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R14.

1 Operation & Configuration


Customized Course

Mohammad Bahgat
December-2011

PREFACE

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

AGENDA

1.

What is Blade Cluster

2.

Blade Cluster Architecture

3.

Blade Cluster Concepts

4.

Traffic Cases

5.

Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View

6.

Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

AGENDA

1.

What is Blade Cluster

2.

Blade Cluster Architecture

3.

Blade Cluster Concepts

4.

Traffic Cases

5.

Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View

6.

Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

What is Blade Cluster


Preface

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

What is Blade Cluster


Blade History
A blade server is a stripped down server computer with a modular design optimized to
minimize the use of physical space and energy. Whereas a standard rack-mount server
can function with (at least) a power cord and network cable, blade servers have many
components removed to save space
Developers first placed complete microcomputers on cards and packaged them in
standard 19-inch racks in the 1970s
The first commercialized blade server architecture was invented by Christopher Hipp
and David Kirkeby was assigned to Houston-based RLX Technologies that shipped its
first commercial blade server in 2001 and was acquired by Hewlett Packard (HP) in 2005
The name blade server appeared when a card included the processor, memory, I/O
and non-volatile program storage. This allowed manufacturers to package a complete
server, with its operating system and applications, on a single card / board / blade. These
blades could then operate independently within a common chassis, doing the work of
multiple separate server boxes more efficiently

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

What is Blade Cluster


Blade Cluster Definition
The MSC-S Blade Cluster, the future-proof server part of Ericssons Mobile Softswitch solution, provides very high capacity, effortless scalability, and outstanding
system availability. It also means lower OPEX per subscriber, and sets the stage for
business-efficient network solutions
3 Blades in MSC R14.1 Compared to MSC R13.2 have a capacity of 43% gain

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

What is Blade Cluster


Blade Cluster Benefits
Ultra High Capacity
Up to 11 Million subscribers
Outstanding Node Availability
Zero down time on node level; and enabling SW upgrade of single blade without traffic
disturbance
Easy Scalability
Blades could be added & removed without updating the configuration of neither radio nor
core network
A future proof solution
MSC-S Blade Cluster is enabling SIP interworking (IMS)
Dump Cloning on MSC Blades
Data across blades are the same, this allows for manual cloning a dump from blade to another
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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

What is Blade Cluster


Blade Cluster Benefits

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

AGENDA
1.

What is Blade Cluster

2. Blade Cluster Architecture

10

3.

Blade Cluster Concepts

4.

Traffic Cases

5.

Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View

6.

Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Components

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Components
MSC Blades: Provide MSC/VLR/SSF & GMSC application functions.
Subscribers are distributed among the available MSC-Blades. The blades maintain
subscriber registrations and control the mobile radio access. MSC-Blades are
logically connected to other network nodes (MGW, MSC, HLR, FNR, SCP, RNC,
BSC). Inter-Blade communication is done via Ethernet.
SPXes : To hide the internal structure of the Blade Cluster. Also provides
signaling support functions (Routing, Load-sharing and interworking of different
protocols) , it also acts as an entry point for incoming traffic & exit point for outgoing
traffic
APG: 2 APG43s are provided [1 for charging&1 for APGs functionality I/O
Functions & Statistics]

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Components
Integrated Site (IS): A solution for building compact IP based sites, its components
used for implementing intra MSC-BC connectivity and provide IP connectivity to
external nodes, MSC-BC doesnt use AXE dedicated hardware for IP, it composed of:
v MXB: Main IS Switch, control shelf => SCP-RP
v EXB: Used to connect Attached System Like SPX => DLEB
v IPLB: Used to route IP signaling as a physical interface to IP network
v SIS: Site Infrastructure Support general I/O system for IS, also acts as O&M
for IS & boot functions (You cant add a new board unless its up)

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Connectivity

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster System Cabinets Whole System

