You are on page 1of 28

Starboard Strategies

Volume 1: Issue 13

Thane

01-15 June 2015

Pages 28

Rs. 65/-

TME or the Junior Engineer


the Knowall and
the Endall?

Dial for Subscription and Advertisement Opportunities


+91 22 31923345 / 61214942
or mail to sarafina@starboardstrategies.net

Online subscription / advertisement Options at


store.krishnamrutam.co.in, secure site

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

Starboard Strategies
The Only Indian Maritime Management Magazine

Volume 1 : Issue 13
1. TME or the Junior Engineer the Knowall and the Endall - With
malice towards one and all - PH Krishnan
2. Jet Engines for Marine Propulsion
- CK Radhakrishnan, - Chief Engineer
3. Main Engine Layout Familiarization - B&W Engine Room
Layout - Pramod Mohapatra, Second Engineer
4. Engineer's Duties After Pilot Departure - Ramprasad Misra
5. Marine engineer jobs in engine room - VT Krishna Iyengar
6. What Is Saturday Routine On A Ship? -VK Ranade, Chief Engineer
7. Starting of an Auxiliary Diesel Engine - C. Raghavachary, Chief
Engineer
8. Role Of Compressed Air In Starting a Marine Diesel Engine
- G.Aravindakshan, Chief Engineer (MOT)
9. A Guide to Gland Packing - Vimaladitya Varma, Chief Engineer
10. Advertise with us A great investment - Divya Venu
11. Sailor Stories

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

We

all know what


makes a Marine
Engineer. It
all begins
w i t h a
TME or the Junior
strenuous
Engineer the Knowall
four year
and the Endall
course in
With malice towards
one
of the
one and all
marine
- P. H. Krishnan
engineering
institutes in
India. The DMET
people still don't
want to call it as MERI, which
sounds Mary when pronounced or any other course for
lesser mortals. This article for all its worth is not about what
they teach or forget to teach a junior engineer in any maritime
training institute. This is about the life of a junior marine
engineer and the various tasks he has to perform on board.
This article has not been written with intent to scare people
by showing a different side of the professional life on board
but with a purpose to depict the true nature of work at sea.
The life of a merchant navy officer or personnel on board a
ship is adventurous, exciting, and extremely rewarding. A
marine engineer globe trots, visits beautiful places, and meets
interesting people. This is true for marine engineers working
on any type of ship or vessel irrespective of the people he is
working for; however it is an icing on the cake if he/she
happens to be on a cruise ship of any of the top 10 cruise lines,
not to mention the fun if one is on the biggest cruise ships or a
futuristic ship.
One might blurt out "wow," for it sounds like a script of some
Hollywood movie where the protagonist has the perfect job,
the perfect money, and the perfect life. But is the life of a naval
officer as picturesque as it sounds? Do all the naval officers in
the hierarchy level have the same kind of exciting lifestyle? Or
is there a totally different side beneath the facade that is
created by the over-imagination of people or by ignorant
word-of-mouth misconception?
Well, the job of a marine engineer is definitely stimulating and
rewarding, but with the package comes many desirable and
undesirable attributes. Everything apart, it's not at all a Bed
of roses, as many people seem to think. Life on board is
definitely not as glamorous as it seems or is perceived to be. It
is tough for sure, and no one knows it better than the one who
works on board. But as they say, someone has to do the job"
and so life goes on. All this might sound a bit over-

exaggerating or over-the-top, but the fact remains that the life


on board a ship is poles apart from the life we live on land.
For now, let's take a sneak peek at the lives of the marine
engineers working on board. Let's start from the bottommost
level, the junior engineer, also known as the "TME or jack of
all trades" (definitely, master of none), who lives the toughest
and the most interesting life of all the engineers on board a
ship.
Grass is Greener on the Other Side

The initial thoughts..


A junior marine engineer after undergoing four years of
arduous education and training supposes that the main part of
his career is now behind him and henceforth the only thing
that remains is work and play. But things are a bit different
from what he thinks. He joins a shipping company and lands
on board a ship only to realize that the real struggle has just
begun. He realizes that there is a stark difference between the
training work he did in workshops on land and the kind of
work he is supposed to do on board the ship. Probably he even
had a brief idea of the "to be" life on ship but instead got a bit
more than expected when he came on board.There are many
incentives that come with the job of a junior marine engineer,
but there are many more odd jobs that come along with it, too.
Let's get into the shoes (safety shoes!) of a junior engineer and
find out what he really does on board. Kindly note that there
are high chances that one might end up in a state of exhaustion
or fatigue.
What Do Junior Marine Engineers Really Do?
The junior marine engineer, like all other engineers on the
ship, is supposed to work with his own hands.When the ship is
sailing, he is supposed to keep a watch in the engine room with
either third or second engineer. He mainly assists the engineer
in-charge of the watch in daily routine checks and other
necessary maintenance work. After a few months of thorough
familiarization of the engine room he might be asked to keep

1-15 June 2015

Starboard Strategies

an independent watch of the engine room with the assistance


of a motorman. If he is not working in shifts, he might be asked
to do day work, which is like a normal eight-to-five job, not to
mention the emergency hours and extra time that come along
with it.
A junior engineer is always on his toes or for that matter
forced to be, assisting second, third, and even fourth
engineers apart from the regular watch keeping. This means
that there are no definite rest hours and the working hours are
also extremely flexible. Most of the work is of practical
nature, inside the engine room, which requires him to wear a
boiler suit all the time. Junior engineers work mainly involves
dismantling, assessing, repairing, and reassembling faulty or
stand-by machinery. Junior Engineer:
The Know It All Guy
On ships, it is mandatory that a fifth or junior engineer is wellversed with each and every system on the ship, particularly of
the engine room, for his own good and probably for the good
of others as well. The first thing he is expected to know is the
line diagrams (famously known as line tracing) of all the
pipelines in the engine room, from fuel lines to bilge lines at
the back of his hand.Tracing, sketching, learning and mugging
each and every pipe line is supposed to be first lesson the fifth
engineer is asked to undertake when he puts his foot on board.
After that the second job he is probably asked to do (especially
by the chief engineer) is to keep in mind the locations of all the
emergency exits, blowers, and fire extinguishers in the engine
room. (Senior personnel on board ships believe that a junior
engineer is more prone to accidents and often moves around
like Alice inWonderland.")
According to a written rule, a fifth engineer can take orders
only from the second engineer, but unfortunately that rule is
never followed and therefore he has to take orders from all the
engineers. As the fifth engineer is perfectly aware of all the
pipelines on ship, he is of vital importance at the time of
bunkering fuel or giving away sludge. By default, a junior
engineer is expected to assist fourth engineer in the process of
bunkering and sludge discharge to the shore. He is also
required to do jobs involving transferring of bilges or sludge
from one tank to another and keeping a check and log of all the
levels of the tanks in the engine room.
The More he Knows the Better
Apart from the above mentioned duties, a fifth engineer is also
required to know the starting procedures of almost all
machinery like diesel generators, generator synchronization,
fuel oil purifiers, fresh water generator, pumps, sewage
treatment plant, boilers, refrigeration system and even the
main engine. Nowadays all ships are automated and all the

machinery is operated from the engine control room itself.


Thus the fifth engineer is also acquainted with, and in fact the
master of, starting procedures and the working of the control
room console and other engine control room electronics and
electrical systems.
However, this is not all, but a minuscule portion of duties he
performs on board. In the coming issues we will learn about a
few more additional jobs that a junior engineer is expected to
do, without denying of course.<
- Editor (editor@starboardstrategies.net)

Your Company
Ad of Any Size
Customs Designed
For you!
Subscribe Now.
Please call
Divya Venu at
022-31923345
022-61214942
sarafina@starboardstrategies.net

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

resulted in the decline of quality of cadets passing through the


various colleges. Companies are only hiring those cadets
having good grades in their academics carrier.And as we know
Darwin's law- Only those will survive who are fit.
4) Increased number of vessels as compared to trade
Similar to merchant navy colleges, the number of shipping
companies has emerged in large numbers. So, now in the
market number of vessels are more and trade is less. Due to
this there is a cut throat competition for market share and
everybody wants to cut as much as cost they can.

