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Mechanical Lab manual

Experiment 1
Determination of Flash point and Fire point of lubricating oil using Abel
Apparatus
ABELS FLASH POINT APPARATUS
AIM: To determine the flash point of kerosene by Abels flash point apparatus.
APPARATUS: Abels flash point apparatus, Thermometers.
THEORY:
Flash point: The flash point is the lowest temperature, to which a lubricant must be heated
before its vapor, when mixed with air, will ignite but not continue to burn.
Fire point: The fire point is the temperature at which lubricant combustion will be sustained.
The flash and fire points are useful in determining a lubricants volatility and fire resistance.
The flash point can be used to determine the transportation and storage temperature
requirements for lubricants. Lubricant producers can also use the flash point to detect potential
product contamination. A lubricant exhibiting a flash point significantly lower than normal will
be suspected of contamination with a volatile product. Products with a flash point less than 38o
C (100oF) will usually require special precautions for safe handling. The fire point for a
lubricant is usually 8 to 10 percent above the flash point. The flash point and fire point should
not be confused with the auto-ignition temperature of a lubricant, which is the temperature at
which a lubricant will ignite spontaneously without an external ignition source.
Outline of the methods: The sample is placed in the cup of the Abel apparatus and heated at a
prescribed rate. A small test flame is directed into the cup at regular intervals and the flash
point is taken as the lowest temperature at which application of the test flame will cause the
vapour above the sample to ignite with a distinct flash inside the cup.

Mechanical Lab manual

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:

DESCRIPTION:
The Abels flash point apparatus is mainly used to determine the flash point of fuel oils
flashing between 22 0C to 49 0C. It consists of a sealed water bath with a provision of an air
chamber to hold the oil cup and circulate cold water for below ambient determination and an
external heater for above ambient determinations. The oil cup is provided with a lid and sliding
ports for the introduction of test flame. Within the oil cup a circular marking to indicate the
level of oil to be taken for the test. The whole arrangement is mounted on a cylindrical
enclosed stand.
PROCEDURE:
1) Clean the oil cup with any solvent and wipe it dry.
1 2) Fill water into the water jacket to its full level and insert into the cylindrical stand.
2 3) Pour water into the air chamber, which surrounds the oil cup to a depth of 38 mm.
1 4) Pour fuel oil to be tested into the oil cup up to the circular mark and place the
oil cup
into the air chamber of the water bath.
3 5) Close it with the lid having sliding ports.
4 6) Insert the water and oil thermometers in their respective holders.
5 7) Keep the entire set up on a heater and heat the water at a very slow rate.
6 8) Maintain a low flame on the wick and apply the flame to the oil surface by sliding the
port at every 20 rise in temperature of the oil under test.
7 9) Record the temperature at which the first flash occurs and report as flash point.
8 10) To determine the flash point of fuel oils below room temperature, circulate cold
water in the water bath to at least 15 0 C below the expected flash point of the fuel oil
sample and follow steps 8 & 9.
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Mechanical Lab manual

OBSERVATION AND TABULAR COLUMN


Type of oil Used: ..
Sl no

Temperature (0C)

Observation
Flash Point
Fire Point

RESULT:
The flash point of given oil is =
The fire point of given oil is =

Experiment 2
PENSKY MARTENS FLASH POINT APPARATUS
AIM: To determine the flash point of Diesel by Pensky Martens apparatus.
APPARATUS: Pensky Martens apparatus, thermometers.
THEORY:

Mechanical Lab manual

In the Pensky-Martens closed cup flash point test, a brass test cup is filled with a test specimen
and fitted with a cover. The sample is heated and stirred at specified rates depending on what it
is that's being tested. An ignition source is directed into the cup at regular intervals with
simultaneous interruption of stirring until a flash that spreads throughout the inside of the cup
is seen. The corresponding temperature is its flash point.
Pensky-Martens closed cup is sealed with a lid through which the ignition source can be
introduced periodically. The vapour above the liquid is assumed to be in reasonable
equilibrium with the liquid. Closed cup testers give lower values for the flash point (typically
5-10 K) and are a better approximation to the temperature at which the vapour pressure reaches
the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL).
Outline of Method: the sample is heated in a test cup at a slow and constant rate with
continuous stirring. A small test flame is directed into the cup at regular intervals with
simultaneous interruption of stirring. The flash point is taken as the lowest temperature at
which the application of the test flame causes the vapour above the sample to ignite
momentarily.
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:

DESCRIPTION:
This apparatus is used to determine the flash point of fuel oils and lubricating oils. Flashing
above 49 0 C. It consists of an oil cup with a circular marking for oil level indication. A lid to
cover the oil cup with sliding shutters with ports, oil stirring mechanism and dipping wick
holder, cast iron oil cup holder (air bath), electric heater with control.
PROCEDURE:
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Mechanical Lab manual

1 1) Install the apparatus on a table near a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps single-phase power source.
Keep the electrical heater on the table. Position the oil cup holder (air bath) on the
heater. Insert the oil cup into the bath and position it.
2 2) Pour oil to be tested into the oil cup up to the mark.
3 3) Close the lid.
4 4) Connect the heater to the electrical power source and heat the oil at a slow steady rate
of 20C /min with the help of the regulator. Keep stirring the oil with the stirring
mechanism.
5 5) Maintain a small flame on the wick.
6 6) Introduce the flame to the oil surface by operating the circular handle, which makes
the maintained flame to dip into the oil cup by opening the shutter. This is done at every
half minute, only after the sample oil reaches 150 to 17 0 C before the expected flash
point.
7 7) Record the temperature at which first flash occurs and report as flash point of the
sample oil.
8 8) To stop the experiment, switch of the heater and allow it to cool.
OBSERVATION AND TABULAR COLUMN:
Lubricating oil used:
Sl no
Temperature (0C)
Observation
Flash Point
Fire Point

RESULT:
The flash point of given oil is =
The fire point of given oil is =

Experiment 3
Lewis Thomsom Calorimeter
Aim: To determine the Calorific value & Evaporative value of coal.

