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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

Version 2.0
November 2014

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

Standard Specifications
Version 2.0 November 2014
Abu Dhabi City Municipality
PO Box 263
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Copyright 2014, Abu Dhabi City Municipality. All Rights Reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior
written permission of the Abu Dhabi City Municipality

Version 2.0

November 2014

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

Table of Contents
SECTION I - GENERAL ................................................................................................................................ 1-6
100.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-6

100.02

Standards and Codes .................................................................................................................. 1-6

100.03

Application of Document .............................................................................................................. 3-6

100.04

Materials Found on the Site ......................................................................................................... 3-6

100.05

Insurance Requirements .............................................................................................................. 3-6

100.06

Rates and Payment ..................................................................................................................... 5-6

100.07

Limits of Work for Utility Relocation ............................................................................................. 5-6

100.08

Provisional Items .......................................................................................................................... 6-6

100.09

Site Conditions ............................................................................................................................. 6-6

100.10

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 6-6

SECTION I-1 CONTRACT DOCUMENTS .................................................................................................... 1-3


101.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

101.02

Contract Documents .................................................................................................................... 1-3

101.03

Contract Drawings ....................................................................................................................... 1-3

101.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-3

SECTION I-2 CONTRACTOR'S RESPONSIBILITIES ............................................................................... 1-64


102.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-64

102.02

Programme of Works ................................................................................................................. 1-64

102.03

Plant, Equipment and Labour .................................................................................................. 11-64

102.04

Limits and Access to and Use of Site ...................................................................................... 12-64

102.05

Land for Contractor's Use ........................................................................................................ 13-64

102.06

Storage, Workshops, Sheds and Living Quarters.................................................................... 13-64

102.07

Setting Out the Works .............................................................................................................. 14-64

102.08

Notice of Operations ................................................................................................................ 15-64

102.09

Templates ................................................................................................................................ 16-64

102.10

Materials, Equipment and Supplies ......................................................................................... 16-64

102.11

Substitute and Alternative Materials ........................................................................................ 19-64

102.12

Water Supply............................................................................................................................ 19-64

102.13

Existing Utilities and Services .................................................................................................. 20-64

102.14

Interruption of Supplies or Services, Charges for Damages ................................................... 21-64

102.15

Conditions for Public Services, Properties and Utilities ........................................................... 21-64

102.16

Conditions for Public Safety ..................................................................................................... 25-64

102.17

Dust Control ............................................................................................................................. 57-64

102.18

Record Drawings ..................................................................................................................... 57-64

102.19

Related Construction ............................................................................................................... 57-64

102.20

Maintenance of Green Areas and Plantations during Construction......................................... 58-64

102.21

Monthly Progress Report ......................................................................................................... 58-64

102.22

Quality Assurance Standards .................................................................................................. 61-64

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
102.23

Procedures for Submission and Approval of Electro-Mechanical Materials ............................ 64-64

102.24

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 64-64

SECTION I-3 ENGINEER'S AND DEPARTMENT'S FACILITIES ................................................................ 1-2


103.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

103.02

Site Laboratories .......................................................................................................................... 1-2

103.03

Engineer's Site Office Facilities ................................................................................................... 1-2

103.04

Designated Consultants Site Office Facilities ............................................................................. 1-2

103.05

Department's Site Office Facilities ............................................................................................... 1-2

103.06

Contractors Site Office Facilities ................................................................................................. 2-2

103.07

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION I-4 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC AND RELATED WORK ...................................................... 1-42


104.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-42

104.02

Temporary Works ...................................................................................................................... 1-42

104.03

Maintenance of Traffic Plans ................................................................................................... 24-42

104.04

Temporary Screen ................................................................................................................... 26-42

104.05

Temporary Sight Screen Fencing ............................................................................................ 26-42

104.06

Temporary Pedestrian Bridges ................................................................................................ 26-42

104.07

Existing Street Name and Numbering Signs ........................................................................... 26-42

104.08

Existing Flower Pot Structures ................................................................................................. 27-42

104.09

Removal, Maintenance and/or Replanting of Existing Trees and Landscaping ...................... 28-42

104.10

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 29-42

SECTION II - EARTHWORK ....................................................................................................................... 1-10


200.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-10

200.02

Standards and Codes ................................................................................................................ 1-10

200.03

Soil Information .......................................................................................................................... 2-10

200.04

Removal or Diversion of Water .................................................................................................. 3-10

200.05

Drainage..................................................................................................................................... 4-10

200.06

Protection of Existing Utilities and Services ............................................................................... 5-10

200.07

Boreholes ................................................................................................................................... 7-10

200.08

Geosynthetics ............................................................................................................................ 9-10

200.09

Contaminated Soil ...................................................................................................................... 9-10

200.10

Measurement and Payment ....................................................................................................... 9-10

SECTION II-1 EARTHWORK EQUIPMENT ................................................................................................. 1-5


201.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-5

201.02

Equipment Utilized in Earthwork Construction ............................................................................. 1-5

201.03

Rotary Cultivators ........................................................................................................................ 2-5

201.04

Water Sprinklers .......................................................................................................................... 2-5

201.05

Bulldozers .................................................................................................................................... 2-5

201.06

Motor Graders .............................................................................................................................. 2-5

201.07

Shovel Tractors ............................................................................................................................ 2-5

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
201.08

Rollers .......................................................................................................................................... 2-5

201.09

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-5

SECTION II-2 MATERIALS FOR EARTHWORK ......................................................................................... 1-6


202.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-6

202.02

Fill Material, General .................................................................................................................... 1-6

202.03

Sweet Sand .................................................................................................................................. 1-6

202.04

Water.. 2-6

202.05

Borrow Material, General ............................................................................................................. 2-6

202.06

Natural Ground ............................................................................................................................ 4-6

202.07

Borrow Material (Load Bearing) ................................................................................................... 4-6

202.08

Borrow Material (Non-Load Bearing) ........................................................................................... 5-6

202.09

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-6

SECTION II-3 EXECUTION OF EARTHWORK ............................................................................................ 1-4


203.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-4

203.02

Benchmarks ................................................................................................................................. 1-4

203.03

Setting Out the Works .................................................................................................................. 1-4

203.04

Protection of Existing Adjacent Structures ................................................................................... 1-4

203.05

Preparing Preliminary Sections (Longitudinal and Cross-Sections) ............................................ 1-4

203.06

Clearing and Grubbing ................................................................................................................. 2-4

203.07

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 4-4

SECTION II-4 REMOVAL OF BUILDINGS, STRUCTURES, PAVEMENT, KERBS AND OTHER


OBSTRUCTIONS ................................................................................................................... 1-8
204.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-8

204.02

Demolitions .................................................................................................................................. 1-8

204.03

Removal of Buildings and Structures ........................................................................................... 1-8

204.04

Removal of Existing Pavement .................................................................................................... 3-8

204.05

Removal of Existing Kerbs ........................................................................................................... 4-8

204.06

Removal of Existing Walks .......................................................................................................... 5-8

204.07

Removal of Rock and Obstructions ............................................................................................. 5-8

204.08

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 7-8

SECTION II-5 EXCAVATION ........................................................................................................................ 1-9


205.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-9

205.02

Unclassified Excavation ............................................................................................................... 1-9

205.03

Structure Excavation .................................................................................................................... 1-9

205.04

Manual Excavation ....................................................................................................................... 5-9

205.05

Disposal of Excavated Materials and Surplus Materials .............................................................. 7-9

205.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 7-9

SECTION II-6 PLACEMENT OF BORROW MATERIALS, BACKFILLING AND FILLING ......................... 1-9
206.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-9

206.02

Fill and Backfill with Borrow Materials ......................................................................................... 1-9

206.03

Placement of Warning Tapes....................................................................................................... 5-9

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
206.04

End Caps and Draw Lines for Ducts, Conduits, Pipe Sleeves and Culverts before Backfilling . 6-9

206.05

Compaction .................................................................................................................................. 7-9

206.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 9-9

SECTION II-7 SUBGRADE PREPARATION ................................................................................................ 1-7


207.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-7

207.02

Construction Requirements ......................................................................................................... 1-7

207.03

Protection of Subgrade. ............................................................................................................... 1-7

207.04

Vehicular and Pedestrian Pavement Subgrade ........................................................................... 2-7

207.05

Geotextile Fabric .......................................................................................................................... 3-7

207.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 6-7

SECTION II-8 TESTING ................................................................................................................................ 1-3


208.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

208.02

Inspection and Control of Material and Work ............................................................................... 1-3

208.03

Testing Levels and Evenness of Surface .................................................................................... 2-3

208.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-3

SECTION II-9 PERVIOUS BACKFILL .......................................................................................................... 1-2


209.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

209.02

Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 1-2

209.03

Construction Requirements ......................................................................................................... 2-2

209.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION II-10 UTILITY MARKERS ............................................................................................................. 1-2


210.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

210.02

Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 1-2

210.03

Submittals .................................................................................................................................... 1-2

210.04

Installation of Markers .................................................................................................................. 1-2

210.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION III - SUBBASE AND BASE COURSES ....................................................................................... 1-3


300.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

300.02

Standards and Codes .................................................................................................................. 1-3

300.03

Storage and Handling of Materials .............................................................................................. 2-3

300.04

Inspection, Testing and Control of Materials ............................................................................... 2-3

300.05

Unacceptable Materials ............................................................................................................... 2-3

300.06

Sources of Materials .................................................................................................................... 3-3

300.07

Water............................................................................................................................................ 3-3

300.08

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-3

SECTION III-1 EQUIPMENT FOR SUBBASE AND BASE COURSES ....................................................... 1-2
301.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

301.02

Equipment Used for Aggregate Subbase and Base Courses ..................................................... 1-2

301.03

Equipment Used for Sand-Asphalt Subbase and Base Courses ................................................ 1-2

301.04

Unacceptable Equipment ............................................................................................................. 2-2

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
301.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION III-2 AGGREGATE SUBBASE AND BASE COURSES ............................................................ 1-16


302.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-16

302.02

Material Requirements for Subbase and Base Courses ........................................................... 1-16

302.03

Fine Aggregates ......................................................................................................................... 2-16

302.04

Coarse Aggregates .................................................................................................................... 2-16

302.05

Types of Aggregate Subbase and Base Courses...................................................................... 3-16

302.06

Construction Requirements for Aggregate Subbase and Base Course .................................... 4-16

302.07

Protection of Surface ................................................................................................................. 5-16

302.08

Preparing the Surface before Priming ....................................................................................... 6-16

302.09

Testing and Acceptance of Aggregate Subbase and Base Courses ........................................ 6-16

302.10

Recycled/Secondary Aggregates .............................................................................................. 7-16

302.10.01 Recycled Crushed Aggregate (RCA) Subbase .................................................................. 8-16


302.10.02 Recycled Crushed Aggregate (RCA) Base Course .......................................................... 11-16
302.11

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 15-16

SECTION III-3 SAND-ASPHALT COURSES ............................................................................................... 1-5


303.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-5

303.02

Material Requirements for Sand-Asphalt Courses ...................................................................... 1-5

303.03

Types of Sand-Asphalt Courses .................................................................................................. 1-5

303.04

Design Criteria ............................................................................................................................. 2-5

303.05

Job Mix Formula and Allowable Tolerances ................................................................................ 3-5

303.06

Sampling and Testing of Sand-Asphalt ....................................................................................... 3-5

303.07

Construction Requirements for Sand-Asphalt Courses ............................................................... 3-5

303.08

Testing and Acceptance of Sand-Asphalt Courses ..................................................................... 4-5

303.09

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-5

SECTION III-4 WET MIX MACADAM ........................................................................................................... 1-5


304.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-5

304.02

Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 1-5

304.03

Equipment .................................................................................................................................... 2-5

304.04

Construction Requirements ......................................................................................................... 2-5

304.05

Minimum Test Requirements ....................................................................................................... 5-5

304.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-5

SECTION IV - ASPHALT WORKS.............................................................................................................. 1-20


400.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-20

400.02

Standards and Codes ................................................................................................................ 1-20

400.03

Storage and Handling of Materials ............................................................................................ 2-20

400.04

Inspection, Testing and Control of Materials ............................................................................. 3-20

400.05

Unacceptable Materials ............................................................................................................. 3-20

400.06

Sources of Materials .................................................................................................................. 3-20

400.07

Fine Aggregate for Asphalt Works ............................................................................................. 3-20

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
400.08

Coarse Aggregate for Asphalt Works ........................................................................................ 4-20

400.09

Commercial Mineral Filler .......................................................................................................... 5-20

400.10

Asphalt Cement ......................................................................................................................... 5-20

400.11

Liquid and Emulsified Asphalts .................................................................................................. 6-20

400.12

Hydrated Lime ............................................................................................................................ 6-20

400.13

QA/QC Guidelines for Hot Mix Asphalt ...................................................................................... 7-20

400.13.01

General Requirements..................................................................................................... 8-20

400.13.02

Quality Control Plan ......................................................................................................... 9-20

400.13.03

Certification ...................................................................................................................... 9-20

400.13.04

Organization .................................................................................................................... 9-20

400.13.05

Distribution ..................................................................................................................... 12-20

400.13.06

Inspection Plans ............................................................................................................ 12-20

400.14

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 20-20

SECTION IV-1 EQUIPMENT FOR ASPHALT WORKS ............................................................................. 1-10


401.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-10

401.02

Asphalt Mixing Plant .................................................................................................................. 1-10

401.03

Equipment for Hauling ............................................................................................................... 7-10

401.04

Spreading and Finishing Equipment .......................................................................................... 7-10

401.05

Rollers ........................................................................................................................................ 8-10

401.06

Asphalt Distributor ...................................................................................................................... 9-10

401.07

Cold Planer/Profiler .................................................................................................................. 10-10

401.08

Unacceptable Equipment ......................................................................................................... 10-10

401.09

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 10-10

SECTION IV-2 HOT MIX ASPHALT ........................................................................................................... 1-19


402.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-19

402.02

Material Requirements for Hot Mix Asphalt ............................................................................... 1-19

402.03

Types of Asphaltic Concrete Mixes ............................................................................................ 2-19

402.04

Design Criteria ............................................................................................................................ 2-19

402.05

Job Mix Formula and Allowable Tolerances ............................................................................... 3-19

402.06

Sampling and Testing of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) ...................................................................... 6-19

402.07

Quality Control and Assurance for Hot Mix Asphalt .................................................................. 6-19

402.08

Preparation of Hot Mix Asphalt .................................................................................................. 7-19

402.09

Delivery of the Hot Mix Asphalt .................................................................................................. 9-19

402.10

Spreading and Finishing ............................................................................................................ 9-19

402.11

Compaction .............................................................................................................................. 10-19

402.12

Protection of the Asphalt Courses ........................................................................................... 12-19

402.13

Testing and Acceptance of Completed HMA Concrete Courses............................................. 13-19

402.14.

Cold Planing ............................................................................................................................. 17-19

402.15

Preparation of Existing Pavement for Application of Overlay .................................................. 17-19

402.16

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 18-19

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
SECTION IV-3 PRIME COAT ........................................................................................................................ 1-3
403.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

403.02

Material Requirements for Prime Coat. ....................................................................................... 1-3

403.03

Construction Requirements ......................................................................................................... 1-3

403.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-3

SECTION IV-4 TACK COAT ......................................................................................................................... 1-3


404.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

404.02

Material Requirements for Tack Coat .......................................................................................... 1-3

404.03

Construction Requirements for Tack Coat ................................................................................... 1-3

404.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-3

SECTION IV-5 PAVEMENT REPAIRS ....................................................................................................... 1-13


405.01

Description .................................................................................................................................. 1-13

405.02

Materials and Equipment Requirements .................................................................................... 1-13

405.03

Repair of Potholes (Isolated Holes in Asphaltic Concrete Pavements of Less than One
Square Metre) ............................................................................................................................ 1-13

405.04

Repair of Failed Pavement (Deep Patch) .................................................................................. 2-13

405.05

Repair of Depressed Pavement (Skin Patch) ............................................................................ 3-13

405.06

Repair of Utility Cuts (Open Pavement and Depressed Pavement)...... 3-13

405.07

Sealing Cracks in Asphaltic Concrete Pavement ...................................................................... 4-13

405.08

Restoration of Kerbing ............................................................................................................... 5-13

405.09

Restoration of Sidewalk Tiles..................................................................................................... 6-13

405.10

Adjust, or Demolish and Reconstruct Existing Inlets, Manholes, or Service Facilities


to New Pavement Elevations. .................................................................................................... 8-13

405.11

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 10-13

SECTION IV-6 COLD IN-SITU ASPHALT REYCLED PAVEMENT ........................................................... 1-16


406.01

Description .................................................................................................................................. 1-16

406.02

Standards and Codes ................................................................................................................. 2-16

406.03

Material Requirements ................................................................................................................ 2-16

406.04

Construction Requirements ........................................................................................................ 5-16

406.05

Sampling and Preparation .......................................................................................................... 5-16

406.06

Laboratory Equipment for Bitumen Stabilization ........................................................................ 9-16

406.07

Construction .............................................................................................................................. 12-16

406.08

Ride Quality of Cold In-Situ Asphalt Recycled Pavement ........................................................ 16-16

406.09

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 16-16

SECTION V - CONCRETE WORKS ............................................................................................................. 1-5


500.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-5

500.02

Standards and Codes .................................................................................................................. 1-5

500.03

Samples ....................................................................................................................................... 5-5

500.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-5

SECTION V-1 MATERIALS FOR CONCRETE WORKS ............................................................................ 1-15

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
501.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-15

501.02

Materials, General ...................................................................................................................... 1-15

501.03

Cement....................................................................................................................................... 1-15

501.04

Aggregates, General .................................................................................................................. 6-15

501.05

Aggregates, Fine and Coarse .................................................................................................... 7-15

501.06

Water for Concrete Mixes and Curing ....................................................................................... 9-15

501.07

Reinforcement Steel .................................................................................................................. 9-15

501.08

Retarders and Admixtures ....................................................................................................... 13-15

501.09

Expansion Joints ...................................................................................................................... 14-15

501.10

Structural Steel ........................................................................................................................ 14-15

501.11

Sleeves .................................................................................................................................... 14-15

501.12

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 15-15

SECTION V-2 CONCRETE CLASSES AND MIXES .................................................................................... 1-5


502.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-5

502.02

Concrete Classes ......................................................................................................................... 1-5

502.03

Mix Design ................................................................................................................................... 2-5

502.04

Contents of Chlorides and Sulphates .......................................................................................... 3-5

502.05

Water-Cement Ratio .................................................................................................................... 4-5

502.06

Testing ......................................................................................................................................... 4-5

502.07

Slumps ......................................................................................................................................... 5-5

502.08

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-5

SECTION V-3 CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION ........................................................................................... 1-34


503.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-34

503.02

Formwork ................................................................................................................................... 1-34

503.03

Reinforcing Steel ........................................................................................................................ 6-34

503.04

Concrete..................................................................................................................................... 9-34

503.05

Joints ........................................................................................................................................ 16-34

503.06

Concrete Finishing ................................................................................................................... 19-34

503.07

Curing....................................................................................................................................... 21-34

503.08

Approach Slabs ........................................................................................................................ 23-34

503.09

Waterstops ............................................................................................................................... 23-34

503.10

Concrete Box Girders .............................................................................................................. 24-34

503.11

Placing Concrete for Bridge Decks and Parking Structures .................................................... 25-34

503.12

Placing of Concrete in or Under Water .................................................................................... 28-34

503.13

Grout Pads ............................................................................................................................... 29-34

503.14

Blinding Concrete ..................................................................................................................... 30-34

503.15

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 30-34

SECTION V-4 PRECAST CONCRETE ......................................................................................................... 1-1


504.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-1

504.02

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 1-1

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
SECTION V-5 CONCRETE KERBS ............................................................................................................. 1-8
505.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-8

505.02

Concrete Foundation at Kerbs ..................................................................................................... 1-8

505.03

Concrete Haunching at Kerbs ...................................................................................................... 1-8

505.04

Precast Concrete Kerbs ............................................................................................................... 2-8

505.05

Cast-In-Situ Concrete Kerbs, Noses and Kerb-cuts at Driveways and Pedestrian Ramps......... 3-8

505.06

Precast Concrete Wheelstops ..................................................................................................... 5-8

505.07

Painting of Kerbs, Noses, Kerb-cuts and Wheelstops. ................................................................ 6-8

505.08

Measurement and Payment. ........................................................................................................ 7-8

SECTION V-6 QUARRY TILES, PRECAST TILE BLOCKS, INTERLOCKING PAVERS AND
NATURAL GRANITE (STONE) PAVERS............................................................................ 1-20
506.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-20

506.02

Materials ..................................................................................................................................... 1-20

506.03

Concrete Base Course for Quarry Tiles ..................................................................................... 1-20

506.04

Quarry Tiles................................................................................................................................ 2-20

506.05

Precast Tile Blocks .................................................................................................................... 4-20

506.06

Interlocking Concrete Paving Blocks ......................................................................................... 5-20

506.07

Installation of Interlocking Concrete Paving Blocks ................................................................... 8-20

506.08

Quality Assurance Program for Interlocking Vehicular and Pedestrian Pavers ...................... 12-20

506.09

Removal and Transportation of Interlocking Concrete Pavers to Municipality Stores ..... 15-20

506.10

Natural Granite (Stone) Pavers................................................................................................ 15-20

506.11

Tactile Pavers .......................................................................................................................... 17-20

506.12

Removal and Replacement of Removable Pavement ............................................................. 17-20

506.13

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 18-20

SECTION V-7 MISCELLANEOUS CONCRETE STRUCTURES ............................................................... 1-10


507.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-10

507.02

Concrete Barriers ....................................................................................................................... 1-10

507.03

Concrete Parapets ..................................................................................................................... 2-10

507.04

Concrete Block Work ................................................................................................................. 3-10

507.05

Steps .......................................................................................................................................... 5-10

507.06

Duct End Walls .......................................................................................................................... 6-10

507.07

Measurement and Payment ....................................................................................................... 8-10

SECTION V-8 WATERPROOFING AND WATERPROOFING MEMBRANE .............................................. 1-9


508.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-9

508.02

Waterproofing............................................................................................................................... 1-9

508.03

Waterproofing Membrane, Type A. .............................................................................................. 2-9

508.04

Waterproofing Membrane, Type B ............................................................................................... 5-9

508.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 9-9

SECTION V-9 BEARINGS AND SHEAR TRANSFER UNITS FOR CONCRETE WORKS ...................... 1-16
509.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-16

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
509.02

Elastomeric Bearings ................................................................................................................. 1-16

509.03

Pot Type Bearings Guided, Expansion and Fixed Bearings. .................................................. 6-16

509.04

Spherical Bearings Guided, Expansion and Fixed Bearings. ............................................... 13-16

509.05

Shear Transfer Units at Abutments ......................................................................................... 15-16

509.06

Other Types of Bearings. ......................................................................................................... 15-16

509.07

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 16-16

SECTION VI - STORM WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM ................................................................................ 1-1


SECTION VII - WATER WORKS .................................................................................................................. 1-4
700.01

General ........................................................................................................................................ 1-4

700.02

Concrete Slab Protection for Water Lines ................................................................................... 1-4

700.03

Contingency Water Ducts ............................................................................................................ 1-4

700.04

Relocation of Water Lines Owned by the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority..................... 1-4

700.05

Extension of Existing Ducts ......................................................................................................... 3-4

700.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-4

SECTION VIII PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS ............................................................................ 1-4


800.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-4

800.02

Quality Assurance ........................................................................................................................ 1-4

800.03

Sampling and Testing .................................................................................................................. 2-4

800.04

Submittals .................................................................................................................................... 3-4

800.05

Technical Assistance ................................................................................................................... 4-4

800.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 4-4

SECTION VIII-1 MATERIALS........................................................................................................................ 1-7


801.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-7

801.02

Delivery, Storage, and Handling of Materials .............................................................................. 1-7

801.03

Concrete....................................................................................................................................... 1-7

801.04

Reinforcement Steel .................................................................................................................... 2-7

801.05

General Concrete Requirements ................................................................................................. 4-7

801.6

Formwork ..................................................................................................................................... 5-7

801.07

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 7-7

SECTION VIII-2 CONSTRUCTION OF PRESTRESSED GIRDERS ............................................................ 1-9


802.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-9

802.02

Placing of Post-Tension Tendons ................................................................................................ 1-9

802.03

Placing of Reinforcement Steel and Inserts ................................................................................. 2-9

802.04

Mixing and Placing Concrete ....................................................................................................... 2-9

802.05

Concrete Finishing ....................................................................................................................... 3-9

802.06

Concrete Curing ........................................................................................................................... 4-9

802.07

Inspection of Completed Prestressed Girders ............................................................................. 5-9

802.08

Pre-Tensioning ............................................................................................................................. 6-9

802.09

Post-Tensioning ........................................................................................................................... 7-9

802.10

Rejection of Prestressed Girders ................................................................................................. 8-9

Version 2.0

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
802.11

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 8-9

SECTION VIII-3 GROUTING OF TENDONS ................................................................................................ 1-3


803.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

803.02

Equipment .................................................................................................................................... 1-3

803.03

Mixing of Grout ............................................................................................................................. 2-3

803.04

Grouting ....................................................................................................................................... 2-3

803.05

Injection of Grout .......................................................................................................................... 2-3

803.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-3

SECTION VIII-4 ERECTING PRECAST PRESTRESSED GIRDERS .......................................................... 1-2


804.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

804.02

Erecting Precast Prestressed Girders ......................................................................................... 1-2

804.03

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION VIII-5 PRECAST PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DECK PANELS ............................................... 1-4


805.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-4

805.02

Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 1-4

805.03

Fabrication ................................................................................................................................... 2-4

805.04

Deck Panel Tolerances ................................................................................................................ 2-4

805.05

Installation .................................................................................................................................... 2-4

805.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-4

SECTION IX - TRAFFIC MARKINGS AND SIGNS ...................................................................................... 1-2


900.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

900.02

Standards and Codes .................................................................................................................. 1-2

900.03

Submittals and Material Requirements ........................................................................................ 2-2

900.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION IX-1 PAVEMENT MARKINGS ...................................................................................................... 1-6


901.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-6

901.02

Pavement Marking Material ......................................................................................................... 1-6

901.03

Glass Beads ................................................................................................................................. 1-6

901.04

Method of Execution of the Works ............................................................................................... 2-6

901.05

Layout for Pavement Markings .................................................................................................... 2-6

901.06

Tolerances for Pavement Markings ............................................................................................. 3-6

901.07

Cleaning of Pavement .................................................................................................................. 3-6

901.08

Protection of Pavement Markings ................................................................................................ 3-6

901.09

Pavement Markings ..................................................................................................................... 3-6

901.10

Machinery and Equipment Utilized in Application of Pavement Markings .. 3-6

901.11

Removal of Existing Pavement Markers and Markings ............................. 4-6

901.12

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-6

SECTION IX-2 TRAFFIC SIGNS ................................................................................................................. 1-17


902.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-17

902.02

Shop Drawings and Samples..................................................................................................... 1-17

Version 2.0

Page 11 of 22

November 2014

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
902.03

Requirements ............................................................................................................................. 1-17

902.04

Definition of Signing Terms ........................................................................................................ 1-17

902.05

Materials, General ...................................................................................................................... 2-17

902.06

Sheet Reflective Materials ......................................................................................................... 2-17

902.07

Aluminium Sign Panels .............................................................................................................. 7-17

902.08

Application of Background Sheeting .......................................................................................... 8-17

902.09

Sign Face Layout ....................................................................................................................... 9-17

902.10

Application of Lettering ............................................................................................................ 11-17

902.11

Installation of Ground Mounted Signs ...................................................................................... 12-17

902.12

Foundations for Sign Supports ................................................................................................ 13-17

902.13

Ground-Mounted Sign Supports .............................................................................................. 13-17

902.14

Special Designation Signs ....................................................................................................... 15-17

902.15

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 15-17

SECTION IX-3 PAVEMENT MARKERS ....................................................................................................... 1-8


903.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-8

903.02

Samples ....................................................................................................................................... 1-8

903.03

Requirements for Non-Reflective Markers (Type NR) ................................................................. 1-8

903.04

Requirements for Reflective Markers Colour Reflective (Type CR and YR) ............................... 2-8

903.05

Adhesive for Pavement Markers .................................................................................................. 4-8

903.06

Construction Requirements ......................................................................................................... 6-8

903.07

Surface Preparation ..................................................................................................................... 6-8

903.08

Marker Preparation ...................................................................................................................... 7-8

903.09

Adhesive Preparation ................................................................................................................... 7-8

903.10

Application Procedure .................................................................................................................. 7-8

