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MASS CLONAL MICROPROPAGATION OF

TEAK PLUS TREES FOR HIGH YIELD AND SUPERIOR QUALITY PLANTATIONS

Doreen K S Goh 1 & Olivier Monteuuis 2

1 YSG Biotech Sdn Bhd, Yayasan Sabah Group, PO Box 11623, 88817 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

2 CIRAD-BIOS, UMR AGAP, TA A-108/03 - Avenue Agropolis 34398 Montpellier cedex 5 - FRANCE

T e a k i s o n e o f t h e m os t p r i z e d h i g h v a l u e t i m b e r

w o r l d w i d e , b u t n a t u r a l r e so u r c e s

a r e d r a m a t i c a l l y

s h r i n k i n g , a n d h a v e b e c o m e m o r e a n d m o r e p r o t e c t e d

R a t i o n a l e f o r p l a n t i n g h i g h y i e l d a n d s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y T e a k

R a t i o n a l e f o r p l a n
R a t i o n a l e f o r p l a n

i ) S h o r t a g e i n t o p g r a d e q u a l i t y t i m b e r a n d a n i n c d e m a n d

r e a s i n g

ii)# I n c r e a s i n g l a n d p r e ss u r e

iii) S h i f t t o

s m a l l e r s c a l e a n d p r i v a t e p l a n t a t i o n s

iv)# M a x i m i z i n g t h e r e t u r n s o n i n v e s t m e n t s

i n t h e s h o r t e s t d e l a y s

R a t i o n a l e f o r p l a n
R a t i o n a l e f o r p l a n
R a t i o n a l e f o r p l a n

T e a k p l a n t a t i o n s h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d f r o m s e e d s

I n s u f f i c i e n t a v a

I n s u f f i c i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y

T h e l o n g e r t h e c l e a r

b o l e p r o d u c e d

( t h u s , t h e

h i g h e r

t h e c o m m e r c i a l v a l u e ) , t h e m o r e d e l a y e d

t h e o n s e t o f f r u i t i n g

H i g h l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e a n d g e n e r a l l y l o w s e e d

g e r m i n a t i o n r a t e s

(20 30 % )

H i g h v a r i a b i l i t y a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s , e v e n w h e n g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d , a f f e c t i n g t r a i t s o f m a j o r e c o n o m i c a l i m p o r t a n c e s u c h a s -

G R O W T H

G R O W T H

D I A M E T E R

D I A M E T E R
D I A M E T E R

B O L E S H A P E

B O L E S H A P E

W O O D C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S

W O O D C H A R A C T E R I S T
W O O D C H A R A C T E R I S T
W O O D C H A R A C T E R I S T
I n s u f f i c i e n t a v a i

I n s u f f i c i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y

o f s e e d s

T h e l o n g e r t h e c l e a r b o l e p r o d u c e d

( t h u s , t h e h i g h e r t h e c o m m e r c i a l

v a l u e ) ,

t h e m o r e

d e l a y e d t h e o n s e t o f f

r u i t i n g

H i g h l y

u n p r e d i c t a b l e a n d g e n e r a l l y l o w s e e d g e r m i n a t i o n r a t e s

(20

30 % )

H i g h v a r i a b i l i t y a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s , e v e n w h e n g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d ,

a f f e c t i n g t r a i t s o f m a

j o r e c o n o m i c a l i m p o r t a n c e s u c h a s -

 

A l a

c k o f i n f o r m

a t i o n r

e g a r d i n g t h e g e n e t i c

c o n t r o l o f

m os t o f t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y - i m p o r t a n t

t r a i t s a n d o f t h e g e n e t i c g a i n t h a t c a n b e e x p e c t e d f r o m s e x u a l r e p r o d u c t i o n (s e e d s)

the multiplication of unlimited individuals that are i d e n t i c a

the multiplication of unlimited individuals that are

i d e n t i c a l i n e v e r

y a s p e c t s to the selected original

ortet, and this r e g a r d l e ss o f t h e s e e d p r o d u c t i o n c a p a c i t y of the individuals (whether too young or due to unsuitable environmental conditions)

the multiplication of unlimited individuals that are i d e n t i c a
the multiplication of unlimited individuals that are i d e n t i c a
F o r R e s e a r c h p u r p o
F o r R e s e a r c h p u r p o
F o r R e s e a r c h p u r p o

F o r R e s e a r c h p u r p os e s :

-g e n o t y p e X

s i

t e i n t

e r a c t i o n s

- h e r i t a b i l i t y

s t u d i e s

- e x - s i t u c o n s e r v a t i o n

F o r o p e r a t i o n a

l

a c t i v i t i e s :

- c l o n a l s e e d o r c h a r d s f o r g e n e t i c a l l y i m p r o v e d s e e d p r o d u c t i o n

