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Paper Number 45

Red Hawk Design Report

Alejandra Lopez, Karen Gonzalez, Aaron Nuez

Universidad La Salle Pachuca -- College of Engineering

Copyright 2007 SAE International

The purpose of this project is to come up with a
recreational vehicle design that is structurally capable of
withstanding rugged terrains while complying with the
safety rules and design specifications established by
SAE International. The design will then be applied to
build a prototype of the Red Hawk, which will represent
the University of La Salle Pachuca in the 2014 Mini-Baja
SAE Mexico competition. The following report shows the
design process and the different analyses used to reach
the final design.

SAEs main objective is to provide undergraduate
students with a hands-on project were a wide spectrum
of knowledge and skills can be applied. SAE
accomplishes this through the Mini Baja SAE
competition, which requires students to undergo the
entire planning, design, administrative, financial,
marketing and construction processes that a real
engineering-based project demands. At the same time
students learn to fulfill specified requirements while
complying with the safety rules established by SAE.

More importantly, other than being a support structure,

the roll cage provides the rider protection from potential
accidents and turbulence presented in Baja SAE
Because of the direct relationship
between the chassis and riders safety, the design needs
to satisfy the basic safety requirements established by
While SAE safety requirements were followed, type of
material, aesthetics, and design specifications set by the
SAE were also taken into consideration when designing
the Red Hawks roll cage.
In order to see that the Red Hawks final roll cage design
provided enough safety to the passenger, a rollover and
impact analysis was performed in SolidWorks. The
following shows the results of the analyses.

The University of La Salle Pachuca has come up with

the Red Hawk as its 2014 Mini Baja SAE vehicle design.
Different analyses and calculations were done in order
reach a final design.
The following document presents information about the
Red Hawk and its several systems. SolidWorks was one
of the main CAD tools used throughout the entire design

Roll cage
The roll cage is the support structure for the vehicles
systems such as the suspension, braking, transmission,
and steering systems. It is also in charge of holding most
of the devices and elements present in the vehicle.

Figure 1. Model of the Red Hawks Roll Cage

ROLLOVER ANALYSIS- The roll over analysis shows the
behavior of the roll cage if it were to be involved in a roll
over crash incident. The analysis shows the tension and
the deformation on the members of the roll cage.

Using the USM (Under Seat Members) and other

members found at the bottom of the vehicle as anchor
points, and submitting the RHO (Roll Hoop Overhead
Members) members of the vehicle to a 3188N force (the
force that would be applied if the vehicle were rotated
180 degrees) gives the following results shown in figures
2a and 2b.

Figure 3a: Results of impact analysis

Figure 2a: Results of roll over analysis

Figure 3b: Results of impact analysis


Figure 2b: Results of roll over analysis

IMPACT ANALYSIS- The impact analysis shows the
behavior of the roll cage when it collides head-on with an
object or another vehicle. This analysis takes into
account the acceleration of the vehicle considering an
approximate maximum speed of 30 km / h and a
simulation time of 1 second. The results are shown in
figures 3a and 3b.

The main objective of the suspension system is to make

the passengers ride more comfortable by reducing the
oscillations transmitted from the ground to the vehicles
chassis. The efficient absorption of shocks transmitted
from the uneven terrain to the vehicle is accomplished by
the systems elasticity. Adequate damping prevents
excessive vehicle movement and maintains the tires in
contact with the ground.
The different parts that make up the suspension were
selected carefully according to their type of material so
that the desired elasticity and damping could be
The following figures show some of the parts that make
up the suspension system.

The purpose of the drivetrain is to provide sufficient

torque to the car to be able to overcome obstacles or
certain road conditions.


The design calculations were made in order to select the

gear ratio that should exist between the engine and
wheels, to be able to climb a slope of 45 .
DESIGN - The main component of the drivetrain is the
Briggs&Stratton Intek 1450 OHV (Over Head Valve)
mono cylinder, which delivers a maximum torque of
14.5lb*ft at 3800 rpm as shown in the following graphs.