Why There is a Scarcity


of Jobs in
Shipping Industry
- Padmakumar Krishnan

Hope
you copy every alphabet of this Featured Article, since it is
only the summation of all the bullet points the doyens of the
Industry made in various seminars during the last two years.
Let's have a look at these factors that are contributing towards
the unemployment in the shipping industry. Before the year
2008, everything was very normal and every cadet was
getting job so as to fulfill his or her dream of becoming a sailor.
And then world was struck by the recession and all things
changed. But this was not the only reason why unemployment
started in the shipping sector. To know more about this, let's
read this interesting article.
Why there is unemployment in the Shipping Industry
All the details or factors are given here on the world scale and
Indian Shipping industry scale also and reader's discretion is
advised.
1) Too many merchant navy colleges worldwide
Well I stated the root reason for all the anomalies that cadets
are facing worldwide. Now market is flooded with too many
Merchant navy academies and there has increased several
folds as compared to the previous times. Every year colleges
are churning out so many cadets, but few vacancies to
accommodate all of these.
2) Shipping companies opening their own
academies
Yes, this is true and it has created a deep impact on the
market. Now shipping companies rather depending the on
other merchant academies have opened their own colleges
and recruiting only those cadets who are studying in their
colleges. In middle of this cadets passing through these
institutes who are not having any shipping company as their
god father are finding difficult to place their cadets.
3) Lack of Knowledge and skill
Yes, there are many cadets in the market, but quality stuff is
less. Merchant navy is no more the place where people were
scarce. Now everybody wants to join merchant navy and this

5) Recession continuing worldwide


Ans Most of the developed and developing countries are still
not emerged from the recession. The western markets are
playing very defensive and this has caused reduce in the
imports and exports. On other hand European Union is facing
serious economic crisis and this resulted in less trade to these
countries too. In order to keep their companies running,
shipping companies are also cutting jobs. This in turn
increasing nature of market to hire less people.
6) Wide gap between Skilled man power and Non Skilled
Today in present market, the number of officers and engineer
who are experienced are very less. But at the bottom of
pyramids people like cadets are in large numbers. So
obviously when there are so many people, only few will get
the chance of boarding a ship
7) Why merchant navy jobs are less in India?
All the above points are valid for India too. But there is one
other factor that is making worse condition here. Since
market is shifting towards the Chinese counterparts, Indian
work force is lagging behind in the race. They are willing to
work at very less price. The only thing that is keeping them
little behind from us is the language problem. Indian are
usually good in their English language. But it is the icing on the
cake. But where is the cake?<

1-15 June 2015

Starboard Strategies

Ocean going
ships have
been using jet
engines for
Jet Engines for
m a r i n e
propulsion
Marine Propulsion
since the
1940's;
- CK Radhakrishnan, p o w e r i n g
Chief Engineer
Royal Naval
frigates and
m i s s i l e
warships, the
merchant fleet using them to
drive oil tankers and container vessels. Gas turbines have a
high power/weight ratio, and can operate on gas or diesel
fuel.
We are all used to seeing jet aircraft being driven by gas
turbines, but they can also be used as the main engine to
propel ships. Gas turbines have been used to propel ships for
over forty years, being commercially developed to drive the
warship and merchant fleets of all nations. The big advantage
of gas turbines over conventional steam turbine or marine
diesel main engines is their excellent power to weight ratio.
However the rising costs of fuel has made many ships
companies revert back to the marine diesel engine running on
heavy fuel oil. In the following sections we shall examine how
a gas turbine operates and how it is used to propel modern
ships.The first sections provide a look at the components that
make up the gas turbine.
GasTurbine Components
A gas turbine with an output drive shaft is made up of three
components.
An air compressor
The combustion chamber
The gas turbine
Air Compressor -The air is supplied by an air pretreatment
unit comprising of a silencer, an air filter, and an air cooler.The
ambient air is drawn through these items of equipment before
entering the air compressor. This describes a "multi-stage
axial flow air compressor" that compresses the air to high
pressure and temperature.
Combustion Chamber -This chamber is situated between the
air compressor and the turbine and supplied with gas or diesel
oil and the high pressure air. There are numerous fuel nozzles
arranged around the combustion chamber, along with two
high intensity spark igniters.
Turbine - The hot exhaust gas from the combustion chamber
drives the turbine, which is normally of two stage design.

Operation of the GasTurbine


The unit is rotated using a system like a car engine starter on
the drive shaft. Once it is up to operating speed, the gas is
introduced to the combustion chamber where it is fired by
spark ignition. This further rotates the turbine and the air
compressor on the opposite end of the shaft.This compressor
draws in air through the silencer and air cooler filter unit,
compressing it up to 30 bar before discharging this now high
pressure hot air into the combustion chamber and completing
the gas turbine sequence, driving the shaft at optimum speed
AIR INLET TO
SILENCER & AIR
COOLER UNIT

AIR SUPPLY
FROM DECK
AIR INTAKES

FUEL TO
COMBUSTION
CHAMBER

GAS
TURBINE

HOT GASSES
EXHAUST TO
POWER
TURBINE

GAS TURBINE
AUXILIARIES DRIVE
SHAFT

POWER
TURBINE

POWER
TURBINE
GEARBOX
AHEAD/ASTERN
GEARBOX

AIR
COMPRESSOR

POWER
TURBINE
SHAFT
BEARINGS

DRAWN BY WILLE SCOTT 2010

PROP SHAFT
BEARINGS
EXHAUST
GASSES TO
FUNNEL

POWER
TURBINE
CLUTCH
POWER
TURBINE
THRUST BLOCK

of 3600 revs/min.
GasTurbine as a Ship's Main Engine
In gas turbine driven ships, the conventional gas turbine is
combined with a power turbine which provides the power to
the ships propeller.This system of ship propulsion is known as
a "split-shaft gas turbine."
The gas turbine drive shaft contains the turbine starter and the
auxiliary pumps drives for the different systems. Hot exhaust
gasses from the gas turbine are fed into the power turbine.
PowerTurbine
The power turbine is much slower running than the gas
turbine. It has blades and rotors shaped as nozzles similar to
that of a normal steam turbine. The power turbine output
shaft connects by coupling to the gearbox incorporating a
clutch which is used to engage/disengage the drive.The drive
shaft exits the gearbox at the revolutions required by either a
fixed or variable pitch propeller.
The ship is maneuvered either using the clutch and an
ahead/astern gearbox or a variable pitch propeller.
A split shaft gas turbine engine room is much smaller than the
normal ship's engine room, but still contains the fuel and lube
oil systems with the associated auxiliary pumps, filters and
coolers.
One such system will be discussed in the coming issues. <

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

Main Engine Layout


Familiarization - B&W
Engine Room Layout
- Pramod Mohapatra,
Second Engineer

The
ship's engine room watchkeeping engineer must be familiar with main engine layouts,
including their components optimum operating pressures
and temperatures.This familiarization should include a B&W
engine room layout, as this is a modern, popular two stroke
marine diesel engine.
The arrangement of a large two/four stroke marine diesel has
not changed dramatically since I was at sea over forty years
ago. The main engines then were Sulzer RD's, Doxfords
opposed piston, British Polar and Burmeister &Wain (I served
my time in Harland & Wolff Belfast, who made B&W engines
under license)
The main difference in layout is that most engine rooms now
have a soundproof, air conditioned control room and are
accessed by a lift from the engineer's accommodation.
Nowadays ships watchkeeping engineers don't know they are
living, we had to endure excessive temperatures and noise,
but I still remain convinced, whilst open to the engine room
environment we had a better feel for the job.
The next few sections examine the layout of a modern oil
tanker engine room beginning with the main engine and
major components; using a Burmeister & Wain two-stroke
turbo charged diesel engine with the aid of sketches as an

example. A sketch is provided referencing the components


with their function and, where applicable the watch-keeping
engineer's duties in maintaining their optimum operating
conditions.
Layout of Major Components
1. Fuel oil nozzle cooler
Nozzles are under constant heat from combustion, so in order
for them to atomize the fuel efficiently, they must be kept
relatively cool, and failure to do so can lead to scavenge fires.
The nozzles are kept cool by circulating water through them,
in a closed circuit cooling system that includes the nozzle
cooler and circ pump. The watch-keeper should check the
cooler inlet and outlet temperatures hourly.
2. Air-StartValve
The air start valve is used to starting the engine by compressed
air. Watch-keeper should check that there is no back flow of
combustion gas through air start supply pipe work. This is
easily done by feeling the air supply pipe work by placing a
hand on it. Always check air supply isolating valves from the
air start bottles are shut, unless on standby.
3. Air Start Reservoir and Air Compressor
This is the main reservoir for holding the air used to start the
engine. The air compressor is used to maintain the correct
pressure. Watch-keeper should check air pressure hourly,
topping up at the end of each watch, also drain water and oil
mixture from vessel through drain valve at bottom of vessel.
Excessive oil in this mixture indicates a faulty air compressor.
4. Crankcase Door Explosion ReliefValve
If a crankshaft bearing is running hot, oil is heated and an oil
mist produced which can lead to a crankcase explosion.This is
fitted so that if there is an internal explosion, the relief valve
operates and the pressure inside is relieved. If this didn't work,
the pressure from the explosion would blow the door of its
hinges. (This happened to a ship called the Reina Del Pacifico
in 1947, after an extensive engine overhaul and whilst it was
on sea-trials in Belfast Lough, there was a crankcase explosion
and twenty eight men were killed.) Watch-keepers duties are
to lay a hand on crankcase doors and around the relief valve to
check for excessive heat, every time they are passing the
doors.This will soon become a habit.
5. Lube-oil Pump, Cooler and Filters
This is probably the most important system on a marine diesel
engine. Oil is drawn from the sump through the filters and
pumped through the coolers onto the crossheads, main
bearings and camshafts. Watch-keepers duties are to ensure
optimum temperature and pressure (thereby viscosity) is
maintained by using lube-oil cooler seawater inlet valve.
Regular checks of sump oil (dip sump to check level and oil
condition) for water ingress is necessary along with filter