Mechanical Lab manual

Apparatus: Lewis Thomson Colorimeter, Glass jar, Water, Thermometer.


Theory: Calorific value is defined as the number of heat units produced by complete
combustion of a unit quantity of fuel. Coal is ignited with the help of potassium nitrate,
due to combustion; the heat is carried away by the hot flue gases. By the method of
mixtures, the heat of fuel gases is given to the water. The rise in temperature of water is
noted and the colorific value of the fuel is calculated.
Procedure:
(a) Coal (1gm), Potassium Chlorate (8.25gms) and potassium Nitrate (2.75gms) are
separately weighted, mixed together and a smooth uniform mixture is obtained.
(b)This powdered mixture is poured into a small cylindrical metal container with few match
sticks vertically inserted with their burning side projecting out of the mixture side. This
helps in the fast ignition of the mixture. The container is tightly secured in a holder at the
bottom of the calorimeter.
(c) Water is filled in the beaker up to the marked level, which constitutes 2000cc of water.
Initial temperature is noted (t1).
(d) The fuel mixture is ignited and the container is immediately covered by the cylinder of
the colorimeter. The whole apparatus is immersed in the beaker. Combustion takes place
inside the metal container liberating hot gases. The gases accumulated in the beaker
while the heat increases the temperature of water. Final temperature is also noted (t2).
(e) Heat liberating by the coal =heat absorbed by the water
(f) This is further used to calculate the evaporate value of coal.

Mechanical Lab manual

Calculate
Heat liberated by fuel = heat absorbed by water and colorimeter.
CV = [ {(WmSpw) + (WcSc) } (t2-t1) ] / m
Where CV=Calorific Value of the fuel, KJ/Kg.
M=mass of the fuel burnt, Kg.
Wm = Weight of water taken in calorimeter.
Wc = Weight of the colorimeter = 0.675 kg .
Sc = Specific heat of copper = 0.386 kg/kg-k.
T1 = initial temperature of water (Room temperature)
T2 = final temperature of water
Spw = Specific heat of water 4.486 kg/kg-k.
Result:
Calorific value of the soild fuel i.e coal is

-------

kj/kg.

Mechanical Lab manual

Experiment 4
JUNKERS GAS CALORIMETER
AIM: To determine calorific value of gaseous fuel by Junkers gas calorimeter
APPARATUS:
The apparatus mainly consists of a cylindrical shell with copper coil arranged in two pass
configuration with water inlet and outlet to circulate through the copper coil, a pressure
regulator, a wet type gas flow meter & a gas Bunsen burner, temperature sensors for measuring
inlet, outlet water temperature, and for flue gas temperature, a 2000ml measuring jar.

Figure: Experimental setup of junkers gas calorimeter


DESCRIPTION:
Determination of calorific value (heat value) of combustible gases is essential to assess the
amount of heat given away by the gas while burning a known amount of gas to heat a known
amount of fluid (water) in a closed chamber.
PROCEDURE:
1 1. Install the equipment on a flat rigid platform near an uninterrupted continuous water
source of size and a drain pipe.
2 2. Connect the gas source to the pressure regulator, gas flow meter and the burner
respectively in series

Mechanical Lab manual

3 3. Insert the thermometer / temperature sensors, into their respective places to measure
water inlet and outlet temperatures and a thermometer to measure the flue gas
temperature at the flue gas outlet
1 4. Start the water flow through the calorimeter at a study constant flow rate and allow it
to drain through over flow.
2 5. Start the gas flow slowly and light the burner out side the calorimeter
3 6. Regulate the flow of gas at a steady rate to any designed flow (Volume)
4 7. Insert the burner into the calorimeter and allow the out let water temperature to attain
a steady state
5 8. Swing the out let to a 1000 ml jar and start. The stop watch simultaneously, record the
initial gas flow meter reading at the same time
6 9. Note down the time taken to fill 1000ml and at the same time the final gas flow
reading recorded by the gas flow meter
7 10. Tabulate all the reading and calculate the calorific valve of the gas under test
8 11. Repeat the experiment by varying the water flow rate or gas flow for different
conditions.
9 12. After the experiment is over stop the gas flow, water flow, and drain the water from
the calorimeter, keep the equipment clean & dry.
OBSERVATIONS:
Density of water = 1000Kg/m3
Volume of gas burnt Vg in liters =
Density of gas = 0.22Kg/m3
Cpw = 1 K Cal/kg K
Time taken to collect 1 liter of water : _________ sec
TABULAR COLUMN:
Sl
N
Volume
Volume
o
of water
of gas
collecte
Burnt
d in liter
in liter
(Vw)
(Vg)
1
2

Water inlet
Temperature
T1 0C

Water
outlet
Temp
T2 0C

Change in
Temp of
water
T=(T2-T1)

Cv of gas
KCal/kg

1
1

Mechanical Lab manual

CALCULATION:

RESULT:
Calorific value of given gaseous fuel is =. K Cal/Kg

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Mechanical Lab manual

Experiment 5
REDWOOD VISCOMETER
AIM: To determine the viscosity of diesel using redwood viscometer at different temperatures.
APPARATUS: Redwood Viscometer, 50ml Receiving flask, thermometers and stopwatch
DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS:
Redwood viscometer Consists of a cylindrical oil cup furnished with a gauge point, agate /
metallic Orifice jet at the bottom having a concave depression from inside to facilitate a ball
with stiff wire to act as a valve to start or stop oil flow. The outer side of the orifice jet is
convex, so that the oil under test does not creep over the lower face of the oil cup. The oil cup
is surrounded by a water bath with a circular electrical immersion heater and a stirring device.
Two thermometers are provided to measure water bath temp. & oil temperature under test. A
round flat-bottomed flask of 50ml marking, to measure 50 ml of oil flow against time. The
water bath with oil cup is supported on a tripod stand with leveling screws.

