.
17. As a group, estimate a monthly budget for a family with a few children living in your area.
Please include estimates of costs for housing, transportation, food, utilities, and clothing.
18. Enter the budget into a spreadsheet document.

Answers:
7,250
1.
2,862.84
2.
540,000
3.
190
4.
3,250.6
5.
2,892.564
6.
34,000
7.
189,000,000
8.
d vs. dth, lack of 1th, any others
9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

About 150,000
About 1,200,000
About 24,000
About 100
About 24,000
About 5,000
Make sure they are all there.
Should look neat.
Complete when everyone can do it.

Assignment 1.2b

14

Section 1.2 Exercises Part C


1. Round 7,254.07 to the nearest tenth.
2. Round 2,862.843 to the nearest ten.
3. Round 538,484 to the nearest thousand.
4. Round 139.79 to the nearest ten.
5. Round 3,250.647 to the nearest hundredth.
6. Round 2,892.56385 to the nearest thousand.
7. Round 34,454 to the nearest thousand.
8. Round 189,364,529.83 to the nearest ten million.
Estimate the following.
9.

41 7250.07

10. 43 9.07

11. 82 2,890

12.

639.456 6.1987

13. 58 391.04

14. 56,200 12

Begin Life Plan Portfolio Project.


15. Imagine your life five years from now. Estimate one month of what you think your expenses
and income will be at that time..
16. Create your own spreadsheet document to record your one month estimated expenses and
income. Remember, you are forecasting five years into the future and recording a one month
estimate of your anticipated income and expenses into a spreadsheet.
Prepare for Budget and Expenses Portfolio Project.
17. Report to your group that you have started keeping track of your income and expenses.
18. Receive reports from your group members that they have started tracking their current
income and expenses.
Answers:
7,254.1
1.
2,860
2.
538,000
3.
140
4.
3,250.65
5.
3,000
6.
34,000
7.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

8.

190,000,000

17.

9.

About 280,000

18.

About 360
About 240,000
About 100
About 24,000
About 6,000
Include any expenses you can think of.
Save it as Life Plan. You will submit it
to your teacher in this lesson.
Start your record, then report to your
progress to your group by email, phone,
letter, carrier pigeon
Complete when everyone has done it.

15

Section 1.3

DEFINITIONS & BASICS

Decimals

1) Like things In addition and subtraction we must only deal with like things.
Example: If someone asks you
5 sheep + 2 sheep =
you would be able to tell them 7 sheep.
What if they asked you 5 sheep + 2 penguins =
We really cant add them together, because they arent like things.
2) We do not need like things for multiplication and division.
3) Negative The negative sign means opposite direction.
Example: 5.3 is just 5.3 in the opposite direction
5.3

5.3

Example : is just in the opposite direction.


Example: 7 5 = 12, because they are both headed in that direction
4) Decimal Deci is a prefix meaning 10. Since every place value is either 10 times
larger or smaller than the place next to it, we call each place a decimal place.
5) Place Values Every place on the left or right of the decimal holds a certain value

Arithmetic of Decimals, Positives and Negatives


LAWS & PROCESSES
Addition of Decimals
1. Line up decimals
2. Add in columns
3. Carry by 10s
Section 1.3

16

EXAMPLE
Add. 3561.5 + 274.38
3561.5
+ 274.38

1. Line up decimals

3 5 6 1. 5
+ 2 7 4. 3 8
5. 8 8

2. Add in columns

3 5 6 1. 5
+ 2 7 4. 3 8
3 8 3 5. 8 8

3. Carry by 10s. Carry the 1 and leave the 3.

Subtraction of Decimals
1.
2.
3.
4.

Biggest on top
Line up decimals; subtract in columns.
Borrow by 10s
Strongest wins.
EXAMPLE
Subtract. 283.5 3,476.91
- 3476.91
283.5
- 3 4 7 6. 9 1
2 8 3. 5
3. 4 1

1.Biggest on top

2. Line up decimals; subtract in columns

- 3 4 17 6. 9 1
2 8 3. 5
3 1 9 3. 4 1

3. Borrow by 10s. Carry the 1 and leave the 3.

- 3 4 17 6. 9 1
2 8 3. 5
- 3 1 9 3. 4 1

3. Biggest one wins.

Section 1.3

17

Multiplication of Decimals
Multiplication of Decimals
1. Multiply each place value
2. Carry by 10s
3. Add
1. Add up zeros or decimals
4. Right size.
2. Negatives

EXAMPLES
Start:
7 5 31

3. Add the pieces


together.

29,742
538
237,936
892,260
+14,871,000
16,001,196

29,742

8
237,936

Next:
22 1

29,742
30
892,260
Last:
43 21

29,742
500
14,871,000

Section 1.3

18

Start:
Final example with decimals:

-7414.3
9.46
444858
2965720
+66728700
-70139278

3. Add the pieces together.

2 21

74143

6
444858

Next:
1 11

74143
40
2965720
Last:
3 132

4. Right size. Total number of


decimal places = 3. Answer is
negative.

74143
900
66728700

The only thing left is to count the number of decimal places. We


have one in the first number and two in the second. Final answer:
-70139.278

Division of Decimals
Division of Decimals
1. Move decimals

1. Set up. 2. Add zeros


2. Divide into first.
3. Multiply.
4. Subtract.
5. Drop down.
1. Remainder
6. Write answer.
2. Decimal
Section 1.3

19

EXAMPLES
5
8 429

Step 1. No decimals to set up. Go to Step 2.


Step 2.We know that 8 goes into 42 about 5
times.
Step 3. Multiply 58

5
8 429

Step 4.subtract.

-40
53
8 429

Step 5. Bring down the 9 to continue on.


Repeat steps 2-5

-40
29
53
8 429

Step 2: 8 goes into 29 about 3 times.


Step 3: Multiply 38

-40
29
-24
5

Step 4: subtract.
8 doesnt go into 5 (remainder)

Which means that 429 8 = 53 R 5


or in other words
429 8 = 53 85

Example:
5875 22
2
22 5875

Step 2: 22 goes into 58 about 2 times.


Step 3: Multiply 222 = 44

44
2
22 5875

Step 4: Subtract.

-44
147
27
22 5875
-44
147
154

Step 5: Bring down the next column


22 goes into 147 about ???? times.
Lets estimate.
2 goes into 14 about 7 times try that.
Multiply 227 = 154
Oops, a little too big

Section 1.3

20

26
22 5875

Since 7 was a little too big, try 6.


Multiply 622 = 132

-44
147
-132
155
267
22 5875

Subtract.
Bring down the next column.
22 goes into 155 about ????? times.
Estimate.
2 goes into 15 about 7 times. Try 7

-44
147
Multiply 227 = 154. It worked.
-132
155
Subtract.
-154
Remainder 1
1
5875 22 = 267 R 1 or 267 221

An example resulting in a decimal:


4
Write as a decimal:
9
Step 1: Set it up. Write a few zeros, just to be
9 4.0000
safe.
Step 2: Divide into first.
.4
9 goes into 40 about 4 times.
9 4.0000
Step 3. Multiply 49 = 36
-36
4
Step 4. Subtract.
.44
9 4.0000
-36
40
-36
4
.444
9 4.0000

Repeating decimal

Step 5. Bring down the next column.


Repeat steps 2-4
Step 2: 9 goes into 40 about 4 times.
Step 3: Multiply 49 = 36
Step 4: Subtract.
Step 5. Bring down the next column.
Repeat steps 2-4
Step 2: 9 goes into 40 about 4 times.
Step 3: Multiply 49 = 36

-36
40
-36
Step 4: Subtract.
40
-36
This could go on forever!
4
4
Thus = .44444. . . which we simply write by .4
9
The bar signifies numbers or patterns that repeat.

Section 1.3

21

Two final examples:


358.4 -(.005)
.005 358.4

Step 1. Set it up and move the decimals

5 358400
7
5 358400
35
7
5 358400
-35
08
71
5 358400
-35
08
- 5
34
716
5 358400
-35
08
- 5
34
-30
40
7168
5 358400
-35
08
- 5
34
-30
40
-40
00

296 3.1
3.1 296
31 2960.00

Step 2. Divide into first


Step 3. Multiply down

Step 4. Subtract
Step 5. Bring down
Repeat steps 2-5 as necessary
Step 2: Divide into first
Step 3: Multiply down
Step 4: Subtract
Step 5. Bring down
Repeat steps 2-5 as necessary
Step 2: Divide into first
Step 3: Multiply down
Step 4: Subtract
Step 5. Bring down

Repeat steps 2-5 as necessary


Step 2: Divide into first

Step 3: Multiply down


Step 4: Subtract
Step 5: Bring down

9
31 2960.00
279
9
31 2960.00
-279
170
95.
31 2960.00
-279
170
-155
150
95.4
31 2960.00
-279
170
-155
150
-124
26
95.48
31 2960.000
-279
170
-155
150
-124
260
- 248
120

Section 1.3

22

71680
5 358400
-35
08
- 5
34
-30
40
-40
00
-0
0
-71,680

Repeat steps 2-5 as necessary


Step 2: Divide into first
Step 3: Multiply down
Step 4: Subtract

95.483
31 2960.000

Step 6: Write answer

95.483 . . .

One negative in the original problem gives


a negative answer.

-279
170
-155
150
-124
260
- 248
120
-93
27

The decimal obviously keeps going.


Round after a couple of decimal places.

COMMON MISTAKES

Two negatives make a positive


- True in Multiplication and Division Since a negative sign simply means
opposite direction, when we switch direction twice, we are headed back the way we
started.
Example: -(-5) = 5
Example: -(-2)(-1)(-3)(-5) = - - - - -30 = -30
Example: -(-40 -8) = -(- -5) = -5

- False in Addition and Subtraction With addition and subtraction negatives


and positives work against each other in a sort of tug o war. Whichever one is stronger
will win.

Example: Debt is negative and income is positive. If there is more debt than
income, then the net result is debt. If we are $77 in debt and get income of $66
then we have a net debt of $11
-77 + 66 = -11
On the other hand if we have $77 dollars of income and $66 of debt, then the net
is a positive $11
77 66 = 11
Section 1.3

23

Example: Falling is negative and rising is positive. An airplane rises 307 feet and
then falls 23 feet, then the result is a rise of 284 feet:
307 23 = 284
If, however, the airplane falls 307 feet and then rises 23 feet, then the result is a
fall of 284 feet:
-307 + 23 = -284

Other examples: Discount is negative and markup or sales tax is positive.


Warmer is positive and colder is negative. Whichever is greater will give you the
sign of the net result.

1) Percent: Percent can be broken up into two words: per and cent meaning per hundred,
or in other words, hundredths.
7
31
53
= .07 = 7%
= .31 = 31%
= .53 = 53%
100
100
100
Notice the shortcut from decimal to percents: move the decimal right two places.

Example:

LAWS & PROCESSES


Converting Percents

Percents
1. If fraction, solve for decimals.
for decimal to %
2. Move decimal 2 places. 1.2. Right
Left for % to decimal
3. OF means times.

EXAMPLES
.25=

25%

Convert .25 to a percent


Move the decimal two places to the right because
we are turning this into a percent
.25=25%
Section 1.3

24

What is

5 32 = .15625

.15625=15.625%

as a percent?

Turn the fraction into a decimal by dividing


Move the decimal two places to the right because
we are turning this into a percent

5
= 15.652%
32
124%=1.24

Convert 124% to decimals


Move the decimal two places to the left because
we are turning this into a decimal
124%=1.24

Solving Of with Percents


The most important thing that you should know about percents is that they never stand
alone. If I were to call out that I owned 35%, the immediate response is, 35% of what?
Percents always are a percent of something. For example, sales tax is about 6% or 7% of
your purchase. Since this is so common, we need to know how to calculate this.
If you buy $25 worth of food and the sales tax is 7%, then the actual tax is 7% of $25.
.07$25 = $1.75
In math terms
the word of
means multiply.

EXAMPLES

25%=.25
. 25 64 = 16

What is 25% of 64?


Turn the percent into a decimal
Multiply the two numbers together
25% of 64 is 16

What is 13% of $25?


13%=.13

. 13 25 = 3.25

30%=.30

. 30 90 = 27

Turn the percent into a decimal


Multiply the two numbers together
13% of $25 is $3.25
What is 30% of 90 feet?
Turn the percent into a decimal
Multiply the two numbers together
30% of 90 feet is 27 feet
Section 1.3

25

Section 1.3 Exercises Part A


Add.
36,451
1.
+ 2,197

2.

143.29
+ .923

3.

5,834,906.2
+ 54.3227

Subtract.
4.

7- (-2) =

5.

-7 2 =

6.

-13 (-10) =

7.

-18 + 5 =

8.

10 57 =

9.

-14 8 =

10.

234
-57

11.

19.275
-74.63

12.

4,386
-5,119

13.

2.35
-17.986

14.

2,984
- 151

15.

Cost:$32.50
Discount:$1.79
Final Price:

16. Temp:67 F
Change:18 warmer
Final:

17. Altitude: 7,380 ft


Fall: 3,200 ft
Final:

18.

Cost:$32.50
Tax:$2.08
Final Price:

19. Temp: 17 C
Change: 28 colder
Final:

20. Altitude:300 m
Rise:7,250 m
Final:

Change into a decimal.


21.

2
5

22.

1
4

23.

3
8

24.

1
9

25.

7
8

26.

1
6

Assignment 1.3a

26

Divide.
Example: See examples in section 1.3
27.

7 234

28.

5 135

29.

11 589

30.

.04 56.3

31.

.8 42

32.

2.1 151.2

34.

19
20

35.

15
45

Change into a percent.


33. 129

Expenses
Insurance
9%
Food
20%

Car
14%

Fun
10%
House
47%

Using the chart, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $1600.
36.

Insurance

Find the following:


39. Price: $30.00
Tax rate: 6%
Tax:

37.

House

38. Fun

40.

Attendees: 2,300
Percent men: 40%
Men:

41. Students: 4
Number of Bs: 3
Percent of Bs:

Preparation.
42. Go to providentliving.org and read the One for the Money and All is Safely Gathered In
pamphlets. Be ready to share thoughts and notes with your group.

Assignment 1.3a

27

Answers:
38,648
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

144.213

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

-55.355

5,834,960.5227
9
-9
-3
-13
-47
-22
177
-733

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

52.5
72
75%
95%
33.3%
$144
$752
$160
$1.80
920 men

41. 75%
42. Discuss it together.

-15.636
2833
$30.71
85 F
4180 ft
$34.58
-11 C
7550 m
.4
.25
.375
.1
.875
.16

33 73 or 33.428571 or 33 R3
27

53 116 or 53.54 or 53 R6
1407.5

Assignment 1.3a

28

Section 1.3 Exercises Part B


Add.
36,851
1.
+ 3,197

2.

153.29
+ .922

3.

8,434,916.7
+ 54.3527

Subtract.
4.

9 - (-3) =

5.

-18 32 =

6.

-14 (-19) =

7.

-18 + 6 =

8.

15 47 =

9.

-24 8 =

10.

754
-57

11.

29.84
-64.643

12.

4,786
-5,919

13.

2.35
-13.946

14.

23,754
- 4,151

15.

Cost:$32.50
Discount:$5.79
Final Price:

16. Temp:67 F
Change:28 warmer
Final:

17. Altitude: 4,380 ft


Fall: 2,230 ft
Final:

18.

Cost:$33.50
Tax:$2.18
Final Price:

19. Temp: 27 C
Change: 48 colder
Final:

20. Altitude:300 m
Rise:2,250 m
Final:

Change into a decimal.


21.

4
5

22.

2
9

23.

5
8

24.

1
8

25.

5
6

26.

1
10

Assignment 1.3b

29

Divide.
27.

7 434

28.

6 135

29.

12 789

30.

.04 56.347

31.

.6 453

32.

3.1 125.12

Change into a percent.


33. 127

34.

17
20

35.

15
30

Expenses
Insurance
9%
Food
20%

Car
14%

Fun
10%
House
47%

Using the chart, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $1300.
36.

Food

Find the following:


39. Price: $77.20
Tax rate: 6%
Tax:

37.

Car

38. Fun

40.

Attendees: 2,400
Percent men: 79%
Men:

41. Students: 12
Number of Bs: 11
Percent of Bs:

Begin Budget and Expenses Portfolio Project


42. Make sure all members of the group have seen the pattern of budget and expense reports
found in All is Safely Gather In and One for the Money. Begin a monthly budget and record
of your expenses that will continue through the remainder of the semester. Commit to reporting
to your group and receiving reports when all have created a spreadsheet titled, Budget and
Expenses.

Assignment 1.3b

30

Answers:
40,048
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

154.212

11.
12.

-34.803

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

-11.596

8,434,971.0527
12
-50
5
-12
-32
-32
697

-1,133

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

755
40.361
58.3%
85%
50%
$260
$182
$130
$4.63
1896 men

41. 91.67%
42. Submit it to your teacher
later in this lesson.

19,603
$26.71
95 F
2150 ft
$35.68
-21 C
2550m
.8
.2
.625
.125
.83
.1
62
22.5
65.75
1408.675

Assignment 1.3b

31

Section 1.3 Exercises Part C


Begin Budget and Expenses Portfolio Project.
1. Continue to record all expenses and income for the remainder of the course in a spreadsheet
document.
Round the following.
2. Round 54,454 to the nearest thousand.
3. Round 385,764,524.83 to the nearest million.
Estimate the following.
4.

71 3250.07

Add.
46,821
7.
+ 3,137

5.

538.9 2,892.07

6.

8.

756.29
+ .522

9.

82 .00000789

8,434.7
+54.3527

Subtract.
10.

115 - (-3) =

11. -19 320 =

12. -18 (-151) =

13.

7.54
-57

14.

15.

16.

Cost:$44.50
Tax:$3.18
Final Price:

17. Temp: 48 C
Change: 29 colder
Final:

298.4
-64.643

3,784
-5,919

18. Altitude:300 m
Fall:2,250 m
Final:

Change into a decimal.


19.

1
20

20.

4
9

21.

2
3

Assignment 1.3c

32

Divide.
22.

8 434

23.

6 185

24.

14 689

25.

.02 56.347

26.

.6 553

27.

.31 175.12

Change into a percent.


28. 37
40

29.

38
50

30.

27
25

Expenses
Insurance
8%
Food
30%

Car
15%

Fun
10%
Housing
37%

Using the chart, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $1354.
31.

Insurance

Find the following:


34. Price: $75.37
Tax rate: 6%
Tax:

32.

Car

33. Fun

35.

Attendees: 2,413
Percent men: 39%
Men:

36. Students: 15
Number of Bs: 11
Percent of Bs:

Assignment 1.3c

33

Answers:
Titled Budget and Expenses and save
1.
document on your computer. You will turn it in
to your teacher in this lesson.
54,000
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

386,000,000

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

-339

About 210,000
About 1,500,000
About .00064

31. $108.32
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

$203.10
$135.40
$4.52
941 men
73.3%

49,958
756.812
8489.0527
118

133
-49.46
233.757
-2135
$47.68
19 C
-1950m
.05
.4
.6
54.25
30.83
49.214
2817.35
921.6
564.903
92.5%
76%
108%
Assignment 1.3c

34

Section 1.4
Fractions

DEFINITIONS & BASICS


1) Numerator the top of a fraction
2) Denominator the bottom of the fraction
3) Simplify Fractions are simplified when the numerator and denominator have no factors in
common.
4) One any number over itself = 1.
5) Common Denominators Addition and subtraction require like things. In the case of
fractions, like things means common denominators.
6) Prime Factorization Breaking a number into smaller and smaller factors until it cannot be
broken down further.

LAWS & PROCESSES


Prime Factorization One of the ways to get the Least Common Denominator for adding and
subtraction fractions that have large denominators is to crack them open and see what they are
made of. Scientists get to use a scalpel or microscope. Math guys use prime factorization.

Addition of Fractions
1. Observation
2. Multiply the denominators
3. Prime factorization

1. Common Denominator
2. Add numerators
3. Carry by denominator

EXAMPLE
Add

3 + 2= 5
4 4

Step 1. The least common multiple of 4 and 2 is a 4, so we

replace the with an equivalent fraction, which is .

Step 2. Now that the denominators are the same, add the
numerators.
Section 1.4

35


  

Step 3. Carry the denominator across.


3 1 5

4 2 4

Changing from mixed numbers to improper fractions:




5 5 







Changing them back again:




43  8 53 5 


Subtraction of Fractions
1.
2.
3.
4.

Biggest on top
Common Denominator; Subtract numerators
Borrow by denominator
Strongest wins

1. Observation
2. Multiply the denominators
3. Prime factorization

EXAMPLE


Do this:
- 3

3





5

9



- 3


5
9

- 2

5

9

- 2


is bigger, so put it on top.