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster System Boards
SPX
v APZ
q APZ 212 55 used in MSC-S R13.1 BC only
q APZ 212 60 & APG43
q SCB-RP Support & Connection Board RP (Ethernet Switching, Power,
RP Bus, Shelf Manager)
q GARP Generic Application Resource Processor (For NTP)
v APT
q ALI ATM Link Interface
q ET155 Exchange Terminal 155 Mbit/s for TDM interface
q STEB Signaling Terminal Enhanced Board
q XDB Switch Distributed Board acting as Group Switch
q IRB Incoming Reference Board for incoming synchronization reference
q CGB Clock Generation Board for stable clocks
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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster System Boards
I/O
v APG43
Blades
v APZ 214 03 GEP2 Generic Ericsson Processor
IS
v MXB-BS Main Switch Blade System (Ethernet switching, Power, Shelf
Manager, IPMB); it contains two boards
q SCXB Main Switch Board, 2 SCXB boards required for each IS subrack,
it provides 1 GE connectivity to all slot positions, in IS-1; 2 CMCB boards
found while no need for them in IS-2, SCXB with CMCB provides 10 GE
q CMCB Optional extension board to provide 10 GE connectivity to
Backplane

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster System Boards
IS
v IPLB-BS IP Line Board, IPLB blade system provides signaling traffic
connectivity and routing, it acts as the host interface for load-balancer
functionality, IPLB behaves as an IP Host or IP forwarding engine, BC system
requires one IPLB pair blades, one port of IPLB used for 1 GE connectivity to LAN
vEXB5 Extension Switch Board (Ethernet switch with external interfaces for
connecting non-IS equipment to IS infrastructure), used for AXE attached system
connectivity, in other words; External LAN attachment blade system is used for
extending the IS LAN connectivity to various externally attached LAN devices,
providing these with well-defined, standards compliant data link layer
connectivity, 2 boards included in IS-1

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster System Boards
IS
v SIS Site Infrastructure Support Board (OAM for IS), one SIS pair mandatory
per IS domain; there is one active SIS blade and one stand-by. The SIS blade
system provides services like: Integrated Site Management (ISM), Fault
management, Interface for Locally Connected Terminal etc.

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster System Cabinets - Cabinet 1

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster System Cabinets - Cabinet 2

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster System Terminologies

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster System Terminologies

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster System Terminologies

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Resiliency

Board Types

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Resiliency

SPX

2 * (1+1) Protection

MSC-Blades

N+1 Protection

APG43

1+1 Protection (OAM & STS)

APG43

1+1 Protection (Charging)

IS

1+1 Protection

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

AGENDA
1.

What is Blade Cluster

2.

Blade Cluster Architecture

3. Blade Cluster Concepts

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4.

Traffic Cases

5.

Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View

6.

Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Concepts
Signaling ProXy
A 1+1 protected AXE CP with RP equipment. It will hide cluster from external
network & convert and route signaling traffic (ATM, TDM and IP based signaling)
received from external network nodes to the appropriate blades. Acting as SGW
while Blades use IP only
Primary Blade
One from two MSC blades that can handle a certain mobile subscriber. One of the
MSC blades is automatically selected as Primary MSC blade for each mobile
subscriber by the mobile subscriber distribution function. The Primary MSC blade
executes traffic for a mobile subscriber unless it experiences a transient failure or
traffic isolation

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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Concepts
Buddy Blade
One from two MSC blades that can handle a certain mobile subscriber. One of the
MSC blades is automatically selected as Buddy MSC blade for each mobile
subscriber by the mobile subscriber distribution function. The Buddy MSC blade is to
handle new traffic for a subscriber during traffic isolation or a transient failure of the
Primary MSC blade of the same subscriber
Once the Buddy MSC blade has taken the control of a subscriber, it handles this
subscriber until the next location update is received or until it becomes unable to
execute traffic due to traffic isolation or due to a transient failure. At the occurrence of
one of these events, the Primary MSC blade will start to handle the subscriber again,
unless the Primary MSC blade is not able to execute traffic

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Concepts
Active blade
The Blade that is handling traffic of a certain mobile subscriber at a certain time. It is a
logical role that is automatically assigned to a blade for each mobile subscriber by the
distribution function. Active blade of a subscriber is either the Primary or the Buddy
blade of that subscriber. The selection whether Primary or Buddy blade is the active
blade can change in the course of time and depends on the ability of the two blades to
execute traffic. There can be only one active blade per subscriber at the same time
Passive blade
From the two blades that can execute traffic for a mobile subscriber (Primary and
Buddy blade), a blade that is not the active blade is passive blade. By default a blade
becomes a passive blade for all mobile subscribers that are already registered on that
blade during traffic isolation or a transient failure. Both ,Primary and Buddy blade
can be a passive blade at the same time
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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Concepts
VLR data replication
This is a function that makes the subscriber data of a mobile subscriber available in
the VLRs of the Primary and of Buddy blade. It achieves a consistency of the VLR
data between the two MSC blades. The master database in this case is the HLR
Permanent failure
A permanent failure of a blade is a failure that cant be corrected by automatic
recovery actions. A permanent failure of a blade always leads to cluster
reconfiguration
Transient failure
A transient failure of a blade is a temporary situation. During this situation the blade
is not able to execute traffic due to automatic recovery actions

