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Dengue cases has been terrifyingly increased in number since this decade that they

have turned out to become a major public health concern. Million of death of
people due to this disease each year had cause World Health Organization (WHO) to
be very much in worry with this situation. Therefore, in this article, I would like to
address some facts about the dengue so that the public would be aware on how
severe this disease can be.

what is dengue, how does it get into people??

dengue fever is a viral fever that is transmitted through the bite of an infected
female Aedes mosquito. Many species of mosquito under the genus Aedes transmit
dengue; especially the Aedes aegypti species, is involved in spreading the infection
and is considered as the main cause of dengue. This species of mosquito breeds in
stagnant water and usually bites during daylight hours. These mosquitos which
acquired the virus from an infected human are able to transmit the virus for their
whole lives after 4-7 days of virus incubation.
There is no direct human to human transmission of the virus but it can be
transmitted through infected blood donation, or organ transplantation. It affects
tropical and subtropical regions around the word predominantly in urban and semiurban areas. There are 4 types of dengue fever altogether (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3,
and DEN-4) and each of it is caused by different virus. Each episode of infection
induces a life-long immunity to the particular serotype but increases the risk of
developing more severe dengue if the person later is being infected with a different
serotype of dengue.

What is the early sign and symptoms of dengue?

Symptoms and signs of dengue are variable in each individual. However, most
people with dengue first presented to hospital due to sudden high fever. Other than
that, patient can also be presented with muscle pain, joint aches, chills, headaches,
rash, and swollen lymph nodes. Nausea, vomiting and pain behind the eyes are also
common. Dengue symptoms usually start to appear in 3-14 days after the infective
stage. They may last for two to seven days.

what are the most disastrous effect of dengue?

Dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome are the most disturbing
complications of dengue. It can be fatal if unrecognized and not properly treated in
a timely manner. In these critical stages the person can have accumulation of fluid
around the body which then lead to organ dysfunction and severe bleeding typically

from the gastrointestinal tract. Severe bleeding can also then causes damage to the
brain. Other than that, the person can also be presented with respiratory distress,
fatigue, severe abdominal pain and persistent vomiting.

How is dengue fever diagnosed?

Dengue fever is diagnosed clinically in patients based on the signs and symptoms
and compatible social history. Dengue fever may however be confirmed only with
specialized laboratory investigation includes RT-PCR and virus isolation in acute
patients and serology. Serology is most informative when repeat specimens (i.e.
acute and convalescent) are submitted for investigation.
Exclusion of malaria would be important due to the similarities in mode of
transmission and clinical features of both diseases.

how can it be prevented?

As there are no injections or vaccines available to cure dengue, prevention by
following certain basic steps will be the most effective way to fight against the
dreadful disease. Some of the ways to prevent the onset of dengue are stated as

It is better to avoid stagnant water in flowerpots, buckets, barrels etc., in and

around the house, as these are the favorite places for mosquitoes to lay eggs.
Water should be stored in closed containers
Bleaching powder may be used in water sources that are not meant for
drinking, as it prevents the development of mosquito eggs
The female mosquito feeds on blood as it requires the blood protein to
produce eggs, hence it is better to use mosquito repellents, even when
It is advised to reside in a well screened or air conditioned house. If not,
mosquito nets may be attached to the windows
Usage of long-sleeved shirts, boots, socks and long pants is advised when
It is healthier to avoid being outdoors during dawn, dusk or early evenings
when mosquitoes tend to roam around in the open
Mosquitoes are attracted to dark colored clothing hence it is better to wear
bright and light colored clothes