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Mechanical Lab manual

PROCEDURE:
1 1) Clean the oil cup with a solvent preferably C.T.C (Carbon Tetra chloride) and wipe it
dry thoroughly with a paper napkins or a soft cloth (do not use cotton waste) and the
orifice jet with a fine thread.
2 2) Keep the water bath with oil cup on the tripod stand and level it.
3 3) Pour water into the water bath up to 15 to 20mm below the top portion
4 4) Keep the ball (valve) in position and pour clean filtered oil sample (use strainer not
coarser than BS 100 mesh) to be tested into the oil cup up to the gauge point and cover it
with the lid.
5 5) Take a clean dry 50ml flask and place it under the orifice jet of the oil cup and center
it.
6 6) Lift the ball (valve) and simultaneously start a stop watch and allow the oil into the
receiving flask.
7 7) Adjust the receiving flask (50ml) in such a way that the oil string coming out of the jet
strikes the neck of the flask to avoid foaming (formation of air bubbles) on the oil
surface.
8 8) Wait till the oil level touches the 50 ml mark stop the watch and record the time in
sec.
9 9) Repeat the experiment at different temperatures above ambient.
10 10) Plot the relevant graphs
NOTE:
For conducting experiment at different temperatures above ambient on Redwood Viscometer,
connect the heater of the water bath to a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps power source through a dimmer
stat. Heat the water to any desired temperature while continuously stirring the water with the
stirring device and occasionally the oil sample with the thermometer. Once the temperature of
the oil reaches the required temperature follow steps 6, 7 and 8.

OBSERVATION:
1 1. Type of oil used:
1 2. Weight of the empty flask:

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Mechanical Lab manual

TABULATION:
Sl
Time for
collectin
n Temp.
of the
g 50 ml.
o
oil in
of oil in
0
C
sec (t )

Wt. of the Wt. of the Density


Kinematic
measuring measuring of oil Viscosity ()
jar (W1) in jar+50CC in kg/m3
m2/s
gms
of oil (W2)
in gms

Dynamic
Viscosity ()
N S/m2

CALCULATIONS:

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Mechanical Lab manual

RESULTS:
Mass density of given oil is _________________Kg/m3
Kinematic viscosity of given oil is _____________ m2/S
Absolute viscosity of given oil is _______________ N S/m3
CONCLUSION: Kinematic and absolute viscosities were determined and relevant graphs
were drawn. Viscosity varies with temperature and has negative exponential trend.

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Mechanical Lab manual

Experiment 6
SAYBOLT VISCOMETER
AIM: To determine viscosity of the given oil using Say Bolt Viscometer at different
temperatures expressed in terms of Saybolt seconds.
APPARATUS: Say Bolt Viscometer, 60ml receiving flask, thermometers & stopwatch.

DESCRIPTION:
The apparatus mainly consists of a standard cylindrical oil cup surrounded with a water bath
with an immersion heater and a stirring device. The apparatus is supplied with two S.S. Orifice
jets namely Universal jet & Furol jet, which can be fitted at the bottom of the oil cup as per our
requirement. A rubber cork stopper arrangement is provided also at the bottom to facilitate start
and stop the oil flow from the Viscometer. Two thermometers are provided to measure water
bath temperature and oil temperature under test. A round flat-bottomed flask with a 60-ml
marking on the neck is provided to measure 60 ml of oil flow against time. The oil cup with the
water bath is supported on a stand with levelly screws.
PROCEDURE:
1 1. Clean the oil cup with a solvent preferably C.T.C (Carbon Tetra chloride) and wipe it
dry thoroughly with a paper napkins or a soft cloth (do not use cotton waste) and the
orifice jet with a fine thread.
2 2. Keep the water bath with oil cup on the tripod stand and level it.
3 3. Pour water into the water bath up to 15 to 20mm below the top portion.
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Mechanical Lab manual

1 4. Close the Orifice opening from bottom with the rubber cork provided. Pour oil to be
tested into the strainer by keeping the strainer on the oil cup until the oil fills up in the
oil cup as well as in side well. Withdraw the excess oil in the side well and position the
thermometers in water bath and oil cup.
2 5. Take a clean dry 60ml flask and place it under the orifice jet of the oil cup and center
it.
3 6. Pull the rubber cork open and simultaneously start a stopwatch and allow the oil into
the receiving flask.
4 7. Adjust the receiving flask (60ml) in such a way that the oil string coming out of the jet
strikes the neck of the flask to avoid foaming (formation of air bubbles) on the oil
surface.
5 8. Wait till the oil level touches the 60 ml mark, stop the watch and record the time in
sec.
6 9. Repeat the experiment at different temperatures above ambient.
7 10. Use specific nozzle suitable for lubricant or oil.
NOTE:
For conducting experiment at different temperatures above ambient on Saybolt Viscometer,
connect the heater of the water bath to a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps power source through a dimmer
stat. Heat the water to any desired temperature while continuously stirring the water with the
stirring device and occasionally the oil sample with the thermometer. Once the temperature of
the oil reaches the required temperature follow steps 6, 7 and 8.
TABULATION:
Type of oil used.
Weight of the empty flask.
Sl
n
o

Temp
of
the
oil in
0
C

Time for
collectin
g 60 ml.
of oil in
sec (t )

Wt. of the
measurin
g jar (W1)
in gms

Wt. of the
measurin
g jar +
60CC of
oil (W2)
in gms

Densit
y of oil
in
kg/m3

Kinemati
c
Viscosity
() m2/s

Dynamic
Viscosity
() N
S/m2

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Mechanical Lab manual

CALCULATIONS:

RESULTS:
Mass density of given oil is _________________Kg/m3
Kinematic viscosity of given oil is _____________ m2/S
Absolute viscosity of given oil is _______________ N S/m3
CONCLUSION: Kinematic and absolute viscosities were determined and relevant graphs
were drawn. Viscosity varies with temperature and has negative exponential trend.