1-15 June 2015

Starboard Strategies

differential pressure checks to ensure filter efficiency, any


pressure out with norm signifies filter change required.
6. Jacket Cooling System.
The cylinders are cooled by circulating a coolant made up of a
mixture of fresh water and soluble oil (much like the coolant
used in lathes) around the cylinder jackets.The watch-keeping
duties are to control the temperature of the coolant by using
the jacket water cooler seawater inlet valve.
7.Turbo-Blowers
The turbo blowers have two turbines on the same drive shaft.
The exhaust gas from the poppet valve enters the drive
turbine end rotating it at about 10,000-15,000 revs. This
drives the air compressor turbine at the other end of the shaft
that draws in air from the engine room, blows it through an air
cooler before supplying the combustion air to the engine via
the scavenge ports in the cylinders. Because the blowers
continue to rotate when the engine stops, the lube-oil supply
is normally from a header tank or from the main engine lubeoil system.
8.Turbo-Blower Cooler
Air is essential to the combustion process however air expands
when it is hot and contracts when cold. Because of this the hot
air which is sucked in, compressed and discharged by the
turbo becomes even hotter must be cooled.This is carried out
by an air cooler located between the turbo discharge and inlet
to scavenge ports, thus ensuring that the maximum amount of
air is supplied for combustion of the fuel. When the engine is
in the maneuvering condition, or running slowly an
electrically driven blower is used to supply combustion air to
the engine.The temperature before and after air cooler should
be checked.
9. Cylinder Head ReliefValve
The function of a cylinder relief valve is to release
overpressure from the combustion area above the piston, for
instance if there is an accumulation of water which is
incompressible, the valve will lift.Watch-keeping duties are to
ensure no hot gasses escape from the relief valve by checking
connecting pipe work by hand for excessive heat.
10. Indicator Cock
There several purposes of this cock. An engine indicator is
used to calculate the indicated power of the engine, and this is
connected to the indicator cock and the cock opened. The
engine indicator is operated as the engine fires when running
normally, the cock being shut before disconnecting the engine
indicator.
The indicator cock is opened when the engine is being turned
over by the turning gear and, when being started for the first
time after being shutdown to blow out any water or debris
from the cylinder. The cock is then shut for normal running.
Watch-keeping duties include checking the cock is not

leaking
l
exhaust gas, if it is a temporary cap can be screwed on,
and the cock replaced at the first opportunity at next
shutdown.<

To Whosoever
it May Concern

MV Greenwich
Progress (IMO No.
8845468) is in Bareboat

Charter with KShip for


three years commencing
from October 20, 2014.
Anyone chartering the vessel under any kind of charter
party (BBT, TC or Voy) is hereby advised and warned that
the undersigned has a valid lien on the vessel and cargo
loaded thereon until the expiry of the Bareboat Charter by
October 17, 2017.
The vessel with her hull and machinery and all
paraphernalia has been arrested by the Sheriff of Mumbai in
pursuance of the Warrant issued by the Honorable High
Court of Mumbai in Admiralty Suit 25 of 2015 in
Krishnamrutam Enterprises Private Limited v. MV
Greenwich Progress and others.
Know all men by these presents that no one repeat no one
shall hire or deal with said vessel without valid clearance

from the undersigned.

Padmanabhan Krishnan
Chairman & MD
K-Ship
Krishnamrutam Enterprises Private Limited.,
Level 13, Platinum Techno Park, Plot No 17 and 18,
Sector 30AVashi, Navi Mumbai 400705 India
Tel : +91 22 6121 4942 | Fax : +91 22 6121 4950
krishnan@k-ship.com

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

Engineer's Duties
After Pilot Departure
- Ramprasad Misra

After the ship is out of


the port limits and the pilot has gone, the marine engineers
have a lot of work to do - from adjusting the main engine revs
to run at maximum possible load as per the weather to starting
the fresh water generator, etc.The complete plant has to be set

up to run optimally.
Pilot on Board:What it Means
When cargo operations have been completed and port
clearance has been given for leaving, a one-hour notice is
given to the engine room and duty engineer. At the receipt of
the one hour notice, the engine room is manned and an
additional generator is started.Thereafter as per the checklist,
the Main Engine plant is made ready by the duty engineers.
Once the main engine has been lubricated and turned by the
turning gears and blown though with air, the engine control is
given to the bridge and they are told to try out the engine.
Before the arrival of the pilot is expected, the control tests,
the steering gear tests, communications tests, and the main

engine is tried out in ahead and after directions on fuel. The


same is written down in the engine movement records book
and signed.
When the pilot arrives on board, the order of "Stand By" is
given.This order literally means stand by as the engine control
room and the main engine controls have to be attended by an
engineer at all times during maneuvering. This is because
engine movement can be expected at any moment. Even
though the engine is on bridge control, for failsafe operations
the engineer must be present. At any misfire or problem, the
engineer will take control in the engine room and give the
movement.
At the stand by time the following readings are recorded in the
bell book to enable the Chief Engineer to calculate the ROB's
of fuel and lubes.
Main engine revolution counter
Flowmeters for Main Engine, Generators, and Boilers
Flow meter for cylinder oil
In modern ships the HFO purifier is always running as all
systems are on heavy oil; if not then the HFO and Diesel Oil
purifier (on older ships) has to be started.
During maneuvering the movements are recorded by the data
logger in the bridge and movements are only to be written in
the engine bell book if main engine is in engine room control.
Maneuvering is a very critical operation, and strict control
and team work is required by all crew to carry it out
successfully. As engine room people are not aware of what is
happening above the water level, good and sufficient
communication by the bridge team is always appreciated.
?
Pilot Away!
After the ship is out of the port limits and safely in the open
sea, the pilot departs. After "Pilot Away" has been informed
the main engine rpm is increased to navigational full and RFA
of full away is given on the engine telegraph. Full away
indicates that no more engine movements are expected in
normal circumstances and the main engine can be adjusted for
optimal efficiency. The additional generator can be shut and
normal work can be carried out.
Another set of counters and flow meters must be taken at this
moment to enable the chief to do his calculations.
After starting the fresh water generator, the main engine can
be adjusted to maximum revs.The exhaust boiler is then taken
in service and the oil fired boiler put in auto stop.
If the auxiliary engines were being cooled by auxiliary sea
water pumps, then they are changed over to main cooling sea
water pumps.
All safeties tested, and Chief Engineer goes up to his office to
do his paper work and reporting. All said and done, the
Engineer's work is never a cakewalk on the ship.<

10

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

Marine engineer
jobs in engine room
- VT Krishna Iyengar
This series is the collection of jobs performed by the marine
engineer on board the ship. These articles will give you the
clear picture on duties of marine engineer, jobs to be carried
out while sailing, and the responsibilities of each engineer in
maintaining the engine room.
Performance of Engine RoomWatch
The performance of the engine room watch entails all watch
keeping engineers to be aware of their duties. When I was an
engineer at sea, every senior watch keeper had their own
particular duties to be carried out during their engine room
watch as well as the normal watch keeping ones.
The position of ship's Engineering Officer is a responsible
one, from the most junior engineer through the senior
engineers to the Chief Engineer, who has the ultimate overall
responsibility for the efficient, safe, operation of the engine
room, main engine, and auxiliary plant.
The following sections give an insight to the watch keeper's
duties, with the first section giving an overview of the
equipment contained within the engine room, propeller
tunnel, and steering gear.
Overview of a Ship's Engine Room
The watch keeping engineer should be familiar with the
layout of the engine room, from the top plates that contain the
cylinder heads to the stern gland at the end of the propeller
shaft. We start outside the engine room, right aft at the
steering gear that is accessible from a dogged, rubber sealed
door.
Here the large horizontal hydraulic rams can be seen

operating the rudder by small-bore copper pipes and a


telemotor, sending signals from the bridge wheel to the ram
servo-motors.
Entering the engine room and down to the top plates we find
the cylinder heads, where the exhaust gas outlet along with
the fuel injector cooling water temperatures should be noted.
The air-start valve supply pipes should feel relatively cool.
Any sign of excess temperature could signify a leaking air start
valve; requiring immediate investigation.
Same thing goes for the relief valve outlet piping, any
excessive temperature signifying a leaking relief valve or the
relief valve feathering (just lifting and shutting) and again
requires investigation.
Next level down is the turbo-blowers being located at the
back of the engine; they are supplied from the exhaust gas
manifold; various temperatures and pressures to check.
Next or same level at the front of the engine we find the fuel
pump (if not common rail), scavenge doors and scavenge
drains to the slop tank.
Forward from here is the main switchboard (if not
incorporated into the control room) check generator (s)
loads.
Lube and fuel oil centrifuge room, workshop, and stores
usually on this level, as well as day tanks for generators.
Next level down takes us to the bottom plates, walking along
these, check temperature of crankcase doors, and cylinder
lube oil supply pumps operation. Walk around generators
checking temperatures as well as the circulating pumps
operation.
Once at the control station (if not in control room), glance at
the main control board various gauges, past the thrust block
and shaft bearings then through the watertight door into the
tunnel. Here the shaft bearings should be checked by hand for
over temperature and oil level in the glass observed. Finally,
when you can go no further you are at the stern gland, a little
trickle of seawater dripping into the stern well ensures the
gland is being cooled and lubricated.
The primary duties of a watch keeping engineer are to patrol
the various stations noted above, and ensure the components
are all working at optimum pressures and temperatures.
These should then be logged at the end of each watch in the
engine room log, and signed with time and date of entries. It
used to be the duty of a junior watch keeper to copy these into
the Chief's logbook, being located in the engineer's office in
the accommodation. However I preferred to copy this
information across myself, as I could spot any anomalies easier
this way.
The steering gear should be checked at the end of each watch;
after handing over the watch to the on-coming engineer.