  • - p l a n t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s

1993 : D e v e l o p m e n t o f e f f i c i e n t m e t h o d s f o r m a ss p r o p a g a t i n g t r u e - t o- t y p e r oo t e d c u t t i n gs o r t i ss u e c u l t u r e s e l e c t e d t e a k t r e e s o f a n y a g e

A t t h e n u r s e r y l e v e l , 450 t o 500 r oo t e d c u t t i n gs c a n b e p r o d u c e d

a n n u a l l y p e r m 2 o f s t o c

k p l a n t s f

r o m m a t u r e s e l e c t e d t e a k

g e n o t y p e s a p p l y i n g t h e Y S G - C i r

a d p r o t o c o l s ( a

v r

a i n f a l l o f

2500 m m / y r w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t d r y s e a so n i n M a l

a y s i a )

A t t h e n u r s e r y l e v e

R e q u i s i t e s f o r c u t t i n gs p r o d u c t i o n :

R e q u i s i t e s f o r c u t

R e l i a b l e a n d goo d q u a l i t y a u t o m a t i c a l l y - c o n t r o l l e d m i s t S y s t e m

C o n t a i n e r -g r o w n s t o c k

p l a n t s i n t e n s i v e l y m a n a g e d

( a d a p t e d p r u n i n g a n d p i n c h i n g o p e r a t i o n s e v e r y

3

t o 5 d a

y s)

C o m m i t t e d a n d e x p e r i e n c e d s t a f f

 

L

i m i t i n g f a c t o r s :

G oo d s t o c k p l a n t r e s p o n s i v e n e ss r e s u l t m a n a g e m e n t

i n g f r o m p r o p e r

T i m e n e e d e d (1 t o 2 y

r ) f o r r e a c t i v a t i n g- r e j u v e n a t i n g t h e

m a t u r e

s e l e c t e d g e n o t y p e s

R e q u i r i n g a

n u m b e r o f c o n t a i n e r -g r o w n s t o c k p l a n t s

a s w e l l a s s p a c e f o r s t o c k p l a n t s

S t a f f

c o m p e t e n c y

C l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s ( t r o p i c a l h u m i d w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t d r y s e a so n )

F u r t h e r t o t h e n u r s e r y m e t h o d , e f f i c i e n t i n v i t r o p r o t o c o l s w e r e

- C i r a d f o r c l o n a l

m i c r o p r o p a g a t i n g

a

n y s e l e c t e d

T E A K

& A C A C I A

g e n o t y p e r e g a r d

l e ss o f i t s a g e

m a ss s p p . ,

F u r t h e r t o t h e n u r s
F u r t h e r t o t h e n u r s
F u r t h e r t o t h e n u r s
F u r t h e r t o t h e n u r s
F u r t h e r t o t h e n u r s

From shoot nodes

From shoot nodes

M e r i s t e m (100 µ m ) c u l t u r e - i ss u e d t e a k t r e e

M e r i s t e m (100 µ m ) c u l t
  • 18 m o n t h s a f t e r p l a n t i n g

M e r i s t e m (100 µ m ) c u l t

7 y r a f t e r p l a n t i n g

( G i r t h

: 55 c m , , H e i g h t : 25 m )

M i c r o c u t t i n g t e c h

M i c r o c u t t i n g t e c h n i q u e v e r y c os t e f f i c i e n t (1 so l e c u l t u r e m e d i u m ) E x p o n e n t i a l m u l t i p l i c a t i o n r a t e : 3-4 n ( n : n u m b e r o f s u b c u l t u r e s e v e r y 6 w e e k s)

Ex#vitro acclimatization of plantlets :

>95% success rate

E v o l u t i o n o f P r o j e c t i n t o C o m m e r c i a l s u b s i d i a r y i n

2003

Annual#production#capacity#of#more#than#2#millions#clonal plants##

Advantages#of#the# in#vitro# compared#to#nursery#option:

High productivity all year round in limited space, regardless of the outside climatic conditions

Stock plant constraints avoided: quantity and relevant space, intensive management requirement

More profitable than the nursery option for large productions (> 100 000 plants/yr)

Rejuvenation can be achieved more efficiently, especially by meristematic culture with the possibility to remove endogenous contaminants

This is the only way of exporting live plants to oversea destinations for international exchanges or markets

W o r l d w i d e e x p o r t a t i o n o f T e a k p l a n t l e t s

TM
TM
W o r l d w i d e e x p o r t a
W o r l d w i d e e x p o r t a
W o r l d w i d e e x p o r t a
W o r l d w i d e e x p o r t a