The common denominator is 9,




so change the to a .



Subtract the numerators. Borrow by denominator as


needed.
5
1
7
 3 2
9
3
9

Section 1.4

36

Multiplication of Fractions

Multiplication of Fractions
1. No common denominators
2. Multiply Numerators
3. Multiply Denominators

EXAMPLES

5 1

6 3

For multiplication dont worry about getting


common denominators

=
=

Multiply the numerators straight across

Multiply the denominators straight across

5 1
5
=
6 3 18

Section 1.4

37

Division of Fractions
Division of Fractions
1. Improper Fractions
2. Keep it, change it, flip it.
3. Multiply.
EXAMPLES

Divide 3

Turn the fractions into improper fractions

Keep the first fraction the same


Change the division sign to a multiplication sign
Flip the second fractions numerator and
denominator
Multiply straight across the numerator and
denominator
4 2 75
3 =
7 3 14

25 3

7
2

Divide 1

2 14 3

+
5
4
4

Turn the fractions into improper fractions

2 7

5 4
KEEP the first fraction the same
Change the division sign to a multiplication sign
Flip the second fractions numerator and
denominator
Multiply straight across the numerator and
denominator

2 4

5 7

1 =

Section 1.4

38

Now that you have had a little time to multiply fractions together and simplify them, you
may have noticed one of the slickest tricks that we can do with fractions, and that is that we can
actually do the simplification before we multiply them. Take for example:
10 21

63 55
Now, we can do this the normal way or we can try to notice if there is anything that we
will be simplifying out later . . . and do that simplification before we multiply:
Normal method:


New and improved slick method:

= 

and now we try to simplify


= 


which probably took quite a while to get.

25

37

337

=
and we try to see if any factors will cancel
ahead of time

So,


=
511

=  =  =

What I was hoping to show is that the same answer was obtained and the same cancelling
was done, but if you are able to see it before you multiply, then you will be able to simplify in a
much simpler way. Here is another example:



the 4 and the 8 can simplify before we multiply:





 =


This may seem like just a convenient way to make the problem go a bit quicker, but it does much
more than that. It opens the door to a much larger world. Here is an example. If we travelled 180
 
miles on 12 gallons of gas, then we calculate the mileage by   = 15 miles per gallon.
Carrying that example just a bit further, what if gas were $3.2 per gallon? We can
actually find how many miles we can drive for one dollar:
 
 

 

.  = 4.7 miles per dollar.

Another example:
Carpet is on sale for 15 dollars per square yard. How much is that in dollars per square
foot (9 ft2 per yd2)?
Now, knowing that we will be able to cancel anything on the top with anything that is the
same on the bottom we write the multiplication so the yd2 will cancel out, leaving us with dollars
per ft2:

Section 1.4

39

1.666
3 5.00

Then cancel the yd :



= dollars per square foot


= $1.67 per square foot.

One more example:

-3
20
-18
20
-18

A rope costs $15 for 8 feet. How much does is cost per inch?
We want to get rid of feet and get inches, so we write the multiplication:



= =

$.156 or 15.6 cents per inch.

.1562
32 5.00
-3 2
180
-160
200
-192
80

Here are a few numbers that will help you with the conversions:
12 in = 1 foot
1 yd = 3 ft
16 oz = 1 pound
60 minutes = 1 hour
60 seconds = 1 minute
1 yd2 = 9 ft2
1000watts = 1 kilowatt

And also some exchange rates with the American dollar as they were sometime in 2010:
1 Mexican Peso = $0.08
1 Euro = $1.30
1 British Pound = $1.50
1 Brazilian Real = $0.55

Section 1.4

40

Section 1.4 Exercises Part A


Find 4 different names for each fraction:
Example:
3
11

1.

3 6 9 12 15 30 3,000
, , , , ,
,
...
11 22 33 44 55 110 11,000

2.

3
7

3.

2
3

4.

7
11

4
9

Simplify each fraction.


5.

36
52

6.

27
36

7.

16
56

8.

10
12

9.

15
45

10.

120
280

13.

10
12

Create each fraction with a denominator of 36.


5
12.
11. 16
9

Add or Subtract. Simplify.


Common denominator

Example:
5 83 13 14

Example:
3
1
2 + 7 =
7
14

+ 146 = 13
14

- 13 14

- 13 82

5 83

5 83

Borrow from the 13.

- 12 108

5 83
- 7 78

Swap to subtract.
Answer is negative

14.

2
5

+ 23 =

15.

17.

1
3

+ 127 =

18.

1
4

+ 85 =

13 34 + 4 56 =

16.

7
30

19.

9 107 3 15 =

253 =

Assignment 1.4a

41

20.

21.

3 149 6 76 =

Fill out the table.


Mixed
23.
7 89
24.
3 15

22.

4 72 + 9 23 =

12 85 9 34 =

Improper

25.

43
8

26.

51
4

Find the multiplicative inverse or reciprocal of each number.


Example:
5
8

8
5

27.

4
7

28.

2
9

29.

- 107

30.

7
8

31.

- 56

32.

13

33.

13
42

34.

7
3

Divide.
Example:
2 83 54 =

2 83 54 =

Multiply by reciprocal

19
8

54 =

Change to improper fraction

19
8

54 =

95
32

31
or 2 32

Multiply straight across.

35.

2
5

13 =

36.

1
4

83 =

37.

5
6

38.

3
8

127 =

39.

2 34 7 16 =

40.

5 75 3 23 =

41.

7 45 109 =

42.

7
8

43.

2 16 83 =

9 23 =

83 =

Preparation.
44. If you drive 280 miles on 12 gallons of gas, how many miles per gallon do you get?
45. If you drive 280 miles on 12 gallons of gas, and gas is $3.20 per gallon, how many miles
per dollar do you get?
Assignment 1.4a

42

Answers:
6 9 12 21
1.
14 , 21 , 28 , 49 , others...

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

4
6

12
, 96 , 10
15 , 18 , others...

14
22

21 28 35
, 33
, 44 , 55 , others...

8 12 16
18 27 36

, , , 28
63 , others...

9
13
3
4
2
7
5
6
1
3
3
7
6
36
20
36
30
36

1 151 or 16
15
7
8

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

65 or 1 15
1
13
42
13

or 3 133

3
7
6
5

or 1 15

2
3
20
9

or 2 29

9
14
33
86
120
77

43
or 1 77

41. 263 or 8 23
21
42. 232
43. 529 or 5 79
44. Discuss it together.
45. Discuss it together.

17
150
11
12

18 127
6 12
3 143

13 20
21
2 78
719
16
5

5 83

12
7
4

or 1 34

9
2

or 4 12

107 or 1 73
8
7

Assignment 1.4a

43

Section 1.4 Exercises Part B


Create each fraction with a denominator of 24.
1.

2
3

2.

7
12

3.

40
48

5.

3
4

+ 79 =

6.

5
12

8.

7 75 + 6 56 =

9.

2 85 9 53 =

Add or Subtract. Simplify.


4.

2
5

7.

3 23 16 79 =

+ 72 =

Fill out the table.


Mixed
10.
2 59
11.
6 74

78 =

Improper

12.

35
8

13.

57
11

Find the multiplicative inverse or reciprocal of each number.


14.

3
5

15.

16.

3 94

17.

- 125

Divide.
18.

2
7

53 =

19.

3
4

67 =

20.

21.

2 23 103 =

22.

5
8

4 12 =

23. - 2 73 57 =

1
6

94 =

Change into a decimal.

24.

2
5

25.

1
4

26.

3
8

27.

1
9

28.

7
8

29.

1
6

Assignment 1.4b

44

Change into a fraction and simplify.


Example
.12

.12 = 12 (100th) =

12
100

= 253

simplify

30.

.5

31.

.7

32. .45

33.

.52

34.

.75

35. .6

Convert the following units.


Example: Dog food cost $7.00 for 20 pounds. How many ounces per dollar?
Solution:

 



 
 

 



= 45.71 ounces per dollar

36. Cereal cost $4.50 for 2 pounds. How much did it cost per ounce?
37. Fishing line costs $.02 per foot. How much would 200 yards cost?
38. I was able to drive 250 miles on 15 gallons of gas. If gas costs $3.10 per gallon, how many
miles can I drive per dollar?
39. If my sprinkler sends out 5 gallons per minute, and if water costs $0.65 per 1000 gallons,
how much does watering my lawn cost per hour?
40. How many Pesos are equal to 5 Euros? (1 Mexican Peso = $0.08, 1 Euro = $1.30)
41. How many Reais (plural for Real) are equal to 7 Pounds? (1 Brazilian Real = $0.55, 1 British
Pound = $1.50)
42. Create a visual chart for all arithmetic of decimals. Use plenty of examples.
43. Create a visual chart for all arithmetic of fractions including Unit Conversions.

Assignment 1.4b

45

Answers:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

16
24
14
24
20
24
24
35

1 19
36 or
11
24
13 19
23
14 42

6 39
40
239
46
7

4 83
5 112

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

7
10
9
20
13
25
3
4
3
5

$0.14 per ounce


$12.00
5.38 miles per dollar
$0.20 per hour
81.25 Pesos

41. 19.09 Reals


42. Part of Portfolio
43. Part of Portfolio

5
3
9
31

125
1
7
6
35
7
8
3
8

8 89
5
36

- 3 25
.4
.25
.375
.1
.875
.16
1
2

Assignment 1.4b

46

Section 1.4 Exercises Part C


Exam 1 Review Exercises
Estimate the product (round to the greatest value, then multiply).
1. 2,589,00059.34
2. .005608.07816
3. 3.8472,564
Add.
36,841
4.
+ 249.7

5.

723.3
+ 39.7

6.

13
16 149 + 5 14
=

8.

-8 (-11) =

9.

13 74 1 67 =

Subtract.
7.

Temp: -35.5 F
Change: 13.4 warmer
Final:
Multiply.
10. Cost: $35.20
Quantity: 17
Total:
Add or Subtract. Simplify.
13. 32 + 59 =

16.

11.

15 16 6 79 =

Fill out the table.


Mixed
19.
3 57
20.

369(-23) =

12.

4
5

11
12
=

14.

11
12

+ 145 =

15.

5
18

17.

5 109 + 13 18 =

18.

12 94 9 142 =

22.

8
9

23.

7 34 ( 54 ) =

25.

7
9

26.

2
7

56 =

Improper
59
6

Divide.
21.

8
9
5
18

4 23 =

Change into a decimal.


24.

5
12

Change into a fraction and simplify.


27.

.3

28.

.055

29. .375

Assignment 1.4c

47

Divide.
30.
33.

7 485
.5 47.31

31.
34.

32.

3 781

43 673

.0004 562.4

35. A dishwasher uses about 1400 watts of power. If the power company charges 9 cents per
kilowatt-hour, how much does it cost to run a dishwasher for 16 hours in the month?
36. I bought 8 yards of rope for $9.84. How much did it cost per foot?
Change into a percent.
37. 24
25

38.

39.

36
40

17
50

Expenses
Insurance
9%
Food
20%

Car
14%

Fun
10%
House
47%

Using the chart, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $3200.
40.

Car

Find the following:


43. Price: $45.20
Tax rate: 7%
Tax:
Final Price:

41

House

42

44.

Attendees: 239
Percent men: 29%
Men:

45. Price: $15.30


Discount: 30%
Amount of discount:
Final Price:

Food

46. Round to the nearest ten:


583.872

Assignment 1.4c

48

Answers:
About 180,000,000
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

About .00048
About 12,000
37,090.7
763

22 74
-22.1 F
3

11 75
$598.40
-8,487

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.

11
15

2 181
23
1 84

59

8 187

260 13 or 260.3
15 28
43 or 15.65116
94.62
1,406,000
$2.02
$0.41 per foot
96%
90%
34%
$448
$1504
$640
$3.16, $48.36
69 men
$4.59, $10.71
580

19 401
3 19
63
267

9 56
3 15 or

16
5

4
21
11
- 9 16
or - 155
16

.416
.7
.285714
3
10
11
200
3
8

69 72 or 69.285714

Assignment 1.4c

49

Chapter 2:
CALCULATORS and
FORMULAS

Overview
2.1 Exponents and Calculator Usage
2.2 Variables and Formulas
2.3 More Variables and Formulas - Excel
Note to student: Beginning with this Chapter, unless specifically
requested, answers need not be in a specific form; equivalent answers are

acceptable. For example, exercise 2.2A, #1 has 6 as the answer; -6.5,

, -650%, or any other equivalent answer is acceptable.

50

Section 2.1
Exponents
While we are on multiplication, did you know that there is some short hand? Remember
when we started multiplication we did:
6+6+6+6+6+6+6+6+6 = 54 but we did it a bit shorter
9
96 = 54
There is a way to write multiplication in shorthand if you do the same thing over and over again:
2222222 = 128
7
For the shorthand we write 2 = 128.
7

That little 7 means the number of times that we multiply 2 by itself and is called
and exponent; sometimes we call it a power. Here are a couple more examples:
53= 125
72 = 49
24 = 16

Pretty slick. You wont have to memorize them . . . yet, but you should be familiar enough with
them to be able to recognize them.
Some of the easiest to calculate are the powers of 10. Try these:
104= 10,000

108 = 100,000,000

103 = 1,000

EXAMPLE
Evaluate 74
7 = 7 7 7 7
49 7 7
343 7
2401
Answer: 2401

Set up the bases, and then multiply each couple in


turn.

Section 2.1

51

Order of Operations
The last small note to finalize all your abilities in arithmetic is to make sure you know
what you need to do when you have multiple operations going on at the same time. For example,
2+345
If you were to read that from left to right you would first add the 2 and the 3 to get 5 and
then multiply by 4 to get 20 and then subtract 5 to get 15.
Unfortunately, that doesnt jive with what we have learned about what multiplication is.
Remember that multiplication is a shorthand way of writing repeated addition. Technically we
have:
2+345=
2 + 4 + 4 + 4 5 = 9.
Ahh, now there is the right answer. It looks like we need to take care of the multiplication
as a group, before we can involve it in other computations. Multiplication is done before
addition and subtraction.
Here is another one:
4 32 7 2 + 4
Now remember that exponents are shorthand for a bunch of multiplication that is hidden, so we
need to take care of that even before we do multiplication:
4 32 7 2 + 4 = Take care of exponents
4972+4=
Take care of multiplication
36 14 + 4 =
Add/Sub left to right.
22 + 4 = 26.
Now division can always be written as multiplication of the reciprocal, so make sure you
do division before addition and subtraction as well.
Look at that. We have established an order which the operations always follow, and we
need to know it if we are to get the answers that the problem is looking for:
1st Exponents
2nd Multiplication and Division (glues numbers together)
3rd Addition and Subtraction (left to right)
Parentheses can change everything. We put parentheses when we intend on grouping (or gluing)
numbers together manually. Though they all have the same numbers and operations, see the
difference between these:

2 3 62 2 =
2 3 36 2 =
2 54 = 52

2 (3 6 ) 2 =

(2 3) 6 2 2 =

2 18 2 2 =
2 324 2 =

1 36 2 =

2 162 = 160

36 2 = 18

(2 3 6)2 2 =
(2 18)2 2 =
( 16)2 2 =
256 2 = 128

Section 2.1

52

Section 2.1 Exercises Part A


Calculator Usage Assignment
On this assignment, you should use your calculator. Become familiar with it. It is
now your friend!
Estimate the product (round to the greatest value; then multiply).
1. 75,80049.34
2. .004208.06916
3. 4.4477,164
Add.
37,291
4.
+ 348.23
Subtract.
Temp: 85.3 F
7.
Change: 130.4 colder
Final:
Multiply.
10. Cost: $38.40
Quantity: 27
Total:
Find.
13. 37=
Add or Subtract. Simplify.
16. 34 + 49 =
19.

14 18 7 94 =

Fill out the table.


Mixed
22.
7 114
23.

5.

5.871
+ 39.7

6.

17 239 + 5 235 =

8.

-5 3 =

9.

23 114 15 118 =

12.

- 25 16
11 =

11.

14.

44129 =

272=

17.

5
8

20.

15. 117=
18.

8
15

5 109 + 19 18 =

21.

4 58 5 163 =

25.

5
6

26.

7 58 83 =

28.

3
5

29.

2
9

+ 107 =

79 =

Improper
52

Divide.
24.

11
12
7
18

4 12 =

Change into a decimal.


27.

7
11

Assignment 2.1a

53

Change into a fraction and simplify.


30. .07
31.

.44

32. .625

6 79

35.

Divide.
33.
36.
Evaluate
38.

7 343
.5 4.731

5 3 + 8 2

34.
37.

39.

57 6273

.004 967.4

(5 3) + 8 2

40.

5 (4 + 8) 2

41. Change 60 miles per hour into feet per second. (5280 feet = 1 mile)
Change into a percent.
28
42. 30

43.

44.

41
57

Expenses
Food
17%

37
100

Insurance
9%

Car
16%

Fun
13%
House
45%

Using the chart, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $2437.
45.

Fun

Find the following:


48. Price: $380.50
Tax rate: 7%
Tax:
Final Price:

46.

Insurance

47. Food

49.

Attendees: 48
Percent kids: 25%
Kids:

50. Students: 30
Number of As: 24
Percent of As:
Assignment 2.1a

54

Answers:
About 4,000,000
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

About .00028
About 28,000
37,639.23
45.571
22 14
23
-45.1 F
-8
7 117
$1,036.80
12,789
- 32
55
2187
729
19,487,171
1 367
1 13
40
11
45
6 49
72
25 401

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.

11
25
5
8

49
13 16 or 13.16
110.0526
9.462
241,850
0
20
-7
88 feet per second
93.3%
71.9%
37%
$316.81
$219.33
$414.29
$26.64, $407.14
12 kids
80%

169
81
11

2 12
2 145 or

33
14

5
27

20 13 or

61
3

.63
.6
.2
7
100

Assignment 2.1a

55

Section 2.1 Exercises Part B


Add.
57,831
1.
+ 348.23
Subtract.
Temp: -85.3 F
4.
Change: 130.4 colder
Final:
Multiply.
Cost: $38.40
7.
Quantity: 527
Total:
Find.
9. 35 =
12. (2.38)2 =

2.

4.83
+ 39.7

3.

14 119 + 8 115 =

5.

-5 53 =

6.

23 214 15 218 =

8.

15
- 25 14
=

10.

372 =

11. (5.8)3 =

13.

(1.07)27 =

14. (1.12)12 =

15. If I place 2 cents on the first square of a chess board, 4 cents on the second square, and keep
doubling the amount on each square, how much money will be on the 30th square?
Fill out the table.
Mixed
16.
5 23
17.

Improper
572

18. A product costs $7 for 20 pounds. How much is that in cents per ounce?
19. Change 17 Euros into pesos. (1 Mexican Peso = $0.08, 1 Euro = $1.30)
20. Change 60 miles per hour into feet per second. (5280 feet = 1 mile)
Change into a percent.
21. 24
35

22.

72
64

23.

14
2000

Using the percentages, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $2437.
24.

Fun 12.3%

Find the following:


27. Price: $480.50
Tax rate: 7%
Tax:
Final Price:

25.

Insurance 7.9%

26. Food 38%

28.

Attendees: 388
Percent kids: 25%
Kids:

29. Students: 250


Number of As: 147
Percent of As:
Assignment 2.1b

56

30. For a savings account that begins with $100 and has a 5% interest rate, fill out the following
table:
Time
Beginning Balance
Interest earned
Ending Balance
1st year
100
.05 100 = 5
105
2nd year
105
.05 105 = 5.25
110.25
3
110.25
.05 110.25 =5.51 115.76
4
115.76
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

31. For a savings account that begins with $100 and has a 6% interest rate, fill out the following
table:
Time
Beginning Balance
Ending Balance
st
1 year
100
100 1.06 = 106
2nd year
106
106 1.06 = 112.36
3
112.36
112.36 1.06 = 119.10
4
119.10
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
32. Discuss in your group why multiplying by .05 and then adding to the balance is the same as
multiplying the balance by 1.05.
33. If a savings account started at $100 and earned 7% per year, how much would be in the
account at the end of 12 years?
34. If a savings account started at $100 and earned 7% per year, how much would be in the
account at the end of 22 years?
35. How can exponents be used to find the balance after many years?
Assignment 2.1b

57

1.

58,179.23

2.

44.53

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

23

-215.7 F

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

-58

31. 12 year end balance - $201.22


32.