11

1-15 June 2015

Starboard Strategies

The additional duties and responsibilities can be shared out


among the senior watch keepers as follows;
Chief Engineer
Overall responsibility for engine room.
Does not normally keep a watch.
Second Engineer
Engineer in charge of 4-8 watch
Responsible for maintenance of steering gear
Responsible for HVAC and cold storage/fridge equipment
Responsible for the main engine planned maintenance
Responsible for carrying out IP checks through taking
indicator cards on main engine
Third Engineer
Engineer on charge of 12 4 watch
Responsible for power generator maintenance and overhaul
Responsible for waste-heat boiler plant
Fourth Engineer
Engineer in charge of 8 12 watch
Responsible for maintenance of fuel and lube oil centrifuges
and filters
Responsible for maintenance of air compressors
Responsible for daily sounding / ullage of fuel oil bunkers
Electrical Engineer
Responsible for the upkeep of all electrical plant within the
engine room, deck and accommodation.
Junior Engineers
Usually one junior engineer per watch to assist the senior
engineer in watch keeping and allocated duties.
Responsible for regular checking temperatures and
pressures of components in the main engine, diesel
generators and auxiliary equipment and entering them into
the engine room log book.
Checking and replenished of air vessels
Checking and pumping of bilges
As can be seen there are always extra activities going on apart
from watch-keeping to keep the engineers busy whilst at sea.
When in port, the Chief normally takes on the bunkers,
assisted by the fourth engineer. The second engineer makes
out the list of jobs to be carried out; the third engineer carries
out a crankcase inspection along with checking the main
engine hold-down bolts. The electrical engineer will be
checking and maintaining electrical motors, and attending to
any deck or accommodation problems, with junior engineers
assisting as required.
This series is the collection of jobs performed by the marine
engineer on board the ship. These articles will give you the
clear picture on duties of marine engineer, jobs to be carried
out while sailing, and the responsibilities of each engineer in
maintaining the engine room.<

12

Subscribe to Starboard Strategies


STARBOARD STRATEGIES
SUBSCRIPTION OFFERS
1 Year 50% off Discount Offer
Probably it is going to be the last free issue
if it is one for you so. Please subscribe
if you want to be conscientious reader
of the SS. When you answer someone
who asks, "have you read the current issue
of the Starboard?" negatively and
the listener is horrified, please don't blame
the publishers since there is nothing
known as free lunch. Definitely not forever!

Cover Price: INR 1560


You Pay: INR 780
You Save: INR 780

Likewise 60% rebate for 2 years


and 75% rebate for 3 years
Free Subscriptions will stop
with the October First Issue
Online Subscription Facility
available on net. Please log on to
www.starboardstrategies.net
Pay by cheque in favor of
Krishnamrutam Enterprises Pvt. Ltd.,
and post it to
Level 13, Platinum Techno Park
Plot No 17 and 18, Sector 30A Vashi,
Navi Mumbai 400705 India
Tel : +91 22 6121 4942 | Fax : +91 22 6121 4950
mily@k-ship.com
www.starboardstrategies.com.uk
For Online subscription
please log on to the site
www.starboardstragies.co.net

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

What Is Saturday
Routine On A Ship?
- VK Ranade, Chief Engineer

Life on a ship is little different from conventional life at land.


Normally the weekends are meant for relaxation and
enjoyment in a typical shore based office, but the same cannot
be said to be totally true about ships. So when I mention the
word "Saturday routine", I do not refer to the fun and partying
(which is also there on ships) but to a different planned
maintenance routine about which we will find out now.
Definition of Saturday Routine
Saturday routine is a planned maintenance routine or
schedule followed in the ship. In this routine, all the
machinery and important control systems are maintained as
per the routine chart .This is carried out for safe operation of
the ship and this maintenance schedule will be inspected by
the surveyor and by the port state control officers who visit
the ships to carry out such inspection. If this planned
maintenance schedule is found to have unaccounted for
delays, or have not been carried out properly, the surveyor can
even detain the ship in port.
We have already learnt about the repairs carried out on a ship
and know that the planned maintenance system is necessary to
keep the machinery in near-perfect working condition. The
Saturday planned maintenance routine is a vital part of this
maintenance schedule and the list below shows the various
equipments that would normally be inspected and checked
for proper functioning. The list also gives the duty officer in
charge of that specific check or operation and whether it
needs to be done every Saturday, every two weeks or monthly.
Please note that this is not a regulation or compulsion but a
long followed practice, perhaps just to ensure that the
weekend goes smoothly, these checks are carried out on a
Saturday. Otherwise they can be done during any other day as
well
Checks in Saturday Planned Maintenance Routine
1. Fire Detection System [Electrical officer] - (EVERY
SATURDAY)
2. CO2 Bottles and System [Electrical officer] (MONTHLY)
3. Air and Foam Equipment [Second Engineer] - (EVERY
SATURDAY)
4. General Alarm System [Electrical officer] - (EVERY
SATURDAY)
5. Emergenc y Batter ies [Electr ical officer] -

(FORTNIGHTLY)
6. Funnel Flaps [Fourth Engineer] - (EVERY SATURDAY)
7. Emergency /Remote stops [Electrical officer & Second
engineer] - (MONTHLY)
(M/E QCV, E/R Blower, E/R pump, Accommodation
Blower)
8.Emergency Lighting [Electrical officer] (FORTNIGHTLY)
9. Life Boat Engine [Third Engineer] - (EVERY SATURDAY)
10. Emergency Fire Pump [Fourth Engineer] - (EVERY
SATURDAY)
11. Emergency Air Compressor [Fourth Engineer] - (EVERY
SATURDAY)

12. Emergency Steering gear [Second Engineer] (FORTNIGHTLY)


13. Emergency Bilge suction valve [Fourth Engineer] (MONTHLY)
14. Normally valves which are not in use [Second Engineer] (MONTHLY)
(Ship side valve, sewage plant, isolating valve)
15. Portable Electronic tools And Equipment [Electrical
officer] - (MONTHLY)
16. Main Engine Safety Devices [Electrical officer & Second
engineer] - (MONTHLY)
17. Auxiliary Engines Safety [Electrical officer & Fourth
engineer] - (MONTHLY)
18. Oily Water Separator & 15 ppm indicator [Electrical
officer] - (EVERY SATURDAY)
19. Main Engine Maneuvering. [Electrical officer & Second
engineer] - (MONTHLY)
20. Cargo Gear all limit switches. [Electrical officer] (MONTHLY)
21. Boiler Safety Valve [Electrical officer & Third engineer] (MONTHLY)
22. Freezer room alarm, hospital room alarm, bilge alarm,
incinerator room alarm and steering gear alarm [Electrical
officer] - (MONTHLY).<

13

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

Starting of an Auxiliary
Diesel Engine
-

C. Raghavachary, Chief Engineer

The auxiliary diesel engine is mostly started with the help of


compressed air, depending upon the size of the engine. Other
means of starting includes Electric start (battery) and air
motor (engaged in the flywheel). The most common method
is the use of compressed air. The lay out for starting the
auxiliary engine is given below.
Before starting the auxiliary engine, the following safety
checks must be carried out:
1. Turning gear disengaged (if available).
2. Lubricating oil sump level normal
3. Turbo charger oil level (both turbine & blower) side normal
4. Lubricating oil priming pump running.
5. Fuel oil/diesel oil booster pumps running.
6. lube oil, cooling fresh water, fuel oil pressure normal.
7. Rocker arm tank level normal.
8. All valves in compressed air line open to the engine.
Referring to the above starting diagram of an auxiliary engine,
the" main air" from the main air bottle arrives at the air
starting valve. There is a tapping from the main air starting
line, "pilot air" going to the starting air distributor.When the
engine rotates, the camshaft also rotates which in turn rotates
"the starting air distributor cam". This cam is designed as per
the firing order of the engine such that, the distributor rotates
and lets the pilot air to the particular unit.The pilot air reaches
on top of the air starting valve, opening it, in turn making the
long awaited main air to let inside the combustion chamber.
The main air which is at 30 bar, pushes the piston down
making the crankshaft to rotate. This leads to continuous
rotation of the crankshaft making the engine to achieve the
minimum r.p.m at which firing of the injected fuel takes place.
When the engine picks up on fuel, the air is cut off and
drained. Thus the auxiliary diesel engine is started with the
help of compressed air.
In the next article, we will take up the study of the various
valves mentioned in the starting air systems namely master air
starting valve, cylinder valves and so forth.<

Contributions are welcome.