903.11

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 8-8

SECTION IX-4 OVERHEAD TUBULAR SIGN SUPPORTS......................................................................... 1-9


904.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-9

904.02

Foundation for Overhead Tubular Sign Supports ........................................................................ 1-9

904.03

Overhead Tubular Sign Supports ................................................................................................ 5-9

904.04

Mounting of Overhead Sign Panels ............................................................................................. 7-9

904.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 8-9

SECTION X - SITE LABORATORY .............................................................................................................. 1-2


1000.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

1000.02

Use of the Laboratory .................................................................................................................. 1-2

1000.03

Location of the Laboratory ........................................................................................................... 1-2

1000.04

Maintenance of the Laboratory .................................................................................................... 2-2

1000.05

Approval of the Laboratory........................................................................................................... 2-2

1000.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION X-1 ASPHALT, SOILS AND CONCRETE LABORATORIES ................................................... 1-14


1001.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-14

Version 2.0

Page 12 of 22

November 2014

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
1001.02

Building and Utility Requirements .............................................................................................. 1-14

1001.03

Equipment Requirements .......................................................................................................... 2-14

1001.04

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 14-14

SECTION XI - CONCRETE PILE FOUNDATIONS....................................................................................... 1-2


1100.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

1100.02

Quality Assurance ........................................................................................................................ 1-2

1100.03

Submittals .................................................................................................................................... 2-2

1100.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION XI-1 MATERIALS, PILES ............................................................................................................. 1-2


1101.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

1101.02

Materials, General ........................................................................................................................ 1-2

1101.03

Reinforcement Steel .................................................................................................................... 1-2

1101.04

Steel Shells, Driven Piles ............................................................................................................. 1-2

1101.05

Steel Shells, Bored Piles .............................................................................................................. 1-2

1101.06

Concrete, Class and Mix .............................................................................................................. 2-2

1101.07

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION XI-2 CONSTRUCTION, DRIVEN PILES ...................................................................................... 1-8


1102.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-8

1102.02

General, Driven Piles ................................................................................................................... 1-8

1102.03

Submittals .................................................................................................................................... 2-8

1102.04

Test Piles ..................................................................................................................................... 3-8

1102.05

Pile Load Tests ............................................................................................................................ 4-8

1102.06

Driving and Pile Construction....................................................................................................... 5-8

1102.07

Placing Reinforcement Steel........................................................................................................ 6-8

1102.08

Mixing and Placing Concrete ....................................................................................................... 6-8

1102.09

Defective Driven Piles .................................................................................................................. 7-8

1102.10

Records ........................................................................................................................................ 7-8

1102.11

Measurement and Payment, Driven Piles. .................................................................................. 8-8

SECTION XI-3 CONSTRUCTION, BORED PILES ..................................................................................... 1-10


1103.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-10

1103.02

General, Bored Piles .................................................................................................................. 1-10

1103.03

Submittals .................................................................................................................................. 2-10

1103.04

Test Piles ................................................................................................................................... 2-10

1103.05

Pile Load Tests .......................................................................................................................... 3-10

1103.06

Boring and Pile Construction ..................................................................................................... 6-10

1103.07

Placing Reinforcement Steel...................................................................................................... 8-10

1103.08

Mixing and Placing Concrete ..................................................................................................... 9-10

1103.09

Defective Bored Piles ................................................................................................................. 9-10

1103.10

Records .................................................................................................................................... 10-10

1103.11

Measurement and Payment, Bored Piles ................................................................................ 10-10

Version 2.0

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
SECTION XII - METAL WORKS ................................................................................................................... 1-3
1200.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

1200.02

Standards and Codes .................................................................................................................. 1-3

1200.03

Submittals .................................................................................................................................... 3-3

1200.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-3

SECTION XII-1 MATERIAL, METAL WORKS .............................................................................................. 1-9


1201.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-9

1201.02

Materials, General ........................................................................................................................ 1-9

1201.03

Structural Steel and Stainless Steel ............................................................................................ 1-9

1201.04

Steel Forgings .............................................................................................................................. 2-9

1201.05

Steel Pipe ..................................................................................................................................... 2-9

1201.06

Galvanizing .................................................................................................................................. 2-9

1201.07

Aluminium for Signs ..................................................................................................................... 3-9

1201.08

Fabric Bearing Pads .................................................................................................................... 4-9

1201.09

Paint ............................................................................................................................................. 4-9

1201.10

Storage of Materials ..................................................................................................................... 9-9

1201.11

Transporting Materials ................................................................................................................. 9-9

1201.12

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 9-9

SECTION XII-2 STRUCTURAL STEEL ...................................................................................................... 1-24


1202.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-24

1202.02

Fabrication ................................................................................................................................. 1-24

1202.03

Welding ...................................................................................................................................... 8-24

1202.04

Painting .................................................................................................................................... 10-24

1202.05

Erection .................................................................................................................................... 23-24

1202.06

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 24-24

SECTION XII-3 FENCING ............................................................................................................................. 1-5


1203.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-5

1203.02

Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 1-5

1203.03

Installation .................................................................................................................................... 4-5

1203.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-5

SECTION XII-4 METAL BEAM GUARD RAIL, END TERMINALS AND TRANSITIONS ........................... 1-4
1204.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-4

1204.02

Metal Beam Guard Rail ................................................................................................................ 1-4

1204.03

Crashworthy End Terminals......................................................................................................... 2-4

1204.04

Simplified Steel-Post MGS Stiffness Transition ........................................................................... 3-4

1204.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-4

SECTION XII5 METAL RAILINGS AND MEDIAN FENCES ...................................................................... 1-5


1205.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-5

1205.02

Metal Railing, Steel ...................................................................................................................... 1-5

1205.03

Metal Railing, Aluminium ............................................................................................................. 2-5

Version 2.0

Page 14 of 22

November 2014

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
1205.04

Spares .......................................................................................................................................... 3-5

1205.05

Median Fences, Steel .................................................................................................................. 3-5

1205.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-5

SECTION XII6 ORNAMENTAL LIGHTING BOLLARDS ............................................................................ 1-3


1206.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

1206.02

Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 1-3

1206.03

Fabrication ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

1206.04

Erection ........................................................................................................................................ 2-3

1206.05

Spares .......................................................................................................................................... 2-3

1206.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-3

SECTION XII7 STREET BOLLARDS ......................................................................................................... 1-4


1207.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-4

1207.02

Street Bollard, Steel Type 1 ....................................................................................................... 1-4

1207.03

Street Bollard, Cast Iron Type 2 ................................................................................................ 1-4

1207.04

Street Bollard, Stainless Steel Type 3 ....................................................................................... 3-4

1207.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-4

SECTION XII8 CRASH CUSHIONS ............................................................................................................ 1-3


1208.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

1208.02

Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 1-3

1208.03

Crash Cushion (Redirective, Non-Gating) Type 1 .................................................................... 1-3

1208.04

Crash Cushion (Non-Redirective, Gating) Type 2 .................................................................... 2-3

1208.05

Spares .......................................................................................................................................... 2-3

1208.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-3

SECTION XIII - POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE WORKS ......................................................................... 1-4


1300.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-4

1300.02

Standards and Codes .................................................................................................................. 1-4

1300.03

Submittals .................................................................................................................................... 1-4

1300.04

Quality Assurance ........................................................................................................................ 2-4

1300.05

Sampling and Testing .................................................................................................................. 3-4

1300.06

Scheduling of Post-Tensioned Concrete Works .......................................................................... 3-4

1300.07

Materials, Delivery, Storage and Handling .................................................................................. 4-4

1300.08

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 4-4

SECTION XIII-1 CONCRETE AND MATERIALS ......................................................................................... 1-2


1301.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

1301.02

Post-Tensioning Systems ............................................................................................................ 1-2

1301.03

Concrete....................................................................................................................................... 1-2

1301.04

Reinforcement Steel .................................................................................................................... 2-2

1301.05

Duct Grout Materials .................................................................................................................... 2-2

1301.06

Built-In Materials .......................................................................................................................... 2-2

1301.07

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

Version 2.0

Page 15 of 22

November 2014

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
SECTION XIII-2 CONSTRUCTIONS ............................................................................................................. 1-8
1302.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-8

1302.02

Formwork ..................................................................................................................................... 1-8

1302.03

Placing Post-Tensioning Systems ............................................................................................... 2-8

1302.04

Mixing and Placing Concrete ....................................................................................................... 2-8

1302.05

Stressing Operations ................................................................................................................... 3-8

1302.06

Grouting of Tendons .................................................................................................................... 4-8

1302.07

Protection of End Anchorages ..................................................................................................... 7-8

1302.08

Access Doors ............................................................................................................................... 7-8

1302.09

Vent Pipes .................................................................................................................................... 7-8

1302.10

Opening Bridges to Traffic ........................................................................................................... 8-8

1302.11

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 8-8

SECTION XIV - EXPANSION AND FIXED JOINTS ..................................................................................... 1-3


1400.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

1400.02

Quality Assurance ........................................................................................................................ 1-3

1400.03

Approval of Materials ................................................................................................................... 2-3

1400.04

Submittals .................................................................................................................................... 2-3

1400.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-3

SECTION XIV-1 ELASTOMERIC EXPANSION JOINTS ............................................................................. 1-6


1401.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-6

1401.02

Materials, General ........................................................................................................................ 1-6

1401.03

Expansion Joint Materials ............................................................................................................ 1-6

1401.04

Anchor Bolts ................................................................................................................................. 3-6

1401.05

Epoxy Mortar ................................................................................................................................ 3-6

1401.06

Method of Construction and Installation ...................................................................................... 4-6

1401.07

Epoxy Concrete Dams ................................................................................................................. 5-6

1401.08

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 6-6

SECTION XIV-2 FIXED JOINT SEAL .......................................................................................................... 1-2


1402.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

1402.02

Materials, Fixed Joint Seal ........................................................................................................... 1-2

1402.03

Method of Construction and Installation ...................................................................................... 1-2

1402.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION XIV-3 FINGER TYPE EXPANSION JOINTS ................................................................................ 1-3


1403.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

1403.02

Materials and Assembly ............................................................................................................... 1-3

1403.03

Method of Construction and Installation ...................................................................................... 2-3

1403.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-3

SECTION XIV- 4 STRIP SEAL TYPE EXPANSION JOINTS ....................................................................... 1-5


1404.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-5

1404.02

Materials, General ........................................................................................................................ 1-5

Version 2.0

Page 16 of 22

November 2014

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
1404.03

Construction ................................................................................................................................. 2-5

1404.04

Installation .................................................................................................................................... 3-5

1404.05

Black Epoxy Concrete .................................................................................................................. 4-5

1404.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 4-5

SECTION XIV- 5 MODULAR EXPANSION JOINTS .................................................................................... 1-4


1405.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-4

1405.02

Materials, General ........................................................................................................................ 1-4

1405.03

Method of Construction and Installation ...................................................................................... 4-4

1405.04

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 4-4

SECTION XV - IRRIGATION WORKS .......................................................................................................... 1-1


SECTION XVI - LIGHTING AND ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION WORKS ............................................... 1-16
1600.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-16

1600.02

Standards and Codes ................................................................................................................ 1-16

1600.03

Definition of Terms ..................................................................................................................... 3-16

1600.04

Abu Dhabi Water & Electrical Authority (ADWEA) Electrical System ........................................ 5-16

1600.05

Service Connections .................................................................................................................. 6-16

1600.06

Site Conditions ........................................................................................................................... 7-16

1600.07

Notifying the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority............................................................ 7-16

1600.08

Schedules and Technical Details ............................................................................................... 8-16

1600.09

Inspection and Testing ............................................................................................................... 8-16

1600.10

Field Performance Tests .......................................................................................................... 10-16

1600.11

Electrical, Utilities and Record Drawings ................................................................................. 10-16

1600.12

Procedures for Abu Dhabi Water & Electrical Authoritys Electrical Distribution and
Lighting Works ........................................................................................................................ 11-16

1600.13

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 15-16

SECTION XVI-1 ELECTRICAL MATERIALS, GENERAL ........................................................................... 1-5


1601.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-5

1601.02

General ........................................................................................................................................ 1-5

1601.03

Control of Materials ...................................................................................................................... 2-5

1601.04

Analysis of Materials .................................................................................................................... 4-5

1601.05

Identification ................................................................................................................................. 4-5

1601.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-5

SECTION XVI-2 EARTHWORK FOR ELECTRICAL .................................................................................. 1-2


1602.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

1602.02

Trench and Backfill ...................................................................................................................... 1-2

1602.03

Construction Methods .................................................................................................................. 1-2

1602.04

Excavation for Structures ............................................................................................................. 2-2

1602.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION XVI-3 CONDUIT AND JUNCTION BOXES ................................................................................ 1-4


1603.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-4

Version 2.0

Page 17 of 22

November 2014

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
1603.02

Rigid Galvanized Steel Electrical Conduit ................................................................................... 1-4

1603.03

Junction Boxes ............................................................................................................................. 2-4

1603.04

Rigid Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Conduit ......................................................................................... 2-4

1603.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 4-4

SECTION XVI-4 LIGHTING AND LOW VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL CABLE ............................................. 1-11
1604.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-11

1604.02

General Requirements ............................................................................................................... 1-11

1604.03

Electrical Low Voltage Cables, Direct Burial .............................................................................. 1-11

1604.04

Electrical Cable, Low Voltage, In Conduit and Light Poles, 600 Volts....................................... 4-11

1604.05

Packing ...................................................................................................................................... 4-11

1604.06

Markings..................................................................................................................................... 5-11

1604.07

Drawings & Information .............................................................................................................. 6-11

1604.08

License ....................................................................................................................................... 6-11

1604.09

Splicing 600/1000 Volt Cable and Wire ..................................................................................... 6-11

1604.10

Lighting and Low Voltage Electrical Cable Installation .............................................................. 7-11

SECTION XVI-5 FOUNDATIONS FOR LIGHT POLES ............................................................................... 1-6


1605.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-6

1605.02

Foundations for Light Poles ......................................................................................................... 1-6

1605.03

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 4-6

SECTION XVI-6 FOUNDATIONS FOR LIGHTING CONTROL CABINETS ............................................... 1-2


1606.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

1606.02

Foundations for Lighting Control Cabinets .................................................................................. 1-2

1606.03

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 1-2

SECTION XVI-7 LIGHT POLES .................................................................................................................. 1-15


1607.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-15

1607.02

Light Poles, 30.5m High ............................................................................................................. 1-15

1607.03

Maintenance Cradle for 30.5m Light Poles ................................................................................ 6-15

1607.04

Light Poles, 10m,14m, 18m and 20m High ................................................................................ 6-15

1607.05

Electrical Cables, Low Voltage, In Light Poles .......................................................................... 9-15

1607.06

Required Submittals ................................................................................................................... 9-15

1607.07

Light Poles Furnished by the Department ................................................................................. 9-15

1607.08

Truck Mounted Hydraulic Platform .......................................................................................... 10-15

1607.09

Paint and Number Light Poles ................................................................................................. 11-15

1607.10

Spares ...................................................................................................................................... 11-15

1607.11

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 11-15

SECTION XVI-8 LANTERNS ...................................................................................................................... 1-14


1608.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-14

1608.02

1000 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lanterns for 30.5m High Light Poles ................................... 1-14

1608.03

1000 Watt High Pressure Sodium and Metal Halide Lanterns for 20m, 18m and 14m
High Poles; 400 Watt High Pressure Sodium and Metal Halide, and 250 Watt High

Version 2.0

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November 2014

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
Pressure Sodium Lanterns for 10m High Poles......................................................................... 3-14
1608.04

Not Used .................................................................................................................................... 8-14

1608.05

Technical Requirements for Lanterns ........................................................................................ 8-14

1608.06

Underpass Lantern Materials ..................................................................................................... 8-14

1608.07

Basis of Lantern Acceptance ................................................................................................... 10-14

1608.08

Spares ...................................................................................................................................... 11-14

1608.09

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 12-14

SECTION XVI-9 DECORATIVE LIGHTING ................................................................................................ 1-10


1609.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-10

1609.02

4 to 6m High Light Poles ............................................................................................................ 1-10

1609.03

Lanterns for 4 to 6m High Light Poles ....................................................................................... 3-10

1609.04

Lighting Bollards ........................................................................................................................ 4-10

1609.05

Other Ornamental Lighting ......................................................................................................... 5-10

1609.06

Technical Requirements for 4 to 6m High Light Poles and Lanterns ........................................ 5-10

1609.07

Spares ........................................................................................................................................ 5-10

1609.08

4 to 6m High Light Poles Furnished by the Department ............................................................ 5-10

1609.09

Measurement and Payment ....................................................................................................... 6-10

SECTION XVI-10 LIGHTING CONTROL CABINETS .................................................................................. 1-6


1610.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-6

1610.02

Lighting Control Cabinets ............................................................................................................. 1-6

1610.03

Lighting Control Cabinets Supplied by the Department ............................................................... 4-6

1610.04

Underground Lighting Control Cabinets ...................................................................................... 4-6

1610.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 6-6

SECTION XVI-11 ELECTRICAL APPURTENANCES ................................................................................. 1-6


1611.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-6

1611.02

Primary Disconnect Switches ...................................................................................................... 1-6

1611.03

Safety Disconnect Switches (Low Voltage) ................................................................................. 2-6

1611.04

Circuit Breakers (Low Voltage) .................................................................................................... 3-6

1611.05

Fuses ........................................................................................................................................... 3-6

1611.06

Lighting Transformers .................................................................................................................. 3-6

1611.07

Connection of Materials and Equipment Specified Under Other Sections .................................. 4-6

1611.08

Connection of Materials Furnished by ADWEA and by the Department ..................................... 5-6

1611.09

Spares .......................................................................................................................................... 5-6

1611.10

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-6

SECTION XVI-12 INSTALLATION OF MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL WORKS ................................ 1-12


1612.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-12

1612.02

Temporary Protection ................................................................................................................ 1-12

1612.03

Conduit Installation, General...................................................................................................... 1-12

1612.04

Installation of Galvanized Steel Conduits .................................................................................. 1-12

1612.05

Installation of PVC Conduits ...................................................................................................... 2-12

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1612.06

Reinforced Concrete Service Chambers ................................................................................... 2-12

1612.07

PVC Conduit and Concrete Encased Ducts .............................................................................. 3-12

1612.08

Protection of Existing Electric Cables ........................................................................................ 4-12

1612.09

Supply of Cable Covering Tiles.................................................................................................. 5-12

1612.10

Pull Boxes, Type IV .................................................................................................................... 6-12

1612.11

Pull Boxes, Polycarbonate ......................................................................................................... 7-12

1612.12

Measurement and Payment ..................................................................................................... 10-12

SECTION XVI-13 REMOVE AND SALVAGE EXISTING LIGHTING SYSTEM ........................................... 1-2
1613.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

1613.02

Remove and Salvage Existing Lighting System .......................................................................... 1-2

1613.03

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION XVI-14 ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION ...................................................................................... 1-52


1614.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-52

1614.02

Guaranteed Characteristics ....................................................................................................... 2-52

1614.03

Submittals .................................................................................................................................. 2-52

1614.04

Low Voltage (LV) Cable and Accessories ................................................................................. 3-52

1614.05

11 KV and 22 KV Cable ............................................................................................................. 5-52

1614.06

33 KV Cable and Accessories ................................................................................................. 12-52

1614.07

132 KV Cable and Accessories ............................................................................................... 19-52

1614.08

Tests ........................................................................................................................................ 19-52

1614.09

Training .................................................................................................................................... 24-52

1614.10

Cable Installation ..................................................................................................................... 24-52

1614.11

Remove and Salvage Existing Electrical Circuits and Materials ............................................. 44-52

1614.12

Rerouting Existing 132 KV Circuits. ......................................................................................... 45-52

1614.13

Measurement and Payment. .................................................................................................... 46-52

SECTION XVII - TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM .......................................................................................... 1-1


1700.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-1

SECTION XVII-1 EXISTING AND TEMPORARY TRAFFIC SIGNALS ....................................................... 1-3


1701.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

1701.02

General ........................................................................................................................................ 1-3

1701.03

Removal and Disposal ................................................................................................................. 1-3

1701.04

Relocation of Existing CCTV Camera Poles ................................................................................ 2-3

1701.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-3

SECTION XVIII - DAILY WORKS ................................................................................................................. 1-1


1800.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-1

1800.02

Materials, Methods, Standards and Codes .................................................................................. 1-1

1800.03

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 1-1

SECTION XIX - TELEPHONE WORKS ........................................................................................................ 1-7


1900.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-7

1900.02

Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 1-7

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1900.03

Telephone System ....................................................................................................................... 1-7

1900.04

PVC Telephone Conduit, Concrete Encased .............................................................................. 2-7

1900.05

Pull Box - Type IV or Polycarbonate ............................................................................................ 3-7

1900.06

Protection of Existing Telephone Service .................................................................................... 3-7

1900.07

Demolition of Existing Telephone Service Chamber ................................................................... 3-7

1900.08

Extension of Existing Ducts ......................................................................................................... 4-7

1900.09

PVC Telephone Conduit Supplied by the Service Provider ......................................................... 4-7

1900.10

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 5-7

SECTION XX - SEWERAGE WORKS ........................................................................................................ 1-15


2000.01

Description ................................................................................................................................. 1-15

2000.02

Reinforced Concrete Slab Protection ........................................................................................ 1-15

2000.03

Concrete Encased, Split PVC Protection Ducts ........................................................................ 2-15

2000.04

Concrete Surround Protection ................................................................................................... 2-15

2000.05

Contingency Sewer Ducts .......................................................................................................... 3-15

2000.06

General Service Chambers........................................................................................................ 3-15

2000.07

Grease Trap Chamber Adjustment ............................................................................................ 3-15

2000.08

Emergency Sewer Bypass Ducts and End Structures .............................................................. 4-15

2000.09

Reinforced Concrete Slab Protection for GRP Sewerage Pipes ............................................... 6-15

2000.10

Extension of Existing Ducts ....................................................................................................... 8-15

2000.11

Ductile Iron Frames and Covers ................................................................................................ 8-15

2000.12

Measurement and Payment. .................................................................................................... 10-15

SECTION XXI - STREET FURNITURE ......................................................................................................... 1-3


2100.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-3

2100.02

General Construction Requirements ........................................................................................... 1-3

2100.03

Submittals ................................................................................................................................... 2-3

2100.04

Fabrication ................................................................................................................................... 2-3

2100.05

Foundations ................................................................................................................................. 3-3

2100.06

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 3-3

SECTION XXI-1 MATERIALS, GENERAL ................................................................................................... 1-2


2101.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

2101.02

Materials, General ........................................................................................................................ 1-2

2101.03

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

SECTION XXI-2 STREET FURNITURE ITEMS ............................................................................................ 1-2


2102.01

Description ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

2102.02

Sidewalk Benches ........................................................................................................................ 1-2

2102.03

Bus Shelters ................................................................................................................................. 1-2

2102.04

Removal of Existing Bus Shelters ................................................................................................ 1-2

2102.05

Measurement and Payment ......................................................................................................... 2-2

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SECTION I - GENERAL
100.01

Description

The general requirements for road and bridge construction shall be as specified herein and in the
other Contract documents. This Specification supersedes the previous version of the ADM Road
Section Standard Specifications issued in 1997.
The division of these Standard Specifications is for purposes of organizational convenience and
eases of identification and shall not be considered as restrictive or limiting the Works specified in
each Section.

100.02

Standards and Codes

a.

The Codes and Standards referred to in these Standard Specifications are recognized
and accepted as bases for uniform quality and practices. Where they are referred to in
this document the requirements thereof shall apply to the Works. The Contractor shall
not substitute alternative Codes and Standards without prior written approval of the
Engineer.

b.

In this document, reference is made to Codes and Standards by the following


organizations which may be abbreviated as noted:

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1.
2.

AAMA
AASHTO

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

ACI
AIM
AISC
AISI
ANSI
ASTM
AWPA
AWS
BS
CBR
CEE
CP
CRD
CRSI
DIN
EN
FHWA
FS
FTMS
IEC

Architectural Aluminum Manufacturer Association (U.S.)


American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
(U.S.)
American Concrete Institute (U.S.)
Asphalt Institute Manual (U.S.)
American Institute of Steel Construction (U.S.)
American Iron and Steel Institute (U.S.)
American National Standards Institute (U.S.)
American Society for Testing and Materials (U.S.)
American Wood Preserves Association (U.S.)
American Welding Society (U.S.)
British Standards
California Bearing Ratio (U.S.)
International Commission for the Approval of Electrical Equipment
British Standard Code of Practice
Corps of Engineers Specifications (U.S.)
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (U.S.)
Deutsche Industrie Norm.
European Standards
Federal Highway Administration (U.S.)
Federal Specifications (of the U.S.)
Federal Test Method Standards (U.S.)
International Electrotechnical Commission
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23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

IES
IMSA
IPCEA
IFC
ISO
ITE
Mil
NCMA
NEMA
NEN
PCI
SAE
UL
VDE

Illuminating Engineering Society (U.S.)


International Municipal Signal Association
Insulated Power Cables Engineer's Association (U.S.)
International Fire Code
International Organization for Standardization
Institute of Transportation Engineers (U.S.)
Military Specifications (U.S.)
National Concrete Masonry Association (U.S.)
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (U.S.)
Netherlands Specifications
Prestressed Concrete Institute (U.S.)
Society of Automotive Engineers (U.S.)
Underwriters Laboratories (U.S.)
Verin Deutsher Electrotecniter

c.

In all cases, the latest printing or edition, prior to the date of submission of Tender, of the
above-mentioned Codes and Standards and including their published supplements and
amendments, shall be considered applicable to the Works.

d.

Specific Codes and Standards applicable to the work described in Section I are as
follows:
AASHTO
T193

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials


California Bearing Ratio

TCDM

Abu Dhabi City Municipality, Internal Roads and Infrastructure Directorate


Traffic Control Devices Manual

MUTCD

Emirate of Abu Dhabi, Department of Transport


The Abu Dhabi Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices

ANSI
Part 6

American National Standards Institute


Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices

e.

Wherever the words "selected", "as directed", "as required" or words of like effect are
used in these Contract Documents, it is to be understood that the selection, direction or
requirements of the Engineer is intended. Similarly, the words "approved", "satisfactory",
"equal" or words of like import shall mean "approved by", "satisfactory to" or "equal to" as
determined by the Engineer.

f.

Wherever the words "necessary", "proper" or words of like import are used in the
Contract Documents with respect to the extent, conduct or character of work described,
it is to be understood that they shall mean that the said work shall be carried out to the
extent, conducted in a manner, or to be of such character which is "necessary" or
"proper" in the opinion of the Engineer.

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g.

Words bearing the singular only also include the plural and vice versa where the context
requires.

100.03

Application of Document

The contents of these Standard Specifications shall apply to all Works unless it has been expressly
directed in the Particular Specifications to cancel or amend designated Clauses of these Standard
Specifications.

100.04

Materials Found on the Site

Any sand, gravel, or other building materials discovered within the project limits shall be the
property of the Department and shall not be used in the construction of the Works without the prior
consent of the Engineer. This does not apply to materials from designated excavations which may
be used for backfill where approved by the Engineer.

100.05

Insurance Requirements

The Contractor shall defend and save harmless the Department and the Engineer, their agents and
employees, from and against all losses or expense (including costs and attorney's fees) that may
be imposed on them due to the performance of this Contract, in the broadest terms possible. In
accordance with Clauses 17 and 18 of the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction
Works, the Special Conditions of the Contract and Local law, the Contractor, prior to the time of
commencement of the Works and until completion of the Works, including the end of the
Maintenance Period and removal of all remaining materials, supplies and personnel from the
premises, shall provide and maintain in effect, at his own expense, the following types and
amounts of insurance in compliance with terms as stated herein and carried with insurance
companies satisfactory to the Department and as listed in the Instructions to Tenderers. These
types and amounts of insurance will in no way limit the Contractor's full legal responsibility as an
independent contractor.
a.

Worker's Compensation Insurance and Employer's Liability. Workers' Compensation


Insurance and Employer's Liability Insurance for all employees, including occupational
disease, shall have a limit of not less than DH 1,000,000 per person per occurrence.

b.

Comprehensive General Liability Insurance. Comprehensive General Liability Insurance


including Personal Injury, Bodily Injury and Property Damage with a combined single
limit of not less than DH 10,000,000.

c.

Comprehensive Automobile Liability Insurance. Comprehensive Automobile Liability


Insurance including coverage for owned, hired, and non-owned automobiles with a
combined single limit each occurrence for Bodily Injury and Property Damage of at least
DH 4,000,000.

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d.

e.

Contractor's All Risks Insurance. Contractor's All Risks Insurance insuring the Contractor
and its subcontractors of all tiers, the Department and the Engineer against physical
loss or damage to machinery, apparatus, permanent materials, temporary materials
including, but not limited to, temporary forms, temporary structures including contents
thereof, and supplies used in the works being performed.
1.