($201.23 also acceptable)


1 adds in the beginning balance and
.05 adds in the 5%
$225.22

33.
34. $443.04
35. #34 can be done by 100 (1.07)22

$20,236.80

243
1,369
195.112
5.6644
6.214
3.896
$10,737,418.24

- 28
2.19 cents per ounce
276.25 Pesos
88 feet per second
68.6%
112.5%
0.7%
$299.75
$192.52
$926.06
$33.64; $514.14
97 kids
58.8%
12 year end balance - $179.59
($179.60 also acceptable)

Assignment 2.1b

58

Section 2.1 Exercises Part C


1. Find three different places to save your money. Report the interest rates to your group, and
receive their reports.
Find.
2.

45 =

3.

872=

4.

(2.7)5=

5.

(5.38)2

6.

(1.06)25

7.

(1.11)13

Fill out the table.


Mixed
8.
5 25
9.

Improper
373

10. If I place 1 cent on the first square of a chess board, 2 cents on the second square, and keep
doubling the amount on each square, how much money will be on the 20th square?
11. A product sells for $2.50 per square foot. How much is that per square yard?
12. Change 400 Pesos into Pounds. (1 Mexican Peso = $0.08, 1 British Pound = $1.50)
13. Change 50 miles per hour into feet per second. (5280 feet = 1 mile)
Change into a percent.
14.

15.

16.

Using the percentages, find out how much money was spent if the total budget was $287.
17.

Fun 17.3%

Find the following:


20. Price: $80.40
Tax rate: 7%
Tax:
Final Price:

18.

Insurance 6%

21.

Attendees: 388
Percent kids: 35%
Kids:

19. Food 84%

Assignment 2.1c

59

22. For a savings account that begins with $350 and has a 5% interest rate, fill out the following
table and place the entries in the Life Plan spreadsheet on Sheet 2:
Time
1st year
2nd year
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Beginning Balance
350
367.50

Ending Balance
350 1.05 = 367.50

23. If a savings account started at $300 and earned 7% per year, how much would be in the
account at the end of 22 years?
24. For a savings account that begins with $100 and has a 6% interest rate and to which you are
able to add $25 per year, fill out the following table and place it on Sheet 2 of your Life Plan
spreadsheet:
Time
Beginning Balance
Ending Balance
1st year
100
100 1.06 + 25 = 131
nd
2 year
131
131 1.06 + 25 = 163.86
3
163.86
163.86 1.06 + 25 =
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

25. If a savings account started at $200 and earned 7% per year, how much would be in the
account at the end of 12 years if you are able to add $40 per year?

Assignment 2.1c

60

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Complete when all reports are


done.
1024
7569
143.489
28.944
4.29
3.88

12
$5,242.88

11.
12.

$22.50 per square yard

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

73.3 feet per second

21.33 pounds

66.7%
54.4%
.02%
$49.65
$17.22
$241.08
$5.63; $86.03
(135.8) 136 kids
$628.55
$1329.12
$622.97
$1,165.98

Assignment 2.1c

61

Section 2.2
Variables and
Formulas

Variables and Formulas


DEFINITIONS & BASICS

1) Variables: These symbols, being letters, actually represent numbers, but the numbers can
change from time to time, or vary. Thus they are called variables.
Example: Tell me how far you would be walking around this rectangle.
24 ft
15 ft
15ft

24 ft
It appears that to get all the way around it, we simply add up the numbers
on each side until we get all the way around.
24+15+24+15 = 78.
So if you walked around a 24ft X 15ft rectangle, you would have
completed a walk of 78 ft. I bet we could come up with the pattern for
how we would do this all of the time.
Well, first of all, we just pick general terms for the sides of the
rectangle:
length
width

width

length
Then we get something like this:
Distance around the rectangle = length + width + length + width
Let's try and use some abbreviations. First, perimeter means
around measure. Substitute it in:
Perimeter = length + width + length + width
Let's go a bit more with just using the first letters of the words:
P=l+w+l+w
Notice now how each letter stands for a number that we could use. The number can
change from time to time. This pattern that we have created to describe all cases is called a
formula.

Section 2.2

62

2) Formula: These are patterns in the form of equations and variables, often with numbers,
which solve for something we want to know, like the perimeter equation before, or like:
Area of a rectangle:

A=BH

Volume of a Sphere:

Pythagorean Theorem:

+ =

Through the same process we can come up with many formulas to use. Though it has all
been made up before, there is much to gain from knowing where a formula comes from and how
to make them up on your own. I will show you on a couple of them.

Distance, rate
If you were traveling at 40mph for 2 hours, how far would you have traveled? Well, most
of you would be able to say 80 mi. How did you come up with that? Multiplication:
(40)(2) = 80
(rate of speed) (time) = distance
or in other words:

rt = d
where

r is the rate
t is the time
d is the distance

Percentage
If you bought something for $5.50 and there was an 8% sales tax, you would need to find
8% of $5.50 to find out how much tax you were being charged.
.44 = .08(5.50)
Amount of Tax = (interest rate) (Purchase amount)
or in other words:

T = rP
Where T is tax
r is rate of tax
P is the purchase amount.
Interest
This formula is a summary of what we did in the last section with interest. If you invested
a principal amount of $500 at 9% interest for three years, the amount in your account at the end
of three years would be given by the formula:
A = 500(1.09)3 = $647.51

Section 2.2

63

A = P(1 + r)Y
where A is the Amount in your account at the end
P is the principal amount (starting amount)
r is the interest rate
Y is the number of years that it is invested.

Temperature Conversion
Most of us know that there is a difference between Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees, but
not everyone knows how to get from one to the other. The relationship is given by:

C = 5 (F 32)
9

where F is the degrees in Fahrenheit


C is the degree in Celsius

Money
If you have a pile of quarters and dimes, each quarter is worth 25 (or $.25) and each
dime is worth 10 ($.10), then the value of the pile of coins would be:

V = .25q + .10d
where V is the Total Value of money
q is the number of quarters
d is the number of dimes
3) Common Geometric Formulas: Now that you understand the idea, these are some basic
geometric formulas that you need to know:
P is the perimeter

w
Rectangle

P = 2l + 2w
A = lw

l is the length
w is the width
A is the Area

Section 2.2

64

P = 2a + 2b

P is the perimeter

a is a side length

a
h

b is the other side length

A = bh

Parallelogram

A is the Area
h is the height
P is perimeter

b
a

P = b+a+B+d

b is the shorter base


B is the longer base

A = 1 h(B+b)
2

a is a leg
d is a leg
A is the Area

Trapezoid

h is the height

P = s1+s2+s3
A = 1 bh
2

h
b
Triangle

P is the perimeter
s is a side
A is the Area
b is the base
h is the height
a is one angle

b
c

a + b + c = 180

b is another angle
c is another angle

a
Triangle

Section 2.2

65

SA = 2lw+2wh+2lh
H
w
l

SA is the Surface Area

l is the length
w is the width

V = lwh

h is the height

Rectangular Solid
V is volume
C is the Circumference or
Perimeter

C = 2r
r

is a number, about
3.14159 . . . it has a button
on your calculator

A = r2

r is the radius of the circle

LSA = 2rh

A is the area inside the


circle.
LSA is Lateral Surface Area
or area just on the sides

Circle

SA =2rh+2r

is a number, about
3.14159 . . . it has a button
on your calculator
r is the radius of the circle

Cylinder

V = r2h

h is the height
SA is total surface area
V is Volume

Section 2.2

66

LSA = rl
h l

SA = r2+ rl

V = 1 r2h
3

Cone

LSA is Lateral Surface Area


or the area just on the sides

is a number, about
3.14159 . . . it has a button
on your calculator
r is the radius of the circle
h is the height
l is the slant height
SA is total surface area

SA = 4r2
V = 4 r3
3

SA is the surface area


is a number, about
3.14159 . . . it has a button
on your calculator
r is the radius

Sphere
V is the Volume

Section 2.2

67

Section 2.2 Exercises Part A


Add or Subtract. Simplify.
1.

6 78 13 83 =

2.

7 125 + 187 34 =

3.

21 56 97 152 =

4.

3.7 9.574

5.

6000 254.7

6.

.008 37.65

Divide.

7. If a wood floor costs $4.50 per square foot, how much is that per square yard?
8. How much does it cost to run a 700 watt microwave for 17 hours if the power
company charges 12 cents per kilowatt-hour?

Find the following:


Price: $39.48
9.
Tax rate: 5%
Tax:
Total Price:

Evaluate the following:


12. 4 3 8(9)
15.

45(7.8)

10.

Price: $2,736.00
Percent off: 35%
Amount saved:
Final Price:

11. Birds: 140


Black : 47
Percent of black birds:

13.

5d 7 p

14.

5(3 9) 2 3 (5 + 4)

16.

37 m 2

17

2(32)+5(4)+8 m

Find the perimeter of the following shapes:


18.

19.

20.

17

15

14
9

11

19

19

5
k-12
13

t+3

Evaluate the following when m = 3, n = 7, t = 15, and a = 4.


21.

3t - 7

22.

2(n+9)

23.

3 28a + m2

Assignment 2.2a

68

24.

12 a3

25.

m 12

26. 2n 3a + 5t

Use the formula for distance, rate and time to calculate the distance.
Example:
r=3
t = 14
d=

27.

r=7
t = 15
d=

Formula is found in section 2.3: rt = d


3(14) = d
42 = d

28.

r = 55
t = 7.2
d=

29. r = 45
t = 2 13
d=

Use the formula for angles in a triangle to calculate the measure of the remaining angle.
30.

a = 73
b = 24
c=

31.

a = 38
b=
c = 59

32. a =
b= 24
c= 48

Use the formulas for Money totals (you may have to make up your own) when q stands for
quarters (1 quarter = $0.25), d for dimes (1 dime = $0.10), n for nickels (1 nickel = $0.05)
and p for pennies (1 penny = $0.01).
33.

q=9
d = 12
V=

34.

p = 19
d = 17
V=

35. n = 37
q = 23
V=

Use the formulas for Temperature Conversion.


36.

F = 75
C=

37.

F = 15
C=

38. F = -23
C=

Preparation:
39. If the formula for area of a circle is
A=r2
What is the area of a circle with radius 7?
40. Where did come from? (Try finding out using dictionaries or the internet)

Assignment 2.2a

69

Answers:
6 12
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

195 16
75 103
2.5876
.04245
4,706.25
$40.50 per square yard
$1.43
$1.97 and $41.45
$957.60 and $1,778.40

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

83
108
$3.45
$1.89
$7.60
23.9 C
-9.4 C
-30.6 C
Discuss together.
Discuss together.

33.6%
-60
35dp
-102
351
42m
38 + 8m or 8m + 38
58 + t or t + 58
k + 21 or 21 + k
42 + r or r + 42
38
32
30
-52
-9
77
105
396
105
83

Assignment 2.2a

70

Section 2.2 Exercises Part B


Evaluate the following when p = 8, r = -7, t =
1.

12 + a3

2.

2
3

, and a = 3.

10a - 12
3r

3.

5r 7p + 6t

Use the formula for Interest to calculate the amount in the account at the end of the time
period.
P = 520
P = 35,000
5.
6. P = 200
4.
r = 6.2%
r = 6%
r = 8.9%
Y=4
Y = 9.3
Y=7
A=
A=
A=
Use the formulas for Money totals (you may have to make up your own) when q stands for
quarters, d for dimes, n for nickels and p for pennies.
7.

p=p
q = 25
8.
9. p = p
d = q-13
q=q
d = 17
n = 15
V=
n = q+7
V=
V=
Use the formula for Temperature Conversion to calculate the temperature in degrees
Celsius.
10.

F = 300
C=

11.

F = -45
C=

12. F = 102
C=

Use the formulas for a cone to calculate the missing value.


13.

r=6
h = 11
V=

14.

r=5
l=9
SA =

15. r = 3
l=8
LSA =

Use the formulas for a triangle to calculate the missing value.


16.

b = 24
h=5
A=

17.

b = 15
h=4
A=

Use the formulas for a trapezoid to calculate the missing value.


19. b = 7
20. b = 9
B = 10
B = 15
h=7
h=3
A=
A=

18. Two angles are 37


and 81; what is the
third?

21. b = 7
B = 15
a = 12
d=8
P=
Assignment 2.2b

71

Use the formulas for a rectangular solid to calculate the missing information.
22.

l=6
w=9
h=7
SA =

23.

l=4
w = 15
h=7
SA =

24. l = 6
w = 14
h=2
V=

8y + 5y
7(x 5) +15x
8 12x2 + 5 + 3x2

26.
29.
32.

4a 9 + 4a
7t + 4(t + 12)
7x2 5x 9x2 + 13x

27. 16r 5t + 3t + 12r


30. 8 6(7 4t) +4t
33. 13xy + 7x(6y 4)

Simplify.
25.
28.
31.

As a group, discuss the following:


34. If the radius and height in #13 are in meters, what is the unit of the Volume?
35. If the bases and height in #19 are in inches, what is the unit of the Area?
36. If all the sides in #21 are measured in millimeters, what is the unit of the Perimeter?
37. If the radius and height in #15 are in miles, what is the unit of the Lateral Surface Area?
38. If all the sides in #24 are measured in yards, what is the unit of the Volume?

Assignment 2.2b

72

Answers:
39
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

76
-87
$661.46
$60,174.51
$363.27
$8.70
V = .01p + .1(q-13)

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.

-9x2 + 13
-2x2 + 8x
55xy 28x
m3 cubic meters
in2 square inches
mm millimeters
mi2 square miles
yd3 cubic yards

V = .01p + .3q + .35


148.9
-42.8
38.9
132 or 414.69
70 or 219.91
24 or 75.4
60
30
62
59.5
36
42
318
386
168
13y
8a 9
28r 2t
22x 35
11t + 48
28t 34

Assignment 2.2b

73

Section 2.2 Exercises Part C


Please label everything with the correct units.
Evaluate the following when f = 5, r = -7, t =
1.

6t f3

2.

2
3

, and a = -2.

10a - 12
2f

+t

3.

2fr 31a + 15a

6.

P = 1,300
r = 8.9%
Y=7
A=

Use the formula for Interest.


4.

P = $15,000
r = 6.2%
Y=7
A=

5.

P = 2,300
r = 6%
Y = 8.7
A=

Use the formulas for Money totals (you may have to make up your own) when q stands for
quarters, d for dimes, n for nickels and p for pennies.
7.

p = 15
q = t+5
8.
9. p = h+9
d=9
q=7
d=m
n = 13
V=
n = x - 20
V=
V=
Use the formula for Temperature Conversion to calculate the temperature in degrees
Celsius.
10.

F = -20
C=

11.

F = 59
C=

12. F = 32
C=

Use the formulas for a cylinder to calculate the missing value.


13.

r = 6 in
h = 12 in
V=

14.

r=9m
h=5m
SA =

15. r = 3 yd
h = 8 yd
LSA =

Use the formulas for a triangle to calculate the missing value.


16.

b = 6 ft
h = 5 ft
A=

17.

b = 15 cm
h = 4 cm
A=

18. Two angles are 45


and 79; what is the
third?

Use the formulas for a trapezoid to calculate the missing value.


19.

b = 9 km
B = 11 km
h = 7 km
A=

20.

b = 8 mm
B = 15 mm
h = 5 mm
A=

21. b = 12 ft
B = 25 ft
a = 13 ft
d = 17 ft
P=

Assignment 2.2c

74

Simplify.
22.
25.
28.

9y 11y
2(x 5) +7
8x2 34x3 + 9x2 + 10x3

23.
26.
29.

31.

If tile costs $1.50 per square foot, how much is that per square yard?

10a 2b + 4a 9b
8m+ 4(m + 15t)
12x4 5x 4x4 + 13x

24. 8(r 7t) + 8(t +6r)


27. 9 5(6 9p) +4p
30. 3xy 7x(5y 4m)

32. How much does it cost to run an 800 watt microwave for 17 hours if the power
company charges 11 cents per kilowatt-hour?
33.

Change 3 Euros into Pesos. (1 Euro = $1.30, 1 Mexican Peso = $0.08)

34.

Change 66 feet per second into miles per hour. (5280 feet = 1 mile)

Assignment 2.2c

75

Answers:
-121
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

38
15
or 2 158

-38
$22,854.03

31.
32.
33.
34.

$13.50 per yd2


$1.50
48.75 Pesos
45 miles per hour

3,818.47
2,361.23
.25t + .1m + 1.9
$1.05
.01h + .05x + .84
-28.9 C
15 C
0 C
1,357.17 in3 or 432 in3
791.68 m2 or 252 m2
150.8 yd2 or 48 yd2
15 ft2
30 cm2
56
70 km2
115
2

or 57.5 mm2

67 ft
-2y
14a 11b
56r 48t
2x 3
12m + 60t
49p 21
-24x3+17x2
8x4 + 8x
-32xy + 28xm

Assignment 2.2c

76

Section 2.3 More Formulas


A calculator is a beautiful thing. You have been able to use one for a short time now and
have probably enjoyed it considerably when compared to doing all of the math by hand. You are
now ready to take another step with a much more powerful calculator a computer. During this
lesson, you are going to learn the basics of spreadsheets and how to make a computer do the
calculations for you.
During this discussion, we will use Microsoft Excel as the spreadsheet, but similar
functions can be done in spreadsheets that are available at no cost such as OpenOffice Calc.

Excel Basics
Microsoft
Microsoft Excel is spreadsheet software that allows you to perform calculations that help solve
math problems in this course. You supply key figures and Excel automatically makes the
calculations for you.
Open Excel on your computer by clicking Start then Programs then Microsoft Excel. The
main spreadsheet in Excel will appear. The spreadsheet is divided into cells each of which has a
column and row address. Excel identifies columns by alphabetical letters and rows by numbers.
The first cell in the upper left corner is A1. The cell to the right of it is B1 and so forth. The cell
below A1 is A2 and so forth. You enter numbers, formulas, or words into the cells.
Use the following guidelines as you enter data into Excel.
It is easiest to enter numerical data in cells by using the number keypad on your keyboard.
Be sure the Num Lock key is pressed and the Num Lock light is on.
The number keypad also has four arithmetic functions you will need which are + (add), (subtract), * (multiply), and / (divide). It also has the numbers and an enter key so you can
enter data rapidly using the keypad.
Enter the = (equal) sign in the cell before you perform any calculation in Excel. This tells
Excel you want it to perform a calculation.
Use the following guidelines to format data in Excel.
Never enter dollar signs ($) or commas (,) when entering data in Excel. Enter these by
formatting the cell.
Right click the cell or range of cells and select Format Cells. This opens a window that
allows you to set the format in number, general, currency, percent, etc. You can set the
number of decimal points you want to use and you can set alignment, font, etc. in this
window. The cell format already has been set in most of the exhibits you will be using in this
course.
TIP: You can also format data in cells by clicking the cell or range of cells then clicking the
appropriate symbol on the formatting tool bar.
Section 2.3

77

Lifelong Income Example Beginning Salary


You can estimate your lifelong income using Excel
To determine Lifelong Income do the following:
1. Enter the beginning hourly rate you will earn in your first job after you graduate in cell E3,
for example $15.00.
2. Enter the number of hours you will work in a year in cell E5 as follows: =40*52 where 40 is
the number of hours per week and 52 is the number of weeks in a year.
3. Press enter. Excel automatically multiplies 40 hours per week times 52 weeks per year and
provides the result or 2080 working hours per year.
4. To calculate your first year salary in cell E7, enter (a) the equal sign, (b) click cell E3 (rate
per hour) then enter * (multiplication sign) and (c) click cell E5 (hours per year).
5. Press enter. Excel calculates your first years income at $31,200. These entries are illustrated
below:

Yearly Income Calculation Format


Rate Per Hour:

In Cell
E3

Enter
15

Results
$15.00

Hours Per Year

E5

=40*52

2080

Income - First Year of Employment (Beginning): E7

=E3*E5

$31,200.00

When you click on a cell that has a calculation set up, the formula for that cell appears in the
formula line (to the right of the = sign) at the top of the page. For example, the formula line for
the calculation performed in step 5 above would be: =E3*E5
Once your calculations are in place, Excel can save you time and effort if changes are required.
If you were to change the beginning rate per hour to $10.00 and you have used the cell addresses
in each of your formulas, Excel will recalculate all of the numbers and give you the new values.
Try it. Enter 10 in E3 and watch what happens to the Income.