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Concepts
Cluster Handler
A new APZ platform function, which provides information about the blades in the
cluster in a consistent manner. I.e. before the application is notified (on each blade)
about the available blades, the platform will perform checks concerning the blade
availability and the communication paths. If the cluster handler detects changes in
the cluster (transient or permanent changes), it will notify the application notification.
It also offers functionality to traffic isolate a blade and to initiate capacity changes.
The latter one can be triggered either by the operator or due to permanent failures

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Concepts
Load-Vector
A logical representation of the cluster configuration and the load distribution within
the MSC Server Blade Cluster. It contains the information which blades are
configured to handle traffic and how the load is distributed over the MSC blades. The
information of the load vectors is stored on all blades and it is used by the distribution
function to determine the Primary and the Buddy blades of a mobile subscriber.
Different load vectors are used for this task. The load vectors are calculated based on
the information in the consistent cluster view
Cluster Reconfiguration
The automatic process of redistributing the registered mobile subscribers between the
blades according to a new cluster configuration. It is always preceded by the
calculation of new load vectors. A cluster reconfiguration is initiated due to a cluster
extension, a cluster reduction or a permanent failure of a blade
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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Distribution & Replication

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Distribution & Replication

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Distribution & Replication

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Distribution & Replication

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Distribution & Replication

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Distribution & Replication

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Cluster Circuit Sharing (CCS)

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Cluster Circuit Sharing (CCS)

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Cluster Circuit Sharing (CCS)

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Cluster Circuit Sharing (CCS)
q COASE

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Cluster Circuit Sharing (CCS)
q Age Rank
Assigned by Cluster Handler indicating the age of CP joining the quorum, the
longest time CP alive in quorum has the smallest Age Rank and is the CP
Traffic Leader that will further assigns the Master Role

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Cluster Circuit Sharing (CCS)
q Age Rank
Assigned by Cluster Handler indicating the age of CP joining the quorum, the
longest time CP alive in quorum has the smallest Age Rank and is the CP
Traffic Leader that will further assigns the Master Role

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Cluster Circuit Sharing (CCS)
q Traffic Leader & Route Master Role

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Cluster Circuit Sharing (CCS)
q Traffic Leader & Route Master Role

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Cluster Circuit Sharing (CCS)
q Traffic Leader & Route Master Role

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


Blade Cluster Key Mechanisms
Cluster Circuit Sharing (CCS)
q Traffic Leader & Route Master Role

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Virtual Interfaces (VIFs)
oVirtual Interface is a logical representation of an interface that is used to send
or receive data for the connected network
oVIF connected to a VLAN
oIP addresses & routing tables can only be configured on VIFs

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Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Virtual Interfaces (VIFs)
oTypes of VIFs
Dual Sided CP (SPXes) "Multi-Homing"
Supports two physical Ethernet interfaces (EthA, EthB); each interface
connected to a number representing VLAN to be used for this VIF "EthA-10
connected to EthA & uses VLAN-10"
Both VIF that defined on two Ethernet interfaces called VIF-Pair, specific
functions applied to VIF-Pair like "Router Supervision"

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Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Virtual Interfaces (VIFs)
oTypes of VIFs
Router Supervision Function available only for dual sided CP
Each VLAN could have one Router Supervision Instance that every
instance has 2 router supervision IP addresses used to monitor IP
connectivity between interface and supervised gateway
Router Supervision IP addresses (PingA & PingB) always defined in pairs,
one on each interface in a VIF-Pair

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Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Virtual Interfaces (VIFs)
oTypes of VIFs
Router Supervision Function available only for dual sided CP
Each VLAN could have one Router Supervision Instance that every
instance has 2 router supervision IP addresses used to monitor IP
connectivity between interface and supervised gateway
Router Supervision IP addresses (PingA & PingB) always defined in pairs,
one on each interface in a VIF-Pair