While in transit (excluding overseas shipments by sea or air) and while


temporarily in warehouses or elsewhere, and

2.

While at the job site and during installation and until the work is completed and
turned over to the Department at the end of the Maintenance Period.

Other Requirements.
1.

Named Insured. For all insurance as set out in these Standard Specifications,
the Department and the Engineer shall be named as additional insured.

2.

Waiver of Subrogation. All policies shall be endorsed to provide that


underwriters and insurance companies of the Contractor shall waive their right
of subrogation against the Department and the Engineer or any of its parent
companies,
subsidiaries,
agents,
employees,
invitees,
servants,
subcontractors, insurers, underwriters and such other parties as they may
designate.

3.

Primary Insurance.
All policies shall be endorsed to provide that
coverage provided by the Contractor's insurance shall always be primary
coverage with respect to any insurance maintained by the Department and the
Engineer.

4.

Notice of Cancellation or Expiry. All policies shall be endorsed to provide that


forty-five (45) days prior written notice shall be given to the Department and
the Engineer in the event of cancellation, expiry or material change in the
policies.

5.

Certificates.
The Contractor shall furnish Certificates of Insurance to the
Department and the Engineer evidencing insurance required herein prior to
the start of any work, and shall furnish true copies of the actual policies to the
Department and the Engineer on or before the date twenty-one (21) days after
award of the Contract by the Department.
Certificates of Insurance shall include specific reference of compliance with all
Items of insurance specified herein. General statements of coverage will not
be acceptable.

6.

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The Contractor shall require its subcontractors and lower tier subcontractors to
provide the same insurance coverages and requirements as described herein
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with limits the Contractor, with approval of the Department and the Engineer,
determines are adequate to insure risks associated with the subcontractors
work.
7.

Insurance for Contractors tendering for this Contract as a single tenderer shall
be issued in the name of the Contractor with the Department and the Engineer
named as additional insured.
Insurance for Joint Venture firms, tendering for this Contract, shall be issued in
the name of the Joint Venture with the Department and Engineer named as
additional insured. All partners to the Joint Venture shall be covered, as if they
were a single entity, at the limits of insurance set forth herein and all partners
of the Joint Venture are responsible, jointly and severally, for keeping the
insurance in force and premiums paid on a current basis. These insurance
requirements, including the types and amounts as specified above, shall
be applicable insofar as they are not in conflict with local laws and regulations
or the specific insurance requirements specified in the Instructions to
Tenderers. In case of discrepancy, the local laws and regulations shall govern,
and the requirements of the Instructions of Tenderers shall take precedence
over this Clause 100.05, Insurance Requirements.

100.06

Rates and Payment

The rates as included in the Bills of Quantities shall include all labour, materials, tools, equipment
and related work as indicated on the Drawings, as specified in all Contract Documents and as
required for providing, complete, the Items required for the construction of the described Works.
All work required and included, but not by way of limitation, in the Instructions to Tenderers,
Tendering Procedure, Particular Specifications, Daily Works Schedule, the Conditions of Contract
in the Field of Construction Works and the Special Conditions of Contract, Standard Specifications
and Drawings, shall be included and are considered as subsidiary obligations under the Items as
described in the Bills of Quantities.
In accordance with the conditions and requirements of the Conditions of Contract in the Field of
Construction Works and the Special Conditions of Contract and all other Contract Documents, the
Department may allow an extension of time for completion of the Works under specified conditions
as approved by the Department. No additional compensation or payment will be made by the
Department for any rate or Item included in the Bills of Quantities during any extension of time for
completion of the Works. All Items shall be furnished, installed, maintained and shall be completed
as approved by the Engineer during the Department-approved extension of time for completion.

100.07

Limits of Work for Utility Relocation

Relocation of utilities shall be extended beyond the Limits of Construction of the Contract where
required for completion of the works and as directed by the Engineer or as shown on the Drawings.
Measurement and payment for utility relocations outside the limits of construction will be made for
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applicable Items in the Bills of Quantities.

100.08

Provisional Items

Provisional Items identified in the Bills of Quantities are items of work requiring prior written
approval from the Department before execution of the work begins. Only items designated as
provisional items in the Bills of Quantities shall be considered as provisional items.
Measurement and payment for provisional items will be at the unit rate included for that particular
item in the Bills of Quantities.

100.09

Site Conditions

Climatic conditions are very severe in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Dust storms are prevalent and
the atmosphere is saliferous, humid and highly corrosive. Humidity is high, maximum relative
humidity being 100 percent and periods of high humidity are long and continuous. Temperatures
are high in summer.
The contractor shall anticipate both short term and long term effects of the local environmental
conditions and shall supply equipment and materials that will withstand and perform satisfactorily
and as intended, under the expected ambient conditions.

100.10

Measurement and Payment

No separate measurement and payment will be made by the Department for the work or details as
described in this Section I, General, of these Standard Specifications. All Items in Section I shall
be considered as subsidiary obligations to the Items in the Bills of Quantities unless otherwise
specified in the Particular Specifications.

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SECTION I - 1
101.01

CONTRACT DOCUMENTS

Description

The Contract Documents for the Works under this Contract shall be as specified herein.

101.02

Contract Documents

The Contract Documents shall be as indicated in Clause 1, General Provisions, in the Conditions
of Contract in the Field of Construction Works, and any other documents issued such as Addenda,
Notices or Bulletins to any Contract Documents during the Tendering or as issued by the
Department.
All these documents as described herein are hereby made a part of and form the Contract.
Notwithstanding the subdivision of these Standard Specifications or the Particular Specifications
into different Sections or Clauses or headings, every part shall be deemed supplementary to and
complementary to every other part and shall be read with them or into them, so far as it may be
practicable to do so.

101.03

Contract Drawings

The Contract Drawings indicate such details as are necessary to give a comprehensive idea
of the Works. Any questions or alterations affecting the requirements or information on the
Contract Drawings shall be submitted in writing to the Engineer and shall be reviewed by the
Engineer.
The Contract Drawings shall be supplemented by working drawings or shop drawings prepared by
the Contractor, which are required for the execution of the Works as specified in the various
Sections of these Standard Specifications or the Particular Specifications and as directed and
approved by the Engineer. These shop drawings shall include, but not be limited to, utility
relocation and protection layout and details, utility contingency duct layout and details, street
lighting layout and details, layout and bending diagrams for reinforcing steel, shop details, and
erection plans. Working drawings prepared by the Contractor for cribs, cofferdams, falsework,
centering and formwork also will be required. Written approval by the Engineer of shop drawings
must be obtained before any work is performed.
The Contractor shall prepare and submit to the Engineer for approval complete shop drawings in
accordance with Clause 7, Plant, Materials and Workmanship, of the Conditions of Contract in the
Field of Construction Works. The shop drawings shall be complete describing all materials,
methods of construction and details of each stage of construction and such other information
required to adequately describe the construction staging.
Shop drawings prepared by the Contractor for relocation or protection works required for utilities
and services shall meet the requirements and approval of the affected government department,
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utility agency or their designated consultant.


Wherever the words 'working drawings' or 'shop drawing' are used in these Contract Documents, it
is to be understood that they shall mean that the said drawings shall be prepared by the Contractor
as specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.
All shop drawings submitted to the Engineer for his approval shall be drawn on A1 or A3 sheets
unless otherwise approved by the Engineer in writing. The shop drawings shall also be submitted
in digital format using design software packages approved by the Engineer. This submittal will
include not only the computer drawing file but also all design files. The Engineer will provide the
Contractor with all relevant computer files at the start of the Contract. Corrections required to shop
drawings shall also be corrected in the computer files and resubmitted for approval. Any
modifications required to the approved shop drawing during the execution of the work will be
updated on the drawing original and the computer files to accurately reflect the work to be
executed and resubmitted for approval.
The Contractor shall submit the digital files regularly at all stages of the project construction in
order to ensure the timely creation of Record Drawings. The contractor shall submit his CADD
standards for approval at the beginning of the project. All shop drawings shall comply with
approved standards and made to scales as required by the Engineer/Agencies. It shall be the
Contractor's responsibility to ensure that all his subcontractors comply with the approved
standards. After the completion of any item of work, it shall be the Contractor's responsibility to
update all shop drawings and the CADD files relevant to that item, to reflect accurately the
works as executed on site. These drawings shall be supplemented with other drawings,
schedules and tabulations together with summaries of quantities and shall be submitted to the
Engineer for his approval. The engineer shall have the right to reject any of the Drawing/CADD
files at any time during the project if either the format or the contents of the Drawing/CADD files
fail to comply with the requirements.
Approval by the Engineer of the Contractor's shop drawings shall not relieve the Contractor of
responsibility for accuracy of dimensions and details, nor shall mutual agreement of dimensions or
details relieve the Contractor of responsibility for agreement and compliance of his working
drawings with the Contract, or constitute any acceptance by the Department of the correctness or
adequacy of such drawings or that they shall meet the requirements of the Contract.
Shop drawings as required or as directed by the Engineer shall be prepared and submitted by the
Contractor sufficiently in advance of their need to permit detailed review by the Engineer and/or
other specified reviewing agencies, taking into account the possibility of rejections, revisions and
resubmittals. Delays to work by reason of lack of approvals of supplemental working drawings and
shop drawings are deemed a risk accepted by the Contractor and no additional compensation will
be made by the Department for such delay.
The elevations indicated on the longitudinal profiles correspond to elevations at the axis of the
road, unless stated otherwise.
The lines indicated on the Drawings denoting location of the existing and proposed utilities or
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services are the approximate locations. The Contractor is not to assume that the locations
indicated are exact and he must confirm the situation and exact locations of these utilities or
services in consultation with the appropriate government departments, utility agencies and their
designated consultants. No additional payment will be made or allowed by the Department for any
damage, howsoever caused in any manner, to any existing utility or service, the location of which
was available for the Contractor to ascertain.
The types, characteristics, and dimensions of the structures are not final and may be subject to
variation or modification by the Engineer. The Engineer will finalize the above-mentioned types,
characteristics and dimensions, informing the Contractor in writing in due time in accordance with
the progress of Works and with the possession of the various parts of the site and with the
approved programme of Works submitted by the Contractor.

101.04

Measurement and Payment

No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the work or details as
described in this Section I-1, Contract Documents, of these Standard Specifications. All Items in
Section I-1 shall be considered as subsidiary obligations to the Items in the Bills of Quantities
unless otherwise specified in the Particular Specifications.

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SECTION I - 2
102.01

CONTRACTOR'S RESPONSIBILITIES

Description

The Contractors responsibilities as specified herein, shall be in addition to those described in the
Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction Works and the Special Conditions of Contract
and all other Contract Documents.
Where the approval of the Engineer is required in the Conditions of Contract in the Field of
Construction Works, the Special Conditions of Contract, these Standard Specifications or any other
Contract Documents, such approval by the Engineer shall not relieve the Contractor of his duties or
responsibilities under the Contract.

102.02

Programme of Works

A Programme of Works shall be submitted by the Contractor to the Engineer in accordance with
Clause 8.3 of the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction Works; and as specified
herein:
a.

General.
1. Summary. Engineer requires that the work be managed using the criteria
outlined in this section.
2.

Definitions.
a) Preliminary work schedule: Along the tender documents, the Contractor
shall submit a preliminary work schedule for the project, and indicating
milestones for the completion of the major activities and structures on each
section.
b) Contract schedule: The schedule submitted by the Contractor
representing the sole work plan for accomplishing the works. Once the
submitted Contract schedule is reviewed and approved by Engineer, it shall be
the baseline schedule document that forms the basis of all measurements of
contact time in the Contract Documents. The Contract schedule may not be
modified other than as called for in this section.
c) Updated progress schedule: A periodic submitted schedule reflecting
current work status of all work activities measured against the latest approved
Contract schedule.
d) Recovery schedule: As called for by this section, a schedule produced by
the Contractor when the updated progress schedule forecasts the Contractor
will not finish the work within the contract time. Once the recovery schedule is
reviewed and approved by Engineer, it shall be considered the Contract

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schedule, and shall be the baseline schedule document that forms the basis of
all measurements of Contract time.
e) As-built schedule: A separate schedule document maintained by the
Contractor that records the actual work activities, their durations, and their
dependencies to all other work activities.
f) Float/negative float: Float for any work activity will be calculated as the
difference in days between the latest finish and its earliest finish. Any such
calculated float which results in a negative number is considered negative
float.
g) Constrained work activity: Shall be any earliest start or finish; or latest
start or finish date of a work activity or milestone date that is set and is not
calculated in the critical path method (CPM) forward or backward pass
calculation. No work activities or milestones on the Contract schedule, or any
other submitted schedule shall utilize constrained work activities unless
expressly approved in writing by Engineer. The only exception is that the
schedule start date may be set to reflect the notice to proceed date.
h) Work activity: Any individual task of work shown on a submitted
schedule which requires time and resources (manpower, equipment, materials,
etc.) to be completed in a continuous operation.
i) Milestone: An element on the schedule that reflects the planned point in
time for the start or finish of one or more work activities.
j) Look-ahead schedule: A schedule based on the updated progress schedule
which shows the current portion of the schedule. The current portion of the
schedule shall be as requested by Engineer to understand the status and
planning of the work.
k) Change order fragnet schedule: A schedule submitted anytime by the
Contractor for the adjustment in the Contact time. Change order fragnet
schedule shall be based on the applicable portion of the Contract schedule
which is claimed to be impacted, necessitating an extension of the contact
time. All modifications to the Contract schedule work activities and their
associated information (including duration, logic, manpower, etc.) shall be
clearly identified but, the Contract schedule information shall be retained for
comparison. Change order fragnet schedule shall have starting and ending
work activities or milestones from the Contract schedule which are unchanged,
(same logic constraints, duration, and resources) and shall clearly identify
them.
l) Critical work activity: Work activity which, if delayed, will delay the
scheduled completion of the work (i.e., work activities which comprise the path

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of least total float). All other work activities are defined as non-critical and
considered to have float.
m) Material or equipment delivery: Any material and/or equipment delivery
which, if delayed, will result in an extension to the completion of the work.
3.

Requirements
a) The Contractor shall observe in his schedule the interface with any
adjacent projects and shall coordinate with other Contractors in this regard.
b) The Contractors personnel which prepare the schedules called for by this
section shall be qualified and experienced in CPM scheduling with the
specified products of this section; and capable of fulfilling the requirements of
this section. The Contractor shall hire a qualified consultant to prepare and
maintain the Contract schedule, or if qualified, the Contractor may perform these
services with their own organization. The Contractor shall provide
documentation of scheduling experience for Engineers approval.
c) The Contract schedule shall be used by Engineer in their review of requests
by the Contractor for modification of the Contract time in accordance with the
Contract Documents. Responsibility for developing the Contract schedule and
monitoring of actual progress in relation to the Contract time rests solely with the
Contractor. Failure of the Contractor to schedule any element of the work or any
inaccuracy in the Contract schedule, regardless if Engineer has reviewed
and approved such schedule, will not relieve the Contractor from its obligation
to complete the Works within the Contract time. The Contractor warrants that
the Contract schedule is the Contractors committed work plan to complete the
work within the Contract time, and that the Contractor assumes full
responsibility for the execution of the work. Engineers review of and response
to schedule submissions shall not be construed as relieving the Contractor of
its complete and exclusive control over the means, methods, sequences,
and techniques for execution of the work.
d)

Any submitted schedule showing negative float will be rejected by Engineer.

e) All requirements of the Contract schedule shall also apply to the preliminary
Contract schedule, the recovery schedule, update progress schedule, change
order fragnet schedule, and as-built schedule.
f) Acceptance of the Contract schedule will be a condition precedent to making
any progress payment for work performed.
g) All work activities shall be of sufficient detail to provide identification of all
components utilized in executing, monitoring and evaluating progress of the
work.

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h) Work activity descriptions shall briefly cover the scope of work indicated.
Work activities shall be discrete items of work that must be accomplished under
the Contract and constitute definable, recognizable elements within the project.
All work activities shall have a defined duration. All durations shall be in
multiples of working days.
i) All work activities shall have appropriate durations allowing measurement of
their progress. In general, if the reasonableness of an estimate of progress
against a proposed work activity cannot be sufficiently measured, a work
activity shall be broken into multiple work activities such that monitoring of
actual progress versus planned progress can be ascertained.
j) Individual work activities shall have a duration of 14 working days or less.
Engineer may approve use of longer work activity durations on non-construction
activities including the procurement and fabrication of materials and equipment,
and review period for submittals.
k)

Work activities should include, but not be limited to:


1)

All design and pre-construction activities.

2)

All design and construction work deliverables.

3) Milestones for start and completion of each stage of design and


construction work.
4) Milestones for the required supply of Engineer and third-party
information.
5)

Milestones for Engineer and third-party review.

6)

The submittal and approval of:

7)

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Permit applications.

Material samples.

Shop drawings.

Working drawings.

Test and inspection documents.

Safety and security plans.

Worksite control plans.

Utility point of connection installations.

Procurement and delivery of long lead time materials and equipment.

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8)

Fabrication of special equipment and materials.

9)

Required delivery dates of Engineer furnished items.

10) Mobilization of personnel and equipment.


11) Milestones for the start and completion of each phase of Contract
Works.
12) All significant activities in the construction and installation of Contract
Works.
13) Installation and testing of special equipment and materials.
14) Engineer work activities that potentially affect the critical path.
15) Third-party work activities that potentially affect the critical path.
16) Commission work activities.
17) Contract close-out activities including punch lists.
18) Production of operations and maintenance manuals.
l) Work activities shall include all design and construction work deliverables
including all submittals called for in the scope of work; and shall include: the
submittal and approval of permit applications (as necessary); samples of
materials; shop drawings; working drawings; testing and inspections; safety and
security plans; worksite control plans; utility company point-of connection
installations; and, applications.
m) Work activities shall be included for procurement of materials and
equipment potentially impacting the critical path, fabrication of special materials
and equipment and their installation and testing, and delivery of Engineerfurnished items. Engineer work activities that may become critical work activities
shall be reflected, as well as, work activities by utilities and other similarly
involved third-parties associated with the work.
n) The Contract schedule shall include, but not be limited to the following
work activities or milestones: all design and preconstruction activities; specific
milestones for the start and completion for each stage of the work; specific
milestones when Engineer or third-party information and reviews are
required; submittal dates; production milestones; early purchasing; key
deliverables in the scope of work; start of tenant programming (as applicable);
milestone for each Contract phase; mobilization of personnel and
equipment, when required; sequence of operations; commissioning work
activities; procurement of materials and equipment; and all Contract close-out
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work activities such as punch (deficiency) list and operations and maintenance
manuals.
o) The critical work activities shall be identified including critical paths for
Contract interim and final completion milestone dates.
p) All work activities shall be coded as called for in Section c. Execution
below. All work activities shall be coded at a minimum to reflect which Contract
phase they are associated with. Any work activity that may be involved in
multiple phases shall be broken into separate work activities to reflect each
phase such work occurs in, allowing work activities to be grouped by Contract
phase.
q) The Contractor shall not sequester float through strategies including
extending work activity duration estimates to consume available float, using
preferential logic, using extensive or insufficient crew/resource loading, using
float suppression techniques, special lead/lag logic constraints (unless
specifically requested in writing to Engineer and are approved). Use of float
time disclosed or implied by the use of alternate float suppression techniques
shall not be for the exclusive use or benefit of either Engineer or the
Contractor. It is acknowledged that Engineer-caused or Contractor-caused
time savings to work activities on or near the critical path will increase float.
Such increase in float shall not be for the exclusive use or benefit of either
Engineer or the Contractor.
r) The Contractor shall be required to follow the construction sequences as
outlined on the network diagrams since the logic represents his actual plan of
operation. Major revisions due to detailed study of construction problems,
major changes which effect sequences; and related considerations shall be
incorporated into the network diagram if approved by the Engineer and the
Department and on an as-required basis.
s) For all schedule submittals the Contractor shall submit both paper copy as
instructed by Engineer; and provide an electronic file copy on CD-ROM disk, or
USB stick, clearly labeled with submittal description and date; and containing
an exact copy of the hardcopy submittal. All file information shall be written to
disk via utilizing the Primavera project planner back-up utility tools.
b. Products. Only the current versions of Primavera software are the acceptable software
for use.
c.

Execution.
1. General. The Contractor is responsible for determining the sequence of
activities, the time estimates for the detailed construction activities and the means,
methods, techniques, and procedures to be employed. The Contract schedule shall
represent the Contractors plan how it will execute the work in compliance with the

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Contract requirements. The Contractor shall ensure that the Contract schedule is
current and accurate, and is properly and timely monitored, updated, and revised as
project conditions may require and as required by the Contract Documents.
2. Schedules Required.
a)

The primary objectives of the requirements of this section are:


1) To ensure adequate planning and execution of the work by the
Contractor.
2) To assist Engineer in evaluating progress (including value earned and
progress payment) of the work.
3) To provide for optimum coordination by the Contractor of its trades,
Subcontractors, and suppliers, and performing the work or services
provided by any separate contractors.
4) To permit the timely prediction or detection of events or
occurrences which may affect the completion of the work within the time
allowed by the Contract Documents.
5) To provide a mechanism or tool for use by Engineer and the
Contractor in determining and monitoring any actions of the Contractor
which may be required in order to comply with the requirements of the
Contract Documents relating to the completion of the various portions of the
work by the Contact time specified in the Contract Documents.

b)

Submit the following schedules:


1) The Contractor shall submit, to the Engineer for approval, a
programme showing the order as to the procedure and method in which he
proposes to carry out the Works and shall, whenever required by the
Engineer, furnish written particulars of the Contractors arrangements for
carrying out the Works and of the Construction Plant and Temporary Works
which the Contractor intends to supply, use, or construct, as the case may
be. The submission to and approval by the Engineer of such programme,
or the furnishing of such particulars, shall not relieve the Contractor of any
of his duties or responsibilities under this Contract.
2) Project schedules (baseline and update, impacted, and recovery)
including (90) days look-ahead schedule.
3) Schedule for submittal of all shop drawings, product data, and
samples.
4)

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Product supply delivery schedules.


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5)

Commissioning schedule.

6)

Project close-out activities including demobilization.

7) Activity codes shall include areas responsibility, phase, and other


codes as approved by Engineer.
8) Other schedules as may be required by Engineer on an as-required
basis to further define performance and/or coordination of the work or for
other reasonably required purpose.
3. Format.
a) Prepare the construction schedule using the current versions of Primavera
software as approved by the Engineer. No other form of schedule is acceptable.
b) The Contractor shall include in the Contract schedule all interface points
with Engineer, consultants, suppliers, and other contractors. These points shall
be in the form of start milestones for deliveries due to the Contractor from
others, and as finish milestones for deliveries that the Contractor must supply to
Engineer, Engineers consultants, Contractors suppliers, and other
contractors.
4. Submission.
a) Within 14 calendar days after award of Contract, the Contractor shall
submit its Contract schedule resource-loaded and cost-loaded. The Contractor
shall submit five hard copies and one electronic copy on CD Rom or USB stick
to Engineer. The schedule shall show the sequence and interdependence of
activities required for complete performance of the work. The schedule shall
show all activities in workdays with allowance for public holidays. The purpose
is to be able to assess progress towards completion of project deliverables
and milestones as approved by Engineer. The Contractor shall submit further
breakdown of cost loading into labour and material equipment, if requested by
Engineer.
b) The schedule must be cost-loaded using Primaveras budget field. The costloading must equal the fee portion of the project. The baseline cost S-curve
(cash flow) shall be submitted for Engineers approval.
c) The schedule must be resource-loaded to reflect the man-hours budgeted for
the activities using Primaveras resource field. The resource (man-hour) S-curve
shall be submitted for Engineers approval.
d) Planning Documents shall be submitted with the schedule. This will
include, but is not be limited to:
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1) A narrative: bid packaging / phasing plan, zoning chart, staging


diagram, scope and sequencing of all tasks to meet the completion
schedule, and all other pertinent information that the Contractor needs to
demonstrate understanding of the scope of work, teaming, and
participation. The narrative shall include sign-off by all major
Subcontractors indicating they participated in the schedules
development.
2)

Quantity loading of BOQ by month up to Item level.

3)

Key activities quantities per month.

4)

Cost monthly distribution of BOQ items.

5)

Cost monthly distribution of BOQ by Bill.

6)

All resources histograms.

7)

Cash Flow S-Curve.

e) The schedule shall show all information and approval times required by
Engineer. All other approvals, permits, and information provided by governing
agencies shall be integrated into the schedule.
f) Include the dates for the commencement and completion of each major
element of construction within each area of the place of the work.
g) The schedule shall allow 14 calendar days for Engineer to review and
approve or reject the Contract schedule submission in writing. Failure by the
Contractor to get an approved Contract schedule will affect progress payments.
The Contract schedule will be used to validate all progress payments.
Therefore, the Contractor should first acquire an approved Contract schedule
and then update the schedule for progress payments. The Contractor must
submit monthly schedules and reports with the monthly invoice.
h) Should Engineer reject the Contractors submission of the project schedule,
the Contractor shall comply with Engineers direction and resubmit the project
schedule and all associated submissions within seven days. Failure to do so
may result in withholding progress payments.
i)

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The Contractor shall distribute copies of the accepted schedule to:


1)

Job site office.

2)

Engineer.

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j) At each weekly progress meeting, the Contractor shall present a three


week look-ahead schedule based on the approved Contract schedule. This
schedule shall show the previous weeks scheduled activities, the present
weeks scheduled activities, the future three weeks scheduled activities, and
all critical material/equipment delivery dates pertinent to the dates being
discussed.
k) At the first weekly progress meeting per month, the Contractor shall
present a twelve week look-ahead schedule based on the approved Contract
schedule.
l) Recipients of the schedules shall report to the Contractor, within five days,
any problems anticipated by the time lines and critical dates shown in the
schedule.
m) Update progress schedules weekly or on an as-required basis. Schedules
shall include, but not be limited to:
1) Time scaled bar chart, listed by division of Work, by item, by section,
or by location,
2) Critical Path Listing: Early start of activities with less than ten (10)
days of total float.
3)

ES (early start) sort with total float tabular report,

4) Show projected percentage of completion of each item as of the update


date,
5) Written narrative reflecting progress to date, description of critical path,
and the amount of float,
6) A brief description of any delays experienced by the Contractor during
reporting period,

n)

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7)

Any change of manpower, and

8)

Any potential delays, hindrances, and/or disruptions.

Reports shall include, but not be limited to:


1)

Time scale diagram,

2)

Total float report,

3)

Three-week look ahead (as described in Item No. J above).

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4) Detailed report of any revisions to activity listing, duration, and logic


from the original approved baseline schedule,
5) Produce reports using commercially available software to compare
schedules such as Digger report or any compatible products with the
Primavera product line, and
6)

Currently approved baseline schedule.

o) Revise and resubmit schedules and work plan five days after notification by
Engineer that previously reviewed schedules are not being met. No revisions to
the schedule shall be made without approval from Engineer.
p) Whenever it becomes apparent that any critical activity completion dates
may not be met by cause of the Contractor, the Contractor shall take any or all
of the following actions at no additional cost to Employer. Increase the number of
personnel; increase the number of hours worked per shift or per day or
reschedule activities to achieve maximum practical concurrence to place the
work back on schedule.
q) Delivery schedule must be continuously updated and submitted to
Engineer for review and coordination with site activities.
5. Work Plan.
a) The Contractor shall provide a work plan for each key activity, as
requested by Engineer, to show construction methods. Relate the work plan to
activities shown on the construction schedule.
b) The Contractor shall conduct a pre-work coordination meeting prior to the
start of the work in each work zone or where a change in the construction
operations is contemplated.
c) The Contractor shall include in its baseline schedule and all progress
schedules, allowances for normal inclement weather.

