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CONCRETE

NOMINAL MAXIMUM SIZE OF COARSE AGGREGATE SHALL NOT BE LARGER THAN:


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1/5 the narrowest dimension between side forms


1/3 the depth of slabs
the minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or wires, bundles of
bars, or prestressing tendons or ducts

DEFORMED REINFORCEMENTS
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ASTM A 184 Fabricated Deformed Steel Bar Mats


ASTM A 185 Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Plain
ASTM A 496 Steel Wire, Deformed
ASTM A 497 Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Deformed
ASTM A 615M Deformed and Plain-Billet Steel Bars
ASTM A 616M Rail-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars
ASTM A 617M Axle-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars
ASTM A 706M Low-Alloy Steel Deformed Bars
ASTM A 767M Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Bars
ASTM A 775M Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel Bars
ASTM A 884M Epoxy-Coated Steel Wire and Welded Wire Fabric
ASTM A 934M Epoxy-Coated Prefabricated Steel Reinforcing Bars

PRESTRESSING TENDONS
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ASTM A 416M Steel Strand, Uncoated Seven-Wire


ASTM A 421 Uncoated Stress-Relieved Steel Wire
ASTM A 722 Uncoated High-Strength Steel Bar

CURING
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concrete (other than high-early strength) shall be maintained above 10C and in a
moist condition for at least the first 7 days after placement
high-early strength concrete shall be maintained above 10C and in a moist condition
for at least the first 3 days

CONDUITS AND PIPES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE


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they (including their fittings) shall not displace more than 4% of the area of cross
section when embedded within a column
they shall not be larger in outside dimension than 1/3 the overall thickness of slab,
wall or beam in which they are embedded
they shall be spaced not closer than 3 diameters or widths on center
conduits, pipes and sleeves may be considered as replacing structurally in
compression the displaced concrete, provided:
o they are of uncoated or galvanized iron or steel not thinner than standard
Schedule 40 steel pipe
o they have a nominal inside diameter not over 50mm and are spaced not less
than 3 diameters on centers

concrete cover shall not be less than 40mm for concrete exposed to earth or
weather, or less than 20mm for concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with
ground
reinforcement with an area not less than 0.002 times the area of concrete section
shall be provided normal to the piping

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS
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construction joints in floors shall be located within the middle third of spans of slabs,
beams and girders
joints in girders shall be offset a minimum distance of 2 times the width of intersecting
beams

STANDARD HOOKS
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180-degree bend plus 4db extension, but not less than 60mm at free end of bar
90-degree bend plus 12db extension at free end of bar
for stirrup and tie hooks:
o 16mm diameter bar and smaller 90-degree bend plus 6db extension at free end
of bar, or
o 20 and 25mm diameter bar 90-degree bend plus 12db extension at free end of
bar, or
o 25mm diameter bar and smaller 135-degree bend plus 6db extension at free
end of bar

MINIMUM BEND DIAMETERS


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bar size of 16mm and smaller (for stirrups and ties) 4db (inside diameter)
bar size of 10mm through 25mm 6db
bar size of 28, 32 and 36mm 8db

SPACING LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT


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the minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in a layer shall be db but not less
than 25mm
the minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in 2 or more layers shall not be less
than 25mm between layers
in spirally reinforced or tied reinforced compression members, clear distance
between longitudinal bars shall not be less than 1.5db or less than 40mm
in walls and slabs other than concrete joist construction, primary flexural
reinforcement shall not be spaced farther apart than 3 times the wall or slab
thickness, nor farther than 450mm

BUNDLED BARS
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shall be limited to 4 bars in 1 bundle


shall be enclosed within stirrups or ties
bars larger than 36mm diameter shall not be bundled in beams
individual bars within a bundle terminated within the span of flexural members shall
terminate at different points with at least 40db stagger

where spacing limitations and minimum concrete cover are based on bar diameter
db, a unit of bundled bars shall be treated as a single bar of a diameter derived from
the equivalent total area
minimum concrete cover shall be equal to the equivalent diameter of the bundle, but
need not be greater than 50mm

PRESTRESSING TENDONS AND DUCTS


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center-to-center spacing of pretensioning tendons at each end of a member shall not


be less than 5db for wire, nor 4db for strands

MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER FOR CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE (NONPRESTRESSED)


