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Multidisciplinary Aerospace Design Optimization: Survey of

Recent Developments
AIAA 96-0711
Jaroslaw Sobieszczanski- Sobieski
NASA Langley Research Center
Hampton, VA 23681-0001
34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit
January 15-18, 1995, Reno, Nevada
The increasing complexity of engineering systems has sparked increasing interest in
multidisciplinary optimization (MDO). This paper presents a survey of recent publications in
the field of aerospace where interest in MDO has been particularly intense. The two main
challenges of MDO are computational expense and organizational complexity. Accordingly
the survey is focused on various ways different researchers use to deal with these challenges.
The survey is organized by a -breakdown of MDO into its conceptual components.
Accordingly, the survey includes sections on Mathematical Modeling, Design-oriented
Analysis, Approximation Concepts, Optimization Procedures, System Sensitivity, and Human
Interface. With the authors' main expertise being in the structures area, the bulk of the
references focus on the interaction of the structures discipline with other disciplines. In
particular, two sections at the end focus on two such interactions that have recently been
pursued with a particular vigor: Simultaneous Optimization of Structures and Aerodynamics,
and Simultaneous Optimization of Structures Combined With Active Control.

Knowledge Based Integrated Multidisciplinary Aircraft

Conceptual Design
Venkata Raghu Chaitanya Munjulury
Linkping Studies in Science and Technology
Thesis No. 1661
With the ever growing complexity of aircrafts, new tools and eventually methods to use these
tools are needed in aircraft conceptual design. To reduce the development cost, an
enhancement in the conceptual design is needed. This thesis presents a knowledge-based
aircraft geometry design tool RAPID and the methodology applied in realizing the design.
The parameters used to create a geometry need to be exchange between different tools. This
is achieved by using a centralized database or onedata concept. One-database will enable
creating a less number of cross connections between different tools to exchange data with one
another. Different types of aircraft configurations can be obtained with less effort. As RAPID
is developed based on relational design, any changes made to the geometric model will
update automatically. The geometry model is carefully defined to carry over to the
preliminary design. The validation of RAPID is done by implementing it in different aircraft
design courses at Linkping University. In the aircraft project course, RAPID was effectively
used and new features were added to the obtained desired design. Knowledge-base is used to

realize the design performance for the geometry with an integrated database approach for a
multidisciplinary aircraft conceptual design.
Keywords: Knowledge-base, Aircraft, Conceptual Design, CAD, XML Database,
Multidisciplinary, Optimization

Mass Estimation of transport aircraft Wing box structures with a

CAD/CAE based Multidisciplinary Process
Florian Hurlimann
Diss.ETH NO 19458
Part I: CAE/CAE-based mass estimation process
The first part of the thesis describes a CAD/CAE-based multidisciplinary process for the
mass estimation of transport aircraft wingbox structures. The underlying method is physicsbased and emulates the structural design process that takes place during the preliminary
design phase. A structural sizing algorithm featuring novel FEM-based buckling criteria is
used for the dimensioning of the wingbox structure. Effects of static aeroelasticity are
simulated with an iterative fluid-structure coupling method. Following a recent trend in
aircraft pre-design, the multidisciplinary process relies on the integrated CAD/CAE software
CATIA V5 for the generation of the parametric-associative geometrical and structural models.
Besides multi-model generation capabilities, the CAD/CAE software features custom
interfaces for the generation and application of wing loads such as aerodynamic or fuel loads.
Special emphasis was put on the implementation of local load introduction methods: Fuel
loads, for instance, are represented by surface-distributed hydrostatic pressure loads
determined by the actual fuel distribution and the acceleration vector acting on the aircraft.
The finished process was used to perform a mass estimation of the wingbox of a generic long
range aircraft derived from the DLR-F11 configuration.
Part II: Investigation of local load introduction methods
Accurate mass estimation of aircraft structures plays an important role during the preliminary
design phase. A widespread method for mass estimation is based on the combination of
computational structural analysis and a structural sizing algorithm. Based on the results of the
structural analysis, the sizing algorithm adjusts the local properties of the aircraft structure
(e.g. the local sheet thickness) according to a number of predefined sizing criteria. In case of
the often used fully stressed design criterion, a direct relationship between the local stress
levels and local sheet thickness is assumed. As the stress distribution is driven by the loads
acting on the structure, it is clear that realistic load modeling and load introduction are crucial
for accurate mass estimation. This publication presents a comparison of two different load
introduction methods used for the mass estimation of transport aircraft wingbox structures.
The first method uses low-fidelity SMT (shear, moment, torsion) loads introduced into the
wingbox structure at the wing rib stations. The second method features high-fidelity nodal
loads that allow for the realistic modeling of all wing load types: Aerodynamic and fuel loads
are represented as surface distributed pressure loads, engine and landing gear loads are