As a set rule, the governor of the engine must be set to a
maximum of 3800 rpm. This means the working range of
the engine goes from 2600 rpm to 3800 rpm.

Figure 4: Different parts of the suspension system

modeled in SolidWorks.

The drivetrain system is further comprised of a Polaris

CVT with a ratio of 5.42:1 at the low ratio position, chain
sprockets, bearings, etc.

a) rear right arm b) rear left arm c) front right arm d)

front left arm e) rear shock absorber f) front shock
absorber g) mass h) bar 1

The final sprocket is attached to a differential. Its

function is to allow the wheels to rotate at different
speeds allowing the vehicle to take curves easier.

drive train

Calculations -- In order to calculate the magnitude of the

force required for the vehicle to overcome a 45 degree
incline from rest a coefficient of static friction = 0.65

v 4.16
a= =
=1.04 m/s 2

was considered. Using the following free body diagram

and equations the magnitude of the force can be

Using Newtons second law we obtain:

N =Normal force [N]
Fr = Friction force [N]
F = Vehicle force [N]
= Slope

Figure 5: Free body diagram of vehicle on a 45 degree


Fy=N Wcos =0
Fx=fr+ FW sin =0

Fi=ma=3251.04=338.54 N
Another force that should be considered is the rolling
resistance of the wheel.
B= rolling resistance coefficient [m]
W= Vehicles weight [N]
P= Horizontal force required to maintain a constant
velocity [N]
R= Radius of wheel [m]

Using B=0.03m = 3cm and a wheel radius of 0.325m.


To solve the equations a vehicle mass of 250kg plus the

average drivers mass of 75kg were considered. This
gives a total mass of 325kg which is equivalent to
3188.25 N. Plugging this information to the static
equations the following result was obtained.

N=W cos=3188.25cos 45=2254.43 N

fr=N=2254.430.65=1465.38 N
F=W sinfr=3188.25sin 451465.38=789.05 N
In order for the vehicle to start moving up the slope it
needs to overcome the force of inertia. The following
parameters were considered:

Fi = Force of Inertia
a = Vehicle acceleration needed to reach required
v = ascending velocity of vehicle
t = time it takes for the vehicle to reach required
velocity starting from rest
m = vehicles mass

The acceleration of the vehicle was calculated with a

proposed velocity of V =15km/h (4.16m/s), and 4 second
to reach the desired velocity.


Wcos 45B 3188.25cos 450.03

=208.10 N

Adding the three forces (vehicle, inertia and horizontal

forces) the total force that the vehicle needs to overcome
to go up a 45 degree incline is obtained.

Ftotal=F + Fi+ P
1335.69 N
Furthermore, the necessary torque needed on the
wheels was found to be 434.1Nm = 320.09 lbf ft
Having obtained the required torque the drive train ratio
is obtained using the following formulas:

D = Diameter of the wheels = 25.59 in.

T = motor torque = 14.5 lbf ft
R = CVTs low ratio 5.42
= required torque = 320.09 lbf ft

( 12D )





The following figure shows the Red Hawks master

cylinders support structure.

In order to reach the required ratio and considering the

materials the design team has, an intermediate shaft
between the CVT and differential was added (11 and 32
teeth respectively). The final drivetrain ratio with the
added intermediate shaft ends up being of 9.3.

Figure 8: model of the two master cylinders support


Figure 7: Diagram showing gear relationships



Final Ratio


D 2 32
R 1=
= = 2.9
D1 11
D 4 32
R 2=
= =3.2
D 3 10
RT=R 1R 2=2.93.2=9.3

The purpose of a braking system is to allow the driver to
stop the vehicles movement or to decrease its velocity
as needed. The halting of the vehicle is achieved by the
kinetic energy produced from the friction between two or
more moving parts of the braking system. The braking
effect occurs when the braking discs and pads rub
against each other.
The Red Hawks breaking system is capable of locking
all four wheels to provide extra safety in rugged terrains.
Therefore 2 independent hydraulic systems were used to
control the four friction brakes found in the vehicle.