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concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth 75mm

concrete exposed to earth or weather:


o 20mm through 36mm diameter bar 50mm
o 16mm diameter bar and smaller 40mm

concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground:


o slabs, walls, joists:
45 to 60mm diameter bars 40mm
36mm diameter bar and smaller 20mm
o beams, columns:
primary reinforcement, ties, stirrups, spirals 40mm
o shells, folded plate members:
20mm diameter bar and larger 20mm
16mm diameter bar and smaller 12mm

MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER FOR PRECAST CONCRETE


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concrete exposed to earth or weather:


o wall panels:
45mm and 60mm diameter bars 40mm
36mm diameter bar and smaller 20mm
o other members:
45mm and 60mm diameter bars 50mm
20mm through 36mm diameter bar 40mm
16mm diameter bar and smaller 30mm

concrete not exposed to earth or in contact with ground:


o slabs, walls, joists:
45mm and 60mm diameter bars 30mm
36mm diameter bar and smaller 15mm
o beams, columns:
primary reinforcement db but not less than 15mm and need not exceed
40mm
ties, stirrups, spirals 10mm
o shells, folded plate members:
20mm diameter bar and larger 15mm
16mm diameter bar and smaller 10mm

MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE


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concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth 75mm

concrete exposed to earth or weather:


o wall panels, slabs, joists 25mm
o other members 40mm

concrete not exposed to earth or in contact with ground:


o slabs, walls, joists 20mm
o beams, columns:
primary reinforcement 40mm
ties, stirrups, spirals 25mm
o shells, folded plate members:
16mm diameter bar and smaller 10mm
other reinforcement db but not less than 20mm

OFFSET BARS
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slope of inclined portion of an offset bar with axis of column shall not exceed 1 in 6
portions of bar above and below an offset shall be parallel to axis of column
lateral ties or spirals, if used, shall be placed not more than 150mm from points of
bend
offset bars shall be bent before placement in the forms
where a column face is offset 75mm or greater, longitudinal bars shall not be offset
bent. Separate dowels, lap sliced with the longitudinal bars adjacent to the offset
column faces, shall be provided

SPIRALS
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for cast-in-place construction, size of spirals shall not be less than 10mm diameter
clear spacing between spirals shall not exceed 75mm or be less than 25mm
anchorage of spiral reinforcement shall be provided by 1 extra turns of spiral bar or
wire at each end of a spiral unit
spiral reinforcement shall be lap spliced by 48db but not less than 300mm or welded
in columns with capitals, spirals shall extend to a level at which the diameter or width
of capital is 2 times that of the column
plain bars shall conform to one of the following specifications:
o ASTM A 615M
o ASTM A 616M
o ASTM A 617M
plain wire shall conform to:
o ASTM A 82 Steel Wire, Plain

TIES
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10mm diameter lateral ties for longitudinal bars 32mm diameter or smaller
12mm diameter lateral ties for longitudinal bars 36 diameter and bundled bars
vertical spacing of ties shall not exceed:
o 16db of longitudinal bars
o 48db of tie bars
o least dimension of compression member

ties shall be arranged that no bar shall be farther than 150mm clear on each side
along the tie
ties shall be located vertically not more than a tie spacing above the top of footing
or slab in any story
where beams or brackets frame from 4 directions into a column, termination of ties
not more than 75mm below reinforcement in shallowest of such beams or brackets
shall be permitted

SHRINKAGE AND TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENT


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shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall be spaced not farther apart than 5
times the slab thickness, or 450mm
spacing of prestressed tendons shall not exceed 1.80m

T-BEAM CONSTRUCTION
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the flange and web shall be built integrally or otherwise effectively bonded together
width of slab effective as a T-beam flange on each side of the web shall not exceed:
o the span length of the beam,
o 8 times the slab thickness, or
o the clear distance to the next web
for beams with a slab on one side only, the effective overhanging flange width shall
not exceed:
o 1/12 the span length of the beam,
o 6 times the slab thickness, or
o the clear distance to the next web
transverse reinforcement shall be spaced not farther apart than 5 times the slab
thickness, nor 450mm