Section 2.3

78

To help get you used to formulas in Excel and how they work, we will use some of our familiar
formulas from last week:

Circle Example
Pick a cell where you will enter the radius say B2. Put 2 in B2 as a starting radius.
Then we write the formula for area in a cell next to it C2. Remember the formula for area of a
circle is
=
So, in C2 we write
=PI()*B2^2

variable for radius

exponent in Excel

Then you will notice that the area 12.56637 pops up in C2.
Change the radius to 7 and you will be able to see that the area automatically changes. Nifty,
isnt it? You can change the radius to any number you would like and the area calculation will
automatically update.
Now, the power of Excel doesnt stop just there. We can see the areas of a whole bunch of radii
at the same time. List out several numbers in the cells beneath the 7 in B2. Now, if you copy
the formula from C3 and paste it in C4, C5, C6, etc. you will notice that we can make a whole
table of areas. If you label the columns, then others that see your spreadsheet will be able to tell
what you did. It should look something like this:
Circle

Radius
2
4
6
8
10
12

Area
12.56637
50.26548
113.0973
201.0619
314.1593
452.3893

Temperature Conversion Example


Make a column of numbers that are temperatures in Fahrenheit starting with cell C10.
Then type in the formula that converts Fahrenheit to Celsius in D10:
=5/9*(C10 32)
Section 2.3

79

Copy and paste the formula into the cells next to the list of temperatures. See if it looks
something like this:
Fahrenheit Celsius
-40
-40.0
-20
-28.9
0
-17.8
15
-9.4
32
0.0
38
3.3
45
7.2
72
22.2
100
37.8
150
65.6
212
100.0

Section 2.3

80

Section 2.3 Exercises Part A


1. Using the formula for a rectangle and a calculator, fill out the following table:
length
width
Perimeter
Area
5
7
14
3
7.2
18.34
13
2.5
15
17
16
33
281
541.5
2. If the unit for length and width in #1 is inch, what are the units for Perimeter and Area?
3. If the unit for length and width in #1 is centimeter, what are the units for Perimeter and Area?
4. Using the formula for a rectangle and a spreadsheet (Create a new file called Formula
Practice), fill out the table in #1 using the formula abilities of the spreadsheet.
5. Using the formula for a circle and a calculator, fill out the following table:
radius
Circumference
Area
3
12
5.1
17
4
38
114
6. If the unit for radius in #5 is feet, what are the units for Circumference and Area?
7. If the unit for radius in #5 is kilometer, what are the units for Circumference and Area?
8. Using the formula for a circle and a spreadsheet, fill out the table in #5 using the formula
abilities of the spreadsheet.
9. Using the formula for a cone and a calculator, fill out the following table:
radius
height
slant height LSA
SA
3
4
5
5
12
13
15
8
17
24
7
25
6
8
10

Volume

Assignment 2.3a

81

10. If the unit for radius, height and slant height in #9 is inch, what are the units for Lateral
Surface Area, Surface Area, and Volume?
11. If the unit for radius, height and slant height in #9 is centimeter, what are the units for Lateral
Surface Area, Surface Area, and Volume?
12. Using the formula for a cone and a spreadsheet, fill out the table in #9 using the formula
abilities of the spreadsheet.
13. Open your, Budget and Expense spreadsheet. Make sure that all budgets and expenses are
updated. Using the sum formula, create cells that are the totals of your expenses and incomes.
This spreadsheet will be submitted in your portfolio.

Assignment 2.3a

82

Answers:
1.
length
5
14
7.2
13
15
16
281

2.
3.
4.
5.
radius
3
12
5.1
17
4
38
114

6.
7.
8.
9.
radius
3
5
15
24
6

10.
11.
12.
13.

width
7
3
18.34
2.5
17
33
541.5

Perimeter
24
34
51.08
31
64
98
1645

Area
35
42
132.048
32.5
255
528
152,161.5

P in; A in2
P cm; A cm2
On Spreadsheet

Circumference
18.85
75.40
32.04
106.81
25.13
238.76
716.28

Area
28.27
452.39
81.71
907.92
50.27
4,536.46
40,828.14

C ft; A ft2
C km; A km2
On Spreadsheet

height
4
12
8
7
8

slant height
5
13
17
25
10

LSA

SA
47.12
204.20
801.11
1884.96
188.50

Volume
75.40
282.74
1507.96
3694.51
301.59

37.70
314.16
1884.96
4222.30
301.59

LSA in2; SA in2; V in3


LSA cm2; SA cm2; V cm3
On Spreadsheet
In Portfolio

Assignment 2.3a

83

Section 2.3 Exercises Part B


1. Using the formula for a cylinder and a calculator, fill out the following table:
radius
height
Surface Area
Volume
5
7
14
3
7.2
18.34
13
2.5
15
17
16
33
281
541.5
2. If the unit for length and width in #1 is inch, what are the units for Surface Area and Volume?
3. If the unit for length and width in #1 is centimeter, what are the units for Surface Area and
Volume?
4. Using the formula for a cylinder and a spreadsheet, fill out the table in #1 using the formula
abilities of the spreadsheet.
5. Using the formula for a Sphere and a calculator, fill out the following table:
radius
Surface Area
Volume
3
12
5.1
17
4
38
114
6. If the unit for radius in #5 is feet, what are the units for Surface Area and Volume?
7. If the unit for radius in #5 is kilometer, what are the units for Surface Area and Volume?
8. Using the formula for a sphere and a spreadsheet, fill out the table in #5 using the formula
abilities of the spreadsheet.

84

9. Using a spreadsheet fill out the table for a savings account that has a beginning balance of
$150 and grows at 7% with an additional $25 added at the end of each year:
year
Beginning Balance
Ending Balance
1
150
150 1.07 + 25 = 185.5
2
185.5
185 1.07 + 25 =

.
.
.

use your calculator to make


sure that the spreadsheet is
calculating it correctly.

15

10. As a group, select a typical job that one of you anticipates having in the next five years. Then
open a spreadsheet document and go through the lifelong income example in this section. How
much money do you expect to earn over your lifetime?

Assignment 2.3b

85

Answers:
1.
radius
5
14
7.2
13
15
16
281

2.
3.
4.
5.
radius
3
12
5.1
17
4
38
114

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

height
7
3
18.34
2.5
17
33
541.5

Surface Area

Volume

376.99
1,495.40
1,155.40
1,266.06
3,015.93
4,926.02
1,452,185.50

549.78
1,847.26
2,986.86
1,327.32
12,016.59
26,540.17
134,326,275.61

SA in2; V in3
SA cm2; V cm3
On Spreadsheet

Surface Area
113.10
1,809.56
326.85
3,631.68
201.06
18,145.84
163,312.55

Volume
113.10
7,238.23
555.65
20,579.53
268.08
229,847.30
6,205,877.00

SA ft2; V ft3
SA km2; V km3
On Spreadsheet
At the end of 15 years you should
have $1,042.08
Complete when everyone can do it
on their own.

Assignment 2.3b

86

Section 2.3 Exercises Part C


Chapter 2 Exam Review
Find the following:
1.
7 3 + 6 3 8 ( 5)

2.

2v9m

3.

6(3 7) 4 2 (7 + 4)

6.

18

Find the perimeter of the following shapes:


4.

5.
12

18
7

11

s-4

13

8
f+2
21

t+3

r-9

Find the following when p = -5, r = 7, t =


7.

12 a3

2
3

, and a = 4.

8.

7a - 12
4

9.

2r 3p + 9t

Use the formula for distance, rate and time.


10.

r = 6 m/h
t = 19 hours
d=

11.

r = 65 km/h
t = 4.3 hours
d=

12. r = 36 feet per second


t = 2 13 seconds
d=

14.

P = $5,000
r = 6%
t=9
A=

15. P = $300
r = 13%
t=7
A=

Use the formula for Interest.


13.

P = $2,800
r = 7%
t=4
A=

Use the formulas for Money totals (you may have to make up your own) when q stands for
quarters, d for dimes, n for nickels and p for pennies.
16.

q = 15
d = 27
V=

17.

p = 30
d = 25
V=

18. p = 37
q = 23
n=7
V=

Assignment 2.3c

87

Use the formula for Temperature Conversion.


19.

F = 212
C=

20.

F = 98.6
C=

21. F = -40
C=

23.

r = 9 ft
l = 12.8 ft
SA =

24. r = 3 in
l = 7.9 in
LSA =

26.

l = 10.7 cm
w = 4 cm
A=

27. l = 8.6 mm
w = 9 mm
P=

29.

r = 15 in
A=

30. r = 7 m
C=

l = 4.2 mi
w = 5 mi
h = 7mi
V=

33. l = 6 km
w = 8 km

h = 2 km
SA =

Use the formulas for a cone.


22.

r=6m
h= 7 m
V=

Use the formulas for a rectangle.


25.

l = 3 yd
w = 5 yd
A=

Use the formulas for a circle.


28.

r = 4 in
C=

Use the formulas for rectangular solid.


31.

l = 7 cm
w = 2 cm
h = 8 cm
SA =

32.

34. Create a Visual Chart on one side of a piece of paper for Chapter 2 material including
information and examples relating to Calculator and Spreadsheet Usage and Formulas.

Assignment 2.3c

88

Answers:
321
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

18vm

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

279.5

-200

31. 172 cm2


32. 147 mi3
33. 166 km2

30 + s + t
f + 33
r + 45
-52
4
35
114
84
$3,670.23
$8,447.39
$705.78
$6.45
$2.80
$6.47
100 C
37 C
-40 C
263.89 m3 or 84 m3
616.38 ft2
74.46 in2
15 yd2
42.8 cm2
35.2 mm
25.13 in or 8 in
706.86 in2 or 225 in2
43.98 m or 14 m

Assignment 2.3c

89

Chapter 3
ALGEBRA

Overview
Algebra
3.1 Linear Equations and Applications
3.2 More Linear Equations
3.3 Equations with Exponents

90

3+ what = 7? If you have come through arithmetic, the answer is


fairly obvious: 4.
Section 3.1
However, if I were to ask something like:
Linear Equations
2 times what plus 5 all divided by 7, then minus 6 = 5? There tends
to be a little more difficulty in popping out the answer. The beauty of math is that it allows us to
write down all of that stuff and then systematically make it simpler and simpler until we have
only the number left. Wonderful.
We start with the easy ones to find out all of the rules and then we will build up to the big
ones.
3+ what = 7
First, we need to adjust the fact that we are going to be writing what all the time. A
very common thing is to put a letter in that place that could represent any number. We call that a
variable. We replace the word what with x (or you could use p, q, r, f, m, l . . . ) So our
equation becomes:
3+x=7
The whole goal of math is to find the number that makes that statement true. We already
know that the number is 4. We would write:
x=4
Now, look at what happened to our original equation. Do you see that the right side is
missing a 3 and the left side is now 3 lower as well. This gives us some insight into what we can
do to equations! Try another one:
x + 8 = 10
What number would make that statement true? If x were equal to 2, it would work. We
write:
x=2
Notice how we get the number that would work by subtracting that 8 from both sides of
the equation.
Lets see if it works with some other equations:
x7=2
x 3 = 10
With these two equations, the answers are:
x=9
and
x = 13
We got the answers by adding the 7 and the 3 to the right hand sides. This brings up a
good point. In the first couple of equations that we did, we subtracted when the equation was
adding. In the next two equations, we added when the equation was using subtraction. Lets look
at what happens when we start doing multiplication:
4x = 20.
What number would work? That is right, 5.
Section 3.1

91

x=5
What would you do to 20 to get 5? Divide by 4. Holy smokes! That is the exact opposite
of what the equation is doing. Here is another:
x
=4
7
What number divided by 7 equals 4? Thats it, 28. We times 4 by 7 to get that answer.
Multiplying by 7 is the exact opposite of dividing by 7.
This leads us to a couple of conclusions that form the basis for everything we will do in Algebra:

1) When we want to get rid of numbers that are


surrounding the variable, we need to do the opposite
(technically called the inverse) of them.

A great way to think about


these concepts is as though
you have a balance that is
centered on the equal sign.
As long as you put the
same thing on both sides,
you remain balanced.

2) We can add, subtract, multiply, or divide both sides


of an equation by any number and still have the
equation work.
Here is how it would work, one of each:
x+7=11
4x=24
-7 -7
/4 /4
x=4

x=6

x-3=24
+3 +3
x = 27

x
5

=7
(5) (5)
x = 35

You may ask why we go through all of that when the answers are obvious. The answer is
that these problems will not be so easy later on, and we need to practice these easy ones so that
when we get the hard ones, they crumble before our abilities. Now to some which are a little
tougher.
When we have one like this:
2x 7 = 11
We could think about it long enough to find a number that works, and maybe you can do
that, but I have to tell you that in just a little while we are going to have a problem that you wont
be able to do that with too quickly. So, lets use what we learned to get rid of the 2 and the 7 so
that x will be left by itself. If you remember the order of operations, you will remember that the 2
and the x are stuck together by multiplication, so we cant get rid of the 2 until the 7 has been
taken care of like this:
2x 7 = 11
2x = 18
(we added 7 to both sides)
x=9
(divided both sides by 2)

Section 3.1

92

To illustrate the idea of un-doing operations, I would like to try to stump you with math
tricks.
We begin. I am thinking of a number, and it is your job to guess what the number is.
I am thinking of a number.
I times the number by two.
I get 10.
Not too hard to figure out, you say? You're right. The answer is 5 and you obtained that
by taking the result and going backwards. Try the next one:

I am thinking of a number.
I times the number by 3.
Then I subtract 5.
Then I divide that number by 2.
Then I add 4 to that.
I get 18.
What was the number I started with?

Aha. A little tougher don't you think? Well, If you think about it just one step at a time,
then the thing falls apart. What number would I add 4 to to get 18? 14 (notice that it is just 18
subtract 4). We can just follow up the line doing the exact opposite of what I did to my number.
Here you go:

Start with 18
Subtract 4 = 14
Multiply by 2 = 28
Add 5 = 33
Divide by 3 = 11.

That's it! Most of Algebra is summed up in the concept of un-doing what was done.
I am thinking of a number.
I times it by 4.
Then I add 5.
Then I divide by 9.
Then I subtract 7.
I get -2. What did I start with?
This one is done the same way as the other one but I wanted to show you how you make
that into an equation that will be useful in the rest of your math career. Instead of writing each

Section 3.1

93

step out, we construct an equation. We write it again but this time we will write the equation
along with it:
I am thinking of a number.
I times it by 4.
Then I add 5.
Then I divide by 9.
Then I subtract 7.
I get -2. What did I start with?

We call that x.
4x
4x+5
4 x+5
9
4 x+5
9
4 x+5
9

7
7 = -2

That looks like a nasty equation, but it is done in exactly the same way. We just go backwards
and un-do all of the things that were done to the original number. We are using the rule that we
can add, subtract, multiply or divide both sides of the equation by the same thing.
I know you can do it when it is all written out, so I will show you what it looks like using the
equation:
Notice here that we are
4 x+5
still undoing in the

7
=
-2
9
opposite order of what
4 x +5
=5
add 7 to both sides
9
was there.
4x + 5 = 45
times both sides by 9
4x = 40
subtract 5 from both sides
divide both sides by 4.
x = 10
10 is the number I started with! Go ahead and make sure by sticking it into the original
problem, and you will see that we found the right number. We call that number a solution,
because it is the only number that solves the equation.

Solving for a variable:


When given a formula, it is sometimes requested that you solve that formula for a
specific variable. That simply means that you are to get that variable by itself.
An example:
Solve for t:
rt = d

(Original equation of rate x time = distance)

We are supposed to get t by itself. How do we get rid of the r?


Divide both sides by r. It looks like this
rt = d
rt d
=
r
r
d
t=
Done. t is by itself.
r

Section 3.1

94

Another example:
Solve for x:
y = bx +c
y c = bx
subtract c from both sides
yc
=x
Divide both sides by b.
b
Done. x is by itself.

Section 3.1

95

Section 3.1 Exercises Part A


Find the Volume of a rectangular solid when the width, height and length are given.
Formula is V=lwh
l = 4 in
l = 7 ft
1.
2.
3. l = 7.2 m
w = 2.5 in
w = 4 ft
w=9m
h = 3 in
h = 2.8 ft
h=3m
V=
V=
V=
Find the Area of a trapezoid when the bases and height are given. Formula is
A = 12 h(B+b)
B = 15
B = 21
4.
5.
6. B = 19
b = 10
b = 11
b=6
h=7
h=3
h = 10
A=
A=
A=
Simplify.
7.

2(3+x)+5(x-7)

8.

5(a-3b) 4(a-5)

9.

10.

2s(t-7) 6t(s+3)

11.

3(x2-5n) +3n 7x2

12. 6kj 7k +8kj +11

3x+4y-7z+7y-3x+18z

Example:
4x + x 7 = 1

Solve.

5x 7 = 1

Combine xs
+7 on both sides

5x = 8
x=

8
5

Divide by 5 on both sides

13.

3x 1

5
+ 2 = 35
7

14.

2x 8

3
+ 7 3 = 12
6

15. -3 + m = 18

16.

7
3

17.

-13 = 5x + 7

18.

19.

83 x 4 = 20

20.

12 + 2p = 3

21. .4y = 78

t = 14

5x 6
=3
4

Assignment 3.1a

96

22.

5x + 3 7x = 15

23.

3x 9 + 2x = - 3

24. .3p + 5 = 19

25.

-r + 9 = -15

26.

4f + 9 = 9

27.

28.

t + t + 4t 7 = 17

29.

5x 8

3
+ 7 3 = 18
6

2x + 3
= 11
5

Solve for the specified variable.


30.

y = mx + b

32.

A = 2rh

34.

C = 59 (F 32)

for b
for h
for F

31.

5m 7
=r
3

33.

A=

35.

V = 13 r2h

1
2

bh

for m
for b
for h

Preparation.
36. After reading some from the next section, Try to solve this problem.
Two numbers add up to 94 and the first is 26 more than the second one. Find the two numbers.
37. Find the missing variable for a cone:
r=9
l=
SA = 622.04

Assignment 3.1a

97

Answers:
30 in3
1.
78.4 ft3

29. x = 85 or 1.6
30. b = y mx
31. m = 3r + 7

2.
3.

194.4 m3

4.

87.5

32.

5.

48

33.

6.
7.

125
7x 29

34.
35.

8.
9.
10.

a 15b + 20

36.

11y + 11z

37. Discuss together.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

A
2r
2A
b=
h
9
F = 5 C + 32
h=

3V
r 2
Discuss together.
h=

-4st 14s 18t


-4x2 - 12n
14kj 7k + 11
x = 12
x=2
m = 21
t=6
x = -4
x=

18
5

or 3.6

x = -64
p = - 92
y = 195
x = -6
x=

6
5

or 1.2

p = 46.6
r = 24
f=0
x = 26
t=4

Assignment 3.1a

98

Applications of linear equations


When am I ever going to use this? Where would this be applicable? All the way
through math, students ask questions like these. Well, to the relief of some and the dismay of
others, you have now reached the point where you will be able to do some problems that have
been made out of real life situations. Most commonly, these are called, story problems.
The four main points to remember are:

D- Data. Write down all the numbers that may be helpful. Also, note any
other clues that may help you unravel the problem.

V- Variable. In all of these story problems, there is something that you


dont know, that you would like to. Pick any letter of the alphabet to
represent this.

P- Plan. Story problems follow patterns. Knowing what kind of problem


it is, helps you write down the equation. This section of the book is
divided up so as to explain most of the different kinds of patterns.

E- Equation. Once you know how the data and variable fit together.
Write an equation of what you know. Then solve it. This turns out to be
the easy part.
Once you have mastered the techniques in solving linear equations, then the fun begins.
Linear equations are found throughout mathematics and the real world. Here is a small outline of
some applications of linear equations. You will be able to solve any of these problems by the
same methods that you have just mastered.

Translation
The first application is when you simply translate from English into math. For example:
Seven less than 3 times what number is 39?
Since we dont know what the number is, we pick a letter to represent it (you can pick what you
would like to); I will pick the letter x:
3x 7 = 39 then solve
3x = 46
x = 463
(or 15 13 or 15.3)
Thats the number.

Substitution
Sometimes you are given a couple of different things to find. Example:
Two numbers add to 15, and the second is 7 bigger than the first. What are the
two numbers?

Section 3.1 Applications: Translation

99

Pick some letters to represent what you dont know. Pick whatever is best for you. I will
choose the letter f for the first number and s for the second. I then have two equations to
work with:
f + s = 15 and s = f + 7
The letter s and f+7
f + f + 7 = 15
are exactly the same and
2f + 7 = 15
can be changed places.
2f = 8
f=4
4 must be the first number, but we need to stick it back in to one of the original equations
to find out what s is.
s=f+7
=4+7
= 11.
4 and 11 are our two numbers.
These kind of problems often take the form of an object being cut into two pieces. Here, I will
show you what I mean.
Example:
A man cuts a 65 inch board so that one piece is four times bigger than the other.
What are the lengths of the two pieces?
Now, I would personally pick f for first and s for second. We know that
f + s = 65 and that s = 4f
Thus,

f + 4f = 65
5f = 65
f = 13, so the other piece must be 52.
The pieces are 13in and 52in.