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Mechanical Lab manual

Experiment 7
4 STROKE PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
FOUR STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, AIR COOLED, ENGINE COUPLED TO
ELECTRICAL DYNAMOMETER
AIM: To Conduct Performance Test on the given engine, to obtain heat balance sheet and draw
performance curves
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Engine coupled to Electrical Dynamometer, Measurement and control panel, Load bank,
Temperature Sensors.
PROCEDURE:
1 1. Ensure water level in the manometer to approximately half the full scale in both the
manometer limbs
2 2. Ensure oil level in the engine sump up to the dip stick mark, Fill required amount of
fuel (petrol) in the fuel tank
3 3. Check fuel line for any leakages, tighten if necessary (open all the valves in the fuel
line up to the engine inlet, do not turn the knob to Start)
4 4. Connect the engine test rig to the 3 phase electrical source, all the three mains
indicators glow
5 5. Ensure the direction of rotation of the engine is as desired by momentarily pushing the
push button starter (refer arrow mark on the guard for correct direction of rotation)
6 6. Switch on the console switch, all the digital indicators glow and indicate respective
readings
7 7. Start the engine by pushing the push button starter and release after the engine gets
started
8 8. Wait until the engine stabilizes at its rated speed (Governed engine) of 2800 to 3000
rpm indicated on the digital rpm indicator
9 9. Switch on the heat dissipating fan on the load Bank. Now the engine is ready for
loading
10 10. Record the following readings on no load condition. Voltmeter reading, Ammeter
reading Rpm indicator reading, (not essential in this case) Manometer reading, time
taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption (To record fuel consumption against time close the
fuel line valve on the right hand side of the burette and simultaneously start the stop
watch and record the time until 10 cc of fuel is consumed) and temperatures T1 & T2
11 11. Switch on first two switches and allow the engine to stabilize, Record all the
readings

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Mechanical Lab manual

12 12. Continue loading the engine by switching on the load switches in pairs in steps
(two switches per step) up to full load and record all the readings at each step,, as
indicated in step
13 13. To stop the engine remove load by switching off the load switches, bring the
engine to no load condition
14 14. Push the engine off push button and hold it unit the engine completely stops
15 15. Close all the three fuel valves in the fuel line.
16 16. Tabulate all the readings obtained at each step and calculate Brake power (BP)
weight of fuel Consumed (wf), specific fuel consumption (Sfc), Brake thermal efficiency
( Bth) and air fuel ratio (A/F)
17 17. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BPSFC V/S BP , ith V/S BP, bth V/S BP
18
19
20
21 SPECIFICATIONS:
22 ENGINE
23 Make : VILLIERS
24 Compression ratio : 4.67:1
25 Cylinder bore : 70 mm
26 Stroke length : 66.7 mm
27 Displacement : 256 CC
28 ALTERNATOR
29 Rating : 2 KVA
30 Speed : 2800-3000 rpm
31 Voltage : 220 V AC
32 Efficiency : 70%
33 Manometer : U tube, water filled, 30 cm
34 Air Tank : Made from MS, 300 x 300 x 300 cm
35 Orifice : Circular, 20 mm dia
36 Thermocouple : Fe- K (J type)
37
38 OBSERVATIONS:
39 Cylinder bore, D : 70 mm
40 Stroke length, L : 66.7 mm
41 Water density, w : 1000 kg/m3
42 Calorific value of petrol, CV : 47,500 Kj/kg
43 Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec 2
44 Petrol density, p : 750 Kg/m3
45 Specific heat of air, Cpg : 1.005KJ/KgoC
46
47
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Mechanical Lab manual

48
49
50
51 TABULAR COLUMN:

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RESULT SHEET

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Mechanical Lab manual

Experiment 8
4-STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE
FOUR STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, WATER COOLED, MECHANICAL
LOADING, DIESEL ENGINE
AIM: To Conduct Performance Test on the given engine four stroke, single cylinder, water
cooled, mechanical loading, diesel engine and to draw the Heat balance sheet and to obtain PV
diagram at No load and Max load, and plot the performance plots
APPARATUS REQUIRED: 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine test rig, Stop watch,
interfacing of the engine with computer to obtain the PV diagram with pressure sensor
mounted in the cylinder.
THEORY:
Heat engine is a device which converts heat energy into mechanical work. Engine performance
is an indication of the degree of success with which it is doing its assigned job, i.e. the
conversion of the chemical energy in to the useful work. The degree of success is compared on
the basis of 1) specific fuel consumption 2) brake mean effective pressure 3) specific power
output 4) Specific weight etc. The engine performance can be obtained by running the engine
at constant speed for variable load by adjusting the throttle. In this experiment engine is
mechanically loaded and experiment is carried out. The test rig consists of 4S diesel engine
connected to rope brake dynamometer with exhaust calorimeter. It has a provision to measure
transient pressure, through a cylinder mounted pressure sensor, having a water cooling system,
to avoid over of heating pressure sensor. The pressure signal is fed to a computer through an
interface unit in the control panel for generating pressure volume (PV) curve to evaluate work
done employing a plani meter, subsequently.
PROCEDURE:
1 1. Check the diesel in the diesel tank and keep the lever in neutral position.
2 2. Ensure the water supply to the pressure sensor, engine cooling head and exhaust
calorimeter.
3 3. Start the engine by operating the decompression lever and cranking the crank shaft.
4 4. Apply the load on the brake drum by rotating the wheel of the spring balance
5 5. Allow the fuel to flow through the burette.
6 6. Note down the
1 a. Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption.
2 b. The load on the engine
3 c. Monometer reading
4 d. Speed of the engine
5 e. Temperature of inlet air and exhaust gas
6 f. Water meter of the exhaust calorimeter.
7 7. Repeat the experiment for different loads
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Mechanical Lab manual

8 8. Tabulate the readings and calculate the brake power, indicated power, heat input, airfuel ratio, specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal
efficiency, mechanical efficiency.
9 9. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BP, SFC V/S BP , ith V/S BP, bth V/S BP
10 10. To obtain the PV diagram,
1 a) Turn on the computer, open the interfacing software.
2 b) Take PV diagram and P diagrams individually.
3 c) Take the print out after taking the soft data on a pen drive, if needed.
11 SPECIFICATION OF THE ENGINE:
12 Make: Kirloskar
13 Rated power output: 5HP, 1500rpm
14 Bore: 80mm
15 Stroke: 110mm
16 Compression ratio: 16.5:1
17 Cylinder capacity: 553 cc
18 OBSERVATION:
19 Radius of the brake drum: 190mm
20 Diameter of the orifice: 15 mm
21 Calorific value of diesel: 43000KJ/Kg
22 Density of Diesel: 850Kg/m3
23 Diameter of the rope: ___________
24 Orifice meter constant: 0.62
25 Water meter reading: __________
26 TABULAR COLUMN:
27
Sl Engin Spring Balance
Time
Manometer
no
e
Reading in
taken for
reading(hm)
Speed
kgf(F)
10cc of
rpm
fuel
supply(t
)
F1
F2 F1-F2
h 1 h2
hm