JOIST CONSTRUCTION
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ribs shall not be less than 100mm in width and shall have a depth of not more than
3 times the minimum width of rib
clear spacing between ribs shall not exceed 750mm
slab thickness over permanent fillers shall not be less than 1/12 the clear distance
between ribs nor less than 40mm
when removable forms or fillers are used, slab thickness shall not be les than 1/12
the clear distance between ribs, or less than 50mm
where conduits or pipes are embedded within the slab, slab thickness shall be at
least 25mm greater than the total overall depth of the conduits or pipes at any point

REQUIRED STRENGTH
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dead load and live load


o U = 1.4D + 1.7L
dead load, live load and wind load
o U = 0.75 (1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7W)
o U = 0.9D + 1.3W
dead load, live load and earthquake load
o U = 1.3D + 1.1L + 1.1E
o U = 0.99D + 1.1E

STRENGTH-REDUCTION FACTOR
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flexure without axial load, 0.90


axial tension and axial tension with flexure, 0.90
axial compression and axial compression with flexure:
o spiral reinforced, 0.75
o tie reinforce, 0.70
shear and torsion, 0.85
bearing on concrete, 0.70
post-tensioned anchorage zones, 0.85

MINIMUM THICKNESS OF NONPRESTRESSED BEAMS OR ONE-WAY SLABS UNLESS


DEFLECTIONS ARE COMPUTED (members are not supporting or attached to partitions or
other construction likely to be damaged by large deflections)
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solid one-way slabs:


o simply supported, L/20
o one end continuous, L/24
o both ends continuous, L/28
o cantilever, L/10

beams or ribbed one-way slabs:


o simply supported, L/16
o one end continuous, L/18.5
o both ends continuous, L/21
o cantilever, L/8

for Fy other than 415Mpa, the values shall be multiplied by (0.4 + Fy/700)

DISTANCE BETWEEN LATERAL SUPPORTS OF FLEXURAL MEMBERS


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spacing of lateral supports for a beam shall not exceed 50 times the least width b of
compression flange or face

LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS


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minimum number of longitudinal bars in compression members shall be 3 for bars


within triangular ties, 4 for bars within rectangular or circular ties, and 6 for bars
enclosed by spirals

SPACING LIMITS FOR SHEAR REINFORCEMENT


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shall not exceed d/2 in non-prestressed members and 3/4h in prestressed members
or 600mm

SPLICES
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lap splices shall not be used for bars larger than 36mm diameter
lap splices of bars in a bundle shall be based on the lap splice length required for
individual bars within the bundle
individual bar splices within a bundle shall not overlap

entire bundles shall not be lap spliced


bars spliced by non-contact lap splices in flexural members shall not be spaced
transversely farther apart than 1/5 the required lap splice length, or 150mm
splices shall be staggered at least 600mm

WALLS
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minimum ratio of vertical reinforcement area to gross concrete area shall be:
o 0.0012 deformed bars not larger than 16mm diameter with a specified yield
strength not less than 420Mpa, or
o 0.0015 for other deformed bars, or
o 0.0012 for welded wire fabric (plain or deformed)

minimum ratio of horizontal reinforcement area to gross concrete area shall be:
o 0.0020 deformed bars not larger than 16mm diameter with a specified yield
strength not less than 420 Mpa, or
o 0.0025 for other deformed bars, or
o 0.0020 for welded wire fabric (palin or deformed)

in addition to the minimum reinforcement required, not less than 2-16mm diameter
bars shall be provided around all window and door openings. Such bars shall be
extended to develop the bar beyond the corners of the openings but not less than
600mm

NON-BEARING WALLS
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thickness shall not be less than 100mm, or not less than 1/30 the least distance
between members that provide lateral support

MINIMUM FOOTING DEPTH


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depth of footing above bottom reinforcement shall not be less than 150mm for
footings on soil, or not less than 300mm for footings on piles

TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT (HOOPS)


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the first hoop shall be located not more than 50mm from the face of a supporting
member
maximum spacing of the hoops shall not exceed:
o d/4
o 8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar
o 24 times the diameter of the hoop bars
o 300mm
where hoops are not required, stirrups shall be placed at no more than d/2
throughout the length of the member

STRUCTURAL STEEL
LIMITING SLENDERNESS RATIOS
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for members whose design is based on compressive force, the slenderness ratio
preferably should not exceed 200
for members whose designed is based on tensile force, the slenderness ratio
preferably should not exceed 300