Shapes
With many of the problems that you will have, pictures and shapes will play a very
important role. When you encounter problems that use rectangles, triangles, circles or any other
shape, I would suggest a few things:
1. Read the problem
2. READ the problem again.
3. READ THE PROBLEM one more time.

Once you draw a picture to model the problem read the problem again to make sure that your
picture fits.
The formulas for the shapes that we will be discussion are found in Section 2.2.

Sections 3.1 Applications: Substitution/


Shapes

100

Variable on Both Sides


Unfortunately, not all equations come out such that this un-doing technique works. Sometimes
the x shows up in several different places at once:
3x 5 +2x 3 = 4x + 7(x 8)

Seeing all of the xs scattered throughout the equation sometimes looks daunting, but it
isnt as bad as all that. We know a couple of ways to make it look a bit more simple.
3x 5 +2x 3 = 4x + 7(x 8) becomes
5x 8 = 4x + 7x 56
5x 8 = 11x 56

Now we reach a point where you should feel


somewhat powerful. Remember that you can add,
subtract, multiply or divide anything you want!
(As long as you do it to both sides).
Particularly, I dont like the way that 11x is
on the left hand side. I choose to get rid of it! So, I
subtract 11x from both sides of the equation:
5x 8 = 11x 56
-11x
-11x
Upon combining the like-terms, I get

Distribute the 7 and combine


Combine the like terms

You might as well know that if you


didnt like the 5x on the right hand
side, you could get rid of that instead:
5x 8 = 11x 56
-5x
-5x
Combining like terms, we get:
-8 = 6x 56
48 = 6x
(add 56 to both sides)
8=x
(divide both sides by 6)
We will always get the same answer!
You cant mess up!

-6x 8 = -56
Which now is able to be un-done easily:
-6x = -48 (add 8 to both sides)
x=8
(divide both sides by -6)

Special cases: What about 2x + 1 = 2x + 1


Well if we want to get the xs together we had better get rid of the 2x on one side. So we
subtract 2x from both sides like this:
2x + 1 = 2x + 1
-2x
-2x
Section 3.1

101

0=0
5=5
-3 = -3
solution is all real
numbers

0=1
5=7
-3 = 2
No solution

1=1
Ahh! The xs all vanished.
Well, what do you think about that? This statement is always true no
matter what x is. That is the point. x can be any number it wants to be
and the statement will be true. All numbers are solutions.

On the other hand try to solve:


2x + 1 = 2x - 5
-2x
-2x
1 = -5
Again, the xs all vanished. This time it left an equation that is never
true. No matter what x we stick in, we will never get 1 to equal -5. It
simply will never work. No solution.

Section 3.1

102

Section 3.1 Exercises Part B


Simplify.
1.

4s(t-9) t(s+11)

2.

12(x2-5n) +3n 4x2

3.

6nj 7j +8nj +11n

4.

6x 4

5
+ 2 = 30
5

5.

2x + 8

7
+ 5 2 = 12
6

6.

-3 7m = 18

7.

7
2

8.

-15 = 3x + 9

9.

2x 7
= 33
3

11.

5x 8

9
+ 7 3 = 42
6

Solve.

10.

t = -14

t +5t + 4t 7 = 17

Solve for the specified variable.


12.

y = mx + b

14.

6 = 7b pb

16.

P = 2l + 2w

for x
for b
for l

13.

5m + 9
=r
2

15.

3t + nt = y

17.

SA = 2rh+2r2

for m
for t
for h

18. 27 is 6 more than 3 times a number. What is the number?


19. 18 less than 5 times a number is 52. What is the number?
20. Two numbers add to 37 and the second is 9 bigger than the first. What are the two numbers?
21. Two numbers add to 238 and the first is 34 bigger than the second. What are the two
numbers?
15in
22. Find the area of the shaded region:
8in

Assignment 3.1b

103

23. I have created a triangular garden such that the largest side is 6ft less than twice the smallest
and the medium side is 5ft larger than the smallest side. If the total perimeter of the garden is
47ft, what are the lengths of the three sides?
24. If a rectangles length is 5 more than twice the width and the perimeter is 46 mm, what are
the dimensions or the rectangle?
25. If a cone has a Lateral Surface Area of 250 in2, a radius of 8in, what is the slant height of the
cone? Use a calculator.
26. Two numbers add to 589 and the first is 193 bigger than the second. What are the two
numbers?
27. If a cylinder has a volume of 538 cm3 and a radius of 6 cm, how tall is it?
28. Find the missing variable for a rectangle:
P = 39 ft
w = 7.2 ft
l=
29. Find the missing variable for a cylinder:
SA = 800 in2
h=
r = 9 in
Solve.

Example:
x + 4 5x = 7x + 1
-4x + 4 = 7x + 1
+4x
+4x
4 = 11x + 1
-1
-1
3 = 11x
3
=x
11

Combine like terms


Get all xs together by adding 4x to
both sides
Subtract 1 from both sides

Divide both sides by 11

30. 4p + 2 = 7p - 6

31.

-4n + 5 = n

32. 2x 7 = x + 5

33. x 42 = 15x

34.

4(x-3) = -2x +12

35. 7x = 13 + 7x

36. .4x 1 = .9x + 5

37.

2(x 4) = 3x - 14

38. .4y +78 = 78 + .4y

Assignment 3.1b

104

Answers:
3st 36s 11t
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

8x2 57n
14nj 7j + 11n
x=4
x = 13
m = -3
t = -4
x = -8
x = 53
t=

12
5

or 2.4

x = - 45

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

l = 12.3 ft
h = 5.15 in

p = or 2.67

n=1
x = 12
x = -3
x=0
No solution
x = - 12

37. x = 6
38. All numbers

yb
m
2r 9
m=
5
6
b=
7 p
y
t=
3+ n
p 2w
l=
2
SA 2r 2
h=
2r
7

x=

14
14, 23
102, 136
69.73 in2
12, 17, 18
l = 17mm; w = 6mm
= 9.95 in
198, 391
4.76 cm

Assignment 3.1b

105

Section 3.1 Exercises Part C


Solve.
1.

3x + 4

5
+ 2 = 65
5

2.

2x + 8

3
3 + 17 = 20
5

3.

-17 7m = -18

4.

3
7

5.

9 = 3x +17

6.

5x + 7
= 13
4

8.

5x + 8

7
+ 9 3 = 18
2

7.

t + 1 = -11

8t +3t + 14t 17 = -17

Solve for the specified variable.


9.

p= fx + bn

11. M = 5t 3p
13.

E= Q

T1
T2

for f

10.

for t

12.

LSA = rl

14.

3s 4 g
=c
7

for Q

F=

xf xz
2

for f
for r

for g

15. 48 is 9 more than 3 times a number. What is the number?


16. 18 less than 7 times a number is 80. What is the number?
17. Two numbers add to 151 and the second is 21 bigger than the first. What are the two
numbers?
18. Two numbers add to 436 and the first is 134 bigger than the second. What are the two
numbers?
19. Find the area of the shaded region:
3cm
8cm
14cm
20. I have created a triangular garden such that the largest side is 9 less than twice the smallest
and the medium side is 7 larger than the smallest side. If the total perimeter of the garden is 82,
what are the lengths of the three sides?

Assignment 3.1c

106

21. If a rectangles length is 7 more than 4 times the width and the perimeter is 54 what are the
dimensions or the rectangle?
22. If a cone has a volume of 338 cm3 and a radius of 6 cm, how tall is it?
23. Find the missing variable for a parallelogram:
A = 64 in2
h=
b = 12.6 in

Solve.

Example:
x + 4 5x = 7x + 1
-4x + 4 = 7x + 1
+4x
+4x
4 = 11x + 1
-1
-1
3 = 11x
3
=x
11

Combine like terms


Get all xs together by adding 4x to
both sides
Subtract 1 from both sides

Divide both sides by 11

24. 5p + 12 = 33 p

25.

7n + 18 = 5(n 2)

26. 5x 10 = 5x + 7

27. x 7 = 15x

28.

2x 4(x-3) = -2x +12

29. .07x = 13 - .12x

30. .7(3x 2) = 3.5x + 1

31.

.3x 9 + 2x = 4x - 3

32. .4y = 78 + .4y

33. 7(x 5) 3x = 4x 35

34.

9x 4(x 3) = 15x

35. 2x 3x + 7x = 9x +8x

Assignment 3.1c

107

Answers:
x = 17
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

x = -6
1
7

m=

t = -28
x = - 83
x=9
t=0
x = -4

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

All real numbers


68.42
x = - 127 or -1.71
x = -3.53
No solution
All numbers
x=

6
5

or 1.2

x=0

p bn
x
2 F + xz
f=
x
M + 3p
t=
5
LSA
r=
l
T
Q=E+ 1
T2
7c 3s
3s 7 c
g=
or
4
4
x = 13

f=

x = 14
65, 86
151, 285
129.9 cm2
21, 28, 33
w = 4, l = 23
h = 8.97 cm
h = 5.08 in
p=

7
2

or 3.5

n = -14
no solution
x = - 12

Assignment 3.1c

108

Percents

Section 3.2

If you scored 18 out of 25 points on a test, how well did you do.
Simple division tells us that you got 72%. As a review, 18/25 = .72
If we break up the word percent we get per which means divide
72
and cent which means 100. Notice that .72 is really the fraction 100
. We
see that when we write is as a percent instead of its numerical value, we move the decimal 2
places. Here are some more examples to make sure that we get percents:
.73 = 73%
.2 = 20%
.05 = 5 %
1 = 100%
2.3 = 230%
The next reminder, before we start doing problems, is that the word of often means times. It
will be especially true as we do examples like:
What is 52% of 1358?
All we need to do is multiply (.52)(1358)
which is
706.16

Linear Equations
w/ fractions

Sometimes however, it isnt quite that easy to see what needs to be done. Here are three
examples that look similar but are done very differently. Remember what means x, is
means = and of means times.
What is 15% of 243?

15 is what percent of 243?

15 = x (243)
.062 = x
6.2% = x

x = .15(243)
x = 36.45

15 is 243% of what?

15 = 2.43x
6.17 = x

Once we have that down, we have the ability to solve tons of problems involving sales tax, markups, and discounts. Here are two examples:

An item sells for $85.59 but is on sale


at 20% off. What is the final price?
.2(85.59) = 17.12
85.59 17.12

amount of discount
subtract discount

$68.47 = final price

An item sold at $530 has already been marked up


20%. What was the price before the mark-up?
x + .2x = 530
original + 20% of original = final price
1.2x = 530
x = 441.67

Section 3.2 Applications:


Percents

109

Section 3.2 Exercises Part A


1. 45 is 12 more than 3 times a number. What is the number?
2. 25 less than 7 times a number is 108. What is the number?
3. Two numbers add to 251 and the second is 41 bigger than the first. What are the two
numbers?
4. Two numbers add to 336 and the first is 124 bigger than the second. What are the two
numbers?
5. Find the area of the shaded region:
5cm
8cm
15cm
6. I have created a triangular garden such that the largest side is 8m less than twice the smallest
and the medium side is 12m larger than the smallest side. If the total perimeter of the garden is
104m, what are the lengths of the three sides?
7. If a rectangles length is 5 more than 3 times the width and the perimeter is 58 mm what are
the dimensions of the rectangle?
8. If a parallelogram has an area of 258.9 cm2 and a base of 23.2 cm, how tall is it?
9. Find the missing variable for a trapezoid:
A = 68 ft2
b=
h= 4ft
B = 21ft

Solve.
10. 7p + 13 = 33 4p

11.

5n + 48 = 7n 2(n 2)

12. 5x 10 = 7(x 2)

13. 3x 7 = 12x

14.

5x 7(x+3) = -2x -21

15. .06x = 15 - .18x

16. .8(7m 2) = 9.5m + 1

17.

.2q 7 + 2q = 3q - 5

18. 12t = 45 + .4t

Assignment 3.2a

110

19. 6(x 5) x = 5x 20

20.

9x 2(x 3) = 15x +7

21. 5x 13x + x = 7x +8x

22.

18 is what percent of 58?

23.

What is 87% of 54?

24.

34 is 56% of what?

25.

What is 13% of 79?

26.

119 is 8% of what?

27.

23 is what percent of 74?

28.

Original Price:$92.56
Tax: 7.3%
Final Price:

29.

Original Price:
Discount: 40%
Final Price: $43.90

30.

Original Price:
Tax: 5%
Final Price: $237.50

31.

Original Price: $58.50


Discount: 30%
Final Price:

32. If the population of a town grew 21% up to 15,049. What was the population last year?
33. If the price of an object dropped 25% down to $101.25, what was the original price?
Preparation.
34. After reading some from the next section, try to solve this equation.
x
+ 137 = 157 27x
7

35. Solve.
x
3

+ 133 = 153 23x

Assignment 3.2a

111

Answers:
x = 11
1.

2.
3.

x = 19

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

106, 230

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

No solution

105, 146
136.71 cm

25m, 37m, 42m


w = 6mm, l = 23mm
11.16 cm

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

$99.32
$73.17
$226.19
$40.95
12,437
$135
Discuss together.
Discuss together.

13ft = b
p=

20
11

x=2
x = 79
All numbers
x = 62.5
26
m = - 23 or - 39

q = -2.5
t = 3.879
No solution
x = - 18
x=0
31%
46.98
60.7
10.27
1487.5
31%

Assignment 3.2a

112

Equations with Fractions


The one other thing that might throw you off is when you see a bunch of fractions in the
problem. Not to worry, remember that you have power to do anything you want to the equation.
For example:
3
5 7x
x =
might be easier to look at if there werent so many fractions in the
8
8 8
way. Well, get rid of them. Multiply by 8 on both sides.
5
7x
(8 ) 3
x ( 8) = (8)
which makes it become:
8
8
8
3x 5 = 7x (not bad at all)
-5 = 4x
- 54 = x
Ta Da.
Worse example:

2 x3

=5
7
4

looks scary.

You have the ability to wipe out all of the fractions. Fractions are simply statements of
division. The opposite of division is multiplication and you have the power to multiply both
sides of the equation by anything you want to. The question is, what will undo a division by 7
and by 4; the answer is multiplication by 28. Here is what it looks like:

1. Simplify

2 x3

=5
7
4
x 3
2
(28) (28)
= 5(28)
7
4
(4)2 (7)(x 3) = 140
8 7x + 21 = 140

(multiplying everything by 28)


(28/7 = 4 and 28/4 = 7)
(Distribute the -7)

-7x +29 = 140

(Combine numbers)

2. Subtract

-7x = 111

(Subtract 29 from both sides)

3. Divide

x=

111
7

(Not a nice looking answer, but it is

right!)

Section 3.2

113

Every problem can be boiled down to three steps:

Linear Equations
1. Simplify

1. Parentheses
2. Fractions
3. Combine like terms

2. Add/Subtract
3. Multiply/Divide

Section 3.2

114

Section 3.2 Exercises Part B


1. 35 less than 7 times a number is 98. What is the number?
2. Two numbers add to 351 and the second is 71 bigger than the first. What are the two
numbers?

Solve.
3.

7p + 12 = 33 4p

4.

3n + 48 = 7 2(n 2)

5.

5x 10 = 5(x 2)

6.

3x 7 = 15x

7.

5x 7(x+3) = -2x +12

8.

.09x = 13 - .18x

9.

.8(3x 2) = 9.5x + 1

10.

.2x 7 + 2x = 3x - 5

11. 12m = 70 + .4m

13.

9x 4(x 3) = 15x +7

14. 8x 12x + x = 9x +8x

12. 5(x 5) x = 4x 20

15.

85 is what percent of 39?

16.

85 is 54% of what?

17.

What is 19% of 2,340?

18.

What is 23% of 79?

19.

119 is 18% of what?

20.

43 is what percent of 174?

21.

Original Price:$72.56
Tax: 7.3%
Final Price:

22.

Original Price:
Discount: 30%
Final Price: $49.70

23.

Original Price:
Tax: 5%
Final Price: $339.50

24.

Original Price: $55.50


Discount: 40%
Final Price:

25. If the population of a town grew 31% up to 17,049. What was the population last year?
26. If the price of an object dropped 35% down to $101.25, what was the original price?

Assignment 3.2b

115

Solve.

Example:




 + 4 =  +




(12) 

 + 4


(12) (12)
=
x

Clear fractions by multiplying by 12

+(12)

4(x+4) 30 = 3x + 10
4x + 16 30 = 3x + 10
x 14 = 10
x = 24

Distribute through parentheses


Combine, getting x to one side
Add 14 to both sides

27.

7
3

t 5 = 19

28.

83 (x 7) = 5 + 3x

29.

2
3

30.

4
5

x = 2x -

5
3

31.

3
5

32.

3x+2
7

35.

x+7
4

33. .9(-4x 5) = 2.5x + 6

34.

2
5

(x-3) = 15 x +3

.0005x + .0045 = .004x

x6=3+

1
2

4 x 1
5

= 8 56 x

Preparation.
36. Describe the best way to get rid of fractions in an equation.

Assignment 3.2b

116

Answers:
19
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

140, 211
p=

21
11

n = 375 or -7.4
All numbers
x = 127
no solution
x = 48.15
x = -.366

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

x = - 19
27
x = 54
x=

25
18

no solution
x=

17
13

x = - 105
61
x=

9
7

x=

75
13

Discuss together.

x = -2.5
m = 6.03
no solution
x=

1
2

x=0
218%
157.4
444.6
18.17
661.1
24.7%
$77.86
$71.00
$323.33
$33.30
13,015
$155.77
t=

72
7

Assignment 3.2b

117

Summary of Linear Equations

Linear Equations
1 Simplify

Parentheses
Fractions
Combine like terms

2 Add/Subtract
3 Multiply/Divide

Word Problems
D,V,P,E

Section 3.2

118

Section 3.2 Exercises Part C


Solve.
1.

3x 1

5
2 = 70
5

2.

6x + 4

3
+ 3 5 = 19
2

3.

-4 9m = -22

4.

6
7

5.

19 = 3x -7

6.

5x 7
= 9
3

t = -24

Solve for the specified variable.


7.
9.

2s at 2
=V
2t
d=

LR2
R2 + R1

8.

for s

10.

for R1

r=

I
pt

for p

9s 5 g
=c
11

for s

11. 84 is 6 more than 3 times a number. What is the number?


12. Two numbers add to 438 and the first is 74 bigger than the second. What are the two
numbers?
14in
13. Find the area of the shaded region:
9in
14. If a rectangles length is 7 more than 4 times the width and the perimeter is 194 mm, what are
the dimensions or the rectangle?
15. Find the missing variable for a rectangle:
P = 48.3 ft
w = 7.2 ft
l=
16. Find the missing variable for a cone:
SA = 628.32 in2
r = 8 in
l=
Solve.
17. 7p + 12 = 13 7p

18.

4n + 68 = 7 2(n 2)

19. 7x 10 = 5(x 2)

Assignment 3.2c

119

20. 9x 4 = 15x

21.

8x 7(x+3) = x 21

22. .18x = 13 - .20x

23.

14 is what percent of 68?

24.

What is 37% of 754?

25.

119 is 18% of what?

26.

27 is what percent of 74?

27.

Original Price:$192.56
Tax: 7.3%
Final Price:

28.

Original Price:
Discount: 35%
Final Price: $43.90

29. If the price of a meal after a 20% tip was $28.80? What was the price of the meal before the
tip was added?
30. If the price of an object dropped 15% down to $59.50, what was the original price?

Solve.
31.

7
3

34.

5
2

t 2 = 19 + 5t
(-4x 2) =

3
4

x+6

32.

34 (x 4) = 5 + 2x

33.

1
6

35.

x 5
3

36.

x +7
14

5 x +8
6

x4=3+

3
10

= 6 73 x

Assignment 3.2c

120

Answers:
x = 27
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

x = -1
m=2
t = -28
x=

26
3

x = -4

2Vt + at 2
2
I
p=
rt
LR 2 dR2
R1 =
d
11c + 5 g
s=
9
26
s=

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

$67.54
$24
$70
t = - 638
x = - 118
x = -52.5
x = - 44
43

35. x = -6
36. x = 11

182, 256
62.38 in2
18mm X 79mm
l = 16.95 ft
17 in
p=

1
14

n = -9.5
x=0
x = - 23
All numbers
x = 34.21
20.6%
278.98
661.1
36.5%
$206.62

Assignment 3.2c

121

Section 3.3

The rules that come with exponents are relatively easy to


understand, but they take some practice to ensure that you have them down
Exponents
completely. Instead of numbers we will use letters. If we multiply:
x5x8
We just have to remember what that means:
(xxxxx)(xxxxxxxx),
which is simply 13 of them multiplied together.
We write it as x13.This is our very first rule! Exponents add during
multiplication.
x5x8=x13.
The next one is quite similar:
(x5)8
Again, we just have to remember what it means:
(x5)(x5)(x5)(x5)(x5)(x5)(x5)(x5)
which is by the first rule: x40.
That gives us the second rule: Exponent to exponent will multiply.
(x5)8 = x40.
Division with exponents is just about as easy. Looking at:
This means:







and we are left with x3.