Temperature readings

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5 T6

1
2
3
4
5
Air inlet temperature (T1)Engine cooling head water inlet temperature (T2) Engine cooling head
water outlet temperature (T3) Calorimeter water outlet temperature (T4)
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Mechanical Lab manual

Exhaust gas inlet Temperature (T5) Exhaust gas outlet temperature (T6)
FORMULAE USED:

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RESULT SHEET:

Heat Balance Sheet:


1.Heat input = mf *Cv KW
2. Heat equivalent of BP= BP in KW
3.Heat carried by the cooling water =mw Cpw (T3-T2) KW
Where mw mass flow rate in kg/s
Cpw = 4.18 kJ/kg.K
T3, T2 are outlet and inlet temperature of water
4. Heat carried by the cooling water =mg Cg(T6-T1) KW
Where m mass flow rate in kg/s ma + mf
Cg = 1.005 kJ/kg.K
T6 ,T1 are exhaust gas and room temperature

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Mechanical Lab manual

5. heat lost by FP = FP in KW
Heat Balance Sheet
Heat input
1.Fuel
combustion

KW

Heat output KW
2.Heat
equivalent of
BP
3.Heat
carried
by
the cooling
water
4.
Heat
carried
by
the cooling
water
5. heat lost
by FP
6.Heat
unaccounted
1-(2+3+4+5)

Total input
Total output
CONCLUSION:
1 1) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine was carried out.
2 2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss.
3 3) Performance plots were drawn.

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Mechanical Lab manual

Experiment 9 and 10
MULTI CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
(MORSE TEST)
FOUR STROKE, FOUR CYLINDER ENGINE COUPLED TO EDDY CURRENT
DYNAMOMETER
AIM: To Conduct Performance Test, Morse Test & to draw heat balance on given multi
cylinder engine to find the overall efficiency of the engine.
INTRODUCTION:
The engine is four stroke, Four cylinder, water cooled, petrol driven automobile Engine
coupled to an eddy current dynamometer mounted on a strong base, and is complete with air,
fuel, temperature, load, and speed measurement system.
DESCRIPTION:
The test rig comprises of the following:
1 1. Four stroke, Engine coupled to Eddy current Dynamometer, with the arrangement to
cutoff the cylinder
2 2. Measurement and control panel
3 3. Temperature Sensors.
PROCEDURE:
1 1. Install the Engine test rig near a 230V 5A 50Hz electrical power source and an un
interrupted constant head water source.
2 2. Check all electrical connections, water level in manometer, and oil level in engine
sump.
3 3. Ensure water flow into the engine jacket & exhaust gas calorimeter
4 4. Open both the valves of 3 way Manifold, make fuel flow to engine directly
5 5. Start the engine with self start key, Throttle the engine to the rated speed (2000 rpm).
6 6. Now take readings of manometer, temperature, Fuel consumption against time.
7 7. Load the engine in steps of 2Kgf up to 10Kgf (full load) keeping the speed constant
by operating the throttle knob (accelerator) suitably to maintain the speed at 2000 rpm.
8 8. Record the following readings at each step.
1 a) Manometer difference
2 b) Time taken in Sec for 10cc fuel consumption by closing valve on your right hand
side of the burette (line coming from fuel tank to burette) so that the fuel is drawn
from burette.
3 c) Load at each step as indicated on the Dial spring balance
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4 d) Speed of the engine in rpm


5 e) Temperatures at different location ( T1 to T6)
9 9. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BP, SFC V/S BP , ith V/S BP, bth V/S BP
10 SPECIFICATION:
11 ENGINE:
12 Type : Four stroke, vertical, in line, water cooled, Petrol Engine
13 Cylinders : Four
14 Starting : Self
15 Ignition : Spark
16 DYNAMOMETER
17 Make : Powermag
18 Type : Eddy current Brake
19 Display : Spring balance (Dial type) 25 kg capacity
20 Manometer : U tube, water filled, 30 cm
21 Air Tank : Made from MS, 400 x 400 x 400 cm
22 Orifice : Circular, 20 mm dia
23 Temperature Sensor : CrAl
24 speed Sensor : Magnetic pickup, located on the coupling shaft.
25
26 OBSERVATION:
27 Water density, w : 1000 kg/m3
28 Calorific value of petrol, CV : 47,500 Kj/kg
29 Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec 2
30 Petrol density, p : 750 Kg/m3
31 Torque arm length (R) : 250mm
32 Efficiency of dynamometer (d) : 85%
33 Atmospheric pressure, pa : 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2
34 Real gas constant, R : 287 J/KgoK
35 Cylinder head cooling water flow rate = _____________liters/min
36 Exhaust gas calorimeter cooling water flow rate = __________ liters/min
37
38 TABULAR COLUMN:

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T1 - Water inlet, T2 - Water jacket outlet, T3 Calorimeter water outlet T4 - Exhaust gas inlet to
calorimeter, T5 Exhaust gas outlet from calorimeter T6 Air inlet temperature

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MORSE TEST
PROCEDURE:
1 1. Start the engine with the water flow into the engine jacket.
2 2. Load the engine to its full load (5 Kgf ) at rated rpm. (2000 rpm)
3 3. Cut off first cylinder, the engine speed drops, bring the engine speed to its rated speed
by decreasing the load on the engine (Do not operate the throttle knob).
4 4. Record the load as indicated on the load indicator. (Dial spring balance)
5 5. Cut off Second cylinder, while replacing the first cylinder back into working
Condition simultaneously (as the engine is a Four cylinder engine, ensure always three
cylinders are in working condition)
6 6. Record the load on the engine, adjust the speed if deviated from the previous cut off.
by adjusting the load only
7 7. Cut off the third cylinder while replacing the second one in to working Condition,
follow step 6.
8 8. Similarly cut off the fourth cylinder while replacing the third cylinder into working
condition, follow step 6.