modeled as local loads introduced through dedicated load interfaces. The wingbox of a
generic long range aircraft based on the DLR-F11 configuration serves as a test model for the
qualitative and quantitative comparison between the two load introduction methods. The
switch from SMT to nodal loads results in a small but significant increase of 4% in wingbox
mass. Subsequent analyses shows that this increase is mainly caused by the use of nodal loads
modeling for fuel loads, landing gear loads and engine loads. Surprisingly, the use of nodal
aerodynamic loads instead of SMT loads does not have a significant impact on the structural
mass of the wingbox. This suggests that aerodynamic loads, which are the predominant driver
for the wingbox mass, is accurately represented by SMT loads.
Part III: FEM-based buckling criterion for structural sizing
Structural sizing methods are often used for the preliminary design of lightweight structures.
In an iterative process, the structure is sized according to different sizing criteria based either
on analytical or numerical methods. This typically includes stress, strain and buckling
criteria. This publication presents a new buckling criterion for shell structures based on the
Finite Element Method (FEM) buckling analysis. Compared to existing methods using
analytical buckling criteria, the new method is not limited to specific buckling field
geometries (e.g. aspect ratio, taper ratio, curvature) and buckling field boundary conditions.
The resulting increase in buckling analysis fidelity contributes to the accuracy and the
robustness of the structural sizing process.

The Multi-disciplinary Robust Optimization for Tailless Aircraft

Minghang Liu Yu Hu
Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, Shaanxi Province, Peoples Republic of China

AIAA Aviation
16-20 June 2014, Atlanta, GA
15th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference
The performance of tailless aircrafts is sensitive to the design parameters such as wing twist
angle, elevon deflection and center of gravity. Therefore the robust optimization algorithms
can be a good tool to assist the designers to find the design that is less sensitive to the wing
shape deviation due to errors from theoretical modeling, design computation and
manufacture. The optimal based on robust design also provides the designer more flexibility
on compromising among different disciplines during design processor more flexibility on
different mission payload that may results in large variation of center of gravity, but without
too much deterioration of performance. In this paper Concurrent Subspace Optimization
based on Response Surface (RSCSSO) combining with Inexpensive Monte Carlo (IMC) is
proposed as a tool to tackle this UAV design robust optimization problem. In order to reduce
the amount of disciplinary analysis and keep the accuracy of the approximation models,
Uniform Experiment Design (UED) was introduced to replace the disciplinary optimization
in RSCSSO to obtain a set of design points directly. The proposed IMC-RSCSSO algorithm
is conducted on a tailless UAV design problem. And the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic
Algorithm-II(NSGA-II) is used to tackle the uncertainty in twist and sweep angle. After the
results are compared and analyzed, IMC-RSCSSO is proved to be useful for efficient search
of robust designs.