Third rule: Exponents subtract during division.


This particular rule gives rise to a couple of interesting facts. Specifically, what happens if the
top and the bottom have the same power?



= x0
But, we know that anything divided by itself is equal to 1. Thus:
x0 = 1
Secondly, what happens if the number on the bottom is larger than the one on the top.
For example:



By using the third rule we get

= x   = x-3, - a negative exponent! What do we do with that?


Well, if we do it the long way, we get:


which is





Section 3.3

122

Thus we have our next definition. A negative exponent puts the number on the bottom.

x-3 =


Look at a couple of examples:


Using rules of exponents
23 22 = 25 = 2 2 2 2 2 = 32



Checking with numbers


23 22 = 8 4 = 32

= 2  = 2 = 8







=8

Look at that. The rules really work for any number. Here are some more examples to be able to
simplify some expressions:
(3x5)3 = 27x15 by use of the second rule.
(4y5)(7y12) = 28y17 by use of the first rule.

2-6 =

6-2 =





= 




   
 

=  by the definition of a negative exponent

= 49

=   
 

= 


=    =   =  
 



Here is a summary of how you can simplify expressions with exponents:

Rule

Official

Example

Why

Multiplication
add exponents
Exponent to a
power multiply
exponents

aman = am+n

3x2 2x5 = 6x7

3xx2xxxxx = 6xxxxxxx = 6x7

Division subtract
exponents

Exponent of 0

m n

mn

a
=a
a!

(a ) = a

a0 = 1 if a 0

Negative exponent
a-n =

%&

(5x ) = 125x

(5x2) (5x2) (5x2) =


125x6

36x 
= 9x
4x 

36xxxxxxxx
= 9xx = 9x
4xxxxxx

2 3



= x $ by division rule

70 = 1; x0 = 1

1=

2-4 =  = ;


1
= x
x 

1
xx
x
=
=
= x 
x  xxxxxxx x 



Section 3.3

123

Section 3.3 Exercises Part A


Simplify the following.
(3m2)5
1.

2.

x7x11

3.

(

4.

t8t5

5.

3-4

6.

3x7 4x

7.

)

8.

170

9.

(g8)-2

10.

*

11.

(2m2n5g8)7

12.

5x2 4x7

(

*

13. 25 less than 7 times a number is 73. What is the number?


14. Two numbers add to 251 and the second is 41 bigger than the first. What are the two
numbers?
Solve.
15. 5p + 12 = 39 4p

16.

5n + 48 = 7n 2(n 2)

17. 15x 10 = 5(x 2)

18. 2(x 5) x = 4x 7

19.

9m 3(m 3) = 15m +7 20. 8x 12x + 3 = 9x +8x

21.

45 is what percent of 39?

22.

85 is 24% of what?

23.

What is 19% of 3,517?

24.

What is 23% of 49?

25.

Original Price:
Tax: 5%
Final Price: $239.40

26.

Original Price: $55.50


Discount: 23%
Final Price:

27. If the population of a town grew 41% up to 7,191. What was the population last year?
Assignment 3.3a

124

28. If the price of an object dropped 35% down to $11.44, what was the original price?

Solve.
t + 5 = 19

30.

83 (x + 7) = 5 + 3x

31.

2
3

32. .3(4x + 7) = 2.5x + 6

33.

.005x + .045 = .004x

34.

x +7
4

29.

7
3

x6=7+

1
2

= 4 56 x

Preparation.
35. Simplify the following (so that there are no negative exponents).
% + , - (
. / 0 1

Assignment 3.3a

125

Answers:
243m10
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

18

t13

12x8
)


8.

9.

.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

$17.60
t=6

x= 
x = 78
x = -3
x = -45
x=




5g  h j k
7a b  c  d f <

-

128m14n35g56
20x9
14
105,146
p=3
No solution
x=0
x = -1

<

m=

x=

115.4%
354.17
668.23
11.27
$228
$42.74
5,100

Assignment 3.3a

126

Compounding Quarterly, Monthly, and Daily


So far, you have been compounding interest annually, which means the interest is added once per
year. However, you will want to add the interest quarterly, monthly, or daily in some cases.
Excel will allow you to make these calculations by adjusting the interest rate and the number of
periods to be compounded. Remember that all interest rates provided in the problems are
annual rates. You must adjust them to fit other compounding periods. The adjusted rate is
called the periodic rate. To adjust the periodic rate in Excel, open the FV calculation box and
change a 10% annual rate to quarterly, monthly, or daily as follows:

Quarterly
Monthly
Daily

Rate: .10/4
Changing the rate to 2.5% or .025
Rate: .10/12 Changing the rate to .83% or .0083
Rate: .10/365 Changing the rate to .0274% or .000274

Change ten years of compounding to quarterly, monthly, or daily as follows:


Quarerly
Monthly
Daily

Changing the compounding periods to 40


Nper: 10*4
Nper: 10*12 Changing the compounding periods to 120
Nper: 10*365 Changing the compounding periods to 3,650

If you assume you put $50 into savings and you are comparing savings accounts where the 10%
annual interest rate is compounding quarterly, monthly, or daily. You can compare the amount
of interest you will earn using Excel as follows:
Quarterly
Rate: .1/4 or .025
Nper: 10*4 or 40
Pmt: 0
Pv: -50

Rate:
Nper:
Pmt:
Pv:

Monthly
.1/12 or .00833
10*12 or 120
0
-50

Future Value = $134.25 Future Value = $135.35

Daily
Rate: .1/365or .000274
Nper: 10*365 or 3650
Pmt: 0
Pv:
-50
Future Value = $135.90

The more frequently interest is added to your savings and compounded, the more interest
you will earn. The above illustration involves a small amount of savings. The more the savings
and the more often you add to your savings the more difference it will make when the interest in
added and compounded more frequently. The following example illustrates saving $100 per
month for ten years at 10% interest rate compounded monthly versus annually.
Annually
Rate: .1 or 10%
Nper: 10
Pmt: -1200
Pv: 0

Monthly
Rate: .1/12 or .00833
Nper: 10*12
Pmt: -100
Pv: 0

Future Value = $19,124.91

Future Value = $20,484.50

127

Savings Plan Formula for a lump sum


A BC
= = > ? + 
B

A = Final Amount
PMT = monthly payment
P = Principal amount
(beginning balance)
r = annual interest rate
n = number of compounding
per year
Y = number of years

A BC
? + B ?
H
= = >DE F
A
B

Savings Plan Formula with payment

Thus we have the monster formula for a Savings Plan


that begins with a balance and then is added to by a
payment:
A
= = > ? + 
B

BC

So,
I
= periodic interest rate (rate
J
used in spreadsheet)
nY = number of periods (nper)

A BC
? + B ?
+ >DE F
H
A
B

Spreadsheets normally have this formula built into their functions. It is known as
Future Value (FV), so you wont need to use this one if you learn the spreadsheet
well.

Loan Payment Formula


>DE = > F

A
B

A BC
? ? + 
B

Spreadsheets also normally have this formula built into their functions. It is known
as Payment (PMT).
Final note using a spreadsheet: The formulas are built so that money going out from you is
negative and money coming in to you is positive. When you are entering Savings into the
spreadsheet, the payment and Principal (Present Value) will be negative. However, for a loan, the
payment will be negative but the Principal (Present Value) will be positive, because it represents
money coming to you.
Section 3.3

128

Calculating Payments, Interest Rates, and Number of Periods


Excel will help you calculate the payment you will need to make on a loan. It will calculate the
interest rate you would need to earn on your savings to realize a certain future balance. The
number of periods it will take to have your savings grow to a certain future balance can also be
determined.

Monthly Payment Calculation


If you wanted to buy a car that costs $15,000 and you can get a loan at 6% interest for
four years, you can determine the monthly payments using the PMT Excel function as
follows:
Rate:
Nper:
Pv:
Fv:

.06/12 or .005 (monthly interest)


4*12 or 48 (months)
-15000
0
Monthly Payment = $352.28

When you have paid the monthly payment for forty-eight months you will own the car
and the future value of the loan is zero because the loan in paid off.

Benefits Versus Bondage


You can see how hard your savings will work for you given an interest rate and enough time.
However, interest works against you when you borrow money. The benefits may seem great at
the moment but the financial bondage is terrible. By calculating the interest you would pay on a
loan to borrow a car and the interest you would earn by saving to be able to pay cash for the car,
we can determine the financial advantage of collecting interest rather than paying interest.
Interest Paid on a Car Loan
You calculate the amount of interest you would pay on a four year car loan of $15,000 at
6% annual interest using the Excel Pmt function as follows:
Rate:
Nper:
Pv:
Fv:

.06/12
4*12
-15000
0
Monthly Payment = $352.28
Total Payment = $352.28*48 (Payments) = $16,909.22
Section 3.3

129

Interest Paid =$16,909.22 (Paid) -$15,000 (Borrowed) = $1,909.22


TIP: You can have Excel calculate this for you by entering the Pmt function to calculate
the monthly payment and then, on the formula bar at the top of the Excel sheet, multiply
by 48 payments and subtract the $15,000 you borrowed. The formula will be as follows:
=PMT(0.06/12,4*12,-15000,0)*48-15000
You can also double click on the cell with the Pmt calculation in it and the formula will
appear in the cell. Now you can multiply by 48 payments and subtract 15000 and enter
this formula in the cell. The cell will have the answer and the formula will be in the
formula bar.
Interest Collected on Your Savings
The interest you will earn on your savings of $350.00 per month earning 6% annual
interest for 39 months (the number of months we calculated above would be required to
accumulate $15,000 in savings) is calculated using the FV function in Excel as follows:
Rate:
Nper:
Pmt:
Pv:

.06/12
39
-350
0
FV = $15,030.44
Amount Deposited in Savings = $350*39 (deposits) = $13,650.00
Interest Earned on Savings = $15,030.44-$13,650.00 = $1,380.44

Again, you can double click on the cell containing the FV calculation and subtract
350*39 and enter this formula giving you the amount of interest earned. You can make
the same adjustment to the formula in the formula bar. The resulting formula is as
follows:
=FV(0.06/12,39,-350)-350*39
Total Savings From Saving Versus Borrowing
Here is how you benefited by saving and paying cash for the car rather than borrowing
the money to buy the car:
Interest Earned
Interest Not Paid
Financial Advantage

$1,380.44
$1,909.22
$3,289.66

You are wealthier by $3,289.66 because you collected interest rather than paying interest.
This practice will make a major difference in your financial well being throughout your
Section 3.3

130

life. If you put the money you save by paying cash for major purchases to work for you
by investing it for your retirement you will add greatly to your independent wealth. You
can estimate that using the FV function in Excel as follows assuming a 6% return on your
investment for 30 years:
Rate: .06
Nper 30
Pv:
-3289.66
FV = $18,894.13
This addition to your wealth along with the other additions resulting from saving rather
than borrowing will make a major impact on your ultimate wealth.
TIP: In all of the Excel functions you will be using, you only need three entries or factors to
calculate the fourth factor you are after. Notice that there are only three entries in each of the
above Excel functions. You can leave blank any factor not needed and Excel will assume it is
zero.

Section 3.3

131

Section 3.3 Exercises Part B


Simplify the following.
(3m2)3(2m2)3
1.

2.

(x7x11)3

3.

4.

t8m5t5m3

5.

2-4

6.

3x7 (4x2 5x +3)

7.

8.

9.

(5p-5g8)-2

11.

10.

12.

5x5 (4x7 7x6 + 5x-2)

13. Why doesnt a negative exponent make the answer negative?


Using your calculator and the Savings Plan formulas, fill out the table for a savings account.
14. Simple n = 1 15. Quarterly n = 4 16. Monthly n = 12
17. Daily n = 365
P = 200
P = 200
P = 200
P = 200
r = 8%
r = 8%
r = 8%
r = 8%
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
A=
A=
A=
A=

Using your calculator and the Savings Plan formulas, fill out the table for a savings account.
18. Simple n = 1 19. Quarterly n = 4 20. Monthly n = 12
21. Daily n = 365
P = 300
P = 300
P = 300
P = 300
r = 7%
r = 7%
r = 7%
r = 7%
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
A=
A=
A=
A=

Using a spreadsheet and the Future Value (FV) formula, fill out the table for a savings account.
Put your results in a spreadsheet called Savings and Loan Practice.
22. Simple n = 1 23. Quarterly n = 4 24. Monthly n = 12
25. Daily n = 365
P = 200
P = 200
P = 200
P = 200
r = 7%
r = 7%
r = 7%
r = 7%
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
A=
A=
A=
A=
Assignment 3.3b

132

Using a spreadsheet and the Future Value (FV) formula, fill out the table for a savings account.
Put your results in a spreadsheet called Savings and Loan Practice.
26. Simple n = 1 27. Quarterly n = 4 28. Monthly n = 12
29. Daily n = 365
P = 300
P = 300
P = 300
P = 300
r = 8%
r = 8%
r = 8%
r = 8%
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
Y = 15
A=
A=
A=
A=

Using your calculator, find the monthly (n = 12) payment for the following loans.
30.
31.
32.
33.
P = 300
P = 3000
P = 1500
P = 23,000
r = 8%
r = 9%
r = 15%
r = 8%
Y=2
Y=5
Y = 12
Y = 30
PMT =
PMT =
PMT=
PMT =

Using a spreadsheet and the Payment (PMT) formula, find the monthly (n = 12) payment for the
following loans. Put your results in a spreadsheet called Savings and Loan Practice.
36.
37.
34.
35.
P = 1500
P = 23,000
P = 300
P = 3000
r = 8%
r = 9%
r = 15%
r = 8%
Y = 30
Y=2
Y=5
Y = 12
PMT =
PMT =
PMT =
PMT=
Using a spreadsheet and the Payment (PMT) formula, find the monthly (n = 12) payment for the
following loans. Put your results in a spreadsheet called Savings and Loan Practice.
38.
39.
40.
41.
P = 500
P = 4800
P = 2500
P = 23,000
r = 4%
r = 9%
r = 15%
r = 8%
Y=2
Y=5
Y = 12
Y = 20
PMT =
PMT =
PMT=
PMT =

42. Ensure that every member of the group is able to put in the formulas and use the spreadsheet
to do the calculations.

Assignment 3.3b

133

Answers:
216m12
1.

2.
3.

x54

4.
5.
6.
7.

t13m8

8.
9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

12x9 15x8 + 9x7

20x12 35x11 + 25x3


Negative exponents mean
division
634.43
656.21

28. 992.08
29. 995.90
30. 13.57
31.
32.
33.
34.

62.28
22.51
168.77
13.57

35. 62.28
36. 22.51
37. 168.77
38. 21.71
39. 99.64
40.

37.52

41. 192.38
42. Complete only when everyone understands
and can enter the formulas on their own.

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

661.38
663.94
827.71
849.54
854.68
857.21
551.81
566.36
569.79
571.47
951.65
984.31

Assignment 3.3b

134

Section 3.3 Exercises Part C Exam Review


Solve.
1.

3x 1

5
2 = 10
5

2.

6x + 4

3
+ 3 5 = 25
2

3.

-7 9m = -22

4.

6
7

5.

19 = 7x - 39

6.

4x 7
= 9
3

t = -48

Solve for the specified variable.


7.
9.

2s + at 2
=V
5t
d=

LR2
R2 + R1

8.

for s

10.

for L

r=

I
pt

for t

9s 5 g
=c
11

for g

11. 84 is 6 more than 13 times a number. What is the number?


12. Two numbers add to 438 and the first is 72 bigger than the second. What are the two
numbers?
14in
13. Find the area of the shaded region:
6in
14. If a rectangles length is 5 more than 4 times the width and the perimeter is 180 mm, what are
the dimensions of the rectangle?
15. Find the missing variable for a rectangle:
P = 78.3 ft
w = 17.2 ft
l=
16. Find the missing variable for a cylinder:
SA = 453.9 in2
r=7
h=
Solve.
17. 7p + 12 = 15 7p

18.

3n + 68 = 7 2(n 2)

19. 2x 10 = 5(x 4)

Assignment 3.3c

135

20.

18 is what percent of 68?

21.

119 is 28% of what?

22.

Original Price:$ 92.56


Tax: 7.3%
Final Price:

23.

Original Price:
Discount: 35%
Final Price: $13.90

24. If the price of a meal after a 20% tip was $16.08? What was the price of the meal before the
tip was added?
25. If the price of an object dropped 15% down to $413.10, what was the original price?

Solve.
26.

5
2

(-3x+ 2) =

3
4

x+6

27.

x 5
3

4 x +8
6

28.

2 x +7
21

= 6 73 x

29. Find the price, interest rate and years of a loan for homes in your area. In your Life Plan
spreadsheet, enter the Price, Number of years, and Interest Rate, then use the PMT formula to
figure out how much it will cost to own a home. Report to your group when you have completed
it.
30. Using the PMT formula in your Life Plan spreadsheet, find the cost of owning your own
transportation. Report results to your group.
31. Create a Visual Chart on one side of a piece of paper for Chapter 3 material including
information and examples relating to Linear Equations and Applications.

Assignment 3.3c

136

Answers:
x=7
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

x=


28.
29.
30.
31.




t = -56


<

x=

Will be submitted in Portfolio
Will be submitted in Portfolio
Make it nice.

x=

x = -5

s=

RS %S

T=

X=

]=
6

VW
*YZ [Z \
Z
<^ M


255, 183
55.73in2
l = 73mm, w = 17mm
21.95 ft
3.32 in
p=




$

n=-

x=

26.5%
425

$99.32
$21.38
$13.40
$486.00


x=
x = -9

Assignment 3.3c

137

Chapter 4
CHARTS, GRAPHS, and
LINES

Overview
Algebra
4.1 Charts and Maps
4.2 Lines and Slope
4.3 Writing Equations of Lines

138

Section 4.1
Graphs and Charts

Have you ever had difficulty finding locations of objects on maps? If


you havent yet had that experience, then I have a little activity for you. At the end of your Bible
(King James Version LDS Edition) there are several maps. On any of the 13 or so maps, try to
find the following locations:
Bethsaida
Samothrace
Iconium
Kir-hareseth
Unless you have some help, it might take you a while. Lets walk through a couple of
them together. Right before the maps is an Index of Place-Names. First, we look up Bethsaida. In
the edition I have, I find Bethsaida and right next to it is listed 11:C3. The map we have to look
at is number 11, but what does the C3 mean? Well, if you turn to map #11 you will notice that
across the top are letters and then there are numbers along the side. If you go straight down from
C and straight across from 3, you will be right in the vicinity of Bethsaida (right on the north
shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Next we will look at the Samothrace. In the Index of Place-Names we find that it is
located on map 13: E1. Go to map #13. Again, the letters are across the top and numbers are
listed on the side. Go straight down from E and across from 1, and you will find a small island
with the name of Samothrace.
Here is an example from the maps at the end of the Doctrine and Covenants:
Find Harmony, Pennsylvania.
In the Index of Place-Names we see that Harmony, Pennsylvania is on two maps, 1:B3
and 3:H3. So we go to map #3 straight down from H and straight across from 3 and find Village
of Harmony.
If you arent familiar with the map, the little grid set up by using one letter and one
number is absolutely indispensible.
Because letters and numbers go in definite orders, they are called ordinates. When they
are used together to pinpoint an exact location, they are then called coordinates. The use of
coordinates to find an exactly location was introduced into mathematics centuries ago by a man
named Rene Descartes. Now his method to specify locations is used widely in the world.
Longitude and latitude are the two numbers that, when used together, can give us an exact
location on the planet and form the basis for all ship and plane navigation.

Using coordinates is also valuable in being able to read charts and see trends that arent
so readily picked up by only seeing the numbers. Here is an example of a savings account and
how it has grown:

139

Savings Account information


Year
Amount
2001
$8.31
2002
$17.48
2003
$28.00
2004
$56.39
2005
$72.48
2006
$85.34
The chart helps to visualize the
growth.

$100.00
$80.00
$60.00
$40.00
$20.00
$0.00
2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Notice how the graph is made by plotting each set of coordinates.