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TABULAR COLUMN FOR MORSE TEST

CALCULATIONS:

3)IP of ith cylinder,IPi = BPT-Bpi where i=1,2,3,4


4) Total IP,IP=(IP1+IP2+IP3+IP4)
5)FP=IPT-BPT
6) mech = BP/IP

RESULT SHEET:
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Mechanical Lab manual

HEAT BALANCE SHEET:


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CONCLUSION:
1
2
3
4

1) Performance of 4 stroke, four cylinder petrol engine was carried out and evaluated IP, FP and overall
efficiency.
2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss.
3) Performance plots were drawn.
4) Morse test was conducted to find overall efficiency of the engine.

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EXPERIMENT 11
CALIBRATION OF VENTURIMETER
AIM
To find out the co-efficient of Discharge of a Venturimeter
APPARATUS
1. Venturimeter of different diameters
2. Stopwatch
3. Measuring tank
4. Differential Mercury Manometer
THEORY
Venturimeter is an instrument for measuring the quantity of fluid flowing through a pipe.
The meter, in its simplest form consists of a short converging section leading to a throat and
followed by a diverging section. The entrance and the exit diameter will be the same as that of
the pipeline to wish it is fitted. The function of the converging portion is to increase the
velocity of the liquid and lower its static pressure .A pressure difference between inlet and
throat is thus developed, which pressure difference is correlated with the flow rate. An U- Tube
manometer is connected to the tapping that are provided at the entrance and at the throat to
measure the pressure difference. the diverging cone or diffuser serves to change the area of the
stream back to the entrance area and to convert the velocity pressure back into static pressure
The co efficient of discharge Cd lies between 0.96 to 0.98 .The c d will not be truly a constant
for all velocities, but the variation is sight .The Venturimeter is not accurate for low velocities
on account of the variation of Cd Shown in fig

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Mechanical Lab manual

PROCEDURE
1. Open the inlet valve, fully. Connect the hosepipes of the differential manometer to the inlet
and Throat of the Venturimeter.
2. Open the discharge control valve of the pipe by one revolution
for this discharge note down the difference in mercury levels of differential manometer in cm
of mercury
3. Find out the time in seconds required to increase level of water in the measuring tank by 10
cms.
4. Repeat the experiment for second and third rotations of the discharge control valve
5. Repeat the experiment for different size pipe diameter
6. Tabulate the readings and calculate the co efficient of discharge

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Mechanical Lab manual

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION


l = length of the measuring tank = 100 cm = 1 m
b = Breadth of the measuring tank = 50 cm = 0.5 m
h = 10 cm rise of water level in measuring tank in t seconds
d1 = Diameter of the pipe (m) = 1 = 0.0254 m
d2 = Diameter of the throat (m) = 0.6 d1 = 0.6*0.0254 m
A1 = d12 / 4 m2
A2 = d22 / 4 m2
Co efficient of discharge Cd = 0.92 to 0.98
Specific gravity of mercury = 13.6
Qtheoretical = [A1*A2* (2gH) ] / [ A12- A22 ]1/2 m3/sec

Manometer reading in cm
Sl.No

of mercury

Time taken for


rise of 10 cms
of water t sec

= [(l*b*h ) / t ] m3/sec
Manometer
head,

Q actual

40

1
2
3
1
2

cm

h1 cm h2 cm

1R
2R

1
inch
2

3R
1R

inch

2R

3R

1R

H=(h1-h2)

Hf =(h * Sp.Gravit of Mercury 1)]*


10-2 m

Rotation for discharge control valve

Diameter of pipe

Mechanical Lab manual

3 inch

2R
3R

RESULT
Thus the Co- efficient of discharge is tabulated

Sl.No.

Qact

Qtheoretical

m3/sec

m3/sec

Log H

Log Q act

Cd
m3/sec
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Mechanical Lab manual

EXPERIMENT 12
DETERMINATION OF CO-EFFICIENT OF FRICTION OF FLOW IN A
PIPE [DARCYS FRICTION FACTOR]
AIM
To find the Co-efficient of friction for the Flow of water through pipes.
APPARATUS
1. Pipes of different diameter
2. Stopwatch
3. Differential manometer
THEORY
A closed conduit of any cross-section used for flow of liquid is known as a pipe. In
hydraulics, generally, pipes are assumed to be running full and of circular cross-section.
Liquids flowing through pipes are connected with resistance resulting in loss of head of energy

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of liquids. This resistance is of two types depending upon the velocity of flow as viscous
resistance and frictional resistance.
The viscous resistance is due to the molecular attraction between the molecules of the
fluid. At low velocities, the fluid appears to move in layers or lamina, and hence the nature of
this flow is termed laminar flow or streamline. If the velocity of the liquid is steadily increased,
at certain velocity termed the lower critical velocity the parallel bends of liquid will become
wavy .On further increasing the velocity these instabilities will increase in intensity until a
velocity corresponding to the upper critical velocity is termed transition zone. For all further
increase in velocity of flow the streamline remains in diffused state and the nature of this type
of flow is termed as turbulent. In this case the flow is restricted by the friction between the
liquid and the pipe inner surface which is known as friction resistance refer figure

PROCEDURE
1. Open the inlet valve fully
2. Connect the two end hoses of the differential manometer to the two
ends of the pipe 0.3 meter apart of the selected diameter pipe
3. Open the discharge control valve of the pipe by one revolution,
note down the difference in mercury level of the differential manometer
4. Note the time in seconds required to raise the level of water in the measuring tank by 10 cm.
5. Repeat the experiments for various openings of discharge control valve. Tabulate the
readings and calculate the co efficient of friction for various discharges.