102.03

Plant, Equipment and Labour

The Contractor shall submit with his Programme of Works a detailed list of plant, equipment and
labour which he undertakes to provide onsite to carry out the Works. This list shall be as complete
as possible and shall satisfy the Engineer as to its compatibility with the Programme of Works.
The list shall include for each item of plant and equipment the type, manufacturer, model,
identification number and year of manufacture. The list shall include for labour the classifications
and number for each classification.
The Contractor shall bring on the site of the Works all of the items listed and such other equipment
as may be required to expedite and complete the Works and in no case thereafter shall the
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Contractor remove from the site any item of plant or equipment, or portions thereof, without the
written consent of the Engineer.
All plant and equipment necessary for the construction of any type or section of the Works must be
on site and inspected and approved by the Engineer prior to the commencement of that particular
type or section of the Works. Any plant or equipment or portion thereof which becomes worn or
defective shall be immediately repaired or replaced to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

102.04

Limits and Access to and Use of Site

Subject to any exceptions stated in the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction Works,
the Special Conditions of Contract, these Standard Specifications, the Particular Specifications, or
hereafter, the limits of the site shall be the limits of the areas or Works forming part of the Contract.
Access to the site is generally available from adjoining public highways, roadways, or as indicated
on the Drawings, but in the event access is not available as indicated on the Drawings, the
Contractor shall obtain such land as may be required and construct, maintain and remove such
access roads as may be required for his construction operations and as directed by the Engineer.
Such access or temporary roads constructed by the Contractor for his use shall not be constructed
for use as public detours. No separate payment will be made by the Department for such access or
temporary roads.
The preparation, construction and maintenance of temporary roads from the main town roads to
the site and temporary roads within the site area shall be the Contractor's responsibility. The
Contractor shall take such measures as are necessary and as are directed by the Engineer to
reduce and control any dust nuisance within the site, including spraying temporary roads with
water.
The Contractor shall not disturb, damage or pull down any hedge, tree or building either within or
outside the site areas without the written consent of the Engineer unless otherwise indicated on the
Drawings or specified in the Contract Documents.
As may be prescribed in the Contract or directed by the Department, the extent of portions of the
site that the Contractor is to be given possession of and the order in which such portions shall be
made available to him are subject to any requirements in the Contract and as to the order in which
the Works shall be executed. The Department will, with a written order to commence the Works,
give to the Contractor possession of so much of the site as may be required to enable the
Contractor to commence and proceed with the construction of the Works in accordance with the
Programme referred to in Clause 8.3 of the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction
Works. The Contractor shall submit a written notice and request to the Department to make
available to the Contractor such further portions of the Site as may be required to enable the
Contractor to proceed with the construction of the Works with due dispatch in accordance with the
said Programme.
The Contractor shall, in all cases, maintain a free passageway along existing highways, roads and
footpaths for vehicles and pedestrians where construction operations are in progress, unless he
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shall first obtain the written consent of the Department to close the route. The Contractor shall
provide and maintain proper and safe passages across all open excavations at all necessary
places on the site and wheresoever directed by the Engineer. In case of private or public lands, the
Department will provide a right-of-way along which the works are to be carried out and the
Contractor shall confine the whole of the works' materials, plant and workmen to such right-of-way.

102.05

Land for Contractor's Use

The Contractor shall be responsible for providing an area within the site or adjacent areas of land
on which to situate his Site Offices as well as the Engineer's Site Office Facilities and the Site
Laboratories. This portion of the site area or adjacent areas of land shall be of sufficient area for
the placement of the buildings, covered and open parking areas for all vehicles, provisions for
covered and open outside storage and such other facilities as directed by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall provide and make all arrangements inclusive of payment for any land he
may require for purposes in accordance with the requirements of the Contract Documents. The
Department will not accept any liability in connection with such land. The Contractor shall furnish
the Engineer copies of permits or lease agreements to such land.
The Contractor shall bear all expenses and charges for special or temporary easements required
by him in connection with access to the site.

102.06

Storage, Workshops, Sheds and Living Quarters

The Contractor shall comply with the requirements of the Conditions of Contract in the Field of
Construction Works, the Special Conditions of Contract, and all Contract Documents pertaining to
storage, workshops, sheds, living quarters and similar temporary facilities as required during the
construction of the Works.
The Contractor shall be responsible for providing an area, or areas, for his plant, stores,
compound, workshops, head offices, housing for staff and labour, and similar items, within or
adjacent to the site of the Works as approved by the Engineer and proper local authorities. The
Contractor shall provide constantly available labour, transport and materials to maintain, as
directed by the Engineer, the cleanliness and tidiness of the site and to attend to the protection
and temporary covering and barricading of open excavations, trenches, pits and other hazards to
safety.
The Contractor shall provide and maintain all necessary temporary weatherproof buildings for
storage and protection of plant, goods and materials on site and other work that may be brought or
executed on the site including the tools and materials of subcontractors. All sheds shall have
floors raised above the ground.
The Contractor shall remain responsible for protection of all materials until the completed Works
are handed over to the Department.
The areas on the site or adjacent areas permitted for the use of the Contractor shall be used under
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conditions as approved by the Engineer. All such areas shall be restored, as approved by the
Engineer, at the completion of the Works.
The Contractor shall provide protection against all weather conditions, including but not by way of
limitation, rain, wind, storms, or heat, to maintain the Works, materials, apparatus, and
fixtures free from injury or damage.
All protection from the weather shall be subject to
approval by the Engineer. Work likely to be damaged shall be covered at the end of each day's
work. The Contractor shall refer to all Sections of these Standard Specifications and the Particular
Specifications for the specific protection required.

102.07

Setting Out the Works

The Contractor shall comply with the requirements of Clause 4.7, Setting Out, in the Conditions of
Contract in the Field of Construction Works, the Special Conditions of the Contract and as
specified herein.
The Contractor shall be responsible for the true and proper setting out of the Works in
relation to original points, lines and levels of reference given on the Drawings and for the accuracy
of the positions, levels, dimensions, or alignment of all parts of the Works and for any delay or loss
resulting from errors made in completing the setting out of the Works and for the provision of all
necessary instruments, appliances and labour in connection therewith. In the event that at any
time during the progress of the Works, any error shall appear or arise in the position, levels,
dimensions, or alignment of any part of the Works, the Contractor, on being required to do so by
the Engineer, shall at his own cost rectify such error to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
Setting out shall not be commenced until the Contractor obtains approval by the Engineer of shop
drawings pertaining to such setting out as specified in Clause 101.03, Contract Drawings, of
these Standard Specifications.
The Contractor shall give the Engineer not less than 24 (twenty-four) hours notice of his intention
to set out or give levels for any parts of the Works, in order that arrangements may be made for
checking.
The Contractor shall set out the work and secure the Engineer's approval of his setting out before
proceeding with construction. If, in the opinion of the Engineer, modification of the line or
grade is advisable, before or after setting out, the Engineer will issue detailed instructions to the
Contractor for such modification and the Contractor shall revise the setting out for further
approval. The Contractor shall not be entitled to any additional payment or extension of time in
the event of any such modifications.
Excavations shall not be commenced until the permission of the Engineer s obtained.
The Contractor shall give the Engineer reasonable notice of his intention to set out or take levels
for any part of the work to enable the Engineer to be present and check levels in conjunction
with the Contractor. The Contractor shall check the whole of the dimensions and levels on site
and if any discrepancy is found between the Drawings and conditions on site, he shall notify the
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Engineer immediately and request instructions.


The Contractor shall, as a requirement of the Contract and without extra charge, provide all
necessary transportation, instruments, appliances, surveying personnel and labour, and any
other material or staging which the Engineer may require for checking the setting out or for any
relevant work to be done. As a minimum, this would be in the form of two fully qualified surveying
crews with the needed transportation, on a full time basis, all as required and approved by the
Engineer. Any marks made by the Engineer or Contractor shall be carefully preserved and, if
destroyed, shall be replaced by the Contractor at his own expense and to the approval of the
Engineer. Work shall be suspended for the time necessary for checking the lines and levels on
any part of the Works.
Bench-marks, monuments, survey beacons, or similar items, temporary or permanent, on or
adjacent to the site shall be adequately protected to prevent them from being disturbed. No
beacons, pegs, stakes, or similar items, either existing on the site or fixed for the purpose of the
Works, are to be disturbed without approval of the Engineer. If any existing ground control
survey markers conflict with the permanent works, in such a manner that it cannot be
protected and maintained undisturbed, the Contractor shall relocate the marker to a new
location approved by the Engineer and establish new coordinates and datum for the new
location. The Contractor shall submit a drawing showing the proposed protection provisions or
new location, coordinates, and elevation of any relocated markers, and with the approval of the
Engineer, the drawing will be forwarded to the relevant authorities for transmittal to various
agencies. The Contractor shall be aware of Government laws governing the destruction of such
bench marks, monuments, survey beacons, or similar items and the penalties associated
therewith.
In the event bench-marks, monuments, beacons, or similar items are destroyed or obliterated for
any reason it shall nevertheless remain the Contractor's responsibility to ensure that the works
are constructed to the levels and alignments indicated on the Drawings.
The Contractor shall set out all radii or circular kerbs located at street intersections, access road
intersections, ramp intersections, traffic islands, median terminal nosings and any other
locations where kerbs will be constructed along short radius curves.
In the event radius points cannot be set out for such locations due to obstructions, the Contractor
shall use the tangent-offset method or other method as approved by the Engineer for such setting
out.

102.08

Notice of Operations

No Permanent Works shall be commenced and carried out without the consent in writing of the
Engineer. Full and complete notice, also in writing, shall be given to the Engineer sufficiently in
advance of the operations and in no case shall this notice be given less than 30 days before
commencing work in any area. Such notice shall enable the Engineer to make arrangements as he
may deem necessary for the proper execution of the Permanent Works. The Contractor shall not
open up any areas of construction without giving proper notice to the Engineer as described
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herein.

102.09

Templates

Sufficient metal templates shall be provided and used by the Contractor to control the correct
shaping of the finished surface of concrete or other materials of the Works. These templates shall
be of dimensions which may be indicated on the Drawings, but in any case sample templates
shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval. The Contractor shall supply templates to the
design indicated on the Drawings or submit an alternative design for approval by the Engineer.
The templates shall be made available to the Engineer for his use on the site when requested by
the Engineer. All templates shall be checked from time to time and, if necessary, repaired or
corrected as directed by the Engineer.
In addition to the templates for cross-sections, straight edges three metres long shall be provided
in sufficient number to control the longitudinal dimensions of the work.

102.10

Materials, Equipment and Supplies

a. General. The Contractor shall comply with Clause 7, Plant, Materials and Workmanship,
of the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction Works, the Special Conditions of
Contract and as specified herein regarding approval of all materials, equipment and
supplies. All materials, equipment, supplies and related items incorporated in the
Permanent Works shall be new and shall comply with the requirements of all Contract
Documents and shall be approved by the Engineer in writing. However, approval in writing
by the Engineer of a source does not guarantee the acceptance of the material, equipment
or supply from that source. Acceptance of such materials, equipment or supply shall be
based on testing of samples.
The Contractor shall, when requested by the Engineer and before placing any order for
materials, equipment, supplies or other related items to be incorporated in the Permanent
Works, submit for the approval of the Engineer a complete description and details of such
items together with the names of firms from whom he proposes to obtain such items
including source, delivery dates, catalogue numbers, and related data. When directed by
the Engineer, samples shall be submitted for testing and approval by the Engineer prior to
placement of orders for such materials, equipment or supplies. No materials are to be
ordered or obtained from any firm which the Engineer has not previously approved in
writing.
The Contractor shall be entirely responsible for any costs incurred related to the testing
or inspection of any and all materials for the Works, as required by the Engineer. These
costs shall include, but not be limited to, transportation, accommodation and any other
related costs directly or indirectly incurred by the Engineer or his representative.
The review period by the Engineer of all materials submitted for approval shall be up to
thirty days, with an additional period where review by other agencies is specified. The
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Contractor should plan his materials submittal schedule accordingly as any delays due to
lack of materials approval shall be the sole responsibility of the Contractor.
The Contractor shall be responsible for securing all materials and equipment in the
quantities and types required for the Works from any source whatsoever, and the
Department does not guarantee the availability of all or any materials at the local markets.
All materials, equipment, and similar items supplied by the Contractor shall be
considered, upon their arrival on site, as reserved for the Works and shall not be used
in other projects. Said materials, equipment, and similar items shall not be removed from
the site without the written approval of the Engineer.
b. Testing for Material Approvals. All testing which cannot be conducted in the site
laboratory shall be conducted at a laboratory designated by Abu Dhabi City Municipality
(ADM). The Contractor shall pay the designated laboratory for such testing as per the
published established rates.
c. Conformity Testing of Materials.
1. General. The Standard Specifications shall form the basis for procedures
regarding conformity testing of materials and products. All materials specifications
and applicable standards for testing shall be as stipulated in the Standard
Specifications and the Particular Specifications. All conformity tests shall be performed
by a laboratory designated by ADM, independently without any third part witnessing,
unless approved otherwise by ADM management.
2. Testing at a Laboratory Designated by Abu Dhabi City Municipality. For those
materials not possible to be tested in the site laboratory, testing shall be conducted in
a laboratory designated by ADM in the required quantity and frequency, which shall
be paid for by the Contractor as per the latest published rates. For such type of
tests, no additional conformity testing shall be required.
For conformity purposes with regard to all testing that can be performed in the
site laboratory, approximately 10% of each type of test shall be performed in a
laboratory designated by ADM, which shall be paid for by the Contractor as per
the latest published rates. For specialized materials and/or products where the
specified frequency of testing is limited, the quantity of conformity tests shall be as
determined by ADM Material Quality Section (MQS).
For all materials and/or products to be tested for conformity, sampling shall be
performed only by the Engineer in coordination with ADM MQS.
3. Testing at Other Facilities. Any materials and/or products that cannot be tested in a
laboratory designated by ADM, for whatever reason, shall be tested in an
independent Third Party Laboratory, as approved by the Engineer and ADM MQS.
The Contractor shall bear all costs related to such testing. The Engineer and ADM

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MQS shall decide on the procedures for sampling of such materials and/or
products. For such types of tests, no additional conformity tests shall be required.
4. For specialized materials and/or products that are not covered with specific
details in the Contract Documents, the approved materials manufacturers
specifications shall form the basis for conformity verification.
5. Defects. In case of defects or discrepancies of delivered materials and/or products
are noted on site, the Engineer and/or ADM MQS shall have the right to increase the
frequency of testing as well as the quantity of conformity testing, with all applicable
charges fully borne by the Contractor.
6. In case the Contractor disputes any tests performed by the laboratory designated
by ADM, he shall have the right to call for a retest in his presence. However, all
charges for such retests shall be fully borne by the Contractor.
7. Testing Requirements. The Materials/Products Specification and Test
Requirements shall be as indicated in the Contract Documents and Standard
Specifications.
The information to be presented shall be:
1)

Materials names and applicable tests.

2)

Compliance Specifications.

3)

Compliance Limit or Condition.

4)

Tolerance on Limit or Condition.

5)

Testing Standards.

6)

Frequency of Routine QC Tests.

7)

Frequency of Conformity Tests.

8. Progress Reports. The Contractor shall prepare a Progress Report on Routine


Quality Control and Conformity Tests Performed. The report shall be prepared on a
periodic basis and maintained in the site laboratory for presentation to ADM MQS
staff during site inspection and conformity sampling. These reports shall be in a
format approved by the Engineer and ADM MQS and include the following information.

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1)

Materials names and applicable tests.

2)

Required test frequency.

3)

Quantity of materials used.


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4)

Quantity of tests required.

5)

Quantity of test conducted.

6)

Percentage compliance.

9. In-Situ Testing. For in-situ special tests such as soil investigation testing, pile
load test, pile integrity test, plate bearing test, pavement roughness test, etc. the
Engineer shall provide advance notification to the ADM MQS, who shall decide on the
need for witnessing. This shall be at the ADM MQSs own discretion.

102.11

Substitute and Alternative Materials

In the event that certain materials prove to be unobtainable during the execution of the
Contract and the Contractor desires to substitute another material, article or product for the
material, article or product specified, the Contractor shall submit such requests in writing to the
Engineer. The request shall be complete with all data, samples, particulars and details as
required by all Contract Documents and as required by the Engineer. Further, the Contractor shall
state the credit involved for the use of such material, article or product. In the event that such
approval by the Engineer shall reduce the cost for the material, article, or product, the resulting
reduced cost shall be to the benefit of the Department.
If, however, such approval results in additional expense, then such extra expense shall be borne
by the Contractor. In case the alternative or substitute material is rejected, the Contractor shall not
be relieved of any of his obligations under the Contract and shall bear the full responsibility for any
delay or loss that may arise from his failure in obtaining the required materials.
The Engineer will be the sole judge as to whether or not a proposed substitute is comparable or
equal to the specified material or equipment and his judgment will be final.

102.12

Water Supply

The Contractor shall comply with the requirements of Clause 4.19, Electricity, Water and Gas, in
the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction Works and the Special Conditions of
Contract regarding water for the Works and as specified herein.
All water delivered to the site shall be potable, clear, fresh and free from oil, acids, alkalies, organic
matter and other deleterious substances.
The Contractor shall be responsible for providing all the water required for the Works and sufficient
storage capacity shall be installed on the site to ensure an uninterrupted supply at sufficient
delivery pressure for all purposes.
The Contractor shall similarly be responsible for and pay all charges in connection with supplies of
drinking water which shall be provided to all site offices.
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The Contractor will not be permitted to drill his own wells in adjacent areas or on the site of the
Works and shall make his own arrangements for the supply and transport of water to be used for
the Works.

102.13

Existing Utilities and Services

a. General.
The existing utilities and services indicated on the Drawings are for
informational purposes only and do not necessarily show exact locations, depths,
spacings, smaller branches of utilities and services which are not normally indicated on
such Drawings, nor possible existence of other underground utilities and services.
The Contractor shall uncover and verify the existence and location of all underground
utilities and/or services in the field before starting the Works. The Contractor shall
examine all records of each utility or service to determine the existence and location of
any underground utilities and/or services. Excavation on the site in the vicinity of existing
structures, utilities and/or services shall be carefully performed by manual excavation. The
Contractor shall perform all manual (hand) excavation and other work which is required to
locate existing utilities or services within the limits of the Contract or at off- site locations
in accordance with the requirements as specified in Clause 205.04, Manual Excavation, of
these Standard Specifications and as directed by the Engineer.
The existing utilities and services to be located by manual excavation shall include, but
not be limited to, all sewers, water mains and lines, gas mains, oil lines, electric (both
power and lighting), telephone, irrigation and such others as may be encountered under
this Contract or at off-site locations.
b. Notification. The Contractor shall obtain the latest version of the directive or
instructions of the Services Coordination Committee "Procedure for Notice of Intent."
The Contractor shall comply with the requirements of the Services Coordination
Committee and as specified herein.
The Contractor shall notify in writing all appropriate government departments, utility
agencies and any designated utility consultants as required but in no case shall such
notification be made less than four weeks before commencing any work. The Contractor
shall include with the written notice a detailed programme for each work area within the
site and scheduled dates for commencing work in each area. The Contractor shall furnish
copies of the above described notices to the Engineer.
The Contractor shall comply with the local law and provisions of these Standard
Specifications concerning the safety and protection of utility lines.
The Contractor shall deliver copies of Notices of Intent by hand to the appropriate
government departments, utility agencies and their designated consultants and shall obtain
a signed receipt from the recipients of the Notice of Intent and copies of signed receipts of
their delivery shall be furnished to the Engineer.
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The Contractor shall furnish to the Engineer copies of all correspondence between the
Contractor and the government departments, utility agencies and their designated
consultants concerning all matters relating to the services.
The Contractor shall not commence work in any work area of the site until a written
approval or no objection is obtained from all the government departments, utility agencies
and any designated utility consultant. The Contractor shall furnish copies of such written
approvals to the Engineer.
The Contractor shall not work in any area where services are still covered. The Engineer
shall have the right to stop the work in any part of the Works where the Contractor fails to
take the necessary measures to uncover the utilities and the Contractor shall not claim
for additional compensation in time or additional money unless specifically approved in
writing by the Engineer.

102.14

Interruption of Supplies or Services, Charges for Damages

The Contractor shall not interfere with supplies and services of whatsoever nature such as but
not limited to water, electric power and light, telephone, buried cables and sewerage. If any such
supply or service is damaged as the result of the Contractor's operations, the Contractor shall
report it to the owner of the supply or service immediately.
The Contractor shall be responsible for any damages caused to such supplies or services as the
result of his operations and shall fully indemnify and keep indemnified the Department, Engineer
and the owner of such supplies and services against all consequences thereof of whatsoever
nature.
The method of execution of repairs shall be decided by the owner of the supply or service.
In addition to and without prejudice to the generality of the above indemnity and to the Contractor's
potential liability for delay penalty, generally, the Contractor shall pay to the owner in respect of
damage to any such supply or service the required charges in accordance with the latest local law.
The Contractor shall be governed by the current law regarding protection of utilities and other local
laws concerning the Contractor's liability under the law. The Contractor shall be responsible for
obtaining copies of all laws from the Department or as designated by the Department.

102.15

Conditions for Public Services, Properties and Utilities

a. Drawings of Existing Services and Utilities. Prior to commencement of the work, the
Contractor shall obtain from Town Planning Department and furnish to the Engineer, three
copies of Town Planning Department's latest official services reservation drawings. These
drawings must include the locations of services reservations within the site and the limits of
distribution of the services reservation to the respective services allocated by Town
Planning Department.
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Prior to commencement of work, the Contractor shall obtain the drawings and any other
related details which show the existing conditions of all the services and utilities within the
site of the Works. These drawings and related details shall be obtained by the Contractor
from the appropriate government departments, utility agencies or their designated
consultants. The Contractor shall furnish three sets of these drawings and details to the
Engineer.
b. Programme. Following the Engineer's approval of the programme specified in Clause
8.3 of the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction Works and the Special
Conditions of Contract, the Contractor shall notify the appropriate government
departments, utility agencies and their designated consultants whose services might be
affected by the Works. The notification shall comply with the requirements as
hereinbefore specified in Clause 102.13, Existing Utilities and Services, and shall include
details of the Works contemplated to enable inspection by the appropriate government
department, utility agencies and their designated consultants and/or to indicate their
services on the site and/or to direct the Contractor as to perform what measures are
deemed necessary.
c. Locations. Prior to carrying out excavation, cutting and backfilling, the Contractor shall
request the appropriate government departments, utility agencies and designated utility
consultants to:
1.

Define the locations of existing utilities, public services and supplies which will be
affected by the Contractor's work.

2.

Inspect the site of the work to ascertain the safety of those utilities, public services
and supplies.

3.

Provide on-site inspection during the Contractor's operations which affect the
safety of those utilities, public services and supplies.
Any information and/or on-site inspection furnished by any of the appropriate
government departments, utility agencies and designated utility consultants shall
not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for protecting existing utilities, public
services and supplies from damage.

d. Cutting Existing Surfaces or Materials. In the event it becomes necessary for the
Contractor to cut roads, pavements, squares or public gardens, he shall obtain necessary
written approvals from the concerned Government Departments. The Contractor shall
also obtain approval of the Engineer and include consideration of the following:
1.

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If the cutting is across the width, i.e., perpendicular to the direction of the traffic,
it shall be carried out in two stages (divided by two) to avoid impeding traffic. If
this is not possible, the Contractor shall, prior to commencement of such work,

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agree with the Department to provide a temporary road to be constantly


serviceable for traffic for the duration of the road cutting.
2.

Cutting shall be effected at the time when the traffic is least congested. As
for areas intensively congested with traffic, cutting shall be carried out when
approved by the Engineer.

3.

To provide safe pathways not less than 1.20 M wide for pedestrians and not
less than 3.5 M wide for vehicles, allowing for widening the latter every 100 M
for waiting space and to organize traffic by means of temporary traffic signals or
flagmen.

4.

To put up in all cases, fencing, signs, light signals and flood lights, to ensure
that no mishaps or damage will befall the public or properties in such locations.
Fencing and night illumination shall be as specified herein and directed by the
Engineer.

5.

To reinstate to original condition and make good at the earliest possible time
following completion of the Works entrusted to him.

e. Removal of Existing Trees and Landscaping. Existing trees, plants and other vegetation
in the areas requiring permanent or temporary construction shall be removed by the
Contractor after obtaining the approval of the Parks and Recreation Facilities Division
(PRFD) of the Municipality unless otherwise specified.
Prior to commencing the works the Contractor shall survey all trees, plants and other
vegetation that will require removal and prepare shop drawings which detail the location
and type of each individual tree or plant that is required to be removed. These drawings
shall be supplemented by colour photographs which shall clearly identify the specific
locations for tree or plant removal as shown on the shop drawings. After the Engineers
approval, the Contractor shall forward the shop drawings to the PRFD for their approval.
On site, following formal approval from the PRFD, the Contractor shall mark each tree or
plant that has been approved for removal. These locations shall be verified by the
Engineer before commencing the removal operations.
The Contractor shall be responsible for removing and transporting, to new locations
determined by the PRFD, all trees or plants that require relocating as a result of the
construction works.
Prior to removal of the vegetation, and if required by the PRFD, the Contractor shall pay to
the Municipality all costs related to the various statutory charges which shall be applicable
from time to time during the Period of Execution of the Contract.

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The Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining the schedules of charges as issued by
the Municipality and/or the PRFD and in effect during the execution of the Contract. The
Contractor shall pay all charges in accordance with the applicable schedule of charges.
The removal of existing trees and landscaping shall be programmed by the Contractor to fit
into the approved construction staging. The premature removal of the existing trees and
landscaping for the convenience of the Contractor will not be permitted.
The removal of the existing landscaping will not commence until the Contractor is
mobilized and prepared to commence installation of facilities or actual construction of
proposed Works.
The Contractor shall provide access to all areas as required and cooperate with the PRFD
during the maintenance and/or replanting of all existing and new landscaping.
The Contractor shall protect existing trees and landscaping which are to remain adjacent
to the Works. Any existing trees or landscaping damaged by the Contractor's operations
shall be replaced by the Contractor with trees or landscaping equal to and of the same
species.
The schedule of charges is subject to change without notice and the Contractor shall
verify the validity of the respective charges for the respective items in the schedule at the
time of Tendering and throughout the Period of Execution of the Contract. No claim for
adjustment of the schedule of charges, due to inaccuracy of available information or due to
any subsequent revisions to the charges, will be considered by the Department.
The Contractor shall submit his proposed method for protection of trees and landscaping
to the Engineer for approval. The protection shall consist of fencing, block walls on a
suitable foundation, or as approved by the Engineer. The area to be enclosed by such
protection shall be as determined by the Engineer. Upon completion of construction or
when directed by the Engineer, all temporary protection shall be removed by the
Contractor.
f.

Excavation.
Excavation shall not be carried out in street gutters or pavements in
streets, roads and squares to a distance exceeding 1/2 Km at one time except with the
approval of the Department. The Contractor shall provide 3-metre-wide bridges so that the
vehicles could have access to houses alongside the excavation works. The Engineer shall
define the number of houses for each bridge (ramp) to be provided.
The Contractor shall pump out ground water which he might encounter in the
excavations and cart away such water to places indicated by the Engineer. However, the
Engineer may allow the disposal of such water in rainwater gullies providing there is no
technical hindrance.

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102.16

Conditions for Public Safety

a. General. The Contractor shall adhere to all Civil Defence and Abu Dhabi Police
regulations for safety on the site and safety of the public. The Department will have the
sole discretion and right to require compliance with any part, or combination of the
following standards, in lieu of the requirements specified herein:

Emirate of Abu Dhabi Road Safety Audit Manual.

Department of Municipal Affairs Urban Work Zone Traffic Management Manual.

Abu Dhabi City Municipality, Internal Roads and Infrastructure Directorate, Traffic
Control Devices Manual.

Emirate of Abu Dhabi Department of Transport, The Abu Dhabi Manual of Uniform
Traffic Control Devices, Code of Practice for Temporary Traffic Management.

Part VI of the "Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, American National


Standards Institute, as issued by U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal
Highway Administration.

All construction zone signing as specified herein and as required by construction


operations and by the Engineer shall have a reflectorized background.
b. Signs. The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing, installing, maintaining and
removing all temporary signs for protection and public safety of vehicular and pedestrian
traffic in all areas of construction. All such signing shall comply with the requirements as
specified under Clause 104.02, Temporary Works.
c. Use of Explosives. The use of explosives will not be permitted by the Department unless
specific written approval is granted at the discretion of and by the Department and the other
Ministries and Departments of the Government of Abu Dhabi as may be required, and then
only for an unusual, specific condition or location. The use of explosives shall be subject to
the approval of such Governmental Ministries and/or Departments as Interior, Police,
Defense or similar Governmental agencies. The Contractor shall be subject to and must
comply with all requirements specified herein and the regulations and rules as established
or directed by the approving Ministry and/or Department. The COMPLIANCE
REQUIREMENTS for use of explosives as specified herein shall be submitted by the
Contractor with his request for the use of explosives. The Contractor shall be solely
responsible for determining the regulations and rules of all approving Governmental
Ministries and/or Departments and securing the approval of each. In the event any of the
Government Ministries or Departments shall object to the Contractor using explosives,
permission for use will not be granted unless the objection is satisfied and removed in
writing by the objecting Department or Ministry.
The Department and all other Ministries and/or Departments of the Government of Abu
Dhabi reserve the right to rescind or revoke the permission for the use of explosives at any
time during the Period of Execution of the Contract.