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Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Virtual Interfaces (VIFs)
oTypes of VIFs
Single Sided CP (Blades) Semi Multi-Homing in a Single-Homed View
Supports two physical Ethernet interfaces, will appear as a single interface
(LAG) because of Ethernet Link AGgregation
For single sided VIF called; named VIF "nVIF
VIF is always connected to one Ethernet interface
On VIF; operator can define Application IP that belongs to one or more
defined IP subnets

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Virtual Interfaces (VIFs)
oTypes of VIFs
Single Sided CP (Blades) Semi Multi-Homing in a Single-Homed View
Supports two physical Ethernet interfaces, will appear as a single interface
(LAG) because of Ethernet Link AGgregation
For single sided VIF called; named VIF "nVIF
VIF is always connected to one Ethernet interface
On VIF; operator can define Application IP that belongs to one or more
defined IP subnets

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Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Virtual Interfaces (VIFs)
oTypes of VIFs
For IP stack on CP; a specific Subnet belongs to exactly one VLAN
Link aggregation is a term which describes usage of multiple Ethernet
network cables/ports in parallel to increase the link speed beyond the
limits of any one single cable or port

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Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Different Cases Uses IP on CP
Ethernet
Link Aggregation Group (LAG)

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Different Cases Uses IP on CP

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Different Cases Uses IP on CP

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Different Cases Uses IP on CP

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Different Cases Uses IP on CP

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Different Cases Uses IP on CP

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Blade Cluster Architecture


IP on CP Migration
Different Cases Uses IP on CP

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

AGENDA
1.

What is Blade Cluster

2.

Blade Cluster Architecture

3.

Blade Cluster Concepts

4. Traffic Cases

64

5.

Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View

6.

Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Traffic Cases
Location Update

1- A# sends request to SPX for LU

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Traffic Cases
Location Update

2- SPX perform round robin technique to choose randomly a blade blade 2


chosen
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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Traffic Cases
Location Update

3- Load vector calculated for A# based on [IMSI, CP Load, Cluster Area


Identifier], primary blade 4 and blade 4 calculate load vector to choose buddy
blade, blade 5 chosen
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Traffic Cases
Location Update

4- TID sent back to SPX where SPX forward it to HLR


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Traffic Cases
Location Update

5- HLR sends LU acknowledge back to SPX then back to primary blade


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Traffic Cases
Mobile Originating Call

1- A# sends its IMSI, B# and Bearer Capability

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Traffic Cases
Mobile Originating Call

2- SPX perform round robin technique to choose randomly a blade blade 2


chosen
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Traffic Cases
Mobile Originating Call

3- Blade 2 will read load vector from cluster handler and assign primary & buddy
blades of last LU of A#
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Traffic Cases
Mobile Originating Call

4- SRI sent with TID to HLR


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Traffic Cases
Mobile Terminating Call

1- B# sends IAM request to SPX


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Traffic Cases
Mobile Terminating Call

2- SPX perform round robin technique to choose randomly a blade blade 1 chosen
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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Traffic Cases
Mobile Terminating Call

3- Blade 3 chosen as the lowest load blade

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Traffic Cases
Mobile Terminating Call

4- SRI with TID sent to HLR


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Traffic Cases
Mobile Terminating Call

5- HLR sends PRN aligned with IMSI of A# back to SPX


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Traffic Cases
Mobile Terminating Call

6- SPX perform round robin technique to choose randomly a blade blade 6


chosen
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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Traffic Cases
Mobile Terminating Call

7- Load vector calculated for A# based on [IMSI, CP Load, Cluster Area


Identifier], primary blade 5 and blade 5 calculate load vector to choose buddy
blade, blade 2 chosen
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Traffic Cases
Mobile Terminating Call

8- Blade 5 sends PRN acknowledgement assigned with MSRN and HLR sends back
to SPX SRI acknowledgement that will finally back to blade 3
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Traffic Cases
Mobile Terminating Call

9- Blade 3 routes to blade 5 for mobile terminating MTE

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Traffic Cases
Hand Over

Drift BC

Serving BC
1

1- A# sends request to SPX for HO

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Traffic Cases
Hand Over

Drift BC

Serving BC
1

2- SPX of Serving BC sends HO request to SPX of Drift BC

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Traffic Cases
Hand Over

Drift BC

Serving BC
1

3- SPX perform round robin technique to choose randomly a blade blade 2


chosen
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Traffic Cases
Hand Over

Drift BC

Serving BC
1

4- SPX will choose lowest load blade, blade 5 chosen


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Traffic Cases
Hand Over

Drift BC

Serving BC
1

5- Load vector calculated for A# based on [IMSI, CP Load, Cluster Area


Identifier], primary blade 6 and blade 6 calculate load vector to choose buddy
blade, blade 4 chosen
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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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AGENDA
1.