All manuscripts should be sent by Email only.
The editor reserves his right to accept, edit,
modify and publish it the way he finds fit. All
rights for the copyright of the article including
the one not to allow its publication elsewhere is
reserved by the Editor.

Your Company
Ad of Any Size
Customs Designed
For you!
Subscribe Now.
Please call
Divya Venu at
022-31923345
022-61214942
sarafina@starboardstrategies.net

14

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

15

propulsion engine. Air compressors are of varying capacity


and used as per the requirement onboard.<

Role Of Compressed Air


In Starting a Marine
Diesel Engine
- G. Aravindakshan, Chief Engineer (MOT)
Do
y o u
know how
diesel engines are started in ships? Equivalent in size to a fourstory building, the main propulsion engine is started with the
help of compressed air at a pressure of 30 bars. Learn more
about where a ship gets its compressed air supply from.
We discussed problems in our previous article and saw how
various methods are used to overcome this problem. We also
saw how a marine engine is different due to its size and
location, and that compressed air is the solution to starting the
diesel engine.
As you know that a ship is a mobile power plant or a moving
mini-city. It has all facilities, sometimes better than what we
find ashore.
These moving giants have a pre-designed and erected
compressed air system, which facilitates many activities
onboard a ship. There are mostly 4 to 8 and sometimes 10 air
compressors found onboard. These air compressors take
suction from room atmosphere which is already under a slight
positive pressure. These air compressors compress the air in
stages and fill up the huge air bottles, which acts as
accumulator.They compress usually up to 30 bar and keep the
air bottles filled up all the time.The number of air bottles and
its volume (capacity) depends on the power (size) of the main

MEO Class IV / Class II


Coaching Classes (Non- DG)
Starting from 1st March 2014 KEPL/11/06/2015
Eligibility: 4 Year Marine Engineering Course |
2 Yrs. DME | 1 Year GME
6 months onboard Experience
Personalized Coaching 24/7
The best course materials the Industry ever
produced (Included).
Hostel facility at the most subsidized rates with
boarding for the needy students.
Coaching by MEO Class I Engineers with over
30 years of sailing / teaching experience
Enquire with confidence
Prabhavati Hasurkar
prabhavati@k-ship.com; sushma@kinfotech.co.in
022-31923345
New Empire Marine Services Private Limited
Krishnamrutam
Level 13, Platinum Techno Park, Plot No 17 and
18, Sector 30A Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400705
India
Tel : +91 22 6121 4942 |Fax : +91 22 6121 4950
Fee concessions / scholarships to needy students
Preparatory / Coaching offered for
Motorman / Oiler for watchkeping with practical approach

1-15 June 2015

Starboard Strategies

A Guide to Gland Packing


- Vimaladitya Varma, Chief Engineer

A stuffing box used for shaft sealing may be one employing


gland packings or using mechanical seals. Easily replaceable
without opening up the whole pump, gland packings give stiff
competition to mechanical seals, but the packings have to be
carefully selected to be successful.
Gland Packing
Gland packing is used extensively for the sealing and
restriction of leakage of the working fluid along the stem in
valves and along the shaft in the case of pumps and also for
stationary duties like manhole cover sealing. The technology
has developed over a period of time. Originally old ropes and
natural fiber products were used for sealing ... with varying
degrees of success. The technology has now progressed to
such an extent that now several combinations of artificial
fibers and cutting edge materials are used, and gland packings
are even used in harsh applications like nuclear environments
and in the handling of corrosive products.
Gland packing installation is not only a science, but is also an
art as its success depends on the skill of the operator installing
it. The life of the gland packing greatly depends on how they
were installed, no matter what grade of packing you use.
Great prudence is required in the adjustment of the gland
packing as a minimum leakage is to be allowed for the cooling
and the lubrication purposes. An uninitiated engineer would
invariably over-tighten the glands, leading to the burning of
the packing and scored shaft and shaft sleeves.
Applications of Gland Packing
Gland packing is used for sealing in the following applications:
1. Stationary applications like tanks hatch cover sealing,
manhole covers sealing, etc.
2. Used for reducing leakage along the stem in globe valve,
gate valve, and ball valves.
3. Used for reducing leakage of the working fluid in
reciprocating pumps.
4. Used for reducing leakage of the working fluid in rotating
pumps like centrifugal pumps, and screw and gear pumps.
4. In propeller shaft sealing in life boats and on old
generations of merchant ships.

All the above are entirely different applications, and hence the
type of gland packing to be used also differs. Selection also
depends on the nature of the fluid to be handled like
temperature, pressure, corrosiveness, and suspended solids,
etc. A correct choice of gland packing has to be made by the
marine engineer.
3. Gland PackingVs. Mechanical Seals
There are two types of stuffing boxes used in the centrifugal
pumps and other rotary pumps aboard ship. One type uses a
mechanical seal, and the other type uses gland packing.
Nowadays almost all new ships have mechanical seals on all
the rotating pumps due to very strict pollution laws like
Marpol 73/78 and others. Any fluid leakage has to be further
collected, treated and filtered, with oil stored for discharge to
shore reception facilities.Water is to be discharged according
to the regulations by approved filtering equipment under a 15
parts per million guideline. It amounts to a lot of work, and
any marine engineer would vouch for that.
However in certain applications, gland packing is still used
where a mechanical seal may not work properly. In certain
corrosive environments, for example, where a mechanical
seal may corrode and fail, a gland packing may serve better. In
applications like globe, gate, ball valves, and valve cocks gland
packing is used because mechanical seals require a rotary
motion for successful sealing action. It is for this reason that
reciprocating pumps use gland packing. Sometimes a ship
owner may want gland packing to be installed on his ships to
cut costs. Also where skilled man power is not available, it is
easier to open the gland to change the gland packing, than to
open the whole pump for changing the mechanical seal. Also
mechanical seals are very expensive as compared to gland
packing. Old ships use gland packing extensively. However a
certain amount of skill is required to cut the joints and in their
installation and removal, as otherwise it is difficult to get
consistent results and long life.
The Advantages of Gland packing over Mechanical
Seals
Although considered old and low-end technology, the
advantages of the gland packings over the mechanical seals are
as follows:
1. It is an extremely reliable sealing method.
2. It is very simple to install and maintain.
3. It tolerates poor mechanical conditions like off-center
shafts and worn down anti-friction bearings better than
mechanical seals.
4. Works better in abrasive media and corrosive

17

1-15 June 2015

Starboard Strategies

environments than mechanical seals.


5. Reduces the stock holding as one size packing can be used
in all similar sized pumps.
6. It is very cost effective in down time as very little time is
required to change a gland packing, as little as fifteen minutes.
7. They are less expensive than mechanical seals.
8. The whole pump is not required to be opened for changing
the gland packing, however in mechanical seals the pump has
to be opened up.
9.The gland packings are not fragile and any amount of
mishandling would not destroy them, unlike the mechanical seals.
Properties of Good Gland Packing
To be successful in its duty and to attain the objective of
successful sealing and trouble free operation the gland
packing must have the following properties.
1. Anti-friction properties. The gland packing basically rubs
along the shaft and stationary along the stuffing box side. If the
gland packing has friction it would score the shaft or the shaft
sleeve and also would heat up and fail and even burn due to
consistent overheating.
Chemical resistance to the fluid being contained. If the gland
packing reacts with the fluid it is supposed to seal it would
later disintegrate and be flushed away leading to leakage of the
fluid which is not desirable.
Temperature resistance. The gland packing should be able to
resist the working temperature of the fluid being sealed
without failing.
Compressibility and resilience. The gland packing should be
able to compress and confirm to the shaft under the force of
the gland flange and when the tension is released it should
come back to its original shape. The latter is important as
when the gland nuts are loosened the gland packing should
spring back releasing the shaft.
Retention of lubricants.All the gland packings are coated with
lubricants like graphite, grease, petroleum products etc., also
external lubricant is applied before insertion. The gland
packing should be able to retain this grease for anti-friction
properties.
Should not score the shaft. Normally on pumps a shaft sleeve
is inserted over the portion where the gland packings are
inserted and which is replaceable. The gland packing should
nonabrasive to avoid the scoring on the shaft sleeve. Of course
on a long interval this is not possible, but it should at least
sustain till the next overhaul
Should not contaminate the fluid being sealed. In some