The main objective of the steering subsystem is to guide

the front wheels (steerable wheels) of the vehicle so that
it can follow the drivers desired path. A reduction gear
mechanism is necessary to reduce the drivers effort in
guiding the wheels.
The different parts that compose the steering system will
help guide the steering wheels so that the vehicle can
follow the course designated by the driver. This system
allows the driver to accurately drive the vehicle over a
route. It should also let the driver follow curved paths,
avoid other vehicles, pedestrians and stationary objects.
The steering column consists of the main shaft, which
transmits the rotation of the steering wheel to the
steering gear and tube, which is mounted on the main
axis of the chassis. A model of steering system is
presented in the following figure.

2. Instituto Politecnico Nacional Diseo, Anlisis

NumricoY Manufactura Del Chasis De Un Vehculo

Minibaja SAE. 2008
3. Jaf David Prez Morales Procedimiento Para El
Diseo De Vehculo Categora Mini Baja-SAE.
Junio 2011
4. Briggs&Stratton. 1450 Series Engine.

Figure 9: Steering system


Coming up with a feasible, safe and aesthetically
pleasing design for the Red Hawk required that different
analyses be performed. SolidWorks allowed the team to
model the vehicle and perform analysis without having to
build a real prototype, which saved time and money. The
analyses results allowed us to obtain figures which
helped us come up with the best vehicle design.
The Red Hawk was carefully designed so that all safety
and design specifications were reached under an
affordable and easy to manufacture model. It is also
aesthetically pleasing and will without a doubt satisfy its
users needs.

The Red Hawk design team would like to thank all of the
professors who invested extra time to support this
Special thanks go to teacher Mario for working weird
hours so that we could work on the weekends in the
schools workshop also the director engineering school,
Ma. Angelica Espejel Rivera and the academic
secretary, Amadeo Manuel Hernandez Hernandez for all
the support has given the project and the time invested.

Thank you to our sponsors for helping out with material

and finances.
Last but not least, we would like to thank family and
friends who had to witness craziness, euphoria, and
insanely happy moments when things went well.

1. SAE International (2014) Baja SAE Rules. 2014
Collegiate Design Series.



From: www.briggsandstratton.com
Revista Mecnica Popular - Volumen 44 Septiembre 1991 - Nmero 9
Davis N. Dales "Manual Tcnico
Automotriz" Operacin, mantenimiento
y servicio de sistema de suspensin,
Direccin y frenos. Edita
Hispanoamericana S.A. 2007
Fu-Cheng Wang, Tesis Doctoral "Design
and Synthesis of Active and Passive
Vehicle Suspensions". Queen's College
D. Hermgenes Gil Martnez "Manual del
Automvil" Reparacin
y mantenimiento de Suspensin,
direccin y frenos. Edita. Cultural S.A.

Alejandra Lopez
Alejandra is a sophomore studying mechatronics
engineering at the University of La Salle Pachuca. She is
also the Director of Finances of the universitys student
council. She has been involved in the schools SAE team
since her freshman year.
Email: alopez424@gmail.com
Karen Gonzalez
Karen is a junior studying Industrial engineering at the
University of La Salle Pachuca. She recently joined the
schools SAE team and has helped improve its
organization and performance.
Email: karen_kgm@hotmail.com
Aaron Nuez
Aaron is a senior studying mechatronics engineering at
the University of La Salle Pachuca. He is currently
captain of the SAE team and has been involved in SAE

since he was a freshman. He is expected to graduate in

December 2014.
Email: aaron-aanr@hotmail.com

CAD- Computer Aided Design
CVT- Continuously Variable Transmission
RHO- Roll Hoop Overhead Member
SAE- Society of Automotive Engineers
USM-Under Seat Members