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Pump
mpmp

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION


l = length of the tank = 60 cm = 0.6 m
B = Breadth of the tank =50 cm=0.5 m
H =Increase of water level in measuring tank by 10 cm in t seconds
Specific gravity of mercury = 13.6 (Density of mercury/ density of water)
f = Co efficient of friction
L = Length of the pipe in meter
V = Velocity of water flowing through pipe
d = diameter of pipe in meter
A = area of cross section of pipe d2 / 4 m2
g = Acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/sec2
44

10-2 m

Sl.No

I inch

Rotation fo discharge control valve

Diameter of pipe

cm of mercury
H=

(h1

cm

h1
h2

cm
cm

-h2)

Time taken for rise of 10 cms of water t sec

Manometer head,

Manometer reading in

Hf =(h * Sp.Gravit of Mercury 1)]*

Mechanical Lab manual

TABULATION

1R

2R

3R

1R

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Mechanical Lab manual

inch

2R

3R

1R

2 inch

2R
3R

Manometer Head hf = [ h*(Specific gravity of mercury 1) ] *10-2 m


Co- efficient of friction from Darcey-Weisbach equation is given by
Friction head hf = 4flv2 / 2gd
Actual Velocity of water flowing through pipe Vact = Qact / A m/s
GRAPH
1. hf
2. f

vs Vact
vs

Qact

RESULT
Thus the Darces Weisbagh Coefficient of friction is tabulated in table of calculated
values

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Tabulation of calculated values


Coefficient
Qactual = (l*b*h) / t

Vact = Qact/A

m3 / sec

m/sec

Sl.No.

of

friction
f = hf2gd /4flv2
( Darcys friction
factor)

1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

PRECAUTIONS
1. Ensure that there is no air bubbles in the manometer
2. Keep [the time for discharge measurement sufficiently large capacity for low flows
3. Use a sensitive manometer
4. Ensure that there is no leakage from any pipe fittings

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Mechanical Lab manual

EXPERIMENT 13
PERFORMANCE TESTING OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
AIM
Determination of the Main & Operating Characteristics of a Single Stage Centrifugal
Pump, by drawing ISO-efficiency Curves.
APPARATUS
1. Centrifugal pump with an Electric motor drive (constant speed)
2. Pipe work system with all the necessary control values.
3. Vacuum & Pressure gauge on pump at suction & discharge connections.
4. Stop watch
5. An energy meter to measure the input power to the motor
THEORY
A pump is a device to convert mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. The centrifugal
pump is a roto dynamic machine, which increases the pressure energy of a liquid with the help
of centrifugal action. In this type of pump the liquid is imparted a whirling motion due to the
rotation of the impeller which creates a centrifugal head or dynamic pressure. This pressure
head enables the lifting of liquid from a lower level to a higher level (Refer Figure.). The main
parts of a centrifugal pump are:
1. Suction Pipe: It is the pipe, which connects the sump from where the liquid is to be
pumped to the inlet of the pump impeller. At the lower end of the suction pipe a foot
value or no return value and a strainer are provided which are always kept immersed in
the liquid in the sump. The strainer prevents the floating debris from entering the pump,
while the foot value prevents the liquid from flowing back into the pump.

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Mechanical Lab manual

2. Delivery Pipe: It is the pipe connecting the outlet of the pump casing to the point where
the liquid is to be delivered. It is provided with a regulating value to control the flow of
liquid to be delivered by the pump.
3. Casting: It is an airtight passage provided around the impeller in order to collect liquid
from the periphery of the impeller and to transmit it to the delivery pipe at a constant
velocity. The casing may be of various types but in all of them the liquid is made to flow
through a passage of gradually increasing cross-sectional area in order to maintain a
constant velocity throughout and also to convert to high kinetic energy into pressure
energy.
4. Impeller: It is in the form of a wheel having a series of curved vanes arranged evenly
along the periphery, in the annular space between two discs. The impeller has a central
opening to which the upper end of the suction pipe is connected. The impeller is
mounted on a shaft, which is rotated by an electric motor connected to it. Before starting
the pump it is primed (the suction pipe, casing of the pump and the position of the
delivery pipe up to the delivery value all are filled with the liquid to be pumped). As the
impeller is rotated, it created a forced vortex imparting a centrifugal head to the liquid.
This causes the liquid to leave the impeller at its outer circumference with high velocity
and pressure, thus causing a partial vacuum at the eye of the impeller. This vacuum
sucks liquid from the sump through the suction pipe to replace the liquid discharged
from the impeller

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Mechanical Lab manual

SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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PROCEDURE
The performance of the pump is studied under
Constant speed (main characteristic curves) and
Constant head (operating characteristic curves)

Constant speed operation


1. The pump is primed
2. Delivery valve is kept opened
3. The belt is adjusted to obtain a particular speed for the pump. Note the speed in rpm
4. The pump is started by switching on the motor
5. Adjust the delivery control valve to get required delivery head
6. Suction pressure P1 (mm of hg) and delivery pressure p2 kg/ cm2 are noted
7. Time taken for 10 revolutions of the disc of the energy meter T sec is noted
8. Time t sec for 10 cm rise of water in the measuring tank is noted

Operating the delivery control valve varies the head. Note P 1 , P2 ,T and t in each case:- The
speed is then varied to a new value by new pair of pulleys, and experiment is repeated for
different speeds

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Mechanical Lab manual

OBSERVATION
Speed of the centrifugal pump N = 1400 rpm constant
Energy meter constant C = 150 Rev / KWh
Motor efficiency motor = 75 %
Transmission efficiency trans =60%
Difference in height between the suction pressure gauge and delivery pressure gauge,
z =0.75 m
Area of the collecting tank A =1.44*0.94 m2
Scale 2 div = 0.2 *10 m
The Specific speed, Ns, of the centrifugal pump is calculated from Specific speed
Ns = [N ( Qact ) ]/ H3/4
Efficiency of the pump
Input power = ( K/T)* (3600/C)* motor efficiency*transmission efficiency*1000 (Watts)
Output power = W Qact H = 1000 * 9.81 * Qact * H (watts)
Efficiency = (Output / input) * 100
GRAPH
The performance of the pump at constant speed may be represented by the following 3
relationships
1. Total head H against Discharge Q
2. Output power against discharge Q
3. Efficiency against discharge Q
These relationships plotted in the graph forms are known as the operating characteristic curves.