The standard coordinate system that is used in math is called the Cartesian Coordinate
System. It was created by Descartes (hence the name Cartesian) and uses numbers (positive or
negative) for both the horizontal and the vertical measuring. Here is the system and the parts of
it:

y - axis
tick marks so you wont lose
your place

x - axis

Keeping things in order, when you are given a set of numbers like (6,-2), we have the following:
Parentheses tell us that these two numbers go together to make a single set of coordinates
6 comes first and so matches up with the x
-2 comes second and matches up with y
So, we go to where we are at 6 on the x and -2 on the y to find the right location of the point like
this:

(6,-2)
Section 4.1

140

Section 4.1 Exercises Part A


Find the following locations in the maps section of your Bible using the Index of PlaceNames.
1. Marah
2. Haran
3. Mt. Ararat
4. Golgatha
Now use the Church History maps.
5. Adam-Ondi-Ahman
6. Nauvoo, Illinois

Based on the chart:

Profit
7. In what year did the
company make $450?

600

8. How much did the


company make in 2006?

400

9. What years did the


company make over $500?

200

500

300

100
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

10. Chart the following table of growth of a savings account:


1
2
3
4
# of
0
years
Amount
38
50
72
105
130

155

195

205

170

Graph the following points on a Cartesian coordinate system.


11. (1,8)
12. (2,-4)
13. (3,8)
14. (-5,1)
15. (-3,-7)
16. (0,1)
17. (-2,4)
18. (1,-1)
19. (5,0)

Assignment 4.1a

141

Answers:
On maps
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

On maps
On maps
On maps
On maps
On maps
2003
About $350
2004(maybe), 2009, 2010

Amount
250
200
150
100
50
0

Amount

1119

(1,8) (3,8)

(-2,4)

(-5,1)

(0,1)
(1,-1)

(5,0)

(2,-4)

(-3,-7)

Assignment 4.1a

142

Section 4.1 Exercises Part B


Find the following locations in the maps section of your Bible and Doctrine and Covenants
(Church History) using the Index of Place-Names.
1. Thessalonica
2. Ur
3. Mt. Nebo
4. Kidron Valley
5. Nineveh
6. Fayette, New York

Based on the chart:

Profit
7. In what years did the
company make about $400?

600

8. How much did the


company make in 2002?

400

9. What year did the


company make less than
$375?

200

500

300

100
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

10. Chart the following table of growth of a savings account:


1
2
3
4
# of
0
years
Amount
238
301
314
325
394

420

447

439

480

11. As a group, use a spreadsheet to make a table of the growth of a savings account for 20 years
that begins with $200 and receives a $25 deposit each month and grows at 6%. The table should
show the yearly values at the end of each year.
12. As a group, use the spreadsheet to make a graph of the 20-year table.
13. How much money was paid into the savings account over the 20 years? How much interest
was earned?
Graph the following points on a Cartesian coordinate system.
14. (5,1)
15. (3,-7)
16. (0,-1)
17. (-12,4)
18. (1,1)
19. (-5,0)
Assignment 4.1b

143

Answers:
On maps
1.
On maps

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

On maps
On maps
On maps
On maps

11. Answer on next page . . .


12. Answer on next page . . .
13. $6200, 6013.06

2001, 2005, and 2007


About $500
2006

Amount
600
500
400
300

Amount

200
100
0
0

1419

(-12,4)

(-5,0)

(1,1)
(0,-1)

(5,1)

(3,-7)

Assignment 4.1b

144

Answer to #11:

t
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

r
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06

n
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

P
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200

PMT
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25
-25

rate
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005

nper
12
24
36
48
60
72
84
96
108
120
132
144
156
168
180
192
204
216
228
240

Amount
$520.72
$861.23
$1,222.74
$1,606.54
$2,014.02
$2,446.63
$2,905.92
$3,393.54
$3,911.24
$4,460.86
$5,044.39
$5,663.90
$6,321.63
$7,019.92
$7,761.29
$8,548.37
$9,384.01
$10,271.18
$11,213.08
$12,213.06

Answer to #12:

Amount
$14,000.00
$12,000.00
$10,000.00
$8,000.00
Amount

$6,000.00
$4,000.00
$2,000.00
$0.00
1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Assignment 4.1b

145

Section 4.1 Exercises Part C


Find the following locations in the maps section of your Bible and Doctrine and Covenants
using the Index of Place-Names.
1. Bethlehem
2. Ephesus
3. Hebron
4. Mt. Sinai
5. Liberty, Missouri
6. Kirtland, Ohio
Based on the chart:
7. In what year did the value first drop
below 2500?
8. How much value was lost in the 7
years?
9. Which year had the biggest drop in
value?

Value
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

Value

10. Chart the following table of growth of a savings account:


1
2
3
4
# of
0
years
Amount
52
35
48
54
62

73

68

72

85

11. Use a spreadsheet to make a table of the growth of a savings account for 20 years that begins
with $200 and receives a $50 deposit each month and grows at 6%. The table should show the
yearly values at the end of each year.
12.Use the spreadsheet to make a graph of the 20-year table.
13. How much money was paid into the savings account over the 20 years? How much interest
was earned?
14. How much interest is earned if the account grows at 9% instead of 6%?
Graph the following points on a Cartesian coordinate system.
15. (7,1)
16. (13,-7)
17. (0,4)
18. (8,4)
19. (-1,1)
20. (-8,0)
21. Create a realistic savings plan for yourself. Make a table of the growth of your savings for 20
years. Create a graph of the table. Include it in your portfolio.
Assignment 4.1c

146

Answers:
On maps
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

On maps

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

On maps

11.
12.
13.
14.

On maps
On maps
On maps

Answer on next page


Answer on next page
$12200, $11564.09
$22,396.17 interest for a
total of $34,596.17

3rd year
About $2000
From the 1st to 2nd year

Amount
100
80
60
Amount

40
20
0
0

1520.

(-8,0)

(0,4)

(-1,1)

(8,4)

(7,1)

21.

(13,-7)

Include in Portfolio

Assignment 4.1c

147

Answer to number 11:


t
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

r
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06

n
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

P
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200
-200

PMT
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50
-50

rate
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005

nper
12
24
36
48
60
72
84
96
108
120
132
144
156
168
180
192
204
216
228
240

Amount
$829.11
$1,497.03
$2,206.14
$2,958.99
$3,758.27
$4,606.85
$5,507.77
$6,464.26
$7,479.73
$8,557.85
$9,702.45
$10,917.66
$12,207.81
$13,577.54
$15,031.75
$16,575.66
$18,214.79
$19,955.01
$21,802.57
$23,764.09

Answer to number 12:

Amount
$25,000.00
$20,000.00
$15,000.00
Amount

$10,000.00
$5,000.00
$0.00
1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Assignment 4.1c

148

Section 4.2

When we solved equations that looked like 3x-2=13, we got a solution


like
x=5, but what does that really mean? We have followed an algorithm
Graphing
to arrive at the proper location, but the reader is reminded that the whole
purpose of manipulating equations is to find numbers for x that we can stick in and make a true
statement. If we stick in 5 for x in this equation, we get 3(5) - 2 = 13, which is true. There is no
other number which will do this. We call this a solution to the equation.
In that kind of equations we found a number for x that made the statement true, and sometimes
we could even guess what would work without really using any formulas or steps. This process
becomes a bit helpful when studying the next type of equation:
3x+2y=5
In this type of equation there is an x and a y to find numbers for. The solution to this equation
will not be a single number as it was in the earlier cases, but a pair of numbers. The answers will
look something like (3,-2), which means that we will stick in 3 for x and -2 for y. If you stick
those in, the equation becomes:
3(3)+2(-2) = 5
9-4=5
Woo Hoo! It works! We found a solution, and we dont even know what we are doing yet. Lets
see if there is another one. Try the following pairs of numbers in the equation to see if they also
work:
(1,1)
(3,2)
(-1,4)
(5,-2)
(5,-5)

3(1)+2(1)=5
3(3)+2(2) =5
3(-1)+2(4)=5
3(5)+2(-2)=5
3(5)+2(-5)=5

solution
nope
solution
nope
solution

If you try all of these, you will realize that some of them work as solutions and some of
them dont. In any case, you should be able to realize that there are a whole lot of solutions, tons
of them! One way to get them is to keep guessing. When you get tired of that there is an
algorithm that might make things a little easier. If we pick a number for x and stick it in, then
we will have an equation that we can solve for y. For example, if we say in this example we
want x to be 7, we stick it in to get:
3(7)+2y=5
21+2y=5
2y=-16
y=-8
Which means that when x is 7, y will be -8, or in other words,
the pair (7,-8) is a solution. What would we get if we made y = 9? The equation would be:
3x+2(9)=5

Solving for x, we get x= - , so the pair (- ,9) is a solution.


Now we can get so many solutions this way that it doesnt pose a problem to find one
anymore. Since there are so many, the question arises, Are there any patterns in the solutions to
these equations. Well, of course there are. This is math! The solutions are pairs, which we can
stick on a graph. If we plot the ones that we have already found to the problem we are using we
get this: (3,-2), (1,1), (-1,4), (5,-5), (7,-8)
Section 4.2

149

You will notice that all of the solutions are in a straight line.
If we connect them, we get all of the solutions for the
equation. It is important to realize that if we draw the line
that connects the dots, all of the points on that line are
solutions. The problems will simply ask you to graph the
line 3x+2y=5 or something similar.

The correct answer to


Graph the line 3x+2y=5,
is then the graph at the left.

.
For the next one, find four points on the line and then graph it:
y = 14 x 2
x y
when x = 4 we have y = 14 (4) 2 which means y = -1.
4
when x = 0 we have y = 14 (0) 2 which means y = -2.
0
0 when y = 0 we have 0 = 1 (x) 2 which means x = 8.
4
3
1
when y = 3 we have 3 = 4 (x) 2 which means x = 20.
x y
4 -1
0 -2
8 0
20 3
Notice that we really only need two points to
get the pattern. For convenience, we often select 0 for x, and
then 0 for y.
When x is 0 the point is on the y-axis. Likewise, when y is 0
the point is on the x-axis. In the previous example, the point
(0,-2) lies on the y-axis and is called the y-intercept; the point
(8,0) lies on the x-axis and is called the x-intercept.

The table completely filled out looks like this:


and the graph like this:

An x-intercept happens
when y is zero, and a yintercept happens when x
is zero.

Section 4.2

150

Here is another example.


Graph the line 4x + 3y = 8; find the x and y intercepts.
We start by finding the x- and y-intercepts with a table that looks like:
Then fill it out by plugging in 0 for x and getting 4(0) + 3y = 8
3y = 8
y = 83
When we plug in 0 for y we get: 4x + 3(0) = 8
4x = 8
x=2

so we have the table:

x y
0
0

x y
0 83
2 0

and the graph:

There are a couple of particular kinds of lines that may give you a bit of trouble when you first
see them. Your first reaction when asked to graph the line:
x=4
is probably something like, Hey, where is the y? or, How do I do that? It looks
different.
Relax, these kind are actually a bit easier than the other ones. Watch:
What is x when y is 7? Answer: 4
The points (4,7) (4,0)
What is x when y is 0? Answer: 4
and (4,-3) are part of
What is x when y is -3? Answer: 4
the line and help us
graph it.
Do you see how nice that is? Since y is not in the equation it can be
anything it wants to be, but x is always 4. The graph is as follows:
Here is the line x = 4; notice that it is vertical and hits where x is 4.

151

For future reference you can remember that all equations that only have an x will be vertical.
The other special case that may seem difficult at first looks like:
y = -2
But I think you can see that it will be very similar to the previous example:
What is y when x is 0? Answer: -2
What is y when x is 5? Answer: -2
What is y when x is -3? Answer -2

The points (0,-2) (5,-2)


and (-3,-2) are part of the
line and help us graph it.

See how slick that is?! The graph is as follows:


Here is the line y = -2; notice that it is horizontal and hits
where y is -2.
All equations with just a y in them will be horizontal lines.

7%

Now that we can graph any lines, there is one particular property of lines that is most
useful. We introduce this by bringing to mind a familiar road sign. This sign warns
7
of steepness, but take a look at what it is really saying. 7% means the fraction 100
.The interpretation of the sign means that the road falls vertically 7 feet for
every 100 feet that you travel horizontally. In this way the highway
department uses fractions to denote the steepness of roads. We are going
to do the same thing with the steepness of lines.
When we have a couple of points on the graph we can find the steepness
between them. Here are a couple of examples.

The steepness of the line between point A(-2,1) and B(3,3) is found by
taking how much it changes up and down (distance
C (1,7)
st
between 1 and 3 = 2) over how much it changes
1 Example
left and right(distance between -2 and 3 = 5).
That makes a steepness of 52 . The name for steepness is
B (3,3)
slope, and the symbol is m (as in a mountain). We would
A (-2,1)
write that m = 52 .
2nd Example

The slope of the line through A(-2,1) and

D (5,-3)

Section 4.2

152

over 3 (the distance from -2 to 1.

We would write m = , or in other words m = 2.


3rd Example

The slope of the line through A(-2,1) and D(5,-3) would be -4 (the distance from 1 down
to -3) over 7 (the distance from -2 to 5); m = - 74 .

There are some properties that you should start to see from these examples.
1. Bigger numbers for slope correspond to steeper lines.
2. Positive slopes head up as you go to the right.
3. (Opposite of #2) Negative slopes will head down as you go to the right.
In the first example we obtained the 2 as the distance from 1 to 3. What operation finds distance?
Answer: Subtraction.
Aha! Seeing that, we can start to see a pattern in how to find slopes a little more quickly. Lets
look at those three examples, using subtraction this time:
1st Example:
3 1
2
=
3 2 5

As a note: You should


realize that the
subtraction may
happen in the opposite
direction but will still
give the same slope.
Example #1 would
look like this:
1 3
2 2
=
=
23 5 5

2nd Example:
7 1
6
= =2
1 2 3

3rd Example:
4
3 1
=
5 2
7

Now, see if you can find the slope between two general points:
Point 1 and point 2 with coordinates that we dont know.
We would like to call them both just (x,y), but then subtraction
would give us zero. This is a good place to introduce you to how
subscripts can be very helpful. We will call point #1 (x1,y1) showing that
the x and the y come from the 1st point. Similarly we will call point #2
(x2,y2).
Now you can find the slope just like we did in the previous examples:
y y1
m= 2
x 2 x1
Voila! You have just created the formula for finding slope between two points. Practice using it
quite a bit until it almost becomes natural. Memorize it!
Sometimes formulas are written in a few different ways. Here are some of the others:

m=

y1 y 2
x1 x 2

m=

ychange
xchange

m=

rise
run

m=

y
x

They all mean the same thing.

Section 4.2

153

Section 4.2 Exercises Part A


1. Two numbers add up to 57, and the first is 23 bigger than the second. What are the two
numbers?
2. An international phone call costs 35 to connect and 12 for every minute of the call. How
long can a person talk for $3.60?
3. A 52m rope is cut so that one piece is 18m longer than the other. What are the lengths of the
pieces?
4.

Original Price:$292.50
Discount:20%
Final Price:

5.

Original Price:
Discount: 40%
Final Price: $73.90

6. The perimeter of a rectangle is 82 cm. If the length of the rectangle is 6 more than 4 times the
width, what are the dimensions of the rectangle?

Fill out the table for each of the following:


Ex. 1
3x + 4y = 7
x
2

3(2) + 4y = 7
4y = 1
y = 14

7. x + y = 9
x
5
-4

y
0
1
5

3(0) + 4y = 7
4y = 7
y = 74

3
0
7

Solution:
3x + 4(0) = 7
3x = 7
x = 73

x
2

7
3

1
- 134
0

3x + 4(1) = 7
3x = 3
x=1

1
4

1
5
7
4

3x + 4(5) = 7
3x = -13
x = - 133
8. 2x y = 5
x
2
0
-1

0
4

9. 5x + 4y = 9
x
1
0
-3

0
5

10. x7y = 13
x

y
1
3

2
0
-1

Assignment 4.2a

154

Graph the following lines, and label three points.


Example:
2x 7y = 3

Pick three numbers to make a table (intercepts are helpful):


x
0
1
-2

. ..

y
(0,- 73 ) (1,- 17 ) (-2,-1)

11. 3x + y = 10

12. y = 2x

13. x 4y = 7

14. x = 3

15. y = - 73 x + 4

16. 6x 5y = 12

17.

18. 5x + 2y = 6

y = -4

Preparation
19. After reading a bit of section 4.2, try to find the slope between (4,1) and (7,11).

Assignment 4.2a

155

Answers:
17, 40
1.

11. (0,10) (3,1) (-1,13) 16. (2,0) (0, - ) (7,6)

2.
3.

27 minutes

4.
5.
6.

$234

17m, 35m
$123.17
7cm X 34cm

7.
x
5
-4
6
9
2

8.

x
2
0
-1

9.

y
-1
-5
-7
0

x
1
0

y
1

-3

6
0

x
20
34
2
0
6

17. (0,-4) (2,-4) (37,-4)

13. (7,0) (3,-1) (0,)

18. (0,3) (2,-2) (  ,0)

14. (3,0) (3,1) (3,2)

19. m = 




10.

12. (0,0) (1,2) (2,4)


y
4
13
3
0
7

y
1
3

15. (0,4) (7,1) (14,-2)








-1

Assignment 4.2a

156

Section 4.2 Exercises Part B


1. Three types of trees are in a local park. The number of aspens is 4 more than twice as many
oaks, and the number of maples is 50 more than the number of oaks. There are a total of 874
trees in the park. How many of each kind are there?
2. If the length is 3 more than 4 times the width of a rectangle and the perimeter is 76mm, what
are the dimensions?
3. Solve.

4.

4(x-7) = 2x + 15

Original Price:$392.50
Discount:20%
Final Price:

5.

Original Price:
Discount: 45%
Final Price: $73.90

6. If my vehicle can get 32 miles per gallon and fuel costs $2.75 per gallon. How many miles per
dollar do I get?

Fill out the table for each of the following:


7. 2x + y = 9
x
5
-4

3
0
7

8.

y = 5x+2
x
2
0
-1

0
4

9. x + 4y = 9
x
1
0
-3

10. y = x - 13
x

y
2
5

2
0

0
5

-1

Graph the following lines, and label three points.

11. 3x + 2y = 10

12. y = 2x - 7

13. y = x

14. x = -6

15. y = - 73 x - 2

16. 2x 5y = 12
Assignment 4.2b

157

17.

y=5

18. 5x + y = 6

Find the slope between each pair of points.


Ex. (7,2) (-3,5)

52
37
3
=10

m=

19. (5,-2) (7,3)

20. (4,1) (-5,6)

21. (5,-1) (-3,-8)

22. (7,3) (-2,3)

23. (-5,2) (4,-3)

24. (-6,1) (-6,5)

25. Explain the difference between a slope of zero and an undefined slope.

Preparation
26. Find two points of each line and then use those points to find the slope.
2x 3y = 1

y = x + 4

Assignment 4.2b

158

Answers:
205 Oaks, 414 Aspen,
1.
255 Maple
w=7, l=31
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

17. (0,5) (-2,5) (3,5)

13. (0,0) (2, 1) (8,4)

18. (0,6) (1,1) (


 ,0)

14. (-6,0) (-6,1) (-6,2)

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

$134.36
11.64 miles per dollar

1
x
2
0
-1
- 



10.

12. (0,-7) (1,-5) (2,-3)






9.

16. (6,0) (0, - ) (1,-2)

x=

$314

x
5
-4
3

8.

11. (0,5) (


,0) (2,2)


y
-1
17
3
0
7
y
12
2
-3
0
4

x
y
1
2

0

-3
3
0
9
-11 5

15. (0,-2) (7,-5) (-7,1)

x
35
42
2

y
2
5

0
28

-13
-1

m = 
m = - 
m =
m=0
m = - 
m = undefined
Undefined is straight up and
down, vertical.
0 is horizontal, straight across

26. m =



m=



Assignment 4.2b

159

Section 4.2 Exercises Part C


1. Three types of trees are in a local park. The number of aspens is 4 more than twice the
number of birch, and there were 50 more pines than birch. There are a total of 874 trees in the
park. How many of each kind are there?
2. If the length is 7 more than 4 times the width of a rectangle and the perimeter is 74mm, what
are the dimensions?
3. Solve.

4.

5(x-7) = x + 15

Original Price:$92.50
Discount:20%
Final Price:

5.