applications like food and pharmaceutical industries the gland


packing should not contaminate the fluid, while in others it
does not matter.
It should be non-corrosive to avoid damage to the shaft and
the housing.
It should be wear resistant to last a long time.
It should retain its property over a time period.
2.DifferentTypes of Gland Packing (Materials used)
There are many different types of gland packing depending on
the type of applications such as for valve stem sealing,
centrifugal pump shaft sealing, reciprocating pump shaft
sealing, static duties like hatches sealing and pressure vessels
manholes sealing, etc. Gland packings are made from the
following basic substances and are a combination of these
basic materials and are sometimes reinforced with metal
wires for extreme conditions.
Jute Flax Hemp Cotton
PTFE Aramid Wrapped metal foils
Graphite fiber Carbon fiber
Glass fiber Poly acryl nitrile fibers
All the gland packing are a combination of the above
mentioned basic materials and great research is done by the
manufacturers to develop new and more efficient types of
packing. The packing made of a combination of graphite,
carbon, glass, etc. are used for harsh applications whereas
gland packing made of materials like Jute, flax, hemp, and
cotton are used for light applications like sea water, potable
water etc. The compound PTFE is versatile and can be used
for a wide variety of applications.
3. Preconditions for a Successful Gland Packing Job
No matter how many times you change the gland packing and
how well you have done the job, the success of the gland
packing job done would also depend on the following factors.
The trueness of the shaft. A shaft that is bent would eat the
gland packings prematurely and there nothing you can do
except change the shaft.You must make it a point to check the
trueness of the shaft during each overhaul using a dial gauge.
Concentricity of the shaft with the stuffing box bore.The shaft
might be true but if not aligned properly would again destroy
the gland packings in no time.
Surface roughness of the shaft. If the shaft or the sleeve is
pitted or unevenly worn it would again damage the gland
packings very fast.
Whipping of the shaft due to worn bearings.
Consistent cooling water supply in case of pumps with a

18

1-15 June 2015

Starboard Strategies

lantern ring.
4.The Lantern Ring and its Purpose
A lantern ring is an annular ring with channels for the passage
of water that is inserted between the gland packing. Fluid is
fed from an external pipe to the lantern ring for lubrication
and the cooling of the packings. It is used in applications
where a number of packings are there and it would be difficult
of the intermediate packing to get fluid for lubrication. It is
also used where the fluid to be sealed is contaminated with
abrasives or is corrosive and a clean fluid is required for
lubrication.While installation it is crucial that the holes in the
lantern ring meet or are aligned with the holes in the pipes. It
is very important to inspect and align the lantern ring during
each overhaul of the pumps.
5.What next?
Here we discuss how to select a gland packing for different
applications, how to cut gland packing, how to remove gland
packing, the standard sizes of gland packings available
commercially, how to measure the length of the packing
required, how much gap should be kept between the ends,
how to insert the gland packing in the stuffing box, and how to
run in the new gland packings.
How to Select Gland Packing for Different Applications
The selection of gland packing is a very important part of the
marine engineer's job. An incorrectly selected gland packing
would soon fail in service and lead to leakages. As a number of
packings are available, the field of selection is very wide.There
is no single gland packing that can handle all kinds of fluid or
which is suitable for all types of valves and applications. A
valve is only good if its sealing is good and a leaking sealing
arrangement amounts to a leaking valve with all its associated
faults. Not only is it displeasure to the eYes, it is also a work,
health, and fire hazard. Gland packings are made of the
combination of the materials discussed earlier and are
manufactured in plaited, braided, twisted, jacketed,
corrugated foil, foil wrapped deformable core, and full foil
form. It is prudent to consult the manufacturer's manual
about the type of gland packing to be used. The gland
manufacturers also give a list of applications where their gland
packing can be used; these should be consulted before use.
How to Cut Gland Packing
The gland packing should be cut with a sharp knife to avoid
fraying of the edges. Do not use scissors or hack saw blade etc.
A heavy duty engineer's knife or a sharpened ordinary knife
would do.
There are two methods of cutting the gland packing, the first
one is straight or at 90 degrees i.e. Butt joint and the second
one is at 45 degrees i.e. skive joint. The taper method gives
better sealing but is more difficult and skill oriented and the

angle on both the ends should match properly or otherwise it


would lead to more leakages. In places where there is an
accessibility problem it is best to cut the gland packing straight.
How to Remove Gland Packings
Removing a gland packing can be very tough sometimes,
especially if it is old and well set, you need to have specially
contoured tools which the marine engineer learns well to
make with experience. There are also gland packing
extractors available in the market, which look like a cork
screw used to open the wine bottles but are flexible.They just
have to be twisted to get a grip and then the packings can be
pulled out. The problem comes when the old packings have
lost their properties and the packing comes out in fibers.
Sometimes in sea water pumps
when the packings are not
coming out, a little opening of
the sea water suction valve
would push out the packing
with ease due to the water
pressure. But it should be done
very cautiously as you can flood
the bilges and you must shut it
promptly.
The standard sizes of gland
packings depending on the shaft
diameter, procedure to measure the correct length required,
and the end clearance to be given so as to allow for the
swelling of the gland packing in contact with water.
Standard sizes of Gland packings
In case the instruction manual is not available, then the correct
size of the packing can be determined from a simple method.
Simply measure the inner diameter of the bore of the stuffing
box and subtract from it the outside diameter of the shaft.The
figure obtained must be divided by 2 to get your gland packing
size. But generally the following sizes of the gland packings are
recommended for the different shaft sizes as follows:
1. For shafts of size 16 to 28 mm diameter the gland packing
of size 8 mm is used.
2. For shafts of size 30 to 46 mm diameter the gland packing
of size 10 mm is used
3. For shafts of size 50 to 75 mm diameter the gland packing
of size 12.5 mm is used
4. For shafts of size 75 to 120 mm diameter the gland
packing of size 16 mm is used
5. For shafts of size 125 to 300 mm diameter the gland
packing of size 19 mm is used
But the above is only a guide line and it varies from
manufacturer to manufacturer.

19

1-15 June 2015

Starboard Strategies

How to Measure the length of the Packing Required


For measuring the gland packing size the following methods
can be used.
1. Take the reference of the old removed packing and cut
accordingly.
2. Put the new gland packing on the shaft circumferentially
or on a template and then mark and then cut the required
length.
3. The most accurate is to measure the size of the shaft and
calculate its perimeter or circumference. For example if the
shaft is of 50 millimeters diameter then the circumference is
given by the formula P = Pi x Diameter.That would make the

perimeter 157.07 millimeters. This measured length can be


cut from the gland packing reel considering a 2 mm clearance
in packing which would swell in presence of sea water.
How Much Gap is to be Kept?
Some types of packing swell a little on contact with water.This
must be considered and an appropriate clearance should be
provided. Otherwise it would seize the shaft leading to
overheating and burning of the packing, as well as increasing
the load on the shaft and the motor. In some cases the shafts
have even broken due to excessively tightened packing.
Also sometimes the packings do not go in the stuffing box
spaces easily and they have to be hammered to make them a
little thinner thus elongating them in return.This factor must
also be considered in giving some gap. However the
hammered and thinned packings would again gain their width
after being compressed. As a rule hammering should be
avoided as it damages the gland packings and should only be
resorted to in an emergency, when the correct size packing is
not available.
How to insert the gland packing into the stuffing box and the

16

running in procedure for a long lasting life.


How to Insert the Gland Packing
The following are the cautions and the instructions while
installing new gland packings.
1. After the gland packings have been removed the spaces
must be thoroughly cleaned with compressed air to ascertain
than no residues of the old packing remain inside.
2. The shaft must be carefully inspected for any abrasions
and pitting marks and if any must be removed with 300 grit
emery paper. In case it is not possible to smooth the surface,
the sleeve must be changed at the next possible opportunity.
3. Gland packing once used must not be reused and never
try to reverse a gland packing as the old packing must have lost
its properties in service.
4. The packings must be selected as per the service
required.
5. The correct size of the packing should be referred from
the instruction manual or measured.
6. Cut the gland packing to the correct size and give a little
clearance if using natural fibers like hemp and jute which
would swell in contact with water.
7. Fit each packing one by one with lots of lubricant and do
not forget to stagger the same by 90 degrees each.
8. Compress with the gland to ascertain that it goes inside
evenly.
9. Check that the shaft is free to rotate after the insertion of
the gland packings.
10. Slightly tighten the gland till a little resistance is felt in the
turning of the shaft by hand.
11. After the tightening slackens the nuts and finger tighten.
The tightening must be done during the running in process.
12. Remember that a gland packing is not supposed to
completely prevent leakage of the fluid, a small leakage of about
ten drops a minute is required for lubrication and cooling.
Conclusion
Gland packings are used extensively in the marine field yet
they are one of those things that engineers take for granted.
Normally engineers just check the size and put the first
packing they come across if it is of the same color. This
negligent attitude results in leakage and scored shafts. It is also
due to the fact that training material is not available to the
junior engineers when they join this field and by the time they
come up the ranks they are used to the idea of wrong working
practice. In this article the subject has been discussed in brief
and it is hoped that it would be useful to the new marine
engineers as well as the practicing marine engineers.<