O v e r s e a s p l a n t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s

o f o u r c l o n a l m a t e r i a l s

COSTA RICA E C U A D O R
COSTA RICA
E C U A D O R
INDONESIA
INDONESIA
TANZANIA
TANZANIA
MEXICO
MEXICO
BRAZIL AUSTRALIA
BRAZIL
AUSTRALIA
BRAZIL(Mato Grosso) Comparison between clonal and seedling materials
BRAZIL(Mato Grosso) Comparison between clonal and seedling materials
2 y e a r -o l d c l o n a l p l
2
y e a r -o l d c l o n a l p l a n t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n
f e r t i l e so i l s a n d s h o w i n g v e r y goo d u n i f o r m i t y
Queensland,#Australia# (exports#between##2002# 2009)# TANZANIA COSTA RICA INDONESIA 7 y r -o l d : H :
Queensland,#Australia# (exports#between##2002# 2009)#
TANZANIA
COSTA RICA
INDONESIA
7
y r -o l d : H : 20 . 5 m , D B H :
25 . 4 c m a n d
c l e a r b o l e l e n g t h
AUSTRALIA
o f 17 . 5 m .

The fact that Teak can be easily and clonally mass- propagated true-to-type (no C-effects) from mature selected individuals using very cost-efficient conditions strongly justifies the c l o n a l o p t i o n

S u i t a b l y s e l e c t e d T e a k c l o n e s c a n b e a t t r a c t i v e

t o l a n d o w n e r s

p r o v i d i n g :

P r o d u c t i v i t y c a n b e i n c r e a s e d

R o t a t i o n s c a n b e s h o r

( p a r t o f t h e c r o p c

a n b e

t e n e d , h a r v e s t e d e a r l i e r )

L oss e s c a n b e r e d u c e d

W oo d q u a l i t y i m p r o v e d

I t c a n b e c o m b i n

e d t o o t h e r c r o p s

( a g r o f o r e s t r y s y s t e m s)

P e r i p h e r a l p l a n t i n g o f t e a k i n o i l p a l m p l a n t a t i o n s

S e l e c t i o n o f C P T f o

S e l e c t i o n o f C P T f o r

 

m a ss c l o n a l p r

o p

a g a t

i o n

S t r o n g i n t e n s i

t

y o f s e l e c t

i o n

C o m b i n i n g s e v e r c r i t e r i a

a l s e l e c t i o n

A v o i d i n g t oo c l os e g e n e t i c a l l y - r e l a t e d g e n o t y p e s

T h e u s u a l p h e n o t y p i c s e l e c t i o n

T h e u s u a l p h e n o t y p
T h e u s u a l p h e n o t y p
T h e u s u a l p h e n o t y p

10 year-old tree note high heartwood to sapwood ratio

Traits of fast growth,

minimal branching, and

bole straightness

T h e u s u a l p h e n o t y p

Non-destructive core sample procedures

Non-destructive core sample procedures

Non-destructive core sample procedures
B o a r d s a m p l i n g (destructive method
B o a r d s a m p l i n g
(destructive method for
genotypes represented by
several individuals - clones)
Microsatellite Accession locus name EMBL Database CIRAD1TeakA06 AJ968929 CIRAD1TeakB03 AJ968930 CIRAD1TeakF05 AJ968931 CIRAD1TeakG02 AJ968932 CIRAD1TeakH10 AJ968933

Microsatellite

Accession

locus name

EMBL Database

CIRAD1TeakA06

AJ968929

CIRAD1TeakB03

AJ968930

CIRAD1TeakF05

AJ968931

CIRAD1TeakG02

AJ968932

CIRAD1TeakH10

AJ968933

CIRAD2TeakB07

AJ968934

CIRAD2TeakC03

AJ968935

CIRAD3TeakA11

AJ968936

CIRAD3TeakB02

AJ968937

CIRAD3TeakD09

AJ968938

CIRAD3TeakF01

AJ968940

CIRAD4TeakD12

AJ968941

CIRAD4TeakH09

AJ968943

Alleles 215 227 248 248 268 276 168 168 228 228 143 145 280 280 274
Alleles
215
227
248
248
268
276
168
168
228
228
143
145
280
280
274
280
237
251
207
209
217
229
143
143
226
228

Initial origin T r a c i n g o traceability f i n i t i a l o r i g i n

G e n e t i c r e l a t e d n e ss

C l o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n

P r o p e r t y r i g h t s i ss u e s

B e t t e r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f o u r m a t e r i a l s

G a t h e r i n g a n d f u r t h e r e n r i c h i n g o u r t e a k g e n e t i c r e so u r c e s t o b e w i s e l y m a n a g e d a s b a s e , a n d t h e n b r e e d i n g p o p u l a t i o n s , h a s b e e n , a n d r e m a i n s , o u r p r i o r i t y

G a t h e r i n g a n d f u r t
G a t h e r i n g a n d f u r t
G a t h e r i n g a n d f u r t
G a t h e r i n g a n d f u r t

T h e c o m p a n y c u r r e n t l y o w n s t h e r i c h e s t t e a k g e n e p oo l t h a t c a n

b e u s e d

f o r g e n e t i c i m p r o v e m e n t a s

w e l l a s f o r c o m m

e r c i a l

t r a n s a c t i o n s

A f t e r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s o f e x p e c t a t i o n , t e a k c l o n a l f o r e s t r y h a s b e c o m e a r e a l i t y a n d i s r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g .