Original Price:
Discount: 25%
Final Price: $174.30

6. What is the Volume of a Cylinder with radius 8cm and height 12cm?

Fill out the table for each of the following:


7. 2x + 3y = 9
x
5
-4

3
0
7

8.

y = -5x+2
x
2
0
-1

0
4

9. x - 7y = 9
x
1
0
-3

10. y = x

0
5

y
2
5

2
0
-1

Graph the following lines, and label three points.

11. 4x + 2y = 10

12. y = -2x - 7

13. y = x

14. x = 5

15. y = - 73 x - 2

16. 7x 5y = 12

17.

18. 5x + 2y = 6

y = -3

Assignment 4.2c

160

Find the slope between each pair of points.


19. (4,-2) (7,3)

20. (4,8) (-5,6)

21. (-3,-1) (-3,-8)

22. (7,7) (-2,3)

23. (-5,-3) (4,-3)

24. (-6,1) (-5,5)

25. Explain the difference one more time between a slope of zero and an undefined slope.

Find two points of each line and then use those points to find the slope
28. 5x y = 10
26. 2x 3y = 1
27. y = x + 4
29. 2x + 7y = 1

30. y = - x + 3

Assignment 4.2c

161

Answers:
205 Birch, 414 Aspen,
1.
255 Pine
w = 6, l = 31
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.



$232.40
2412.74 cm3
x
5
-4
0


-6
x
2
0
-1




-

9.

10.

16. (,0) (0,- ) (1,-1)

x=

$74.00

8.

11. (0,5) (,0) (1,3)

y
- 


3
0
7
y
-8
2
7
0
4

y
- 
- 
- 

0
5

y
2
5







2
0
- 

x
1
0
-3
9
44

12. (0,-7) (1,-9) (- ,0) 17. (5,-3) (7.2,-3) (0,-3)

13. (0,0) (2, 3) (4,6)

18. (0,3) (2,-2) (  ,0)

14. (5,2) (5,0) (5,-3.4)

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

15. (0,-2) (7,-5) (-7,1)

m = 

m = 
m is undefined
m =
m=0
m=4
Undefined is straight up and
down, vertical.
0 is horizontal, straight across

26. (0,- 
) ( , 0) m = 

27. (0,4) (5,7) m =



28. (2,0) (0, -10) m = 5




0
-1

29. (0, ) (,0) m = - 


30. (0,3) (7,1) m = - 
Assignment 4.2c

162

Section 4.3
Graphing
Equations with
Slope

Okay, now that you know how to graph a line by getting some
points, and you know how to find the slope between two points, you should
be able to find the slope of a line once you have an equation:

Example: Find the slope and graph the line 3x-4y=2


Well, if we find a couple of points: (2,1) and (6,4), the
graph must look like this:

Then finding the slope, we can just use the same method
that we have done the other ones we get the slope
m = 6412 = 34 .

(6,4)
(2,1)

Trying this a couple of times on various equations, you might get something like the following:

Equation
3x 5y = 10

Slope:
m= 35

I hope that you kind of see a pattern emerging that you


would be able to use as a shortcut. Do you see how the
2x + 9y = 4
m = - 92
change in y is always the coefficient of x? And do you see
that the change in x is always the opposite of the
5x + y = 15
m = -5
1
coefficient of y?
x-3y = 12
m= 3
These equations are all written the same way and
have the same pattern for getting the slope without actually figuring it out from a couple of
points.

Here is a pattern for another common way of writing lines. Pick out the pattern here:
Equation:
y = -2x 5
y = 73 x + 4

Slope:
m = -2
m = 73

y = - 94 x 13
y = 7x - 2

m = - 94
m=

The pattern here is even easier than the first one. When y is by
itself, the slope is simply the number in front of x. No change.

1
7

Section 4.3

163

Since these are two very common ways of writing lines, they need some comparison.
Slope-intercept Form:
Standard Form:
- Written in the form y = mx+b.
- It is written in the form Ax+By = C where
- m is the slope without any adjustment.
A, B, and C are integers (usually).
- Intercepts are found by putting in 0 for
- (0,b) is the y-intercept.
either x or y so each is relatively easily
found as (0, CB ) and ( CA ,0).
-

Slope is always m = - BA

Advantages:
It has no fractions.
Both x- and y- intercept have same amount of
calculation
Disadvantages:
Minor calculation for y-intercept.
Remembering to put the negative sign on the
slope.

Advantages:
Slope is most easily found.
Y-intercept is most easily found.
Prepares you for function f(x) notation.
Disadvantages:
Fractions are often part of the equation.

Since both of them will be given to you to graph, you should be able to work with both of them.
Important Note: You should also see that we can change from Standard form into Slope-intercept
form (and vice-versa) simply by solving for y. In the example 3x-4y=2, we get:
3x-4y=2
-4y=-3x+2
Standard: 3x-4y=2 Slope-intercept: y= 34 x - 12
3
1
y= 4 x - 2
Slope: m= 3
Slope: m= 3
4

1
2

y-intercept: (0, - ) y-intercept: (0, - 12 )


They are simply two different ways to
x-intercept: ( 23 ,0)
x-intercept: ( 23 ,0)
write the same equation. There is no
difference, except that of convenience. The
first way is called standard form, and the second is called slope-intercept form. Again, they are
the same line! Every point that works in one will work in the other.

In any case, you will learn and have practice with


both forms. Being able to pick out intercepts and slope
from lines will help you to graph them quickly. Having
the slope especially makes it a cinch to graph lines. You
only need to find one point, then follow the slope to the
next point and draw the line.
Example:
Graph the line and find the slope of y=- 53 x - 4

-5
3

Section 4.3

164

Well the slope is right in front of x, so m= - 53


One easy point is to stick in zero for x. We get the point (0,-4). Following the slope, (it is
negative, so we will head down as we go to the right) down 5 over 3 and we come to the point
(3,-9), and then draw the line.

7
2

Another example:
Graph the line and find the slope of 2x-7y=4
Well the slope is the opposite of 2 over -7, so m=- 27 = 72
It appears that the easiest point in this one is the x-intercept, so we
stick in zero for y and get x=2: (2,0). Following the slope we move
up 2 and over 7 to the next point (9,2), and then draw the line.

That covers graphing and finding the slope for the vast majority of
equations. As you will recall, there were a couple of special cases
where either the x or the y were missing. We now look to find the slope of these.
We will work two examples of this:
First: y= -2
Remember how to find a couple of points that work: (3,-2)
and (-1,-2). It gives us the graph of a horizontal line where
y is always -2:
Putting those two points in to the formula for finding
slope, we get:
0
2 2
m=
=
=0
1 3
4
which means that all horizontal lines will have a slope of
0.
Second: x=5
Remember how to find a couple of points that work: (5,2) and (5,6).
It gives us the graph of a vertical line where x is always 5:
Now if we put the points in the slope formula, we get:
62
4
= = bad news. (Division by zero is
55
0
undefined.)
which means that all vertical lines have undefined slope.

Section 4.3

165

m = undefined
m = 15
m=2

To get a feel for slope a little bit better, we are going to take
a little time to look at some slopes. You will notice that
the higher the number, the steeper it is. Common
m =1
sense from that will tell you that a slope of 0 will
belong to a line that is completely flat. Also, you
should see that since numbers get bigger as
1
the slope gets steeper, the slope of a vertical
m= 2
line would have to be far greater than a billion.
On the other hand, numbers get increasingly
m = 13
large in the negative direction for lines that
are heading down ever steeper. That means
that vertical lines would have to have a slope
that is less than negative one billion.
m=0
Hmmmmmm. greater than a billion and
less than negative a billion at the same
1
time. No wonder that division by zero
m= 5
cant be done and is undefined.

m = 23

A word of caution: Since the term no slope is


interpreted by some to mean zero slope and by
others to mean that the slope doesnt exist, we will
m = 1
simply avoid the term. A vertical line has undefined
m = 2
slope and a horizontal line has a slope of zero.
m = 8
m = undefined

Section 4.3

166

Now that we can go from the equation of a line to the finding of points, getting the slope and
graphing the line, we are going to work on how to go backwards. It really isnt as difficult as it
seems. Since from an equation we can get the slope, we can certainly write an equation from the
slope.
Example:
Write an equation of the line that has slope m= 35 , and goes through the point (5,2).
There are two ways to do this. Remember with standard form, the slope is the negative of the
first number over the second. In slope-intercept, the slope is right in front of the x when y is by
itself.

Again, please note


that if you take the
standard form and
solve for y, you will
get the slope-intercept
form.

Standard
Since the slope is 35 , we know that an
equation would have to be:
3x 5y = something but what? Ahhh,
here is where we use the fact that
(5,2) has to work in the equation. If
we stick in 5 for x and 2 for y we get:
3(5) 5(2) = 15 10 =5
3x 5y = 5

As a side note on slope:


When two lines have the same slope, or
steepness such that they never cross, we call these
parallel. When two lines meet at a 90 degree angle,
it is called perpendicular. Lets suppose that line a
has a slope of 72 ; it is pretty steep and positive. Line
b will have a similar ratio, but we can see that it is
shallow and negative. As we can see from the
picture, the slope of b is m= - 72 . This pattern
happens every time that two lines are perpendicular.
As a rule: A perpendicular slope is the negative
reciprocal. Some people like to think of it that the

Slope-Intercept
Since the slope is 35 , we know that an
equation would have to be:
y = 35 x+b but what is b? Ahhh, here
is where we use the fact that (5,2) has
to work in the equation. If we stick in
5 for x and 2 for y we get:
2 = 35 (5) + b
2=3+b
-1 = b
Thus our equation must be
y = 35 x - 1

7
-2
7

Section 4.3

167

two slopes will always multiply together to give you -1.


As a special case, can you see what slope would be perpendicular to 0? Since vertical and
horizontal are perpendicular, an undefined slope is the answer.

Here are a few examples:


Equation

Slope

Parallel slope

Perpendicular

3x+2y=7

m= - 32

m= - 32

m= 23

y = 5x-2

m=5

m=5

m= - 15

4x-7y=7

m= 74

m= 74

m= - 74

x=-7

m = undefined

m = undefined

m=0

y=3

m=0

m=0

m = undefined

168

Section 4.3 Exercises Part A


1. Three types of horses are in a local ranch. The number of Arabians is 8 more than twice the
number of Quarter-horses, and the number of Clydesdales is50 more than the number of Quarterhorses. There are a total of 282 horses at the ranch. How many of each kind are there?
2. What is the slant height of a cone that has Surface Area of 219.91 in2 and a radius of 5 in?
3. The perimeter of a rectangle is 120 in. If the length of the rectangle is 3 more than twice the
width, what are the dimensions of the rectangle?

4.

Original Price:$392.50
Tax: 6%
Final Price:

5.

Original Price:
Tax: 7%
Final Price: $73.90

Fill out the table for each of the following:


6. 2x - 3y = 9
x
5
-4

3
0
7

7.

y = x+2
x
2
0
-1

0
4

Graph the following lines, and label x and y intercepts.

8. 5x + 2y = 10

9. y = x - 6

10. y = x

11. x = 10

12. y = - 73 x +4

13. 7x y = 14

Find the slope between each pair of points.


14. (8,-2) (7,3)

15. (8,1) (-5,6)

16. (-3,-1) (-3,-8)

17. (7,9) (-2,3)

18. (-5,2) (4,6)

19. (-6,1) (6,1)

Assignment 4.3a

169

Graph the following lines giving one point and the slope.
Ex.
2x 7y = 3
Find one point: ( 32 ,0) and the slope: m = 72 .
Then graph the point. Then go up 2 and over 7 for the next one:

20. -6x + y = 10

21. y = 4x + 3

22. y = x - 4

23. x = -6

24. y = - 73 x - 2

25. 3x 4y = 12

26. 5x + 3y = 10

27. x + 4y = 9

28. y = 7

Preparation
29. Write down 5 equations of lines that have the slope:

m= - 

Assignment 4.3a

170

Answers:
56 Quarter-horses, 106
1.
10.
Clydesdales, 120 Arabian
slant height = 9 in
2.

3.

41in X 19in

4.
5.
6.

$416.05
$69.07
x
5
-4
9

x
2
0
-1
- 

y
9
2
- 
0
4

(0,0) (3,8)

20. (0,10); m = 6

11. (10,0) no y-int

21. (0,3); m = 4

12. (0,4) ( 
,0)

22. (0,-4); m = 

23. (-6,0); m = undefined






-
3

0

15 7

7.




8.

(0,5) (2,0)

13. (2,0) (0,-14)

9.

,0)
(0,-6) ( 


14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

m = -5

m = - 
m = undefined
m = 
m = 
m=0

24. (0,-2); m = - 

Assignment 4.3a

171

25.

(4,0); m = 

27. (9,0); m = - 

26.

(2,0); m = - 

28. (15,7); m = 0

29. Discuss it together.

Assignment 4.3a

172

Slope Monster
Equation
2x 5y = 7


Slope

Equation
4x y = 7


y= x-4

y= x-4

5x 3y = 7

8x 3y = 12

2x + 7y = 19

- 4x + 7y = 19

x = 13

x = -19

y= x-8

y= x-4

y = 5x 8

y = -3x 8

-3x + 9y = 4

-10x + 6y = 4

y = -3

y = 15

y=-

x-4



7x 3y = 7


y=

x-4



2x 8y = 17


y= x-4

y= x+6

5x 3y = 7

4x + 7y = 7

4x + 7y = 19

2x - 9y = 19

x=-3

x=7

y=- x-4

y= x-4

y = -2x 8

y = 4x + 13

-3x + 6y = 4

-3x - 6y = 4

y = -5

y=7

y=- x-4


Slope

y = - x + 15


Assignment 4.3 Slope Monster

173

Slope Monster Solution


Equation

Slope

2x 5y = 7

m=

m=

5x 3y = 7

m=

2x + 7y = 19

m=

x = 13

Undefined

y = 5x 8

m=5

-3x + 9y = 4

m=

y = -3

m=0

y=-

x-4

m=

y= x-4

m=

5x 3y = 7

m=

4x + 7y = 19

m=

x=-3

Undefined

y = -2x 8

m=-2

-3x + 6y = 4

m=

y = -5

m=0

8x 3y = 12

m=

- 4x + 7y = 19

m=

x = -19

Undefined

y= x-4

m=

y = -3x 8

m = -3

-10x + 6y = 4

m=

y = 15

m=0

y=

x-4

m=

m=

y= x+6

m=

4x + 7y = 7

m=

2x - 9y = 19

m=

x=7

Undefined

m=

m=

m=

2x 8y = 17

y=- x4

y=- x-4

y= x-4

m=

7x 3y = 7

m=4

m=

4x y = 7

y= x-8

Slope

y= x-4

Equation

m=

y = 4x + 13

m =4

-3x - 6y = 4

m=

y=7

m =0

y = - x + 15

y= x-4

m=

174

Section 4.3 Exercises Part B

Fill out the table for each of the following:


1. 2x - 5y = 11
x
5
-4

3
0
7

2.

y = x+6
x
2
0
-1

0
4

Graph the following lines, and label x and y intercepts.

3. 4x - 2y = 10

4. y = -  x - 6

5. y = 5x

Find the slope between each pair of points.


6. (3,-2) (7,3)

7. (9,1) (-7,6)

8. (5,-1) (-3,-8)

9. (-2,9) (-2,3)

10. (-5,2) (5,6)

11. (19,1) (6,1)

12. Explain the difference between a slope of zero and an undefined slope.
Graph the following lines giving one point and the slope.
13. -3x + 4y = 10

14. y = 2x - 7

15. y = x - 4

16. y = 17

17. y = - 73 x - 2

18. 2x 6y = 12

Write the equations of the lines with the slopes and points:
Ex.
Write an equation of the line that has slope m = 74 , and goes through the point (2,1). Put the
answer in Standard Form.
From the slope m = 74 , I know that the equation must look like:
4x 7y = something, so I put in the point to see what it is.
4(2) 7(1) = 1.

Assignment 4.3b

175

Thus the answer is 4x 7y = 1.


Ex.
Write an equation of the line that has slope m = 74 , and goes through the point (2,1). Put the
answer in Slope-Intercept Form.
From the slope m = 74 , I know that the equation must look like:
y=
1=

4
7
4
7

x+b

Put the point in to see what b is.

(2) + b

8
7
1
7

1- = b
- =b
Thus the answer is y =

4
7

x-

1
7

19. Write an equation of the line that has slope m= -3, and goes through the point (-4,6). Put the
answer in Standard Form.

20. Write an equation of the line that has slope m= 85 , and goes through the point (3,6). Put the
answer in Standard Form.

21. Write an equation of the line that has slope m=- 23 , and goes through the point (1,-3). Put the
answer in Slope-Intercept Form.

22. Write an equation of the line that has slope m=- 54 , and goes through the point (5,-3). Put the
answer in Slope-Intercept Form.
23. Write an equation of the line that has slope m= 2, and goes through the point (0,5). Put the
answer in Slope-Intercept Form.

24. Write an equation of the line that has slope m=- 17 , and goes through the point (-4,7). Put the
answer in Standard Form.

Assignment 4.3b

176

Answers:
1.

x y
5
-

-4 -


13 3

23 7

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

m = 

m = - 
m = 
m = undefined
m = 
m=0

13.

(0,) m = 

14.

(0,-7) m = 2

15.

(0,-4) m = 

16.

(0,17) m = 0

17.

(0,-2) m = - 

Undefined is vertical
0 is horizontal

2.

3.

4.

5.

x
2
0
-1
- 


y
13
6

- 

18. (6,0) m = 




19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

3x + y = -6
5x 8y = -33
y = - x - 
y = - x + 1
y = 2x + 5
x + 7y = 45

(0,-5) (,0)

,0)
(0,-6) (-


(0,0) (2,10)

Assignment 4.3b

177

Section 4.3 Exercises Part C Exam Review


1. Chart the following table of growth of a savings account:
# of
0
years
Amount 35

50

75

102

130

161

174

205

240

Based on the chart:

Profit
2. In what year did the
company make $450?

600

3. How much did the


company make in 2006?

400

4. What years did the


company make over $500?

200

500

300

100
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

5. Graph the growth of a savings account in Excel, using the savings formula, over the course of
20 years of a savings account that starts out at $200 and adds $50 per month and gets 7%
interest.

Fill out the table for each of the following:


6. 3x + 4y = 11
x
5
-4

3
0
7

y = x - 2

7.
x
2
0
-1

0
4

Graph the following lines, and label x and y intercepts.

8. 5x - y = 10

9. y = -  x - 5

10. y = -2x

Assignment 4.3c

178

Find the slope between each pair of points.


11. (4,-2) (7,3)

12. (3,1) (-7,6)

13. (5,-1) (5,-8)

14. (-2,9) (-2,254)

15. (-5,2) (5,7)

16. (19,1) (6,2)

17. Explain the difference (again) between a slope of zero and an undefined slope.
Graph the following lines giving one point and the slope.
18. -3x + 5y = 10

19. y = - x - 2

21. y = -5

22. y = -  x - 2

20. y = x - 1

23. 12x 6y = 12

Write the equations of the lines with the slopes and points:
24. Write an equation of the line that has slope m = 2, and goes through the point (-4,1). Put the
answer in Standard Form.


25. Write an equation of the line that has slope m =  ,and goes through the point (-14,6). Put the
answer in Standard Form.

26. Write an equation of the line that has slope m = - 23 , and goes through the point (0,0). Put the
answer in Slope-Intercept Form.


27. Write an equation of the line that has slope m = -  , and goes through the point (2,-3). Put
the answer in Slope-Intercept Form.
28. Write an equation of the line that has slope m = 7, and goes through the point (0,5). Put the
answer in Slope-Intercept Form.


29. Write an equation of the line that has slope m = - , and goes through the point (-4,7). Put
the answer in Standard Form.
30. Create a Visual Chart on one side of a piece of paper for Chapter 4 material including
information and examples relating to Charts, Graphs, and Lines.

Assignment 4.3c

179

Answers:
1.

20. (0,-1) m = 
9.

300




(0,-5) (- ,0)

200
100

21. (0,-5) m = 0

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

10.
2.
3.
4.
5.

2003
about $340
2004(?), 2009, 2010
On Spreadsheet

6.

x
5
-4

7.
x
2









22. (0,-2) m = - 

y
-1

y


11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

m = 
m = - 
m = undefined
m = undefined
m = 
m=-

17.
18.

(0,2) m = 




-2
-

0

Undefined is vertical
0 is horizontal




(0,-10) (2,0)
19.

23. (1,0) m = 2



0
-1

8.

(0,0) (2,-4)

(0,-2) m = -1

24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

2x y = -9
3x 7y = -84
y = -  x
y = - x + 2
y = 7x + 5
x + 4y = 24
Make it nice.

Assignment 4.3c