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

20

Advertise with us A great investment


For cost-effective advertising that reaches your message to over 75,000 readers twice every week.
For Marketing Inquiries - Ms. Divya Venu

ADVERTISE

Krishnamrutam Enterprises Private Limited


Level 13, Platinum Techno Park
WITH US
Plot No 17 and 18, Sector 30A Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400705, Maharashtra, India.
Tel : +91 22 6121 4942, 31923345 | Fax : +91 22 6121 4950
Email : krishnan@kship.co.in|prabhavati@kship.co.in|sushma@sreetechsolutions.com
Website : www .kship .co .in, www.starboardstrategies.net or www.starboardstrategies.in
RATES FOR THE STARBOARD STRATEGIES - SHIPPING FORTNIGHTLY
Advertising Rates w.e.f from August 2013
Sizes

Rates in INR
B&W

Spot

Multi Colour

Full Page

7600

8000

15300

Half Page

4000

4100

8100

Onetime Discounts* Conditions Apply


Single page bw Rs. 2000
Single page color Rs. 3000
Two issues
BW Rs. 2500
Color Rs. 3500
Mechanical Details
Size of Full Page : (Ht.: 26.67 cm Wd.: 21.59 cm)
Size of Half Page : (Ht.: 13.335 cm Wd.: 21.59 cm)
Size of Quarter Page : (Ht.: 13.335 cm Wd.: 10.795 cm)
Size of Full Center Spread : (Ht.: 26.67 cm Wd.:43cms)
Size of Half Center Spread : (Ht.: 13.335 cm Wd.: 43cms)
Size 1/8th : (Ht.: 6.667 cm Wd.: 10.795 cm)
Classifieds : (Ht.: 6.667 cm Wd.: 5.397 cm)

www.starboardstrategies.net A virtual magazine online


Monthly Front Page Banner Charges = Rs 5,000/ Annual Front Page Banner Charges = Rs 25,000/All Cheques in favour of : Krishnamrutam Enterprises Private Limited, Online Payment Facility Available

Krishnamrutam Enterprises Private Limited


Level 13, Platinum Techno Park, Sec. 30A, Plot 17 & 18, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400705, Maharashtra, India.
Tel. : +91 22 6121 4942, 31923345 | Fax : +91 22 61214950 | www.starboardstrategies.net

1-15 June 2015

Starboard Strategies

21

SailorStories
The painting work
A woman was complaining to a friend that her husband was always repainting their
wood boat.
The friend asked, "How many times could he have painted the boat? Twice? Three times?
The wife said, "A lot more than that! When we bought the boat it was a nineteen-foot speedboat. It's now a
twenty-one foot cruiser!"
Things to ponder
Why is it when you transport something by car its called
shipment, but when you transport something by ship it's
called cargo?
If seafood is cured, why is it still dead?
Should you trust a yacht broker who's married to a travel
agent?
Tell a sailor that there are 400 billion stars and he'll
believe you, tell him a deck has wet paint and he has to
touch it.
How much deeper would the ocean be if sponges didn't
grow in it?
Why do "saleboats" cost so much?
Why is it when a hatch is slightly open it's ajar, but when
a jar is slightly open it's not a-hatch?
Do hydroplanes evaporate?
If most yacht brokers are wealthy, does that mean rich
people are poor?
Are power-boats used only by weight lifters?
Is a sailor called "salt" because of a lifelong hatred of
pepper?
Did the term "Nauti-cal" originate from a sex-crazed
crew in California?
Was the word "Crui-sing" given to a bunch of swabbys
while Christmas caroling?
If wood boats are made of wood, and fiberglass boats
made of fiberglass, then what are air boats made of?
Sea battles never decide who's right, only who's
left! Do jellyfish get gas from eating
jellybeans?

Dressed for the occasion


A Navy Admiral (*which Navy will go unspecified) was
being court-martialed for an incident where he was
found to be chasing a young lady through the hallways
of the hotel in which they were both staying.
Neither of them was wearing anything. One of the
charges was that of "being out of uniform."
The Admiral's lawyer argued that the officer was not
out of uniform, as the regulations read:
"A Naval officer must be at all times be appropriately
attired for the activity in which he is engaged."
The Admiral was acquitted.
Lost game
The Captain was angry and could barely contain
himself. The sailing race of the year was about to start
but he confronted his First Mate anyway. "I just found
out that you have been getting huge kickbacks from our
suppliers, which made our costs double! Plus, I know
you sold our new hull design to our biggest competitor
team!! I also understand that yesterday you fooled
around with my wife!!!"Visibly shaken the Captain
shouted, "This is unacceptable behavior and beyond
what could ever be forgiven!" "You're absolutely right
Captain" said the First Mate, "I guess our winning
streak together comes to an end today!""Uh, right...
well, all I have to say is one more stunt and
you're off the boat.The new guy
sighed and said, "Darling. My
name is Jack Darling."
Okay, Jack, the next thing I want
to tell you is..."

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

22

TM

K-Ship
Samudra Hitarth Satya Nishta

Required drilling crew for an onshore project int he Republic of Benin, West Africa. KShip has signed an agreement with the
drilling company for 12 months' contract for the following vacancies.

The contract period will last for one year (12 months).
Sr.

Category

Number

Salary

Allowances

1.

Fitter welder

12 crew

$3,000 USD

$200 USD

2.

Oiler

8 crew

$3,000 USD

$200 USD

3.

Able Seaman

8 crew

$3,500 USD

$350 USD

4.

Electrical Engineer

5 crew

$5,000 USD

$700 USD

5.

Cook

3 crew

$3,000 USD

$500 USD

6.

Crane Operator

2 crew

$3,700 USD

$400 USD

7.

Motorman

4 crew

$3,750 USD

$400 USD

8.

Roustabout

6 crew

$2,500 USD

$200 USD

9.

Chief mate

2 crew

$6,000 USD

$800 USD

10.

2nd officer

2 crew

$4,000 USD

$500 USD

11.

Derrick man or Floor man

4 crew

$4,000 USD

$500 USD

Krishnamrutam Enterprises Private Limited


Level 13, Platinum Techno Park, Sec. 30A, Plot 17 & 18, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400705, Maharashtra, India.
Tel. : +91 22 6121 4942, 31923345 | Fax : +91 22 61214950 | www.starboardstrategies.in

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

23

Kship - Total Technical Management RPSL-MUM-249 | DGS/ENGG/DOC-0000399


Your unique choice for a carefree sailing career

TM

Need Full crew for DP Vessels based at North Sea for our
Singapore Principals; Any CDC will do.
COC Indian, UK, Singapore, Panama only.

K-Ship
Samudra Hitarth Satya Nishta

VESSEL TYPE:

1) AHTS DP2
3) OSV DP
5) OSV DP2

2) PSV DP2
4) OSV DP1
6) PSVs

No

COC

DPO

Master Unlimited

Master Near Coastal

Chief Mate Unlimited

WKO Unlimited (ANT3)

ABOVE 3000GT

Rank

USD/ Day
Min

Remarks

Max

DPO
Master/ DPO
Master
Master/ DPO
Master
Chief Mate/ DPO
Chief Mate
2nd Mate / DPO
2nd Mate

$550
$400
$300
$200
$300
$250
$250
$150

$600
$450
$350
$250
$350
$300
$300
$200

Full DP Cert.
Full DP Cert.
DP Advance
Full DP Cert.
DP Advance
Full DP Cert.
DP Advance
Full DP Cert.
DP Advance

Chief Eng Unlimited

Chief Engineer

$450

$500

DP Maintenance

2nd Eng Unlimited

2nd Engineer

$250

$300

DP Maintenance

WKE Unlimited

Deg/ Dip. In Electrical

3rd Engineer
ETO
Electrician
Greaser
Able Body
Steward
Cook

$125
$150
$60
$25
$25
$25
$35

$175
$200
$70
$50
$50
$40
$60

DP Maintenance
DP Maintenance

10
11
12
13

NB: Salaries are indicative on the basis of the candidates' preference, negotiable
rank experience (please send proof of last salary drawn)

Value for money for the vessels owners, Safer ships for the seafarers
Cleaner Oceans for the Adminstrators, That's what the kship is all about.
Mail your Cvs to : mily@kship.co.in or careers@kship.co.in
or Post it to Kship - Krishnamrutam Enterprises Private Limited
Level 13, Platinum Techno Park, Sec. 30A, Plot 17 & 18, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400705, Maharashtra, India.