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Mechanical Lab manual

The main characteristic curves are obtained by the following relationships obtained by keeping
the head constant
1. Total head H against speed N
2. Discharge Q against speed N
3. Power P against speed N
The ISO efficiency curves are obtained from the operating characteristics by using the
following relationships
1. Total head H versus discharge Q
2. Efficiency versus discharge Q
PRECAUTIONS
1. Prime the pump to remove the air completely before starting the pump
2. After each change in the valve-opening let the flow stabilize before taking readings

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Mechanical Lab manual

EXPERIMENT 14 PERFORMANCE TESTING OF


RECIPROCATING PUMP
[SINGLE STAGE DOUBLE ACTING PLUNGER PUMP]
AIM
To study the performance of a single stage Double acting Reciprocating pump & to draw
the characteristic curve
APPARATUS
1. Reciprocating pump with an electric motor drive.
2. Pipe work system with all necessary control valves
3. Vacuum and pressure gauge on pump suction and discharge
Connection
4. Measuring tank
5. Stop Watch
6. Voltmeter and Ammeter
THEORY
The reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump. In this type of pump the
pressure is increased by the displacement of liquid from a chamber or a cylinder due to the
reciprocating motion of a tight fitting piston. This to and fro motion of the piston creates
alternatively a vacuum pressure of a positive pressure in the cylinder due to which, Water is
first sucked in and then forced up. The reciprocating motion is imparted to the piston by means
of crank and connecting rod arrangement. The cylinder has suction and delivery pipe
connected to it .The suction pipe connects the cylinder, to a sump from which the liquid is to
delivered. Both the pipes are provided with no return valves at their ends
The crank of the pump is rotated at a uniform speed by the driving motor, which in turn
moves the piston backwards and forwards. As the piston moves backward (suction stroke),
vacuum is created inside the cylinder which lifts the suction valve allowing the liquid from
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Mechanical Lab manual

sump to enter the cylinder under the action of atmospheric pressure .On the return stroke as the
piston moves forward, it increase the pressure of water in the cylinder which, closes the suction
valve and simultaneously lifts the delivery valve allowing the water to flow out into the
delivery pipe Refer
PROCEDURE
The performance of the plunger pump is studied under
a) Constant speed (Operating characteristic curves)
b) Constant head (Main characteristic curves)

fig
a) Constant speed operation
1. The required speed is selected by adjusting the belt on the appropriate pulley
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Mechanical Lab manual

2. Discharge control valve of the delivery pipe is opened fully


3. Motor is started
4. Adjust the discharge control valve to get the required delivery head indicated by the
delivery pressure gauge
5. The following readings are taken
-Speed of the pump, N rpm
-Delivery pressure head, hd kg / cm3
-Suction pressure head, hs kg/cm3
-Time t seconds for 10 cm rise of water in the measuring tank
-Note the time T seconds required for K revolution of energy meter disc (say 10
revolutions).
-The height difference in mountings of the suction and delivery pressure gauge, Z m
- At different constant speed, different sets of readings are taken for various delivery
heads discharge and energy meter revolution by manipulating discharge control valve
b) Constant head operation
Keeping the delivery head constant, vary the speed by changing belt position on the
pully, for each of this speed, the following readings are taken
-Speed of the pump, N rpm
-Delivery pressure head, hd kg / cm3
-Suction pressure head, hs kg/cm3
-Timet seconds for 10 cm rise of water in the measuring tank
-Note the time T seconds required for K revolution of energy meter disc (say 10
revolutions).
-At different constant delivery head hd, different sets of readings are taken by varying the
speed of the motor

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Mechanical Lab manual

OBSERVATION
Dimension of the collecting tank
Length = 26.5 cm = 0.265 m
Breadth = 26.5 cm = 0.265 m
Height = 10 cm =0.1 m
Z = 0.065 m
Dimension of the cylinder &piston
Diameter of the piston D= 32 mm
Area of the piston A = (/4 )D2 =8.042 * 10-4m2
Time for 10
revolutions of
energy meter disc
T sec

Qtheoretical m3/ sec

Qact m3 / sec

Total head

Time t sec for 10


cm water rise

CALCULATION

H = [ hs+hd+z]

1
2
3

hs = p2 *10 meter

Delivery head hd

Sl.no.

Suction head

Stroke length, L = 32 mm = 0.032 m

Input power = (k/T) * (3600 /C) * Motor efficiency * Transmission


efficiency
(K = 10 in the present experiment)
T = Tome taken for 10 rev of energy meter disc in sec
C = Energy meter constant, KW h = 800 revolutions /kwh
Take motor efficiency =80% =0.8
Transmission efficiency =86% =0.86
Output power (p) = (w * Qact *H) Watts
W= weight density (specific wt.) = *9.81 N/m3
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Mechanical Lab manual


3

Qact = actual discharge = ( l*b*h) / t m /sec


H = total head (hs+hd+z) m
= (output / input)*100
% slip = ( [Qtheoritical - Qactual ] / Qtheoretical ) *100
Qtheoretical = 2LAN / 60 m3 /sec
Speed

of Input power Output

pump N

of

(Rpm)

Watts

pump power

of
% of Slip
Efficiency

Watts

of

volumetric

pump

(Constant) (K/CT)
*1000*360

efficiency
(100 - %
slip)

GRAPH
The performance curves are plotted as follows
Main characteristic Curves (Head constant Curves)
1. Qact versus Speed
2. Total head Versus Speed
3. Output power Versus Speed

Operating characteristics curves (speed control curves)

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Mechanical Lab manual

1. Total head versus

discharge

2. Output power versus


3. Efficiency

versus

discharge

discharge

ISO efficiency Curves


These are drawn from operating characteristic curves using the following curves
1. Head versus discharge
2. Efficiency versus discharge
PRECAUTIONS
1. Do not run the pump with the delivery valve completely closed
2. After each, change in the valve opening let the flow stabilize before taking readings

59