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Further, in the event the Department and the Government of Abu Dhabi grants permission
for the use of explosives, the Contractor shall comply with the following requirements:
COMPLIANCE REQUIREMENTS
1. The Contractor shall employ a subcontractor or specialist firm whose primary business
is the use of explosives and is approved by the Department and all Governmental
Ministries having regulations, rules or jurisdiction for all work related to the use of
explosives. The Contractor shall be allowed to use his own personnel for the work if he
can prove to the satisfaction of the Department and all Governmental Ministries and/or
Departments and the Engineer that his firm has the same or better skills than those of a
subcontractor or specialist firm as described above.
2. The Contractor shall submit to the Department and the Engineer, for their review and
comments, a complete description of all materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances
to be employed by the Contractor along with a detailed work programme and his
method of importing, controlling, and inventorying (on a daily basis) the amount of
materials imported, used and on hand for the use as explosives. The form for the
method of controlling and inventorying of all materials shall be as approved by the
Engineer. No explosives shall be utilized in the Works until the Contractor has complied
with the written review comments from the Department and the Engineer.
3. The Contractor shall provide proper buildings or magazines in suitable locations and
positions for storage of explosives, in a manner and quantities per storage facility as
approved by the Department and all Governmental Ministries and/or Departments and
the Engineer. These storage facilities shall be properly marked and have securely locked
doors or access facilities and shall not be accessible except to authorize personnel as
approved by the Department and the Engineer in writing. All unused explosive
materials must be disposed as approved by the Department or other approving
Governmental Ministries and/or Departments.
4. The Contractor shall be responsible for the prevention of any unauthorized issue or
improper use of any explosives and shall employ only experienced and responsible
men to handle the explosives, all to the satisfaction of the Engineer and in compliance
with all of the statutory regulations and requirements of approving Governmental
Ministries and/or Departments.
5. All drilling and blasting shall be performed in such a manner as shall most nearly
complete the excavation to the required grade lines, and produce the least practicable
disturbance of the material to be left in place. Blasting by means of drill holes and
tunnels or any other methods shall be performed at the entire risk and responsibility of
the Contractor without claim for breakage outside the approved cross-sections.
6. The Department or the designated Engineer shall set the limits and conditions under
which explosives shall be employed. The limits and conditions shall include, but not by
way of limitation, the designated time of day and days of week when charges can be
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detonated, size of charges, the amount of delay, the means of monitoring the charges,
the amount of vibration as measured by seismographic equipment located as directed
by the Engineer, handling, control, security and safety measures and other requirements
of the Department, the designated Engineer, local law and approving Governmental
Ministries and/or Departments.
7. The greatest care shall be taken by the Contractor during all blasting operations to
ensure that no injury be made to persons or property or to the finished work. Shots shall
be properly loaded and covered (capped), and only moderate charges shall be used
for each hole. A daily register of all explosives used, showing the location and amount
used, shall be kept by the Contractor for review by the Engineer.
8. The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions including, but not by way of
limitation, necessary precautions and measures for suspending traffic of vehicles,
pedestrians, and animals on the site or in its vicinity at the time of blasting. The
Contractor shall bear full responsibility for any casualties and damages to properties as
a result of using explosives and shall save the Department, approving Ministries and/or
Departments and the Engineer harmless from any and all claims arising from the use of
explosives.
9. Where directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall provide heavy mesh blasting
material for protection of persons, property and the work. Blasting shall be restricted to
hours prescribed by the Engineer. If, in the opinion of the Engineer, blasting would be
dangerous to persons or adjacent structures or is being carried on in a reckless
manner, the Engineer may prohibit it and order the rock to be excavated by other
means. If traffic on the road has to be interrupted, the Contractor shall secure
approval of his schedule for such interruption from the proper authorities and satisfy
the Engineer as to such approval.
In the event permission to use explosives is not granted or is rescinded or
revoked by the Department and the Government of Abu Dhabi, the Contractor will be
required by the Department to employ alternative methods acceptable to the
Department for such work as excavation, demolition or similar removal.
d. Temporary Supports. The Contractor shall provide, install and maintain the supports to
be installed at the sides of excavations in a way that prevents the side from collapsing or
from affecting in any way whatever the surrounding services and properties, whether as a
result of collapse of the sides of excavation and/or as a result of sliding.
The Contractor shall protect and maintain all pipes, ducts and cables encountered in
excavations; and keep all ditches, inlets and channels clear and unobstructed; and
make good any damage caused to public or private roads, paths, kerbs and drains; and
pay all penalties, costs and charges, if any.
The Contractor shall not deposit the earth obtained from excavation and/or store materials
or deploy equipment, tools and plant necessary for the work in locations which affect the
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safety of the public or public services or properties and/or in such a way that impedes
traffic or pedestrians and any other works of public authorities or of private concerns.
e. Temporary Protection. The Contractor shall provide protection at excavations, trenches,
pits and cuttings as instructed by the Road Safety Auditor and the Engineer.
The contractor is to provide and install all necessary traffic control devices and
appurtenances identified in the approved traffic control plan to ensure safe, efficient and
effective zones to warn, control, protect and guide vehicular and pedestrian traffic during
temporary operational situations. The temporary protection is to provide safety (day and
night) for motorists, pedestrians, and worker/safety/emergency personnel.
f.

Temporary Protection of Streets and Sidewalks. The Contractor shall protect streets and
sidewalks and shall repair damage caused by himself or his subcontractors. The
Contractor shall comply with local rules and regulations in connection with the use of
streets.
The Contractor shall protect all private roads and walks and shall maintain them during
the course of the work. He shall repair all damage to them caused by himself or by his
subcontractors.

g. Job Safety. The formulation and enforcement of an adequate safety program shall be the
obligation of the Contractor with respect to all works under the Contract, whether performed
by the Contractor or his subcontractors. The Contractor shall have a fully qualified Safety
Officer on his staff for control of all aspects of safety as described herein. The Safety Officer
shall have had formal safety training and shall be familiar with all local safety laws and
requirements of the Civil Defence Authority and Abu Dhabi Police. The Safety Officer
shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer. The Safety Officer may fulfill another staff
position as well as that of Safety Officer.
The Contractor shall, as soon as practicable after commencement of work, meet with the
Engineer to present and discuss his plan for the establishment of such safety measures
as may be necessary to provide reasonable security against accidents. The Contractor
shall provide all guard rails, barriers, or any other form of special protection to keep
adjoining property, persons, vehicles and the like free from injury and shall provide
adequate barriers and other protection necessary to protect the general public.
The Contractor has assurance from the Department and Engineer of their cooperation
where the implementation of these safety measures requires joint cooperation.
h. Fire Protection. Fire protection and prevention during the construction period shall be in
accordance with accepted good practice for protection of construction.

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i.

Health and Safety


1. General. The Contractor must provide and maintain a safe, hazard-free and
healthy workplace for his employees, for his subcontractor employees, for the
Employer, the Engineer, his representatives, visitors and the general public.
The Contractor shall provide health and safety measures during all phases of the
contract and shall comply with all Laws, Ministerial Orders, contractual
regulations and Department guidelines related to site and construction safety, these
include, but are not limited to the following:
a)

Federal Law No.8 (1980).

b)

Ministerial Order No.32 (1982).

c)

Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction Works.

d)

Special Conditions of the Contract.

e)

Particular Specifications.

f)

Emirate of Abu Dhabi Road Safety Audit Manual.

g)

Department of Municipal Affairs Urban Work Zone Traffic Management


Manual.

h)

Abu Dhabi Emirate Environment, Health and Safety Management System


Regulatory Framework (AD EHSMS).

i)

Abu Dhabi Department of Transport, Environmental, Health and Safety


Manual for Roads Projects.

j)

ADWEA Electrical Specifications.

k)

USACE EM-385-1-1.

l)

Code of Construction Safety Practice Dubai Municipality.

2. Safety Management. The Contractor is obligated to pro-actively manage safety


during all phases of the works using the following primary safety management tools:

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a)

1-2 Week Look-Ahead Planner.

b)

Activity Hazard Analysis and Job Task Analysis.

c)

Site Safety Inspector Reporting.

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d)

Safety Induction, Orientations, and Training.

e)

Certifying Competency of Workers.

f)

Risk Review Inspections.

g)

Monthly Safety Statistics Reporting.

h)

Regular Meetings on Site.

3. Planning Schedule. During the project pre-mobilization planning and scheduling


phase the Contractor shall identify high risk hazardous activities for each work
element, and include all safety requirements into the planning schedule, before works
commence.
4. Risk Assessment. The Contractor shall make provisions to ensure safe systems
of work are in place. The Contractor shall carry out job task analysis (JTA) or activity
hazard analysis (AHA) for high risk hazardous activities by:
a)

Identifying high risk hazardous activities for each work element.

b) Making provisions for engineering control measures and resources (time,


manpower, equipment) to either eliminate, isolate or protect site personnel
from the identified hazard(s), before the work commences.
5. Orientation, Inductions and Training. The emphasis of the Contractors health and
safety plan shall be the prevention of occupational injury and ill health by providing
certified training. All modes of training, such as pictures, animations, oral, and written
aides shall be considered to ensure the targeted employee understands the
information being shared.
The Contractor shall ensure that all their site personnel receive orientation and training
in accordance with Ministerial Order 32 (1982), Article (3), and AD EHSMS.
The Contractor shall ensure during the preconstruction period, that all their projectbased employees, including Sub-Contractors receive induction in the site specific
hazards and safe work practices particular to the employees work activities and the
approved project specific health and safety plan, this exercise shall be documented.
All project health and safety employees must be made aware of their own responsibility
to work in a safe manner.
6. Contractors Site Specific Health and Safety Plan. The Contractor shall prepare,
develop and implement a project health and safety plan that is site specific.
a) The Contractors health and safety plan shall be submitted for the
Departments and Engineers review and approval within the earlier of 30
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days of the Commencement Date, or at least 10 working days prior to starting


any field work.
b) No work shall commence prior to the approval of the Contractors health
and safety plan by the Engineer.
c) The Contractors health and safety plan shall be site specific, describe in
detail all of the Contractors safety personnel, procedures, precautions, safety
check lists, accident records and other safety documents that will be used
throughout the project.
d) The Contractors health and safety plan shall include the involvement and
active participation of all project employees by requiring safety training which will
promote recognition of unsafe acts, unsafe conditions and significant near miss
incidents that require reporting and immediate corrective action to be taken.
The Contractors project health and safety plan shall include, but not be limited to
the following:
a)

Responsibility/Accountability/Key Line Personnel.

b) Statement of Contractors Safety and Health Policy and Compliance


Requirement Statement.
c)

Safety Organization diagram (Organogram).

d)

Identification of Competent/Qualified Persons.

e)

Scope of Work Evaluation.

f)

Induction and Hazard Recognition Training Program.

g)

Hazard/Risk/Exposure Evaluation.

h)

Activity Hazard Analysis and Control Measures.

i)

Contractors Periodic Safety Inspections/Audits.

j)

Contractors Weekly Safety Planning Look-Ahead Plan.

k) List of specific safety equipment to be provided and a schedule for its


delivery.
l)

Hazard Correction System.

m) Training and Instruction Policy.


n)
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Project Site Orientation Plan.


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o)

Accident/Exposure/Investigation.

p)

Emergency Action Plan.

q)

Written Hazard Communication Program.

r) Site Specific Work Zone Traffic Control Plans for Movement of Contractors
Vehicles.
s)

A Scaffold Management System.

t)

Written Trenching/Shoring Plan.

u)

Written Fall Protection Plan.

v)

Permit to Work Forms.

w) List of qualifications of all safety staff.


x) A list of all safety procedures to be utilized and a schedule for their
submission.
y)

Isolated/Protected Shade Area Plan.

z)

Isolated/Protected Drinking Water Plan.

aa) Hearing Conservation Plan (if applicable).


bb) Bus Pick Up/Drop off Points and Station Plan(s) for Movement of Workers.
cc) Safety Statistics Recording.
dd) Site Safety Awareness and Incentives Plans.
ee) Safety Monitoring and Performance Plans.
ff)

Record Keeping.

gg) Incentives (recognition and rewards) program.


hh) Disciplinary action plan.
ii) Other programs as specified by regulatory authorities or contract
requirements.
The following specific requirements shall be addressed in the Contractors health
and safety plan as a minimum:
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a) Contractors Safety Responsibilities. The Contractor shall be responsible for


ensuring that their works, and that of their subcontractors, comply with the
safety requirements of the Contract Document, and any other relevant
regulations issued by government authorities.
The Contractor shall be fully responsible for ensuring that the approved
Contractors Project Safety Plan is implemented and adhered to throughout
the duration and extent of the project.
b)

Accident Prevention Responsibility.


1) Contractors project safety meetings will be held at least once a month at
the jobsite.
a. The meetings shall be convened and conducted by the project HS
manager or project HS engineer.
b. All supervisors and foremen are expected to be in attendance.
c. Each subcontractor will have a responsible safety representative
present to follow through on information and resolutions discussed and
adopted at these meetings.
d. The Engineer's safety representative(s) may attend these meetings.
2) The agenda for the Contractors project safety meetings will generally
include, but not be limited to the following:
a. Development of timely topics for discussion and dissemination of
safety bulletins, signs and notices.
b. A review of the safety inspections, audits, accidents and significant
near misses.
c. Identification of potential safety hazards in the coming month,
discussion and implementation of steps to be taken to avoid the same.
d. Appointment of safety representatives for subcontractors.
e. Two-week look ahead risk mitigation planning.
f. High risk activities.
g. Activity hazard analysis.
h. Hazard recognition training and tool box talks.

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i. Safety resources.
j. Safety performance.
k. Recognition and rewards.
l. Lessons learned.
3) Contractors supervisors and foremen shall be responsible to plan and
accomplish their work with due regard for the safety of all individuals on the
job site.
a. Contractor shall be expected to eliminate all possible accident hazards
when planning the work under their control.
b. Subcontractors must observe and correct any accident-producing
practices before injury occurs.
4) If an accident does occur, Contractor shall investigate to determine the
cause and take the required corrective action to prevent a recurrence.
5) All accidents shall be immediately reported to the Contractors project
HS manager and to the Engineer.
c) First Aid, Medical Facilities and Medical Items. Both office and mobile first
aid facilities in all Contractors site vehicles shall be provided at the project site,
and where work activity is in progress.
A location map of the project indicating routing to emergency facilities shall be
posted in the first aid station and on the project safety notice board, along with
the list of designated emergency facilities; i.e., hospitals, doctors, ambulances
and fire department, and their respective contact numbers.
The medical supply items for fist aid purposes shall be in accordance with the
UAE regulations and Ministerial Orders.
d) Accident Notification, Reporting, and Doctors Release. The Engineer shall
be verbally notified immediately of any accidents, in advance of a written report.
The Contractor shall ensure all accidents are reported directly to both
supervisors and the Engineer:
1) If serious injury is apparent or suspected, utilize the pre-established
emergency hospital services.

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2) The telephone number shall be prominently displayed at all site


telephone locations.
3) For small cuts, scratches, etc. approved mobile first aid kits shall be
available from the Contractor, and for each subcontractor.
All lost time injuries (ITIs), property damage accidents and material losses in
which the property damage exceeds AED 1000/- shall be reported in writing
to the Engineer within 48 hours of the accident.
The Contractor shall inform the Ministry of Labor of accidents occurring during the
daily working hours or as a result of the work using required reporting procedures
and provide a copy to the Engineer in such cases.
In the event of an employee being sent to a Doctor for medical checkup
and/or treatment, a release shall be obtained from the Doctor stating the number
of days off work required, as applicable, and confirmation whether:
1)

the employee is not medically fit for duty;

2)

the employee is fit for light duty; or,

3)

the employee is fit for duty.

4)

A copy of this release will accompany the accident report.

e) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and Monitoring Equipment. Minimum


requirements for PPE shall be the wearing of hard hats, safety vest and
safety footwear by all personnel, including subcontractors.
Supplemental requirements for PPE shall be developed and provided to
cover specific items such as eye protection glasses, goggles, protective
clothing, safety harness, ear protection, as per the hazard(s) associated with the
work activity and environment.
All PPE shall conform to ANSI/BS/EN or equivalent standards and shall be
approved by the Engineer.
Safety Belts shall not be used as fall protection on site. Only positive personal
fall protection systems reviewed and approved by the Engineer shall be used.
The Contractor shall be fully responsible for the design, construction and
application of all safety equipment and systems used by themselves and their
subcontractor(s).
The Contractor shall provide all their employees with the necessary PPE to carry
out their assigned site activities in a safe manner as per the requirements of
Ministerial Order 32 (1982), Article (1) and the AD EHSMS.
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The Contractor shall provide monitoring equipment to measure both ambient


and personal noise levels.
The Contractor shall provide gas monitoring equipment to measure
oxygen, flammable, toxic and other harmful gases that may exist inside a confined
space.
All monitoring equipment shall meet ANSI/BS/EN or equivalent standards, be
routinely calibrated and certified by an independent third party testing company
having minimum ten (10) years experience, and approved by the Engineer.
f) Fire Protection. Suitable type and number of portable fire extinguishers
shall be provided at the job site, in the offices, mess, welfare compound and
site work areas, and installed in all vehicles of supervisor personnel for the
complete duration of the project period, in accordance with Civil Defense
Authority, Abu Dhabi requirements.
All heavy equipment, mobile and stationery plant, welding machines,
compressors etc., shall have suitable fire extinguisher at close proximity or inside
the cabin.
g)

Fire Prevention. No burning of rubbish or debris shall be permitted.


1) All fuel storage tanks shall be properly grounded and vented, provided
with suitable types of fire extinguishers, placed on posts, 3-4.5 metres from
tanks.
a. "Danger" or "No Smoking" warning ad prohibitory signs shall be
prominently placed at these tanks in Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu
languages, as required.
b. Fuel storage tanks above ground shall be bunded to prevent the
spread of liquids, in the event of fuel leakages in tanks the bund wall
shall hold a capacity of 1.5 times the volume of the tank, and the floor
area shall be protected to minimize the ingress of liquids into the ground.
c. The bund wall and floor design shall be submitted to the Engineer for
approval.
2) Welding operations, if any, shall only be permitted in designated
controlled areas, and shall be carried out in accordance with standards
and recommended practices of the American Welding Society.

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a. Adequate fire extinguishing equipment shall be provided in the


immediate vicinity of welding operations whenever combustible
material is exposed.
b. Workmen shall be shielded from welding rays, sparks, slag, etc., by
face shields, screens and filtered goggles.
c. A permit-to-work management control system shall be enacted
during all welding hot work operations.
3) All compressed gas cylinders and acetylene cylinders shall comply with
the requirements of the AGC Manual of Accident Prevention in Construction
as to requirements for construction, use and storage.
a. All oxygen and acetylene cylinders, full or empty shall have safety
valves, shall be kept separately in a shaded storage area, stored
upright, tied off, capped, chained in place, and periodically inspected.
b. The welding works area shall be designated as a "No Smoking" zone
and sign posted.
c. Flash back arrestors shall be used at all times.
h) Scaffolds, Access and Positive Fall Protection. Scaffolds shall be provided
for any work that cannot be accomplished safely from the ground.
1)

Safe and defined access shall be provided to all work areas.


a. Ladders shall conform to applicable standards and inspected on a
regular basis for defective or worn parts.
b. Design and management operating details for erection and use of
scaffolds shall be evaluated by the Contractor and submitted to the
Engineer for approval.
c. The Engineer's approval however shall not remove any
responsibility for scaffold design, construction and maintenance from the
Contractor.
d. A scaffold management system shall be used to ensure that the
scaffolds to be used are:
1. Designed and approved by a certified competent person.
2. A method statement shall be provided for the Engineers review
and approval for both the erection and disassembly of scaffolds.

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3. The scaffolds shall be erected and disassembled by a certified


scaffolder.
4. The scaffolds shall be inspected by a competent person, viz., a
scaffolder or safety inspector prior to use.
5. A scaffold tag system shall be used to record and inform end users
that the structure is safe or unsafe to use during its service life.
e. Positive fall protection equipment shall be used whenever a worker of
any trade works on an elevated platform 1.2 metres or greater from the
ground and other permanent or substantial footing(s).
All fall protective activities shall be in accordance with the approved
Contractors fall protection safety plan, which shall include details of, but
not be limited to;
1. horizontal and vertical positive fall protection devices;
2. operating procedures;
3. training;
4. certification of competency;
5. and defined key staff responsibilities.
i) Work Zones -Working Near Live Vehicle Traffic. Contactor shall ensure crash
worthy barrier protection system(s) are provided to physically protect workers
from errant vehicles entering a work zone, whilst working near or adjacent to live
vehicle traffic.
The work zone and protection barrier system shall be in accordance with
the Departments requirements for establishment of traffic control work zone
systems, and Traffic Police requirements.
The contractor shall submit the work zone plans, crash worthy protection barrier
system, and details to the Engineer for review and approval.
The use of plastic ballast New Jersey type barriers, and/or traffic cones shall not
be permitted as adequate protection for workers from errant vehicles impacting a
work zone.
j) Shaded Areas and Drinking Water. Shaded areas along with chilled
potable drinking water supply shall be made readily available to all workers at

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site, wherever work activities are in operation, on a as-needed and continuous


bases.
These shaded areas and drinking water locations shall be isolated and
physically protected from the work zone, in such a way to minimize the risk
of workers becoming injured from the ongoing work activities, whilst taking their
drink breaks, in particular from moving heavy equipment and machinery, e.g.,
PTRs, haulage trucks, JCBs and public vehicles.
No one shall be permitted to take temporary breaks or rest periods within any
work activity area, e.g., adjacent to live vehicle traffic, on a scaffold, inside a
trench or confined space etc.
k) Excavations. Excavations shall comply with requirements for trenching and
shoring, with special attention to the following:
1) Sides of excavations over 1.5 metres deep unless capable of free
standing without collapsing, must have sides sloped to a safe angle of
repose, battered, or be shored.
2) The Contractor shall ensure excavations are designed and approved by a
competent person(s) to ensure slopes are stable, and the
geometric configuration is suitably safe throughout its service life, both in
the short and/or long term conditions.
3) Details for excavation slope design with calculations shall be evaluated
by the Contractor and submitted to the Engineer for approval, as required.
4) The Engineer's approval however, shall not remove any responsibility for
excavation design and construction from the Contractor.
5) Excavated material must be stored at least 2 metres from the sides of all
excavations.
6) Guard rails or barricades must be provided around all excavations.
7) Access facilities must be provided minimum every 7.0 m within the
protected areas.
8) All excavations must always be kept free of water.
9) All excavations must always be made in the dry, with the ground water
table reduced, minimum 0.5m below excavation level by dewatering
technique(s), as required.

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10) Warning and prohibition signs; Danger-Deep Excavation, and Do Not


Enter - Deep Excavation in English, Arabic, Hindi & Urdu languages must
be provided next to excavations, as required.
11) Contingency back-up pump(s) shall be available for use whenever there
is a possibility of groundwater seepages, mechanical failure of a existing
pump(s), and/or inclement weather conditions that may otherwise adversely
affect the stability of an excavation.
l)

Hand Tools and Power Tools.


1) All hand tools and portable power tools shall be in good condition and
shall be used for the purpose intended.
All electric power tools shall be grounded, and inspected frequently for worn
out parts and connections by a certified electrician, the results of this
exercise shall be documented.
2) Circular saws shall be equipped with guards that
automatically enclose the cutting edges.
a. Radial arm power saws shall be equipped with an automatic brake.
b. Explosive actuated tools and their use shall be discouraged, and
must have prior written approval from the Engineer before delivery to
the project site.

m) Temporary Electrical Work. All temporary electrical work shall be protected


by ground fault circuit Interrupters (GFCI) and shall be in accordance with the
AGC Manual of Accident Prevention in Construction.
All connections and installation shall be in compliance with ADWEA Regulations.
If portable generators are used to supply temporary power needs, the generators
shall be grounded, inspected and documented on a regular basis for proper
operation.
All temporary electrical work shall be inspected on a weekly basis and audited by
a certified electrician and results documented.
n) Radioactive Equipment. The use of radioactive equipment having
radioactive source shall be discouraged, and must have prior written approval
by the Engineer before delivery to the project site.
o) Machinery and Mechanized Equipment. All machinery and mechanized
equipment to be used and/or installed shall be inspected for compliance with

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safety requirements and reporting forms shall be completed and submitted, as


required.
Supplemental requirements covering operating rules shall be established prior to
start of work using mechanized equipment and machinery.
Machine guards shall be provided on all moving parts of machinery that are
directly exposed to operators.
p) Worker Site Safety Orientation. The workers site safety orientation shall
include as a minimum the following:
1) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Minimum PPE to be worn whilst
at site:
a. Hard hats shall be worn at all times.
b. Safety boots shall be worn at all times.
c. Safety vests, Class II, meeting EN471:1994 shall be worn at all times.
d. Suitable protective eye covering shall be worn whenever welding,
hammering metal, stone, or concrete, grinding or cutting metal units.
e. Disposable hearing protection, sponge type (SNR=28), shall be
available at all times.

2) Housekeeping.
a. Work areas and access ways shall be kept free of trash, materials
and all tripping hazards.
b. Temporary electrical wiring shall be protected from damage by traffic,
be in good condition and protected by ground fault circuit interrupters.
c. All portable containers for gas and other inflammable liquids shall
have self-closing lids. No plastic containers are allowed.
d. All accidents are to be reported directly to supervisors, and the
Engineer.
1. If serious injury is apparent or suspected, utilize the preestablished emergency hospital services.
2. The telephone number shall be prominently displayed at all site
telephone locations.

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3. For small cuts, scratches, etc. approved first aid kits are to be
available from the Contractor, and each subcontractor.
3) In the event of a fire: Emergency evacuation plans and procedures shall
be prepared and posted on the safety notice board(s) and communicated.
In the event of a fire, the procedures to be followed if the fire cannot be
immediately contained, shall include notifying the nearest Abu Dhabi Civil
Defense Fire Brigade whose telephone number shall be prominently
displayed at all site telephone locations, and site safety notice boards.
The attempt to put out a manageable fire with available fire extinguishers
and water hoses until help arrives, shall be encouraged, however, the
Contactor shall ensure they do not endanger any personnel in fighting a
fire if their personnel are not suitably trained or volunteer to do so.
4) Project Specific Hazards. The Contractor shall ensure the workers site
orientation includes reference to site-specific hazards related to the workers
field of operation, and that both known hazards and engineering controls
measures are communicated to them, including the contents from the
Contractors approved health and safety plan.
5) Documentation.
documented.

The

workers

site

safety

orientation

shall

be

Heavy equipment suppliers must supply certification of testing, etc., and


obtain clearance from the Engineer before commencement of their work.
6) Security
a. Watchman shall be deployed at controlled entrance and exit
location(s), as required.
b. No site visiting during nights, week-ends or holidays shall be
permitted without prior permission from the Engineer.
c. Visitors to site shall be instructed to report to the reception, and the
Contractors safety representative for site safety induction and
authorization to enter site areas, as approved by the Engineer.
q)

Contractors Check List.


1) Obtain from the Engineer copy of the Departments Health, Safety and
Environment Plan.
2) Prepare safety program.

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3) Post safety requirements on safety bulletin board. Prepare and post Fire
Prevention Program.
4) Analyze job for potential hazards and hazardous procedures.
5) Establish plans for location of welfare facilities, material storage, personal
facilities and traffic flow.
6) Arrange for sanitary facilities with Abu Dhabi authorities.
7) Arrange for debris removal to the Environmental Agency (EA) Abu
Dhabi approved municipal landfill facility, as required.
8) Establish procedure to obtain subcontractor safety plans.
9) Establish reporting requirements.
10) Arrange for doctor.
11) Arrange for hospital.
12) Arrange for ambulance service.
13) Post phone numbers for police, fire, medical ambulance, emergency
services at each of the onsite telephone locations.
14) Establish adequate first aid kit and stretcher facilities.
15) Post chart to signify weekly checks of first aid kits.
16) Locate archeological sites to be protected.
17) Prepare and post at each on site telephone location "off hours
emergency notification list".
18) Arrange for security guard services.
19) Prepare a watchman's log.
20) Obtain any required reporting forms and posters.
21) Verify insurance on subcontractors starting work on site prior to final
execution of subcontracts.
22) Obtain safety equipment and approval appropriate to operations such as:
a. Hard hat, safety vest, safety boots, eye and ear protection.