What is Blade Cluster

2.

Blade Cluster Architecture

3.

Blade Cluster Concepts

4.

Traffic Cases

5. Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


6.

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Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


Mohammad Bahgat

Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Introduction
SPXes main functions are:
q SPXes will choose the leader blade by Round-Robin method
q Hide cluster from external NEs
q Provide external signaling interfaces
q As long as blades using IP only; SPX will act as an SGW for TDM/ATM
q SPXes will act as STPs for quasi-associate signaling mode
q For SCCP based signaling; it will need a protocol conversion to be directed to
blades that understand IP; this is known by SUA protocol

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Protocols
SUA will be supported for MSC-BC internal connections (Between SPXes and
Blades & between Blades themselves)
Blades external interfaces based on SCCP,GCP over SCTP setup directly to
MGWbypassing SPXes
This is also applied for SIP & SIP-I protocols to target nodes in IMS network via
IPLB blades
M3UA based signaling could possibly be also setup over direct paths to the blades
but its not recommended because of increased configurations needed

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Protocols

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Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Protocols

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Addressing & Routing
Connections of NEs that are not aware of MSC-BC as a distributed multi-hosted
system [MGWs], MSC-BC appears as one single MSC-Server node Common cluster
SPC/GT
NEs that are non-cluster-aware [RANAP RNC, BSSAP BSC, MAP/TCAP
HLR], are all signaling peers that uses SCCP as a base signaling protocol; hence
connections are proxied that SPX pair performs a cluster internal load balancing
without letting blades being visible to the outside

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Addressing & Routing
Connections of NEs that are not aware of MSC-BC as a distributed multi-hosted
system [MGWs], MSC-BC appears as one single MSC-Server node Common cluster
SPC/GT
NEs that are non-cluster-aware [RANAP RNC, BSSAP BSC, MAP/TCAP
HLR], are all signaling peers that uses SCCP as a base signaling protocol; hence
connections are proxied that SPX pair performs a cluster internal load balancing
without letting blades being visible to the outside

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Addressing & Routing
4 types of addresses could be distinguished;
q Global Title for cluster [One common GT for all blades]
q Cluster SPC [One DPC for all blades, HPC on SPXes] for SCCP based
signaling RANAP, BSSAP & MAP/TCAP
q Individual SPCs per SPX, one SPC common for all blades, for GCP,
ISUP/BICC
q Extra SPC for associated signaling mode On SPX and Blades as well [NonEricsson BSC]

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Addressing & Routing
4 types of addresses could be distinguished;
q Global Title for cluster [One common GT for all blades]
q Cluster SPC [One DPC for all blades, HPC on SPXes] for SCCP based
signaling RANAP, BSSAP & MAP/TCAP
q Individual SPCs per SPX, one SPC common for all blades, for GCP,
ISUP/BICC
q Extra SPC for associated signaling mode On SPX and Blades as well [NonEricsson BSC]

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Addressing & Routing
Hosted Point Code: SPXes seen as MTP STPs from external NE point of view
Hosted Point Code is an SCCP level in SPX where SPX will recognize HPC and
distribute the messages to one of blades after protocol conversion by Round-Robin
Blades respond directly to SPX and allocate Destination local Reference Numbers
DRN for SCCP signaling RANAP/BSSAP or Transaction IDs TID for MAP
dialogues signaling
After connection/dialogue initially established; SPX will use DRN/TID for routing
to the right blade
Where does GTT performed?
q Performed by SPX for outbound traffic sent by local SCCP applications on
SPX but not for outbound traffic of blades
q While performed by SPX for inbound traffic as an intermediate or far-end
SPC, maybe also performed at the blades if necessitates

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Addressing & Routing

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Addressing & Routing

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Addressing & Routing

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Addressing & Routing

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Signaling Scenarios
SIGTRAN to SIGTRAN

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Signaling Scenarios
SS7 to SIGTRAN [QUASI-ASSOCIATE MODE]

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Signaling Scenarios
SS7 to SIGTRAN [ASSOCIATE MODE]