T h i s s u c c e ss i s d u e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f

e f f i c i e n t

a n d s i m p l e n u r s e r y a n d i n v i t r o m e t h o d s a d a p t e d t o t h e t r u e - t o t y p e m a ss c l o n a l p r o p a g a t i o n o f

t e a k p l u s t r e e s o f a n y a g e .

RELEVANT PAPERS (CHRONOLOGICALLY LISTED)

Monteuuis O (1995) Recent advances in clonal propagation of teak. In: Proc. of the International Workshop of BIO-REFOR, Kangar, Malaysia, Nov. 28 - Dec. 1, 1994, 117-121

Monteuuis O, Vallauri D, Poupard C, Hazard L, Yusof Y, Wahap Latip A, Garcia C, Chauvière M (1995) Propagation tecks (Tectona grandis) matures par bouturage horticole. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, 243, 25-39

clonale de

Bonal D, Monteuuis O(1997) Ex vitro survival, rooting and initial development of in vitro rooted vs unrooted microshoots from juvenile and mature Tectona grandis genotypes. Silvae Genetica, 46 (5), 301-306

Goh D, Monteuuis O (1997) Vegetative propagation of teak. ITTO Tropical Forest Update, 7 (2), 13

Monteuuis O, Bon M-C, Goh DKS (1998) Teak propagation by in vitro culture. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, 256:43-53

Monteuuis O, Goh D (1999) About the use of clones in teak. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 261: 28-38

Monteuuis O (2000)

Propagating teak by cuttings and microcuttings. In: Proc. of the international seminar technology and

productivity of teak FORSPA Publication N 24/2000, Teaknet Publication N 3, 209-222

Goh D, Monteuuis O (2001) Production of tissue-cultured teak: the Plant Biotechnology Laboratory experience. In: Proc. of the Third Regional Seminar on Teak: and opportunities in marketing and trade of plantation Teak: Challenge for the New Millenium . July 31 Aug. 4, 2000, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 237-247

Goh DKS, Alloysius D, Gidiman J, Chan HH, Mallet B, Monteuuis O (2005) Selection and propagation of superior teak for quality improvement in plantations: case study of the ICSB/Cirad-Forêt joint project. In: Proc. of the international symposium held in 2003 on Quality Timber Products of Teak from Sustainable Forest (KM Bhat, KKN Nair, KV Bhat, EM Muralidharan and JK Sharma eds), Kerala Forest Research Institute, India and International Tropical Timber Organization, Japan. 390-399

Goh DKS, Monteuuis O (2005) Rationale for developing intensive teak clonal plantations, with special reference to Sabah. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 285:5-15

Goh DKS, Chaix G, Bailleres H, Monteuuis O (2007) Mass production and quality control of teak clones for tropical plantations: The

Yayasan Sabah Group and Forestry Department of Cirad Joint Project as a case study. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques

293: 65-77 Monteuuis O, Maître HF (2007) Advances in teak cloning. ITTO Tropical Forest Update, 17 (3): 13-15

Chaix G, Monteuuis O, Goh DKS, Bailleres H, Boutahar N (2008) Quality control and mass production of teak clones for tropical plantations. In: Proc. of the international symposium held in 2007 on and marketing of Teak wood products of planted (KM Bhat, M Balasundaran, KV Bhat, EM Muralidharan and PK Thulasidas eds), Kerala Forest Research Institute, India and International Tropical Timber Organization, Japan. 146-157.

Goh DKS, Monteuuis O (2009) Status of the program of building teak genetic resources in Sabah. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 301:33-49

Chaix G, Monteuuis O, Garcia C, Alloysius D, Gidiman J, Bacilieri R, Goh DKS (2011) Genetic variation in major phenotypic traits among diverse genetic origins of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) planted in Taliwas, Sabah, East Malaysia. Ann For Sci 68:1015 1026

Monteuuis O, Goh DKS, Garcia C, Alloysius D, Gidiman J, Bacilieri R, Chaix G (2011) Genetic variation of growth and tree quality traits among 42 diverse genetic origins of Tectona grandis planted under humid tropical conditions in Sabah, East Malaysia. Tree Genetics and Genomes 7:1263-1275

Goh DKS,

Monteuuis O (2012) Behaviour of the BIOTECH observations. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 311:5-19

TG1-8 teak clones under various

site conditions: first

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