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b. Safety harness and lifelines with spring shackles and eyes.


c. Goggles
d. Leather rigger gloves.
e. Atmospheric gas detectors.
f. Positive ventilation equipment
g. Ambient and personal sound monitoring equipment.
h. Portable hand lamps (EX rated).
i. Positive pressure face masks with associated portable compressor
and air hoses.
23) Post sketch showing locations of fire alarm boxes, hydrants, first aid
facilities names/photos of personnel.
24) Arrange for and post, safety posters and warning signs.
25) Establish weekly toolbox safety talks.
26) Set up an accident control chart.
27) Establish monthly safety meetings.
28) Ensure competency certificates are issues and validated.
29) Appoint a safety supervisor and obtain approval.
30) Set date for the first safety meeting.
31) Ensure that all licenses and approvals issued by the various authorities
having jurisdiction, are valid.
r) Barriers and Enclosures. All open excavations, and other hazardous
areas, which in the opinion of the Engineer result from or due to the
Contractor's operations, shall be enclosed by temporary fencing to ensure that
the general public cannot gain access.
Temporary fencing shall have posts set in the ground or shall be free standing
and shall be located as directed by the Engineer.
The temporary fencing shall have an overall height of 2.0 m, and the overall
design shall be such that the fencing cannot be easily displaced, toppled, scaled
or crawled under.
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1) The design, details and locations of temporary fencing shall be


submitted to the Engineer for approval.
2) No fabrication or installation of temporary fencing shall commence until
the Engineer's approval has been obtained.
3) Damaged sections of temporary fencing shall be repaired or replaced
promptly to maintain at all times the standards of fencing and
installation as initially approved.
4) Temporary fencing shall not be removed from any location without the
prior approval of the Engineer.
5) The barriers shall be having high visibility red/white markings and
where necessary, have steady state/flashing lighting units attached to them.
s) Working in Confined Spaces. The AD EHSMS shall constitute the minimum
safety requirements when working in confined spaces. Contractor shall
provide formal hazard recognition training to the work force and document this
and inform their work force of the following:
1) Dangers of toxic, asphyxiatory, inflammable or explosive gaseous
conditions such as inside life stations, underground water reservoirs, bridge
enclosures, manholes, sewers and ancillary structures.
2) Physical injury, caused by falling objects, or by falling themselves.
3) Dangers of bacterial infection while working in sewage contaminated
environment.
The Contractor must impress upon his staff the importance of personal
hygiene.
4) If working in sewers where accumulations of sludge or silt occur, the
Contractors attention is drawn to the fact that, when disturbed, sludge may
release toxic gases.
5) The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring adequate precautions
are taken by his workforce to safeguard against any accidents; working
inside life stations, underground water reservoirs, bridge enclosures in or
adjacent to sewers, sewage works, manholes, pumping stations, etc. by
ensuring they are aware of the hazards, know how to work in a controlled
environment using a permit-to-work system of operation, as necessary.

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6) All members of the workforce shall be vaccinated against tetanus,


typhoid, para-typhoid, cholera, Hepatitis-A and Hepatitis-B and shall carry upto-date medical records at site.
7) The Contractor shall provide a medical certificate of fitness for all
members of the work force who are expected to work in confined spaces e.g.
sewers, manholes, irrigation chambers, etc.
Personnel working in confined spaces shall have no medical history of the
following:
a. Any heart defect.
b. Any history of fits or blackouts.
c. Deafness or loss of balance.
d. Claustrophobia.
e. Recurrent back ailments.
f. Shortage of breathe on light exertion.
8) Each group of workers engaged on sewers, manholes, pumping or lifting
stations and ancillary structures shall be provided and be familiar with the
operation of reputable gas testing equipment suitable to check hydrogen
sulphide, carbon monoxide, combustible gases and oxygen.
9) Personal protective equipment shall include, but not be limited to, the
following:
a. Hard hats.
b. Safety boots (with no ferrous studded soles).
c. Safety harness (strong
attachments for life line).

readily

washable

with

no

ferrous

d. Leather gloves.
e. Overalls, with antistatic fabric.
10) In addition to the above items, each group shall have with them at each
entry point to a confined space the following:
a. A lifting harness.
b. Four 15 metre lifelines with spring shackle on one end, eye at other.
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c. Suitable ladder.
d. Lifting frame complete with ropes and shackles for hand operation.
e. Powerful hand lamp, EX rated.
f. Ventilation blowers together with portable generator and flexible
trunking.
g. Positive pressure respiratory facemasks with associated portable
compressor and air hoses.
h. Gas detectors.
i. Communication facilities.
j. Washing facilities with disinfectants and toiletries.
11) All mobile mess room with washing and changing facilities shall be
provided by the Contractor for each working area.
12) Contractor shall keep installed in the mobile changing rooms, or mobile
office, emergency equipment within easy access of each working group which
shall include, but not be limited to the following:
a. Barrier cream.
b. Disinfectant.
c. First aid kit with eye bath.
d. Stretcher.
e. 15m long lifelines with spring shackle one end, eye at other, lifting
harnesses and retrieval tripod.
f. Breathing apparatus with air bottle - 2 sets.
13) Address and telephone number of the nearest hospital with emergency
facilities shall be posted in each mess room.
14) Contractor shall provide high visibility safety barriers with red/white
markings, to be erected around all unattended open manholes and cover
them over with suitable temporary steel sheets.
Whenever the Contractors work force leaves the site of the works all manhole
covers shall be replaced and fixed into position.
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15) Before entering inside any lift station, underground water reservoir,
bridge enclosure, manhole, sewer or ancillary structure the atmosphere shall
be tested. Based upon a risk assessment, a permit-to-work procedure shall
be operated, as necessary.
16) Contractor shall provide, erect and maintain adequate scaffolding,
ladders, etc., required for work and to facilitate the Engineer to inspect and
test the works.
Remove them as directed upon completion of all works.
17) Contractor shall be solely responsible for liability in respect of any claim or
legal action arising as a result of an accident.
The Contractor shall not be absolved of any liability under the contract in
respect of his having complied with the requirements herein.
18) Contractor shall appoint a safety officer who shall be responsible for
ensuring that the Contractor's employees follow the safety procedures.
Safety Officer shall ensure that at least one person in each work group shall
be trained in rescue procedures, resuscitation techniques, basic first aid and
the use of gas detection apparatus.
19) Should any one working in a manhole, sewer or chamber, complain of
nausea or dizziness:
a. Assume this to be an Immediate Danger to Life or Health (IDLH)
b. Immediately evacuate all personnel from that location.
c. Work should resume only when it is safe to do so, or with the use of
breathing apparatus under site supervision of the safety officer.
t)

Hazardous Material Identification.


1) Dangers of toxic, asphyxiatory, inflammable or explosive gaseous
conditions such as inside life stations, underground water reservoirs, bridge
enclosures, manholes, sewers and ancillary structures.
This notice is to warn and alert the Contractor of potentially hazardous
materials even though the materials may be located outside the construction
area or in an area not normally accessible to the Contractor or his employees.
a. This notice does not relieve either the Contractor or his
subcontractor(s) of their safety responsibilities.

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b. Neither the requirements of this clause nor an act or failure to act by


the Client or the Engineer shall relieve the Contractor of
responsibility and liability for the safety of Engineer, Employer,
Contractor, or subcontractor personnel and property.
2) Hazardous materials at site or brought to the site may include but are not
necessarily limited to the following:
a. Hydrogen Sulfide.
b. Sodium Hydroxide.
c. Ozone.
d. Sodium Hypochlorite.
e. Chlorine Gas.
f. Methane.
g. Polymer.
h. Sewage and sludge, which may contain viruses and pathogenic
bacteria.
i. Numerous laboratory chemicals and compounds.
j. Diesel.
k. MC-70 prime coat and SS1h tack coat.
l. Bituminous extraction solvents.
3) Contractor shall ensure that all containers of substances belonging to the
Contractor and his Subcontractors that are on-site and stored at Clients
facility are properly labeled as to the contents and the potential hazard (if any).
a. Submit a Material Safety Data Sheet for all hazardous material
brought to the project site.
Submit at least 5 days before delivery.
b. Applies to hazardous materials as well as items containing
hazardous materials.
In all cases, Contractor shall substitute hazardous chemicals with less
harmful alternative chemical(s), whenever practically possible to do so.
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u) Contractors Operational Requirements. The minimum operational


requirements of the Contractors approved health and safety plan shall include
the following:
1) Inductions, orientations and training exercises.
2) Monthly safety meetings with site personnel and subcontractors.
3) Plan the works and ensure risk assessments are carried out.
4) Submit job hazard analysis for each major high risk phase or element of
work, as necessary.
5) Inspect the project daily, and record all visible safety and
environmental hazards, including identification of violators.
6) Follow through on timely correction of safety hazards, making immediate
corrections as necessary.
7) Take immediate action to ensure compliance with requirements.
8) Check all areas at least once a day for housekeeping and clean up.
9) Post safety signs on the project.
10) Establish a fire protection and first aid program.
11) Prepare monthly safety statistic recording and posting on dedicated site
safety notice board(s).
12) Monitoring on-the-job safety meetings.
13) Identify and track key performance indicators, and operate a recognition
and rewards program.
14) Follow up, for insurance purposes, all relevant safety reports.
15) Foster a safety awareness attitude for all tradesmen and supervisors on
the project.
16) Promoting a safety culture by recognizing and rewarding safe behavior,
acts and milestones achieved during the project.
v) Changes to the Approved Contractors Health and Safety Plan. The
approved Contractors project health and safety plan shall be updated to
include any new or unrealized hazards as identified on site, or as required to
comply with new or revised government regulations.
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All proposed revisions to the initially approved project health and safety plan
shall be formally submitted for the Departments and Engineers approval, and
incorporated as an addendum.
w) Contractors Safety Personnel. The Contractor shall provide qualified and
adequate health and safety personnel on the site during all production
operations as shown on the approved project organization plan.
Prior to the commencement of the site activities the Contractor shall submit
details of the proposed project safety personnel.
All project safety personnel shall be subject to the Engineers approval for the
project.
The Contractor shall notify the Engineer in writing thirty (30) days prior to reassigning or replacing any of the health and safety personnel designated and
noted in the approved project organization plan.
The Contractors health and safety personnel shall have the authority to stop
work which does not comply with the requirements of the approved health
and safety plan and/or Contract Document pertaining to health, and safety and
to expend funds, as necessary to eliminate hazards and/or dangerous conditions
on the job site.
The Contractors project-based safety personnel shall include the following:
1)

Health and Safety Manager.


a. Minimum qualifications for this position shall be as follows:
1. Degree in a technical discipline (Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, etc.
2. Licensed or registered with a recognized authority.
3. 12 years experience in safety activities.
4. Possess excellent written and verbal communication skills in
English, and preferably other language(s).
5. Valid UAE Driving License and a company assigned vehicle.
b. Minimum basic duties will be as follows:
1. Lead management of all contractors project safety personnel.
2. Develop and implement the Contractors health and safety plan and
all related documents.

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3. Conduct periodic audits to assure project personnel are complying


with all aspects of the approved health and safety plan.
c. The Contractors health and safety manager shall report directly to
the Contractors corporate management, and independently to the
Contractors project manager.
d. Once approved, the Contractors health and safety manager shall
have full authority to represent and act for the Contractor on all
safety related matters.
2)

Health and Safety Engineer.


a. Minimum qualifications for this position shall be as follows:
1. Diploma or Degree in appropriate discipline or qualified training &
experience.
2. Licensed or registered with a recognized authority.
3. 6 years experience in safety activities.
4. Possess excellent written and verbal communication skills (in
English), and preferable other language(s).
5. Valid UAE Driving License and a company assigned vehicle.
b. Minimum basic duties will be as follows:
1. Plan and schedule safety provision into the works, using a 2weeks look ahead planner.
2. Conduct orientation and training exercises.
3. Conduct tool box sessions.
4. Conduct activity hazard analysis/job task analysis.
5. Lead root cause analysis and investigations.
6. Compile monthly safety statistics.

3)

Safety Inspectors.
a. Minimum qualifications for the safety inspector shall be as follows:

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1. Diploma or Degree in appropriate discipline or qualified training &


experience.
2. 3 years experience in safety activities.
3. Good verbal and written communication skills in English and other
language(s).
4. UAE driving license and company assigned vehicle.
b. Minimum basic duties shall be as follows:
1. Monitor, inspect and record all site works in accordance with the
approved Contractors health and safety plan and promptly report any
non-conformances, to the Contractors health and safety engineer.
2. Monitor, inspect and record site storage of materials.
3. Monitor on site testing and report any non-conformances.
4)

Sub-Contractor Safety Representative/Project Safety Officers.


a. All subcontractors safety representatives/officers shall be responsible
for compliance with the Contractors approved health and safety plan.
b. The Contractor shall ensure subcontractor(s) are orientated with their
approved health and safety plan, and this exercise is documented.
c. Subcontractors safety representatives/officer(s) shall be required to
attend all project safety meetings whilst operating and working at site.

x) Contractors Compliance, Violations, Stop Work Order, and Imminent


Danger to Life or Health. The Contractor shall comply with all the health and
safety requirements of the Contract Document, the approved health and safety
plan, and all UAE Laws.
If the Contractor fails to comply with any of the health and safety
requirements of the contract, the Engineer may issue a Stop Work Order (SWO)
to the Contractor. There upon, the Contractor shall immediately stop all work or
portion of the work that the Engineer considers is a health and safety noncompliance or violation and a failure of health and safety performance.
The Engineer shall issue a written SWO to the Contractor on the same day the
violation is known.
No financial or time adjustment shall be made to the Contractors price or
schedule as a consequence of the Engineer issuing a Stop Work Order (SWO).
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y) Imminent Danger to Life or Health (IDLH). The Engineer and the


Contractors safety representatives shall have the authority to stop works
under the following circumstances:
1) If there is an imminent danger to life or health (IDLH) which may
cause serious injury or death to any person(s) at site.
2) If the Contractor fails to respond to requests to reduce a high risk
activity, condition, or situation that violates any laws or regulations
and/or the approved Contractors Project Safety Plan, and may otherwise
result in injury or death to any person(s) at site.
z) Control of Public Access. The Contractor shall provide a site security
plan(s) for control of public access.
The plan(s) shall ensure protection of the site, and protection of the public by
provision of engineering control measures, such as:
1)

Warning Signs, for site and public access/egress.

2)

Corridor routes.

3)

Segregated and/or protection barrier systems.

4)

Isolated work zones.

5)

Flagman operations.

6)

Security patrols and watchman.

7)

Security check point at entry/exit locations.

aa) Laboratory Safety. The Contractor shall address laboratory safety in their
health and safety plan, and address the following laboratory safety issues
accordingly:
1)

Chemical Safety.
a. Laboratory spill control kit.
b. If the chemical spilled is unknown or toxic or highly hazardous,
immediately evacuate the lab and call for assistance.
c. No eating and/or drinking in the lab areas.
d. To avoid possible contamination, do not apply cosmetics or chew
gum in the lab areas.

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e. What to do in the event of a release of a hazardous material.


2) Radioactive Hazards. No radioactive materials or lazers shall be
utilized as part of the lab operation or equipments, unless approved in
writing by the Engineer, prior to delivery.
3) Biohazards. The safest approach to handling blood or other potentially
infectious material is to take universal precautions. Contractor shall treat all
blood and body fluids as if they are infectious.
All lab staff shall never touch blood or potentially infectious materials with
bare skin. Always wear appropriate gloves.
Always wear appropriate face and eye protection, such as a mask, safety
glasses with side slides, and when necessary a face shield.
4)

Hazardous Materials.
a. Storage facilities, chemical segregation according to type.
b. Oxidizers should never be stored near flammable.
c. Compressed gas cylinders shall all be fitted with safety valves, kept
upright, labeled, and stored in the dry, in a temperature
controlled environment, away from direct sunlight.

5)

Hazardous Waste.
a. Hazardous waste is any substance that will cause harm to health and
the environment if it is not handled, stored, transported and disposed of
properly.
b. The Environment Agency, Abu Dhabi have a list of chemicals and
other substances classified as being hazardous waste.
c. Hazardous waste shall be labeled, stored and disposed of in
accordance with Environment Agency requirements.

6) Respiratory Hazards.
Certain work
situations may require
respiratory protection. A respirator protection is required for: pesticide
application, person with allergies, or when working in areas where
Engineering Controls are inadequate or not feasible.
The respirator works properly when there is a tight seal between the
respirators face piece and the skin. Therefore, facial hair shall not be
allowed when using a respirator.
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7) Personal Protective Equipment. Hazardous chemicals may have the


potential to penetrate the skin, splash into eyes or cause sever skin irritation.
Contractor must ensure all lab personnel wear the correct PPE at all times
whilst working:
The minimum PPE items shall be as follows:
a. Safety glasses with side shield.
b. Face shield for additional protection of face and neck.
c. Chemical resistant gloves.
d. Cut-resistant gloves.
e. Open toed, open healed and canvas shoes are prohibited in all lab
areas.
f. Closed top leather shoes are the minimum requirements is the lab
areas.
g. Lab coats should be worn whenever you are working in a lab.
h. Lab coats and other PPE should not be worn outside the lab
environment to avoid contamination.
8) Laboratory Equipment. The bitumen testing/extraction area of the lab
shall be fitted with a positive ventilation hood and extractor fan unit to collect
and disperse the air borne releases from the bituminous solvent during
asphaltic concrete testing.
All laboratory testing equipment and machinery shall be properly mounted and
fixed to minimize vibrations and noise pollution whilst in operation.
The Proctor machine shall be housed inside a sound barrier chamber or
room using attenuating materials to reduce the noise pollution created whilst
testing.
9) Laboratory Inductions. The Contractor shall ensure all lab personnel
are familiar with the specific hazards of working in a lab environment,
receive hazard recognition training and safety induction with an explanation of
the available control measures as described herein, and this shall be
documented.

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102.17

Dust Control

The Contractor shall furnish, haul and place brackish water if ordered by the Engineer for laying
dust caused by the Contractor's operations or public travel.

102.18

Record Drawings

Record Drawings or As-Built Drawings will be prepared by the Engineer. However, the Contractor
shall ensure that all details of completed work are provided to the Engineer, at all stages of the
project construction and immediately upon completion of the work. The Contractor shall provide all
necessary assistance to the Engineer for the preparation of Record Drawings.
The preparation of Record Drawings by the Engineer shall not relieve the Contractor of
responsibility for accuracy of the information shown in the Record Drawings. The Contractor
shall verify the accuracy of the Record Drawings and shall sign on the reproducible copy of the
Record Drawings. The Contractor shall be responsible for coordinating with the respective
utility agencies and obtaining their approvals by the signature of their representatives on the
reproducible copy of the Record Drawings.
The as-built drawings will be the same size as the approved shop drawings prepared by the
Contractor as described in Clause 101.03, Contract Drawings, of these Standard Specifications.
The as-built drawings will be prepared in digital format based on the computer design files
originally provided to the Contractor and modified by the Contractor in preparation of the shop
drawings. The Contractor shall ensure that these files are kept up to date and reflect current stages
of construction throughout the contract period.

102.19

Related Construction

The Contractor shall cooperate and coordinate his construction operations and programme with
other contractors employed directly by the Department under separate contracts in accordance
with the requirements of Clauses 4 and 5 of the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction
Works, and the Special Conditions of Contract.
The Department may award separate contracts for the following work:
a. Telephone cables and distribution.
b. New electric power distribution.
c. Certain lighting and electrical work.
d. Water mains.
e. Sewer lines.
f.
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g. Closed circuit television (CCTV) system.


h. Oil lines.
i.

Gas lines.

The Contractor shall refer to the Drawings, the Particular Specifications and other Contract
Documents for specific details of such separate contracts.
The separate contracts proposed by the Department may include underground utility lines and
underground and overhead electric power distribution lines. The locations of such separate
contracts may be in the same general area of this Contract and in some cases abut and
connect to the utilities in the area of construction under this Contract.
The roadway Contractor shall cooperate with separate contractors so as not to interfere, disrupt,
obstruct or prevent others from proceeding with their construction operations and to assure that
all work may be pursued in an orderly manner and to expedite completion of the works within the
shortest period of time and in accordance with the requirements of the Contract Documents.
The Contractor shall refer to the Drawings, the Particular Specifications and the Bills of
Quantities for work on new and existing utility and service lines which will not be performed under
separate contracts but shall be included by the Contractor as part of the Works under his Contract.

102.20

Maintenance of Green Areas and Plantations during Construction

The Contractor shall be responsible for maintaining all greenery and plantations existing within
the contract limits, including, but not by way of limitation, protection during removal of kerbs,
protection to the soil during road and utility excavations, protection of plants and grass from
excavation spoils or other construction materials, replanting of plants and grass damaged or
removed during construction and irrigation to the greenery and plantations throughout the period
of the contract.
The Contractor shall, prior to commencement of construction, obtain approval from the Engineer
for the limits of the green areas which will require maintenance during construction; the types of
machinery and method of construction to be used in and around green areas and the method of
restoration to the green areas and planted areas after the work is completed.

102.21

Monthly Progress Report

a. General.
1. Summary. Engineer requires that the Contractor periodically report progress of the
execution of the Work using the criteria outlined in this section.

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2. Definitions. Monthly Project Progress Report: The comprehensive report


produced by the Contractor that provides the current status of the progress and
planning, safety, quality, and other components associated with the project and
execution of the Works.
3. General Requirements. The Contractor shall prepare the Monthly Project
Progress Report in accordance with the Engineer instructions.
c) The Monthly Project Progress Report shall contain the following
components including, but not limited to:
1)

Progress overview.

2)

Graphical summary.

3)

Narrative summary.

4)

Material procurement status report.

5) The Contractors organization chart and any changes affecting the


organization.
6)

Quantity tracking list (for Major items only).

7)

List of subcontractors and their associated work.

8)

Construction progress.

9)

Meetings and workshops.

10) Technical submittals, Shop drawings status.


11) RFI summary.
12) Change orders / Variation orders log.
13) Quality assurance (this will include Safety report, discussions of all
deficiency reports, corrective action reports, and non-conformance reports
issued to date).
14) Schedule progress reporting.
a. The Contractor shall report progress by updating the Contract
schedule on a weekly basis, recording actual progress up to the
stipulated cut-off date.
b. All activities started in the past reporting period shall have the actual
date of commencement recorded.
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c. All activities completed in the past reporting period shall be marked as


complete and the actual date of completion recorded.
d. Activities started, but not yet complete, shall have their progress
recorded either as a percentage of physical completion, or with a
forecast of remaining work days to complete. Where percentage
completion is used as the method of progress measurement, adequate
back-up for the calculation needs to be in place that can be verified by
observation.
e. Filter of delayed activities.
f. A narrative shall accompany the schedule comparing progress
to that of the previous update and accounting for any slippage in the
progress against the baseline schedule and corrective steps taken to
recover.
15) Construction manpower and equipment including material / equipment
delivery dates and progress for long lead items.
16) Budget status / Cash flow.
17) Outstanding Issues and solutions / comments.
18) Testing and commissioning activities (as applicable).
19) Areas of concern / Risk log.
20) Project close-out.
21) Supporting information including appropriate tables, graphs, etc. that
accurately depicts the status of the Works. Photographs and other periodical
records or charts shall also be included with the report to convey progress
of the works. Photographs or other submitted data are for the stated purpose
only and release of such information shall be approved by the Department
in accordance with the requirements of the Conditions of Contract.
d) The Contractor shall review and discuss the specific requirements of the
Monthly Project Progress Report with Engineer during the pre-construction
meeting.
e) The Contractor shall prepare a sample Monthly Project Progress Report
and submit it to Engineer for review and acceptance within two weeks of the
pre-construction meeting and before submitting the first Monthly Project
Progress Report to Engineer.

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b. Products. Only the current versions of Primavera software are to be used for all schedules;
Microsoft Word shall be used for narrative documents; Excel shall be used for all tabular
submittals; and, Microsoft Office Professional applications shall be used for other
miscellaneous documentation.
c. Execution.
Submission
1. The first report shall be submitted at the end of the first month following
award of the Contract. The Contractor thereafter shall submit the Monthly Project
Progress Report at monthly intervals within five days of the cut-off date of the
period being indicated in the relevant monthly payment.
2. The Contractor shall submit five bound colour hard copies and one electronic
copy of the Monthly Project Progress Report on a CD Rom or USB-stick.

102.22

Quality Assurance Standards

a. Quality Systems and Project Procedures Manual. The Contractor shall operate a
Quality System throughout the project duration covering all site, offsite and design office
activities, and all supplies and sub-contracts, in compliance with ISO 9001. The Contractor
shall prepare and submit a Project Quality Manual for review and approval by the Engineer
within 4 weeks of receipt of the Letter of Acceptance. The Contractor shall fully cooperate in audits by the Engineer or his representatives and shall implement all required
corrective and preventative actions.
The Contractor shall prepare for the approval of the Engineer a Project Procedures
Manual and implement suitable IT and communications systems for the efficient
management of the contract covering communications, document control, meetings,
reporting and administration. The Contractor shall provide to the Client and Engineer for
the duration of the project all IT software needed to implement these systems free of
charge or liability.
The Quality Plan shall be reviewed, updated and resubmitted for approval as necessary
throughout the Contract Period.
The Quality Plan shall specifically address the procedures for maintaining the Project
Quality requirements with respect to the use of subcontractors, vendors and suppliers.
The requirements for Quality surveillance shall reflect the criticality of the item or
material concerned. The criteria for assessment of criticality shall be approved by the
Engineer.
b. Procedures. The Contractor shall not commence any item of permanent work until he has
submitted to the Engineer a written statement of his own inspections of that item,
recording such inspections of that item, recording such inspection and obtaining the
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Engineers written approval thereof. Every such statement shall identify the individuals on
the Contractors or Sub-contractors staff who are responsible for inspecting the
workmanship and/or testing the materials for the item in question, the place of inspection,
the stages at which inspections and tests are to be made and the detailed aspects to
be verified or measured in each inspection. Each inspection shall be recorded.
c. Contractors Inspection. The Contractor shall be responsible for testing and inspecting
all materials and workmanship. No work shall be covered up without the written approval
of the Engineer. All items of work concealed in the finished work shall be inspected
by the Contractor immediately before requesting the Engineers inspection. Inspection
and testing shall be recorded according to the procedure specified in d.
d. Test and Inspection Records. The record shall identify the inspector, the place, the date
and time when the inspection was completed, the section of the Works and the
materials tested or inspected, and its state of completion. Reference shall be made to
the relevant detailed working Drawings and the specific aspects or properties which
were checked or measured shall be recorded. Two copies of each record of inspection
by the Contractor shall be submitted to the Engineer. The records of inspections and tests
shall be stored in an orderly fashion on the Site by the Contractor until the issue of the
Certificate of Maintenance for the whole of the works, or such earlier time as the
Engineer may instruct, and the Engineer shall have the right of access to them at all
times.
After the issue of the Certificate of Maintenance for the whole of the works, or such time
as the Engineer may instruct, the Contractor shall, as instructed by the Engineer, either
dispose of the records or deliver them to a specified location.
e. Engineers Testing and Inspection. In addition to the Contractors testing and
inspection, the Contractor shall afford and facilitate access at all times for the Engineers
inspection and testing of materials and workmanship on site and, whensoever required
by the Engineer, off-site and at manufacturers facilities. The Contractor shall provide
means of safe access and assistance as may reasonably be required by the Engineer.
For all items of work the Contractor shall give adequate notice in writing to the Engineer
that the item in question is complete and is ready for inspection, and shall not cover it by
subsequent work until the Engineer has confirmed in writing that it has been inspected
and is approved. No inspection or approval by the Engineer shall relieve the Contractor or
any of his duties and obligations under the Contract. The Contractor shall ensure that
such access and records are also provided for all off-site fabricated items and proprietary
products.
f.

Inspection and Test Plans. The Contractor shall prepare, and submit for approval,
Inspection and Test Plans for all supplies, materials and prefabricated items and, where
required by the Engineer, for works on site. The format of such plans shall be to the
approval of the Engineer and shall indicate all tests, inspections and hold points for
the inspections, audits and approvals to be carried out by the manufacturer, third
party inspection body, Contractor or Engineers representative. The plans shall cover

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manufacture, transportation, acceptance, storage, installation, commissioning and test,


as appropriate.
g. Standards. Materials and workmanship shall conform to the latest edition of the
relevant American (AASHTO, ASTMS) or British Standard Specification or to other
standards specified or approved by the Engineer current at the date of Invitation to Tender.
Materials meeting other internationally accepted equal or better standards will generally be
accepted subject to review by the Engineer. Any such alternative standard proposed by
the Contractor shall be submitted in the English language for approval by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall supply two sets of originals of (one to Engineer on site and
one to Department) each of the Standards, Codes and References referred to in the
Contract Documents and all such other documents that are used in the planning,
procurement and execution of the Works including in addition one copy of any other
standard or code specified or alternatively proposed. All standards shall be in English
and shall be provided to the Engineer within 90 days of the Date for Commencement.
On completion of the Contract all standards, codes and references so provided shall
become the property of the Department.
h. Proprietary Products. Where a proprietary or brand name or the name of a supplier or
manufacturer is indicated on the Contract Drawings or in the Specification this is in respect
of items which are not otherwise adequately described by American, British or equivalent
recognized standards. Alternative items based on recognised National standards of the
country of origin will be accepted provided that documented proof in the English language
is submitted to the Engineer for his approval sufficiently in advance and showing that t he
alternative proposed is of equal or higher quality and performance than the specified item.
i.