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


Signaling Scenarios
Internal Connections

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


SUA
SUA Concepts
q Application Server (AS): Logical entity serving specific RK, contains one or
more of ASPs that actively processing traffic. AS uses SUA for communicating
SCTP/IP infrastructure as a transport layer. You can consider one AS equivalent
to one BC
q Application Server Process (ASP): Element of distributed IP based signaling
node, provisioned to receive certain ranges of signaling traffic
q Signaling Gateway (SG): Element that terminates SS7 and transport SCCP or
MTP3 messages over IP to an IP SEP (Blade), SG could be modeled as one SGP
that is located at the border between SS7 and IP network
q Signaling Gateway Process (SGP): A Process instance of an SG, its function
comprises SS7 & SUA stack, one SGP exists in SG where all remote processes are
connected; SGP & SG is 1:1. You can consider one SGP equivalent to one SPX

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


SUA
SUA Concepts
q Application Server (AS): Logical entity serving specific RK, contains one or
more of ASPs that actively processing traffic. AS uses SUA for communicating
SCTP/IP infrastructure as a transport layer. You can consider one AS equivalent
to one BC
q Application Server Process (ASP): Element of distributed IP based signaling
node, provisioned to receive certain ranges of signaling traffic
q Signaling Gateway (SG): Element that terminates SS7 and transport SCCP or
MTP3 messages over IP to an IP SEP (Blade), SG could be modeled as one SGP
that is located at the border between SS7 and IP network
q Signaling Gateway Process (SGP): A Process instance of an SG, its function
comprises SS7 & SUA stack, one SGP exists in SG where all remote processes are
connected; SGP & SG is 1:1. You can consider one SGP equivalent to one SPX

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


SUA
SUA Concepts
q Signaling Process (SP): Process instance that uses SUA to communicate with
other SPs in SUA network, each SP owns an SCTP End Point used for TX&RX
SUA messages, in SUA; SP could be ASP or SGP or IP Server Process (IPSP)
q Routing Context & Routing Key (RC & RK): Uniquely identifies Routing Key
(RK) where it describes a set of SS7 parameters and parameter ranges that define
range of signaling traffic configured to be handled by particular AS
q SCTP Modes:
o Client-Server Mode
o Peer-to-Peer Mode
o Peer-to-Server Mode

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


SUA
SUA Concepts
qVisualization of SUA Concepts; SUA allows ASPs to be part of several ASs

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


SIP Interworking & IMS

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


SIP Interworking & IMS

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Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View


SIP Interworking & IMS

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AGENDA
1.

What is Blade Cluster

2.

Blade Cluster Architecture

3.

Blade Cluster Concepts

4.

Traffic Cases

5.

Signaling from Blade Cluster Point of View

6. Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View

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Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View


Introduction (SCTP Connections)
SCTP associations are setup both internally between BC components and towards
external NEs in the IP domain
SCTP associations and SUA connections are setup automatically between blades,
connections to SPXes need to be configured manually
Separate SCTP associations are needed for each user (M3UA, SUA & GCP)
Blades need associations to both SPXes and SPXes need the corresponding
associations to all blades
MSC Blades:
q SUA toward both SPXes
q M3UA toward both SPXes
q Direct GCP toward all MGWs using GCP on SCTP

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Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View


Introduction (SCTP Connections)
SCTP associations are setup both internally between BC components and towards
external NEs in the IP domain
SCTP associations and SUA connections are setup automatically between blades,
connections to SPXes need to be configured manually
Separate SCTP associations are needed for each user (M3UA, SUA & GCP)
Blades need associations to both SPXes and SPXes need the corresponding
associations to all blades
MSC Blades:
q SUA toward both SPXes
q M3UA toward both SPXes
q Direct GCP toward all MGWs using GCP on SCTP

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Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View


Configuration Example
Network Example Diagram

Configuration

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Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View


Configuration Example
Network Example Diagram

Configuration

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Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View


Configuration Example
Network Example Diagram

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Blade Cluster Configuration Quick View


Useful Commands
NELS
CPLS
CPGLS
HWCLS
CQRHLLS
CQMSP:CP=ALL,DETAILS;
ODBIP
MGSBP
PLCLP
CPLS l

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Network Element Data, List


CP Identification, List
CP Group, List
Hardware Configuration, List
Quorum Log, List
Cluster Handler, Quorum Membership Data, Print
Cluster Object Data, Blade Information, Print
# Registered Subscribers on MSC-S Blade, Print
Processor Load, Cluster Processor Load Survey, Print
CP Identification, Hardware related info, List

Blade Cluster R14.1 Operation & Configuration


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In Summer

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