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for space transportation
system design
Loc Brevault(a,b) , Mathieu Balesdent(b) , Nicolas Brend (b) , Rodolphe Le Riche (c)
(a)CNES, Launchers Directorate, Paris, France
The French Aerospace Lab, Palaiseau, France (c)
CNRS LIMOS and Ecole des Mines de St-Etienne, St-Etienne, France

Abstract The design of a space transportation system is a complex multidisciplinary

optimization problem. Uncertainty existing at the early phases of the design process
influences the final system performances and reliability. Uncertainty-based Multidisciplinary
Design Optimization (UMDO) methodologies allow to determine the optimal design solution
with respect to the performance criteria while ensuring the reliability and the robustness of
the final system to uncertainty. They enable to handle the disciplinary couplings and to
facilitate the search of compromises between conflicting objectives. This paper provides a
survey of the UMDO process. Different techniques such as uncertainty modelling,
uncertainty propagation or optimization problem formulation are presented and a qualitative
comparison of the UMDO methodologies is performed in order to provide general guidelines.
A literature review of case studies of UMDO process applied to aerospace systems is
provided. Moreover, open issues that need to be addressed in order to develop an efficient
UMDO framework for the design of space transportation systems are discussed and future
trends for UMDO are highlighted.

Approximation Methods in Multidisciplinary Analysis and

Optimization: A Panel Discussion
Timothy W. Simpson,* Andrew J. Booker, Dipankar Ghosh,
Anthony A. Giunta, Patrick N. Koch, and Ren-Jye Yang#
9th AIAA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization in Atlanta, GA on
September 2-4, 2002
This paper summarizes the discussion at the Approximation Methods Panel that was held at
the 9th AIAA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization in Atlanta, GA
on September 2-4, 2002. The objective in the panel was to discuss the current state-of-the-art
of approximation methods and identify future research directions important to the
community. The panel consisted of five representatives from industry and government:
Andrew J. Booker from The Boeing Company, Dipankar Ghosh from Vanderplaats Research
& Development, Anthony A. Giunta from Sandia National Laboratories, Patrick N. Koch
from Engineous Software, and Ren-Jye Yang from Ford Motor Company. Each panelist was
asked to (1) describe the current state-of-the-art of the approximation methods used by his
company, (2) give one or two brief examples of typical uses of these methods by his

company, (3) describe the current challenges in the use and adoption of approximation
methods within your company, and (4) identify future research directions in approximation
methods. Common themes that arose from the discussion included differentiating between
Design of Experiments and Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments, visualizing
experimental results and data from approximation models, capturing uncertainty with
approximation methods, handling problems with large numbers of variables, and educating
engineers in using approximation methods.

Aircraft multidisciplinary design Optimization using design of

experiments Theory and response surface modelling Methods
Anthony A. Giunta
A dissertation submitted to the faculty of
Virginia polytechnic institute and state university
In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of philosophy
Aerospace Engineering
Design engineers often employ numerical optimization techniques to assist in the evaluation
and comparison of new aircraft configurations. While the use of numerical optimization
methods is largely successful, the presence of numerical noise in realistic engineering
optimization problems often inhibits the use of many gradient-based optimization techniques.
Numerical noise causes inaccurate gradient calculations which in turn slows or prevents
convergence during optimization. The problems created by numerical noise are particularly
acute in aircraft design applications where a single aerodynamic or structural analysis of a
realistic aircraft configuration may require tens of CPU hours on a supercomputer. The
computational expenses of the analyses coupled with the convergence difficulties created by
numerical noise are significant obstacles to performing aircraft multidisciplinary design
optimization. To address these issues, a procedure has been developed to create two types of
noise-free mathematical models for use in aircraft optimization studies. These two methods
use elements of statistical analysis and the overall procedure for using the methods is made
computationally affordable by the application of parallel computing techniques. The first
modelling method, which has been the primary focus of this work, employs classical
statistical techniques in response surface modelling and least squares surface fitting to yield
polynomial approximation models. The second method, in which only a preliminary
investigation has been performed, uses Bayesian statistics and an adaptation of the Kriging
process in Geostatistics to create exponential function based interpolating models. The
particular application of this research involves modelling the subsonic and supersonic
aerodynamic performance of high-speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft configurations. The
aerodynamic models created using the two methods outlined above are employed in HSCT
optimization studies so that the detrimental effects of numerical noise are reduced or
eliminated during optimization. Results from sample HSCT optimization studies involving
five and ten variables are presented here to demonstrate the utility of the two modelling