Materials to be New. All materials used in the Permanent works shall be new unless
otherwise specified or agreed by the Engineer in writing.
No materials to be incorporated in the Permanent Works shall have previously been used
in the Temporary Works unless otherwise specified or agreed by the Engineer in writing.

j.

Orders for Materials. Before orders are placed for any materials of any description to be
used in the Permanent Works the Contractor shall submit for approval of the Engineer
the names and addresses of the Manufacturers or suppliers proposed. Following
approval by the Engineer, the Contractor shall submit to him copies of all orders placed
for such materials.

k. Samples. In accordance with the other provisions of the Contract Documents, the
Contractor shall as directed by the Engineer supply samples of materials to be
incorporated into the works. The samples required for approval shall be submitted by the
Contractor in labelled boxes suitable for storage, and in sufficient time for testing, due
allowance being made for the fact that if samples are rejected, further samples and
testing will be required. Approval samples will be kept by the Engineer who will
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reject any materials not corresponding in character and quality with the approved
samples.
l.

Certificates. All manufacturers certificates of tests, proof sheets, mill sheets etc,
showing that the materials have been tested in accordance with the requirements of the
relevant Standard or other approved standard of this Specification, shall be supplied in
the English Language by the Contractor to the Engineer free of charge. All such
certificates shall have been issued within the previous 1-year period.

102.23

Procedures
Materials

for

Submission

and

Approval

of

Electro-Mechanical

The Contractor shall comply with the latest procedures of the Department regarding the
submission and approval of all electro-mechanical materials procured and used under the
Contract. The Contractor shall obtain from the Engineer all information including the copies of
latest circulars of the Department describing the procedures for submission and approval of
electro-mechanical materials.
At the commencement of the construction activities the Contractor shall submit a materials
submittal program for the review and approval of the Engineer and Department. As part of the
submittal/approval process, the Contractor shall provide evidence that the supplier has the local
technical resources to provide a quality after sales service. Failure to do so may result in
rejection of the submittal.

102.24

Measurement and Payment

No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the work or details as
described in this Section I-2, Contractor's Responsibilities, or the Conditions of Contract in the
Field of Construction Works and the Special Conditions of the Contract, unless specifically
described or specified elsewhere in these Standard Specifications or in the Particular
Specifications and included as an Item in the Bills of Quantities.

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SECTION I-3 ENGINEER'S AND DEPARTMENT'S FACILITIES


103.01

Description

The Engineer's and Departments Site Office Facilities shall be provided by the Contractor for use
by the Engineer and the Department and shall include, but not by way of limitation, the providing,
constructing, furnishing, equipping, supplying, maintaining, and removing of such facilities as
specified herein upon completion of the Works by the Contractor.
The Contractor shall provide offices as hereafter described for the Engineer and Department at a
location acceptable to the Engineer in close proximity to the contract Works. The Contractor shall
provide offices in a portable, temporary building or in a suitable permanent building, all as
approved by the Engineer.

103.02

Site Laboratories

The Contractor shall provide a materials testing laboratory, in accordance with Section X, Site
Laboratory, of these Standard Specifications and the Particular Specifications, for use by the
Engineer and his staff on a site in accordance with Clause 102.05, Land for Contractor's Use. The
site laboratory shall also include a separate office for the Engineers representative.

103.03

Engineer's Site Office Facilities

The Contractor shall provide and maintain site offices as necessary for use of the Engineer and as
approved by the Engineer for the duration of the Works. The site offices shall be maintained until
all contractual obligations are completed, including administrative contract close-out procedures.
The Contractor shall submit drawings of the proposed office layout identifying all furnishings and
equipment to be provided for the Engineers approval.

103.04

Designated Consultants Site Office Facilities

The Contractor shall provide and maintain site offices as necessary for use of the Designated
Consultants and as approved by the Engineer for the duration of the Works. The site offices shall
be maintained until all contractual obligations are completed, including administrative contract
close-out procedures. The Contractor shall submit drawings of the proposed office layout
identifying all furnishings and equipment to be provided for the Engineers approval.

103.05

Department's Site Office Facilities

The Contractor shall provide and maintain the Department's site office facility, similar to the
Engineers Site Office Facilities. The Departments site offices shall have a minimum floor space of
35 square metres and shall be equipped and furnished as directed by the Engineer. These facilities
shall be located on the same site and adjacent to the Engineer's Site Office Facilities as specified
in Clause 103.03, Engineers Site Office Facilities, of these Standard Specifications.

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103.06

Contractors Site Office Facilities

The Contractor shall provide and maintain site offices as necessary for use of the Designated
Contractors and as approved by the Engineer for the duration of the Works. The site offices shall
be maintained until all contractual obligations are completed, including administrative contract
close-out procedures. The Contractor shall submit drawings of the proposed office layout
identifying all furnishings and equipment to be provided for the Engineers approval

103.07

Measurement and Payment

Engineer's, Designated Consultants, Departments and Contractors Site Office Facilities.


No separate Measurement and Payment will be made by the Department for the work,
materials, etc. required to provide and maintain the Engineers, Designated Consultants,
Departments and Contractors Site Office Facilities as specified in Section I-3 of these
Standard Specifications. All such work shall be considered as a subsidiary obligation to the
Items in the Bills of Quantities.
In accordance with the conditions and requirements of the Conditions of Contract in the Field
of Construction Works and the Special Conditions of Contract and all other Contract
Documents, the Department may allow an extension of time for completion of the Works
under specified conditions. No additional payment will be made by the Department for the
Engineers, Designated Consultants, Departments and Contractors Site Office Facilities
during any extension of the time for completion of the Works under the Contract. The Site
Office Facilities shall be furnished, supplied, and maintained as specified herein during the
Department-approved extension of time for completion at no additional cost or expense to
the Department.
Upon completion of the contract, the Contractor shall remove any temporary Site Office
Facilities from the site and return the site to its original state. No separate payment will be
made for the removal and clearing of such temporary Engineers, Designated Consultants,
Departments and Contractors Site Office Facilities. All facilities and equipment remaining at
the completion of the Contract shall remain the property of the Contractor and shall be
disposed of by the Contractor.

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SECTION I-4 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC AND RELATED WORK


104.01

Description

The construction staging, temporary construction, temporary facilities and such other Works shall
be as indicated on the Drawings, as specified herein, as directed by the Engineer or as may be
required for the maintenance of traffic, pedestrian access or protection, and similar movement
through or around the Works.

104.02

Temporary Works

a. General. The Contractor shall provide, maintain, and upon completion of the Works, unless
directed otherwise, remove all Temporary Works required including, but not by way of
limitation, temporary roadways, stagings, temporary sidewalks and other temporary
construction roads, temporary barricades, temporary barriers, temporary signs, temporary
street lighting, temporary warning lights, temporary reflective painted markings, etc. The
temporary roadways, stagings, temporary sidewalks and other temporary construction shall
be constructed to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The Contractor shall be responsible for
damage done to or caused by these Temporary Works.
The Contractor shall make all necessary arrangements for the use of land, including
payment when necessary, with the authorities, utility agencies or landowners concerned,
before constructing temporary roadways, and shall obtain the approval of such Works from
the Engineer. Such approval or lack of approval shall not, however, relieve the Contractor
of his responsibility.
The Contractor shall maintain all temporary works in a safe and usable condition
throughout the period they are in use. This shall include, but not be limited to removing
dirt and debris from temporary and permanent roadways in use relative to the project;
cleaning of signs, lights and reflectors; realigning displaced barriers, barricades and other
temporary traffic control devices; and removing/rectifying any unsafe or confusing
conditions that would endanger the public and workmen.
The Contractor shall clean up and restore the site on completion to the satisfaction of the
authorities or landowners as specified in Clause 11 of the Conditions of Contract in the
Field of Construction Works and the Special Conditions of the Contract.
b. Temporary Detour Pavement.
Temporary roadways shall consist of detour pavement as specified herein, as indicated on
the Drawings and as approved by the Engineer. Earthwork shall be constructed in
accordance with all requirements of Section II, Earthwork, of these Standard Specifications
and as approved by the Engineer to provide acceptable grades and grade transitions where
adjoining existing pavements. Temporary drainage shall be provided as required and as
directed by the Engineer.
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Prior to placement of detour pavement at temporary roadways, the Contractor shall clear
and grub the roadway area as specified in Section II, Earthwork, of these Standard
Specifications. The top 30 cm of subgrade shall be compacted to 95 percent of maximum
density as determined by compaction control tests specified in Clause 208.02, Inspection
and Control of Material and Work, in Section II-8 of these Standard Specifications. The
subgrade material within the upper 30 cm of the roadbed shall have a minimum CBR of 10
when tested in accordance with AASHTO T-193.
On the prepared subgrade, the Contractor shall place and compact the detour pavement for
temporary roadway pavement section Type I or Type II as indicated on the Drawings and in
accordance with the applicable Clauses of Sections III, Subbase and Base Courses, and
IV, Asphalt Works, of these Standard Specifications.
When directed by the Engineer or required by existing conditions, the Contractor shall
provide necessary and acceptable means of protection for utilities or services (existing or
new) under detour pavement and/or temporary roadway to protect said utilities or services
from any and all damages.
When no longer required, the Contractor shall remove all detour pavement and construction
at temporary roadways and restore the site as required by Clause 11 of the Conditions of
Contract in the Field of Construction Works and the Special Conditions of the Contract, as
indicated on the Drawings and as directed by the Engineer. No separate measurement or
payment will be made by the Department for such removal and restoration.
The Contractor shall be responsible for cleaning and maintaining existing pavement within
the limits of construction used for detouring traffic.
All materials resulting from removal of detour pavement at temporary roadways shall be
disposed of in accordance with Section II-5, Excavation, of these Standard Specifications.
c. Temporary Sidewalk.
Temporary sidewalk shall be as specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.
Earthwork shall be constructed as approved by the Engineer to provide acceptable grades
and grade transitions where adjoining existing sidewalks.
Prior to placement of pavement for temporary sidewalks, the Contractor shall clear and
grub the sidewalk area as specified in Section II, Earthwork, of these Standard
Specifications.
On the prepared subgrade, the Contractor shall place and compact either 5 cm of Type I
asphaltic concrete base course or class K140 concrete as specified in Section V, Concrete
Works, of these Standard Specifications for use as temporary sidewalk.

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When directed by the Engineer or required by existing conditions, the Contractor shall
provide necessary and acceptable means of protection for utilities or services from any and
all damages.
When no longer required, the Contractor shall remove all construction of temporary
sidewalks and restore the site as required by Clause 11 of the Conditions of Contract in the
Field of Construction Works and the Special Conditions of the Contract, as indicated on the
Drawings and as directed by the Engineer.
All materials resulting from removal of temporary sidewalk shall be disposed of in
accordance with Section II-5, Excavation, of these Standard Specifications.
d. Temporary Rumble Strips
The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing; installing and maintaining all
rumble strips on approaching roadways, detour pavement, other temporary roadways and
on service roads as directed by the Engineer. Maintenance shall include all labour,
materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances to remove deteriorated rumble strips and to
furnish and install replacement or new rumble strips as approved by the Engineer. The
Contractor shall remove all rumble strips from the site and disposed of as approved by the
Engineer when no longer required.
The material, execution, layout, machinery and equipment utilized in application of rumble
strips for the Works as described above shall conform to Section IX-1 Pavement Marking
of Standard Specifications. The width, colour, length and location of rumble strips shall be
indicated on the Drawings for the intended use on the detour pavement, other temporary
roadways and on service roads as directed by the Engineer.
The rumble strips shall be 6 mm thick and 20 cm wide. The rumble strips material shall be
applied in two equal layers, but glass beads shall be applied uniformly on the top layer
only.
As directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall totally remove all rumble strips on
existing roads by sandblasting and repair the wearing course in accordance with the
requirements of Section IV-5, Pavement Repairs, of these Specifications.
e. Temporary Roadway Stripes or Line Markings.
The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing, installing and maintaining all temporary
roadway reflective stripes or line markings on detour pavement and other temporary
roadways and on service roads and parking lots as indicated on the Drawings and as
directed by the Engineer. Maintenance shall include all labour, materials, tools, equipment
and appurtenances to remove deteriorated pavement markings and to furnish and install
replacement or new pavement markings as approved by the Engineer.

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The temporary pavement marking reflective paint or tape for the detour pavement and other
temporary roadways or detours and on service roads and parking lots shall be as indicated
on the Drawings. The width of this reflective paint or tape and the colour shall be as
required on the Drawings for the intended use on the detour pavement and other temporary
roadways and on service roads and parking lots and as directed by the Engineer.
As directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall totally remove all pavement markings on
existing roads by sandblasting and repair the wearing course in accordance with the
requirements of Section IV-5, Pavement Repairs, of these Specifications.
f.

Temporary Construction Signs.


The Contractor shall furnish, install, maintain and remove on completion of the Works or
when directed by the Engineer all temporary signs and appurtenances as indicated on the
Drawings or required where roads are closed, partially closed, or where work is in progress
or where required to direct, inform or assist traffic in the area of construction. This item shall
be in accordance with Abu Dhabi Traffic Control Devices Manual, and shall be of the
exclusive colours as illustrated in the Drawings. All temporary signs shall be made from
high intensity reflective sheeting, in accordance with ASTM Type III. The Contractor shall
submit specimens of signs for approval by the Engineer. The Contractor shall relocate all
temporary signs as required by the construction stages or steps and his sequence of
construction operations.
The Drawings and signs as specified herein are stated in the English language. The
Contractor shall provide equal signs in size and description in Arabic at the same locations.
Signs in Arabic shall be mounted adjacent to the English signs and as directed by the
Engineer.
Temporary signs, panels, and supports shall be metal and shall be substantially
constructed to withstand the climatic conditions of Abu Dhabi. All types of sign panels shall
be high intensity grade reflective sheeting. The Contractor shall submit samples of the
proposed types of sign panels and supports for approval of the Engineer prior to the
fabrication and erection of temporary signs. All posts shall be suitably anchored and as
approved by the Engineer.
Temporary signs shall be placed at locations indicated on the Drawings, the approved
traffic control plan, and as directed by the Engineer to direct traffic smoothly and safely.
Maintenance of all signs furnished shall include, but not by way of limitation, all restoration
or replacement of reflective sheeting, replacement or other work required to maintain the
signs in a condition and position as approved by the Engineer.
At the completion of construction or when directed by the Engineer, all signs shall be
removed and disposed of by the Contractor.

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g. Temporary Advance Traffic Warning Signs for Work Zones.


The Temporary Advance Traffic Warning Signs for Work Zones; this item shall be in
accordance with Abu Dhabi Traffic Controls Devices Manual, and shall be of the exclusive
colours as illustrated in the Drawings. All temporary warning signs for detour
arrangements and work zones adjacent to live road traffic shall be made from high
intensity reflective sheeting, in accordance with ASTM Type III.
Type III reflective sheeting shall consist of spherical or prismatic lens elements adhered to
a synthetic resin and encapsulated by a flexible, transparent, weatherproof plastic having a
smooth outer surface.
The sheeting shall conform to the applicable day time colour and luminance factor
requirements of ASTM D4956 when tested instrumentally or the diffuse day colour of the
reflective sheeting shall be visually evaluated by comparison with the applicable highway
colour tolerance chart.
The reflective sheeting shall have the following minimum coefficient of retroreflection
values at 0.2 degrees and 0.5 degrees observation angle expressed as average candelas
per foot-candle, per square foot of material. Measurements shall be conducted in
accordance with ASTM E810.
Type III Glass Bed Retroreflective Element Material
Obs. Entrance
Angle
Angle

Silver
White

Yellow

Orange

Green

Red

Blue

Brown

0.2

-4

250

170

100

45

45

20

12

0.2

+30

150

100

60

25

25

11

8.5

0.5

-4

95

62

30

15

15

7.5

5.0

The sheeting shall conform to the applicable daytime colour and luminance factor
requirements of ASTM D 4956 when tested instrumentally. Or the diffuse day colour of
the reflective sheeting shall be visually evaluated by comparison with the applicable
Highway Colour Tolerance Chart. Colour comparison shall be made under north daylight
or a scientific daylight having a colour temperature from 6500 degrees to 7500 degrees
Kelvin. Daytime colour evaluation shall be illuminated at 45 degrees and viewed at 90
degrees. There shall be no significant colour shift when viewed under night time
(Retroreflective) conditions.
The reflective sheeting shall have a pre-coated pressure sensitive adhesive (Class 1) or a
heat-activated adhesive (Class 2) either of which will adhere to flat, clean surfaces without
necessity of additional adhesive coats on the reflective sheeting or application surface.
Chemical activators shall not be used to activate Class 2 adhesive. The pre-coated
adhesive shall be protected by an easily removed liner which, when removed, shall not
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have a staining effect on the reflective sheeting and shall be mildew resistant. The
protective liner attached to the adhesive shall be removable by peeling without soaking in
water or other solvents and shall be easily removed after storage for 4 hours at 1500F
under weight of 215 psi. The sheeting with liner removed, conditioned for 24 hours at 720F
and 50 percent relative humidity, shall be sufficiently flexible to show no cracking when
bent around a 1.2 inch diameter mandrel with the adhesive side contacting the mandrel.
For ease of testing, talcum powder may be spread on the adhesive to prevent sticking
to the mandrel. The sheeting surface shall be smooth and flat to facilitate self-cleaning
in the rain, regular cleaning, and wet performance, and exhibit 85 degrees glossmeter
rating of not less than 50 when tested in accordance with STM D523. The sheeting
surface shall be readily processed and compatible with transparent and opaque process
colours and show no loss of the colour coat with normal handling, cutting, and application.
The sheeting shall permit cutting and colour processing at temperatures of 600F to 1000F
and 20 to 80 percent relative humidity. The sheeting shall be heat resistant and permit
force curing without staining of unapplied sheeting or applied sheeting at temperatures
recommended by the manufacturer not to exceed 1500F for unapplied sheeting or
2000F for applied sheeting. The sheeting surface shall be solvent resistant to permit
cleaning by wiping with a clean soft cloth dampened with VM & P Naphtha or mineral
spirits.
The adhesive shall form a durable bond to smooth, corrosion and weather resistant
surfaces and permit the reflective sheeting to adhere securely, 48 hours after
application at temperatures of -300F to 2000F. The adhesive bond shall be sufficient
to render the applied sheeting vandal-resistant and prevent its shocking off when
subjected to impact energy of 20ft. lbs. applied with a hemispherical tipped object 1-inch
in diameter at -00F. The test specimen shall be applied to aluminium backing not less than
0.080 inch thick and having a dimension of not less than 4 inches square. During testing,
the specimen shall be supported on a 3-inch diameter ring.
The adhesion test shall conform to ASTM D4956 with the addition of the temperatures
noted above.
The resistance to accelerated weathering shall be as described in ASTM D4956 except
the weathering apparatus and procedure shall be in accordance with ASTM G154.
The reflective sheeting shall be sufficiently flexible to be cut to shape easily and permit
application over, and conform to, moderate shallow embossing characteristic of certain
sign borders and symbols. The tensile strength of the sheeting shall be 5 to 20 pounds
per square inch width when conditioned for 48 hours in accordance to ASTM D685 and
tested in accordance with ASTM D828. Following liner removal, the reflective sheeting
shall not shrink more than 1/32 - inch in ten minutes or more than 1/8 inch in 24 hours
in any dimension per 9-inch square at 720F and 50 percent relative humidity.
The sheeting, when applied according to manufacturers recommendations to cleaned
and etched 0.020-inch x 2-inch x 8-inch aluminium, conditioned (24hours) and tested at

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720F and 50 percent humidity, shall be sufficiently flexible to show no cracking when
bent around a -inch diameter mandrel.
a) Application. The reflective sheeting shall be applied in the manner specified by
the sheeting manufacturer. The applied sign face shall not have bubbles, wrinkles, or
foreign material beneath the reflective sheeting.
b) Edge Treatment. All edges and splices of reflective sheeting signs shall be
coated with an edge sealer when recommended by the manufacturer of the
reflectorized sheeting.
c) Splices and Colour matching. Splicing of reflective sheeting shall not be
permitted on signs or panels with dimensions up to and including 48-inches in height
or width unless the reflective sheeting specified does not come in this width, then the
widest width material shall be used. When sheeting joints are required, they shall be
lap-jointed with the top sheet overlapping the bottom sheet by no less than 3/16-inch.
The fabricator shall endeavor to use the least number of seams possible with the
horizontal lap preferable. Roller applied or reverse screened sheeting may be buttjointed with joint gap not to exceed 1/32-inch. Colour matching of adjacent sheets of
reflective sheeting comprising a sign shall be accomplished without a noticeable
difference in colour. No borders shall be spliced other than the splice of the tangent
border to the corner radius.
d) Demountable Prismatic Reflectorized Message and Borders. The letters, digits,
and alphabet accessories shall consist of embossed 0.040-inch thick sheet
aluminium frames confirming to ASTM B 209 grade 3003-H14 in which prismatic
reflectors are installed to prevent their displacement in handling or service.
Letters in which reflectors are assembled by means of tape are unacceptable. The
plastic reflectors face shall be colourless and be entirely smooth to present a water
repellent and dirt resistant surface. The area indicating the letter shape that is not
reflectorized shall be white for maximum daytime contrast with the sign background.
All letters shall be free of any imperfections and shall present a high quality
appearance. Demountable prismatic border shall be comprised of a minimum length
of 2-feet with allowance of one shorter section between each corner radius.
Letters shall be fastened to the sign with aluminium screws or blind rivets
conforming to ASTM B 209 grade 2024-T4.
The co-efficient of retroreflection of each reflex reflector intended for use in cutout
letters, symbols, and accessories shall be equal to or exceed the following minimum
values with measurements made with reflectors spinning.

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Observation Angle
(degrees)

Entrance Angle
(degrees)

Co-efficient of Rectroreflection Candle


Power/Square Inch/Foot Candle

0.1

14.0

0.1

20

5.6

Failure to meet the specific minimum values shall constitute failure of the reflector
being used. Upon failure of more than two of the 50 samples tested, a resample of
100 reflectors shall be tested. Failure of more than four of these samples shall be
cause for rejection of the lot.
h. Temporary Construction Identification Signs.
The Contractor shall provide and maintain and remove, when directed by the Engineer,
construction identification signs for the site. These signs shall be constructed of separate
panels as shown on the Drawings, all painted with two coats of white oil paint back and
front with images / text on signs printed directly onto the sign panels and supported 60 cm
above the ground with galvanized steel angle, pipe or tubular framing and struts painted
gray or silver and set into the ground and fixed in concrete foundations for adequate
support.
The signs shall be lettered in both Arabic and English to include the information as
indicated on the Drawings and as approved by the Engineer.
A large scale layout shall be submitted for approval before manufacture. No advertising
material, other than the above, will be permitted. The temporary construction identification
signs shall be maintained in good condition, repainted, reprinted as directed by the
Engineer and removed from the site at the end of the Contract to be disposed of as
approved by the Engineer. The siting and layout of subcontractors' and/or manufacturers'
signs shall be approved by the Engineer.
The construction identification signs shall be placed at approaches or the beginning of
construction on roads as directed by the Engineer.
i.

Temporary Construction Barricades, Type I, Type II and Type III; and Drums.
The Contractor shall furnish, maintain and remove on completion of the Works or when
directed by the Engineer all temporary construction barricades, drums and appurtenances
as indicated on the Drawings or required where roads are closed, partially closed, or where
work is in progress or where required to direct, inform or assist traffic in the area of
construction. The Contractor shall relocate all temporary construction barricades and drums
as required by the construction stages or steps and his sequence of construction
operations.
Temporary construction barricades and drums shall be placed as indicated on the Drawings
and as directed by the Engineer to direct traffic smoothly and safely. Temporary

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construction barricades and drums shall have yellow warning lamps as noted in j.
Temporary Safety Barrier Fence Systems below. The lamps shall be placed in such a way
that highlights the barricades or drums without the use of vehicle lights.
Drums may be substituted for temporary barricades when directed or approved by the
Engineer.
Maintenance of all temporary construction barricades and drums furnished shall include,
but not by way of limitation all reflective sheeting, lighting, flashing warning lamps,
replacement or other work required to maintain barricades in a condition and position as
approved by the Engineer.
At the completion of construction or when directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall
remove and dispose of all barricades and drums, as approved by the Engineer.
j.

Temporary Safety Barrier Fence Systems.


1. General: The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing, installing and
maintaining all Safety Barrier Fence Systems in areas as determined by the
Engineer. The location(s) of the Safety Barrier Fence System shall be as directed
and/or approved by the Engineer.
2. The Safety Barrier Fence Systems (Type A or B with Warning Lamps) shall
have the following:
a) The Steel Safety Barrier Fence System Type A shall have the
following salient features:
1)

Hot dipped galvanized steel.

2)

Overall barrier dimensions: 2000 mm x 1000 mm, or 2400 mm


x 1000 mm.

3)

Two retroreflecting red/white banner planks.

4)

Facility to mount warning lamps.

5)

Universal base plates: weight approximately 28 kg each.

b) The Plastic Safety Barrier Fence System Type B shall have the
following salient features:

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1)

Made of high quality plastic with galvanised tubes.

2)

Completely weather and corrosion proof, shock and UVresistant.

3)

Overall barrier dimensions: 2000 mm x 1000 mm, or 2400 mm


x 1000 mm.

4)

Two retroreflecting red/white banner planks.


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5)

Facility to mount warning lamps.

6)

Universal base plates: weight approximately 28 kg each.

c) The Safety Barrier Fence Warning Lamps to EN 12352 shall have the
following salient features:
1)

Lens diameter: 200mm.

2)

Direction of light: one or two sided.

3)

High quality LEDs, light colour amber, with nearly unlimited life
time.

4)

Effective light intensity: one-sided 24 cd / two-sided 18 cd.

5)

Blink/flash rate: 60-70 fl/min.

6)

All safety barrier fence warning lamps shall be fitted with one set
of batteries having a minimum operating time of:

Steady light 1500 hrs.

Flashing light 4500 hrs.

All the above equipment shall be as approved by the Engineer.


k. Temporary Traffic Cones, Traffic Cone Lamps, Traffic Cone Warning Lamps and
Accessories.
1. General: The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing, installing and
maintaining all Traffic Cones, traffic cone lamps and accessories in areas as
determined by the Engineer. The location(s) of the traffic cones, traffic cone lamps
and accessories shall be as directed and or approved by the Engineer.
2. Traffic Cones, Traffic Cone Lamps, Traffic Cone Warning Lamps and Accessories.
a) The Traffic Cone salient features shall be as follows:

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1)

Omni directional red/white reflective sheeting.

2)

Traffic cone: height 750 mm, weight 5 kg.

3)

Traffic cone: height 1000 mm, weight 6.5kg.

4)

Highly portable, easily stackable onto each other.

5)

Constructed of polyethylene, lightweight, recyclable with UV


stabilizer, with two rectroreflecting stripes.

6)

Designed to remain upright and sturdy when exposed to both


direct sunlight and inclement weather conditions.

7)

Capable of receiving an inserted traffic cone lamp.

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8)

The traffic cone lamp shall be for insertion into the traffic cone
having either 750 or 1000mm height.

b) The Traffic Cone Lamp to EN 12352 for illuminating works signs, etc. shall
have the following salient features:
1)

Lens diameter: 180mm polycarbonate clear lens (front) and


black rear casing.

2)

Direction of light: one sided only.

3)

High intensity lamp with super white LED.

4)

Effective light intensity: 220 cd.

5)

All traffic cone lamps shall be fitted with either monocell alkaline
battery 1.5V having minimum operating time of 300 hrs or
Nickel Cadmium rechargeable cell having a minimum operating
time of 120 hrs.

c) The Traffic Cone Warning Lamp to EN 12352 shall have the following
salient features:
1)

Lens diameter: 200mm.

2)

Direction of light: one or two sided.

3)

High quality LEDs, light colour amber, with nearly unlimited life
time.

4)

Effective light intensity: one-sided 24 cd / two-sided 18 cd.

5)

Blink/flash rate: 60-70 fl/min.

6)

All traffic cone warning lamps shall be fitted with one set of
batteries having a minimum operating time of:

Steady light 1500 hrs.

Flashing light 4500 hrs.

All the above equipment shall be as approved by the Engineer.


l.

Temporary Advance Warning System, Directional Arrow.