ALLOWABLE STRESSES
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for tension in structural steel in terms of gross area, 0.60Fy


for tension in structural steel based on effective net area, 0.50Fu
for tension on pin-connected members based on net area, 0.45Fy
for tension on eyebars on the body area, 0.60Fy
for flexural members with compact sections, Fb = 0.66Fy
for flexural members with non-compact sections, Fb = 0.60Fy

PIN-CONNECTED MEMBERS
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minimum net area beyond the pinhole, parallel to the axis of the member, shall not be
less than 2/3 of the net area across the pinhole
width of the body of an eyebar shall not exceed 8 times its thickness
pin diameter shall not be less than 7/8 times the eyebar width
pinhole diameter shall be no more than 0.8mm greater than the pin diameter

SHEAR CONNECTORS
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shear connectors shall have at least 25mm of lateral concrete cover


diameter of studs shall not be greater than 2 times the thickness of the flange to
which they are welded
minimum center-to-center spacing of stud connectors shall be 6 diameters along the
longitudinal axis and 4 diameters transverse to the longitudinal axis maximum centerto-center spacing of stud connectors shall not exceed 8 times the total slab thickness

WELDS
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weld access holes shall have a length from the toe of the weld preparation not less
than 1 times the thickness of the material in which the hole is made

groove welds:
o effective area = effective length of the weld x effective throat thickness
o effective length = width of the part joined
o effective throat thickness of a complete-penetration groove weld = thickness of
the thinner part joined
o minimum effective throat thickness of partial-penetration groove welds =
3mm (thicker part joined to 6mm inclusive)
5mm (thicker part joined over 6 to 12mm)
6mm (thicker part joined over 12 to 20mm)
8mm (thicker part joined over 20 to 38mm)

10mm (thicker part joined over 38 to 57mm)


12mm (thicker part joined over 57 to 150mm)
16mm (thicker part joined over 150mm)
effective throat thickness of a flare groove weld =
flare bevel groove, 5/16R
flare V-groove, R

fillet welds:
o effective area of fillet welds = effective length x effective throat thickness
o effective throat thickness of a fillet weld = shortest distance from the root of the
joint to the face of the diagrammatic weld
o minimum size of fillet welds =
3mm (thicker part joined to 6mm inclusive)
5mm (thicker part joined over 6 to 12mm)
6mm (thicker part joined over 12 to 20mm)
8mm (thicker part joined over 20mm)
o maximum size of fillet welds along edges =
not greater than the thickness of the material (material less than 6mm
thick)
not greater than the thickness of the material minus 1.6mm (material
6mm or more in thickness)
o minimum effective length of a fillet weld designed on the basis of strength shall
not be less than 4 times its nominal size
o if greater than 4 times its nominal size, the size of the weld should not exceed
its effective length
o effective length of any segment of intermittent fillet welding shall not be less than
4 times the weld size, with a minimum of 38mm
o in lap joints, minimum lap shall be 5 times the thickness of the thinner part joined,
but not less than 25mm
o slide or end fillet welds terminating at ends or sides, respectively, of parts or
members shall, wherever practicable, be returned continuously around the
corners for a distance not less than 2 times the nominal size of the weld

plug and slot welds:


o diameter of the hole for a plug weld shall not be less than the thickness of the
part containing it plus 8mm, nor greater than the minimum diameter plus 3mm or
2 times the thickness of the weld
o minimum spacing of lines of slot welds in a direction transverse to their length
shall be 4 times the width of the slot
o minimum center-to-center spacing in a longitudinal direction shall be 2 times the
length of the slot
o length of the slot shall not exceed 10 times the thickness of the weld
o width of the slot shall not be less than the thickness of the part containing it plus
8mm, nor shall it be larger than 2 times the thickness of the weld
o thickness of plug or slot welds in material 16mm or less thick = thickness of the
material
o thickness of plug or slot welds in material over 16mm thick = the thickness of
the material but not less than 16mm

FASTENERS
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distance between centers of standard, oversized or slotted fastener holes shall not
be less than 2 2/3 times the nominal diameter of the fastener
maximum distance from the center of any rivet or bolt to the nearest edge of parts in
contact shall be 12 times the thickness of the connected part, but shall not exceed
150mm

CAMBER
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trusses of 24.4m or greater span generally shall be cambered for approximately the
dead-load deflection
crane girders of 22.9m or greater span generally shall be cambered for approximately
the dead-load deflection plus the live-load deflection