1-15 June 2015

Starboard Strategies

24

VELS INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND ADVANCED STUDIES (VISTAS)


Estd.u/s. 3 of the UGC Act, 1956
Offers various courses under the following Schools of Study

A DISTINCT HONOUR

School of Maritime Studies


School of Engineering
School of Management Studies
School of Commerce
School of Computing Sciences
School of Life Sciences
School of Basic Sciences
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
School of Physiotherapy
School of Hotel Management
School of Mass Communication

School of Maritime Studies

Vels University
Is the only Maritime Institute
In South India
(and one of only three in India)
Approved by Government of Japan
for its Deck & Engine Cadets
to be eligible to go directly
on board Japanese Flag Ships
as Certified Officers after
obtaining their COC

School of Maritime Studies offers:


DG approved Three-year B.Sc. Nautical Science Course
DG approved Four-year B.E. Marine Engineering Course
DG approved One year Graduate Mechanical Engineering (GME) Course
DG approved Two-year Diploma In Mechanical Engineering (DME) Course
Two-year Higher National Diploma courses In Nautical Science &

Marine Engineering in collaboration with City of Glasgow College, Scotland, UK

Conquering Maritime Frontiers with


India's First All-Steel Ship-in-Campus

JAPANESE GOVT TEAM AT VELS

Graded A1
For Maritime courses please visit our website : www.velsmaritime.com or contact
(Outstanding)
Capt.K.Vivekanand, Pro Vice Chancellor
Vels University, School of Maritime Studies
by D.G.Shipping
Off Rajiv Gandhi Salai - OMR
Near Navalur, Thalambur, Chennai 603 103
Tel : +91 9381852531, +91 44 3200050021
/ 501 | Email: captvivekanand@gmail.com
For other courses please visit our website 1-15 July 2014 |Starboard Strategies | Volume 1 : Issue 3
www.velsuniv.ac.in

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

25

INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ACADEMY


Academy of Excellence in Maritime Training to meet international shipping requirements.
IMA is Graded as OUTSTANDING institution (GRADE-1) by SMERA (which is a DGS approved Rating Agency) for the infrastructural facilities & other features.

Join IMA to Explore the Worldwide Opportunities.


Today, the International shipping companies from Japan, Norway, Hong kong, Denmark, Greece and other parts of the
world are coming to India to select our Indian Deck officers / engineering officers.
IMA is presently conducting the following courses.
(1) 4 Year - B. Tech Marine engineering Degree Course
- To become a Marine Engineer (Approved By DGS)
(2) 4 Year - B. Tech Naval Architecture & Ship Building Course - To become an engineer of the Ship Yard (Approved By University)
(3) 3 Year - B. SC (Nautical Science)
- To become a Captain of the Ship (Approved By DGS)
(4) 1 Year - Diploma In nautical Science
- To become a Captain of the Ship (Approved By DGS)
(5) 6 Months - GP Rating
- To become a Deck & Engine Crew (Approved By DGS)

Under Technical Collaboration with


Karnataka State Open University (KSOU), Mysore

B.TECH - MARINE ENGINEERING (4 Year Course)

CAREER PROSPECTS FOR MARINE ENGINEER


The (10+2) candidate, when they complete 4 year marine engineering course successfully, they are referred as Engineering cadets.
The Engineering cadets are eligible to be appointed as a Junior Engineer on Merchant Ships. On completion of the stipulated period.
on ships and after passing the required competency Examination conducted by the Directorate General of Shipping, Govt. of India
or Marine Administration of other governments, the Engineer becomes a Chief Engineer of ship within 5 to 6 years.

Growth from Junior Engineer to become a Chief Engineer


After 4 Year Marine
Engineering Course
Join as Marine
5th Engineer
Starting Salary - 800$

After 6 Moths Sea Service & After 12 Moths Sea Service & With further Sea Experience &
passing MEO Class IV Exam
passing MEO Class II Exam
Passing MEO Class 1 Exam
Promoted as 4th Engineer
& Sea Service Promoted
Eligible to be promoted as
& 3rd Engineer
as 2nd Engineer
Chief Engineer
Salary 2000-2500$
Salary 5500$
Salary Upto 8000$

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION & AGE:


Pass in (10+2) from a Recognized Board with 60% average
in Physics, Chemistry, Maths & 50% in English subject
either in 10th or 12th Standard.
AGE LIMIT: Maximum 12 yrs. No Color Blindness Spectacles allowed

FEE PAYABLE
For 1st Year :
For 2nd Year :
For 3rd Year :
For 4th Year :
Total Fee

Administrative Office
International Maritime Academy 41, Giri Road,
T.Nagar, Chennai - 600 017. Tamil Nadu, India.
Ph : (044) - 43502120, 43502320,43502520 | Fax : (044) - 43502130
Mobile : (0) 91766 37100, (0) 91766 87200, (0) 98418 12150, (0) 98410 75140
E-Mail : imaadmission@gmail.com | imamaritime@gmail.com

- For Reservation Rs. 25,000/- On Joining Rs. 2,75,000/- Rs. 2,50,000/- Rs. 2,25,000/- Rs. 2,25,000/- Rs. 10,00,000/-

Academy Campus
International Maritime Academy No.41,
Jamin Korattur, Pudhuchatram,
(From Poonamallee to Tirupathi Highway Road)
Ph : (044) - 26810940, 26810950, 26810960
Fax : 26810980

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

27

With Best Complements From


TM

Kship - Total Technical Management RPSL-MUM-249 | DGS/ENGG/DOC-0000399


Your unique choice for a carefree shipping business
Kship Offers Broad-based international
shipping services
Ship owning, and offshore
Services
Technical ship management
Commercial ship management,
Newbuilding supervision
Offshore support services

K-Ship
Samudra Hitarth Satya Nishta

BELIZE CDC / BELIZE


Expert consultancy
COC / BELIZE
Dry-dock management
WATCHKEEPING
Ship inspections
ISSUED NEXT DAY WITH ONLINE
Lay-up services
VERIFICATION
Ship design
Belize
COC USD 1000*
Ship owning joint ventures
(All Ranks) CDC 200 USD
Crewing Solutions, Part Manning
One Stop Shipping Solutions

We need urgently the following officers and crew


for various kinds of vessels
Masters-FG, NCV / CE-FG, NCV
Chief Officers / Second Engineers
Second Officers / Third Engineers
Third Officers / Fourth Engineers
TMEs And Deck Cadets
OS, Bosun, Electricians, Fitters, and Welders
Requirement - For Offshore Vessels
AHTS, PSUS, MPUs

TM

K-Ship
Samudra Hitarth Satya Nishta

ACLASSABOVETHEOTHERS

Our unique offer includes

Full indian crewing and indian cuisine onboard


Wages at par with the best in the industry
Master with min 15 mths experience
Good promotion prospects
C/E with min 15 mths experience
Family carriage for senior officers
C/O with min 15 mths experience
Excellent in-house training on company's expenses
2/E with min 10 mths experience
including DG approved courses
2/O with min 6 mths experience, experienced
Long term career growth plan for officers in shore
chemical 2nd master may apply
Bosun, A/B, Motorman, Fitter preferby with PSCRB Diverse & expending fleet ships from world's leading
ship owners
All junior officers to be qualified in advanced tanker
courses

Value for money for the vessels owners, Safer ships for the seafarers
Cleaner Oceans for the Adminstrators, That's what the kship is all about.
Mail your Cvs to : mily@kship.co.in or careers@kship.co.in
or Post it to Kship - Krishnamrutam Enterprises Private Limited
Level 13, Platinum Techno Park, Sec. 30A, Plot 17 & 18, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400705, Maharashtra, India.

Starboard Strategies

1-15 June 2015

28

Sail with the Experts


Join the Merchant Navy for a rewarding career

Kship - RPSL-MUM-249
ENGG/DOC/000380
MLC2006 Certified

Would You Like a


Career that takes
you places?
ow
N
y
l
p
Ap
re

a
if you CM),
(P
c/
10+2 / B.E. Ele
ch
iles
e
b
M
o
E
m
B.
Auto
.
E
.
B

At the age of 30 you may get a

salary of US$ 8000-14000 per


month as Captain/Chief
Engineer
You are paid while you take a

degree

Time off is measured in weeks


and months not just days
You get the chance to travel the

world at someone elses


expense
You can quickly gain

responsibility by climbing up the


hierarchical ladder with a salary
to match
Last but not the least enjoy a

tax free income

Register for free Career Counseling

ISO 9001:2008
Certified

Call Kship : 022-61214942 | 31923345


Email : divya@k-ship.com

WORLDWIDE IMPACT IN MANNING AND MARINE EDUCATION...


Printer & Publisher Padmanabha Hari Krishnan on behalf of Krishnamrutam Enterprises Private Limited, Printed at
Priya Offset, Flat No. 50 / 2373, Govt. Housing Colony, Gandhi Nagar, Opp. MIG Club, Bandra (E), Mumbai 400051,
District-Mumbai Maharashtra, Published at Krishnamrutam Enterprises Private Limited, Level 13, Platinum Techno
Park, Sec. 30A, Plot 17 & 18, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400705, District-Thane, Maharashtra.
Email : sarafina@starboardstrategies.net

Editor: Padmanabha Hari Krishnan

Title Code : MAHENG13619