The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing, installing and maintaining all
Advance Warning System Directional Arrow in areas as determined by the Engineer. The
location(s) of the Advance Warning System Directional Arrows shall be as directed and or
approved by the Engineer.
Arrow panels shall be signs with a matrix of illuminated elements of either flashing or
sequential arrow displays that meets the requirements of the MUTCD. Arrow panels shall
be equipped with a sign control console, mounted in a lockable, weather-resistant
compartment. A non-retroreflective logo or name and telephone number of the contractor or

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supplier may be located on the back of the arrow panel or on the arrow panel trailer. The
logo shall not exceed 0.1 m. The name and telephone number shall not exceed 50 mm in
height. The rear face of the arrow panel shall contain one or more clear lamp(s) to indicate
that the arrow board is operating properly.
The warning arrow panel shall be legible at the minimum distances shown in Table 1 below,
on a bright, sunny day or a clear night when the sight line is unobstructed.
Table 1 Warning Arrow Panel Requirements

Type

Minimum Panel Size

Minimum
Number of
Panel Lamps

Minimum Lamp
Candela

Minimum
Legibility
Distance

600 mm x 1200 mm

12

1000

800 m

750 mm x 1500 mm

13

7000

1200 m

1200 mm x 2400 mm

15

8800

1600 m

The arrow panels shall be rectangular, solidly constructed, and finished in semi-matt black
material. The panels may be mounted on fixed supports or on a trailer or vehicle. The
minimum height to the underside of the sign from the road surface shall be 2.2 m.
The Advance Warning System, Directional Arrow shall have the following salient features:

Light colour: yellow.

Running / sequenced flashing unit.

Static directional arrow function.

Warning sign from right to left and vice versa.

LED arrow symbols.

Flash rate should be between 25 and 40 flashes per minute.

Dimming - automatic (day / night).

m. Temporary Flexible Delineators.


The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing, installing and maintaining Flexible
Delineators in areas as determined by the Engineer. The location(s) of the Flexible
Delineators shall be as directed and/or approved by the Engineer.
The Flexible Delineators shall be high visibility posts, rated to withstand 12 vehicular
impacts at 80 kph and rebound to original shape and position. To be impact resistant and
stay in place during prolonged exposure winds and common impacts.
The salient features of the high visibility flexible delineator post shall be as follows:

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Orange colour post with two 75 - 80mm high intensity silver reflective bands.

Post height: as directed by the Engineer.

n. Temporary Crash Cushions Systems.


1. General: The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing, installing and
maintaining all permanent and temporary detour crash cushions in areas as
shown on the Drawings and determined by the Engineer. The location of the
crash cushions shall be as directed and/or approved by the Engineer. The
Contractor shall disassemble and remove the temporary detour crash cushion(s)
as directed by the Engineer. All crash cushion systems shall meet the
requirements of the relevant sections of the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware
(MASH).
The Contractor shall be responsible for maintaining local stock of routine impact
kits for all types of crash cushion(s), which are as part of the temporary safety
design features.
If required, the Engineer shall review the structural and performance-based
integrity of a crash cushion after an accident, and shall determine the number of
elements to the crash cushion which need to be replaced. The Contractor shall
replace elements/assembly units of a crash cushion with genuine parts from the
original manufacturer, approved by the Engineer. All replaced elements/
assembly units after an accident shall be such that the reconstructed crash
cushion system meets the MASH standards in accordance with the
manufacturers recommendations and Engineers approval.
2. Crash Cushion (Redirective, Non-Gating) Type 1: The crash cushion system as
shown on the Drawings, shall be Smart Cushion, QuadGuard, REACT 350, or
equivalent, meeting the requirements of MASH/NCHRP 350, as approved by the
Engineer.
This crash cushion shall be redirective, non-gating, reusable, consisting of an
array of cylinders that have the ability to recover a major portion of their shape,
position and capabilities after being impacted.
3. Crash Cushion (Non-Redirective, Gating) Type 2: The crash cushion system
as shown on the Drawings, shall be ABSORB 350 or equivalent, meeting the
requirements of MASH/NCHRP 350, as approved by the Engineer.
This crash cushion shall be non-redirective, anchorless crash cushion
comprising of uniform modular components, suited for narrow areas where road
and workspace is limited. Used for work zones or other temporary applications to
shield portable concrete barriers.

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o. Temporary Water Filled Portable Barriers.


The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing, installing and maintaining all
water filled portable barriers in areas as determined by the Engineer, or where
construction operations result in a condition that is considered to be hazardous to the
general public. The location and extent of the water filled portable barriers shall be as
directed and/or approved by the Engineer. Water filled portable barriers shall remain the
property of the Contractor and shall be removed from the site and disposed of as approved
by the Engineer when no longer required.
The barrier shall be a highly portable and crashworthy longitudinal barrier. The barrier
section shall be constructed of a lightweight, recyclable, virgin linear low density
polyethylene plastic shell, with uv stabilizers and antioxidants, designed to accept water
ballast. The end of each barrier section shall be constructed with vertically aligned
knuckles which interlock with adjacent sections by means of a steel connecting pin. The
connecting pin shall be constructed to securely connect adjoining sections.
Barrier sections shall be constructed in white or work zone safety orange colours for high
visibility. Each barrier section shall include an internal galvanized steel framework to
provide additional rigidity during handling and impacts. Barrier section shall have ribbed
sidewalls to interact with an impacting vehicle in a manner that resists penetration, vaulting
and under riding.
Barrier sections shall have elevated forklift openings to allow for mechanical lifting when
empty or full. Barrier shall have arrangements like quick fill openings with covers, and a
rapid release gate valve to allow quick draining of the water ballast. A reflectorized fill
level indicator shall be constructed in the top of each section to allow quick verification
that the section is adequately full of water ballast.
p. Temporary Concrete Barriers.
The Contractor shall furnish, place, maintain and subsequently remove the temporary
concrete barriers at the locations and according to the details indicated in the Drawings and
as directed by the Engineer. Temporary concrete barriers shall remain the property of the
Contractor and shall be removed from the site and disposed of as approved by the
Engineer when no longer required.
All materials shall comply with the requirements of Section V, Concrete Works, of these
Standard Specifications and as indicated on the Drawings.
q. Temporary Concrete Barriers with Screens.
The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing, installing and maintaining all
temporary concrete barriers with screens in areas as determined by the Engineer,
where construction operations result in a condition that is considered to be hazardous
to the general public, or to separate the work area from pedestrian areas. The location
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and extent of the temporary concrete barriers with screens shall be as directed and/or
approved by the Engineer. Temporary concrete barriers with screens shall remain the
property of the Contractor and shall be removed from the site as approved by the
Engineer when no longer required.
The screen shall be solid and continuous, not less than 1.2 metres in height.
Supplemental screens shall be connected with the metal screen as indicated on the
Drawings and as directed by the Engineer. The screen shall be constructed of painted
metal and shall be neat in appearance. The screen shall be fixed over the temporary
concrete barriers. The details of construction shall be as indicated on the Drawings and
approved by the Engineer. The screen shall be of substantial construction such that it will
not be damaged or displaced by wind or other normal natural or manmade forces.
Glare screen units shall be modular, with components consisting of a vertical blade, a base,
and horizontal base rails. The glare screen system shall be made of durable high impact
resistant, nonmetallic, polymeric materials, and all materials shall be new. The base rails
shall be manufactured and assembled in 280mm and 610mm increments to provide rails
that will not cantilever into traffic and not span any two barrier sections. Glare screen blades
colour, size, position and interval shall be as directed by the Engineer. The blade, base and
rail shall be made of high impact polymetric materials with sufficient strength to withstand
impacts from vehicles up to 90 Km/hour. Testing procedures and test results to be
submitted to the Engineer for approval.
Slots shall be provided in temporary concrete barriers for fixing screens as indicated on the
Drawings. Temporary concrete barriers material shall comply with the requirements of
Section V, Concrete Works, of Standard Specifications and as indicated on the Drawings.
r. Temporary Portable Steel Barrier Gate.
The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing, installing and maintaining all portable
steel barrier gates at emergency median cross-overs and in detour areas as shown on the
Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Portable steel barrier gates shall be from an
approved supplier by the Engineer. The portable steel barrier gate shall be steel
longitudinal barriers pinned securely to each other and shall meet the NCHRP 350
standards.
All fabrication, metal work, bolts, nuts and washers shall be galvanized. If required, the
Contractor shall replace damaged elements of portable steel barrier gate with genuine parts
from the original manufacturer, approved by the Engineer.
s. Temporary Light Standards.
1. Description. Temporary lighting for detour pavements or other detour areas shall be
as required or as directed by the Engineer. In all possible cases, the Contractor
shall make use of the existing or newly installed permanent lighting system to
provide temporary lighting for the detour pavements or areas. When directed by the
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Engineer, the Contractor shall furnish and install, or install, temporary light
standards complete as directed by the Engineer. The temporary light standards
(poles) shall be in accordance with the approved temporary lighting system for the
detour pavements or areas. The temporary light standards may be furnished either
by the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA) or by the Contractor as
directed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall make all necessary arrangements for
power supply for the temporary lighting system including furnishing and installing all
cables, control switches and all related appurtenances required per ADWEA
regulations for the power supply and all electric power required operating the
temporary light standards. The Contractor shall submit shop drawings with all
details of the proposed temporary lighting system to the Engineer for approval in
accordance with Clause 101.03, Contract Drawings, of these Standard
Specifications.
2. Temporary Light Standards Supplied by the Contractor. The Contractor shall furnish
and install temporary light standards for areas as shown on the approved drawings,
complete with all components, including but not limited to, lanterns, ballasts, lamps,
cables, concrete foundations, base plates, anchor bolts, reinforcement steel,
concrete, PVC conduit, controllers, control cabinets, all related appurtenances and
power supply. The temporary lighting system shall be maintained by the Contractor
at all times until removal is directed or approved by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall maintain the temporary light standards and all, light standards
damaged by accidents or for any other reason shall be replaced at the Contractors
expense and at no cost to the Department.
When temporary light standards and all related appurtenances as specified herein
are no longer required on the site or when directed or approved by the Engineer, the
Contractor shall remove all such temporary light standards from the site which shall
become the property of the Contractor and be disposed of as approved by the
Engineer.
3. Temporary Light Standards Supplied by the ADWEA. The temporary light
standards supplied by the ADWEA shall include standards (poles), lanterns,
ballasts, lamps and anchor bolts; and shall be installed by the Contractor at
locations as shown on the approved shop drawings. The Contractor shall furnish
and install all additional materials and equipment required to complete and
energize the temporary lighting system including, but not limited to, lighting cables,
foundations, PVC conduits controllers, control cabinets and all related
appurtenances required per ADWEA regulations for power supply.
Temporary light standards and appurtenances furnished by the ADWEA which are
damaged in any way while in the Contractors possession shall be replaced or
repaired by the Contractor at no additional expense to the Department.
The Contractor shall remove, salvage and return to the ADWEA storeyard all
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temporary light standards furnished by the ADWEA, when no longer required, as


approved by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall be responsible for and include, but not by way of limitation,
the following items of Work for the installation of temporary light standards furnished
by the ADWEA:
(a) Loading, transporting, unloading, assembling (as required) and the
complete installation of all temporary light standards as required and as
specified herein. All temporary light standards and appurtenances shall be
obtained from the storeyard of the ADWEA.
(b) The construction of concrete foundations for all temporary light standards
and controllers as required and as specified herein. The Contractor shall
obtain anchor bolts from the ADWEA and shall set all anchor bolts and
PVC conduit in accordance with shop drawings approved by the Engineer.
(c) Furnish and install earth electrodes and PVC conduit at concrete
foundations as required for temporary light standards and control cabinets.
4. Use of Existing Or Newly Installed Street Lighting System for Temporary Lighting. The
existing or newly installed street lighting system shall be incorporated wherever possible
for lighting of temporary detour pavement and other detour areas as required or as
directed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall make all necessary arrangements with
ADWEA; make all payments of any fees or power charges; make modifications to the
existing lighting system if required; and maintain and operate the existing or newly
installed lighting system for all required temporary detour areas. The Contractor shall
install (and supply depending on whether supplied by ADWEA or not, as per item 2 or 3
above) any additional temporary light standards, cables, controllers, control cabinets and
appurtenances as necessary to provide for the complete temporary detour lighting
system, while incorporating existing or newly installed street lighting standards where
possible, as approved by the Engineer, and as described in items 1 and 2 above.
Removal and salvage of existing street lighting poles shall meet the applicable
requirements of Section XVI, Lighting and Electrical Distribution Works, of these
Standard Specifications.
t.

Relocate Temporary or Existing Light Standards.


The Contractor shall relocate temporary or existing light standards as indicated on the
Drawings, as specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.
The relocation of temporary or existing light standards shall be complete with light standard,
lantern, cable, power, and all appurtenances. All work shall comply with the requirements
as hereinbefore specified in Clause 104.02, Temporary Works.

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u. Temporary Traffic Signals.


The Contractor shall furnish, install, maintain and remove temporary traffic signals as
indicated on the Drawings, as specified herein, and as directed by the Engineer. All
temporary traffic signal poles shall be furnished and maintained with the number of traffic
signal units (heads) consisting of red, amber and green signals as directed by the Engineer.
The traffic signal units (heads) proposed by the Contractor shall be capable of manual
operation as well as standard fixed phase operation from a local controller.
The installation of temporary traffic signals shall be complete with all poles, traffic signal
units, conduit, wiring, electric power to all control units and traffic signal units and all
appurtenances required for the operation of all units as approved by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall submit all details of proposed temporary traffic signals to the Engineer
for approval prior to construction. The Contractor shall maintain all temporary traffic signals
and replace any defective or damaged units at no cost or expense to the Department.
The Department reserves the right to direct the Contractor to obtain all materials, except
cables and/or wiring, for the temporary traffic signals from the Department. The Contractor
shall obtain poles, traffic signal units (heads), controls and appurtenances, as directed by
the Department, from the designated Department storeyard. The Contractor shall load,
transport, unload and install all such temporary traffic signal poles, complete.
The Contractor shall furnish and install all conduit, cables and/or wiring and electric power
to all temporary traffic signal poles and control units required for the operation of all units as
approved by the Engineer.
When the temporary traffic signals and all related appurtenances are no longer required on
the Works or when directed or approved by the Engineer, they shall be removed by the
Contractor and materials obtained from the Department returned to the Department. All
such temporary traffic signals and appurtenances shall be carefully removed, cleaned and
suitably protected. Such equipment shall be loaded, transported, unloaded and placed in
storage where directed by the Engineer or the Department. Temporary traffic signals
supplied by the Contractor shall remain his property at completion of the Contract, and shall
be removed from the site and/or disposed of as approved by the Engineer.
v. Relocate Temporary Traffic Signals.
The Contractor shall relocate temporary traffic signals as indicated on the Drawings, as
specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.
The relocation of temporary traffic signals shall be complete with all poles, signal units,
wiring, conduits, power and appurtenances. All work shall comply with the requirements of
Clause 104.02, Temporary Works.

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w. Temporary Traffic Signal Controllers.


1. Description. The Contractor shall furnish, install and maintain temporary traffic
signal controllers and associated equipment as specified herein and as approved by
the Engineer. The local intersection control equipment shall perform all functions
necessary for the control of traffic signals such as to safely assign rights-of-way to
vehicular traffic. Intersection control equipment shall be uniform throughout the
Contract unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall include all conduit, wiring and appurtenances and all electric
power to all temporary traffic signal controllers.
The local control equipment shall include, but not by way of limitation, the following
major components:
(a) Local Intersection Controller
(b) Local Intersection Controller Cabinet
(c) Solid State Load Switches or Electro-Mechanical Load Switches (Relays)
(d) Intersection Conflict Monitor
(e) External Flash Device
(f) Device so that when Red is absent, the signal will automatically switch to
flash Red (minor traffic flow) and Amber (major traffic flow)
Descriptions for each of the major components above are provided herein. The
Contractor shall provide any additional equipment necessary to make the system
perform in accordance with good traffic engineering practices, and to the satisfaction
of the Engineer.
2. Traffic Signal Controllers. All traffic signal controllers shall be pre-timed solid state
devices. The Contractor shall supply all devices necessary to fully program the solid
state as well as the source and object code for the traffic control programs. The
timing shall be digital in nature and based on a 50 hertz supply frequency. The
number and sequence of phases at each intersection shall be as required, as
indicated on the Drawings or by the traffic patterns and traffic volumes, and as
directed by the Engineer.
The controllers shall be capable of withstanding the local temperature and humidity
conditions and provide continuous, uninterrupted service under all conditions.
It shall be possible to change controller timing parameters manually from the front of
the controller cabinet. All controllers shall provide the following features:
(a) Signal Indication Sequence. The vehicular signal indication sequence
shall be Green-Amber-Red. No Amber indication shall appear between

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Red and Green indications. Capability shall be included to provide all-Red


clearance intervals for each phase.
(b) Dials. The controllers shall contain a minimum of four timing dials.
(c) Cycle Length. Signals shall have a cycle length range of 0 to 99.9
seconds, adjustable at 5-second steps.
(d) Number of Phases. Capability to accommodate four separate phases.
(e) Signal Intervals. The number of intervals shall range from 1-16. The
interval timing shall range from 0 to 99.9 seconds, adjustable in 0.1second steps.
(f) Manual Control. Manual controls shall be provided to permit vehicular
signals to switch to any related phase, or to display Red indication in all
directions, or to switch from one time plan to another. When Red is
absent, the signal shall switch to flash Red (minor traffic flow) and Amber
(major traffic flow).
(g) Flashing Mode. For late night operation, signals shall have the capability
of operating in a flashing mode whereby vehicular signals controlling the
main road shall flash showing Amber indication, and vehicular signals
controlling the cross road shall flash showing Red indication.
The Contractor shall bring electric power to the local controllers in accordance with
the ADWEA requirements.
3. Controller Cabinets. All local control equipment at a given intersection shall be
mounted in a single waterproof cabinet made of approved materials. All cabinets
shall include a ventilation fan and filter.
It shall be possible to operate the controller in a manual mode without opening the
large door (e.g., via a "police panel").
All equipment necessary to properly mount the cabinets (including mounting poles
or foundations if required) and to install the local control equipment in the cabinet
shall be provided by the Contractor.
An electric power outlet shall be provided in each controller cabinet.
4. Load Switches. Signal light circuits shall be controlled by solid state load switches or
electro-mechanical load switches (relays). Each circuit shall have a minimum rating
of 600 watts for tungsten lamp or gas tubing transformer load at 240 volts, AC. The
switches shall be capable of operating in all local climatic conditions.
5. Intersection Conflict Monitor. An intersection conflict monitor shall be provided for
each intersection which shall monitor the output of the Green load switches. In the

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event a conflict condition exists, the conflict monitor shall cause the intersection to
go to the emergency flash condition.
The intersection shall also go to the emergency flash condition under any of
the following occurrences:
(a) Absence of required Red or Amber signal.
(b) Absence of security program.
(c) Signals "hanging" indefinitely in one state.
(d) Processor fault condition.
6.

External Flash Units. Each local controller cabinet shall contain a solid state flasher
unit to drive the signal lights during periods of controller maintenance or controller
malfunction. When operating, the flasher shall flash all Red or Amber and Red
indications in designated directions at a rate of 60 flashes per minute.
It shall be possible to remove control of the signal lights from the local controller and
give control to the flasher unit in the following manner:
(a) Manually changing position of a single switch.
(b) Action of a conflict monitor.
(c) Action of a watchdog timer, as applicable.

7.

Watchdog Timer. A watchdog timer shall be provided and installed, and shall be
used with solid state based controllers. The purpose of this timer is to prohibit faulty
controller operation from causing the signal light indication to "hang" indefinitely in
one state.
When used, the controller shall reset the timer periodically. If allowed to time out, the
watchdog timer shall cause the signal lights to be put in the flash mode.
The watchdog timer may be either part of the hardware of the local controller or an
external device. All switches, solid state components and other ancillary equipment
necessary to provide the operation just described shall be provided and installed by
the Contractor.

x. Temporary Traffic Signal Controllers, Supplied by Municipality. The Department reserves


the right to direct the Contractor to obtain all temporary traffic signal controllers, except
cables and/or wiring, from the Municipality. The Contractor shall obtain the temporary traffic
signal controllers, as directed by the Department, from the designated Municipality
storeyard. The Contractor shall load, transport, unload and install all such temporary traffic
signal controllers, complete.
The Contractor shall furnish and install all conduits, cables and/or wiring and electric power
to all temporary traffic signal controllers required for the operation of all units as approved by
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the Engineer.
y. Relocate Temporary Traffic Signal Controllers.
1. The Contractor shall relocate temporary traffic signal controllers as indicated on the
Drawings, as specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.
2. The relocation of temporary traffic signal controllers shall be complete with all
associated equipment and electric power to the relocated controllers, wiring,
conduits and appurtenances. All work shall comply with the requirements of Clause
104.02, Temporary Works.
z. Temporary Retaining Structures. Temporary retaining structures, where required, may be
concrete crib wall, steel sheet piling, or timber pile and sheeting as approved by the
Engineer.
aa. Flagmen. Where directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall provide and station
competent flagmen whose sole duties shall consist in directing the movement of
pedestrians and traffic through or around the Works.
bb. Temporary Traffic Ramps. The Contractor shall provide all labour and materials, and
construct and maintain to the satisfaction of the Engineer temporary ramps for his use
during construction and/or for use of traffic in cases where it is necessary to direct traffic
from an existing road onto a new road or vice versa.
cc. Temporary Staging for Structures. Temporary staging shall be provided by the Contractor to
enable any construction operations to be performed in the required sequence. The staging
shall be properly designed and constructed for the loads which it will be required to support,
and complete details for the arrangements proposed shall be submitted to the Engineer for
approval. Such approval, however, will not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for the
adequacy of the staging. All temporary staging and Temporary Works shall be removed
and disposed of by the Contractor and as approved by the Engineer.
dd. Restoration of Site. Upon completion of the Works, the Contractor shall remove all detour
pavements, temporary sidewalks, Temporary Works and all temporary construction and
shall restore the site in accordance with Clause 11 of the Conditions of Contract in the Field
of Construction Works to its original condition or to the condition indicated on the Drawings.
ee. Temporary Utility Protection and Removal at Detour Roads.
1. General. The Contractor shall comply with the requirements of Clause 102.13,
Existing Utilities and Services, of these Standard Specifications and as specified
herein.
The Contractor shall furnish and install temporary concrete slab protection and/or
temporary concrete encased split PVC duct at detour roads as indicated on the
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Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. All such temporary utility and service
protection shall be as detailed on the Drawings, as directed by the Engineer and/or
as specified herein.
The Contractor shall be responsible for all costs, expenses and other expenditures
required repairing or restoring any damaged utility, service property and/or structure.
In the event the concerned governing agency or owner of such damaged utility,
service, property and/or structure elects to make necessary repairs or restoration
with their own forces or designated contractor, the Contractor shall bear all costs,
expenses or other expenditures involved or incurred by said governing agency or
owner. The Contractor shall directly resolve with the concerned agency, department
or owner the extent of repairs, costs, expenses or other expenditures as required.
2. Materials. All materials shall be as indicated on the Drawings and as specified
herein.
(a) All concrete and reinforcement steel shall comply with the applicable Clauses
in Section V, Concrete Works, of these Standard Specifications.
(b) All split PVC duct shall comply with the requirements of Clause 1603.04,
Rigid Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Conduit, of these Standard Specifications.
3. Excavation and Backfill. All excavating and backfilling to install temporary utility
and/or service protection at detour roads shall comply with applicable Clauses in
Section II, Earthwork, of these Standard Specifications.
Unless otherwise directed by the governing agency or owner of the utility and/or
service that the temporary protection shall remain in place, the Contractor shall
excavate, remove temporary protection and backfill to the proposed grade. In areas
to be landscaped, the Contractor shall backfill with sweet sand. The Contractor shall
furnish and install warning tapes in accordance with Clause 206.02, Fill and Backfill
with Borrow Materials, of these Standard Specifications.
4. Installation. The Contractor shall install temporary concrete slab protection and/or
temporary concrete encased split PVC duct at detour roads as indicated on the
Drawings, as specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.
The temporary concrete slab protection shall be constructed of Class K250
concrete.
The Contractor shall install the temporary concrete slab protection at the depth
below the proposed detour roads as directed by the Engineer. The width of such
temporary slabs shall be indicated in the table on the Drawings, unless otherwise
directed by the Engineer to increase the width to increase bearing of the slab on
undisturbed ground.
Temporary protection of electric and telephone cables shall be in accordance with
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the requirements of Clause 1612.02, Temporary Protection, of these Standard


Specifications.
5. Removal. Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall remove all
temporary concrete slab protection and/or all temporary concrete encased split PVC
duct at detours when the detours are removed. The Contractor shall excavate;
break, remove and dispose of all concrete protection slabs and/or concrete
encasement; remove and dispose of all split PVC duct; and backfill to the required
grade lines; all in accordance with the requirements as specified herein and as
directed by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall remove the temporary protection under detour pavement when
such protection is no longer required on the Works or when directed by the
Engineer. Prior to commencing the removal of temporary protection, the Contractor
shall contact the agency/owner of the protected utilities and make necessary
arrangements for their supervision, if required. When split PVC protection around
electrical cables requires removal, the Contractor shall coordinate with ADWEA to
get the circuits deenergized, prior to the commencement of work.
The Contractor shall provide all labour, tools, equipment and accessories to
carefully remove the temporary protection so as not to damage the existing utilities.
Any utilities or services damaged while removing temporary protection shall be
repaired or replaced with new material at the Contractor's expense as required by
the agency/owner of the damaged utility.
All materials resulting from removal of temporary utility protection shall be disposed
of in accordance with the requirements of Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated
Materials and Surplus Materials, of these Standard Specifications
ff. Maintenance of Detours. As specifically provided under the various items, and in general,
the Contractor shall maintain all temporary works in a safe and usable condition throughout
the period they are in use. This shall include, but not be limited to, removing dirt and debris
from temporary and permanent roadways in use an the project; cleaning of signs, lights and
reflectors; realigning displaced barriers, barricades and other temporary traffic control
devices; and removing/rectifying any unsafe or confusing conditions that would endanger
the public.

104.03

Maintenance of Traffic Plans

a. General. The Contractor shall follow maintenance of traffic plans included in the Contract
Documents, unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, and shall obtain all necessary
approvals from the appropriate local agencies. If modifications are proposed by the
Contractor to the maintenance of traffic plans, the Engineer shall have the right to reject any
proposed modifications that are not acceptable to the Department or do not comply with the
requirements of the Contract Documents.

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The Contractor shall submit shop drawings complete with all details and description of
construction staging and temporary construction for the maintenance of traffic as indicated
on the Drawings and as necessary for the proposed construction sequence, and obtain the
approval of the Engineer prior to reviewing with and obtaining local agency and authorities
approvals.
b. Criteria to be Observed when Revising Maintenance of Traffic Plans.

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1.

Flow of traffic shall be maintained at all times. Traffic will not be permitted to pass
under bridges which are under construction.

2.

Temporary roadway cross sections and pavement structure sections shall be as


detailed in the Drawings.

3.

Temporary roadway widths for main road detours shall be a minimum of two
lanes in each direction (each lane 3.5 metres wide) plus a paved shy distance on
the inside and outside edge of pavement as detailed on the drawings unless
specifically directed or approved otherwise by the Engineer.

4.

All construction staging or substaging shall be approved by the Engineer in writing


prior to commencing construction. After approval by the Engineer, the Contractor
shall obtain approvals in writing from the concerned authorities.

5.

The Contractor shall provide and maintain vehicle and pedestrian access to
adjacent buildings, commercial establishments, facilities or areas during all work.
Such access and its maintenance shall be subject to approval by the Engineer.

6.

Single lane traffic may be proposed by the Contractor when no other means of
detouring is available and when approved by the Engineer.

7.

In general, one lane of traffic shall be maintained on the service roads and detour
roads on isolated sections and the lengths of isolated approved single lanes (along
a multi-lane road) shall not exceed 500 metres and, in the event work is
proceeding at more than one place, the distance between lengths of single lanes
shall be no less than 500 metres unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. The
Contractor shall propose his detour to offer the least possible obstruction,
inconvenience and delay to public traffic, and shall be responsible for providing
adequate control of public traffic using these single lane lengths as previously
specified.

8.

Existing roadways shall be used for detours whenever possible.

9.

Works shall be scheduled in accordance with the contract staging plans as


approved by the Engineer.

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104.04

Temporary Screen

In areas as determined by the Engineer, where construction operations result in a condition that is
considered to be of substantial hazard to the general public, the Contractor shall construct a
temporary screen to separate the work area from pedestrian areas. The location and extent of the
screen shall be as directed and/or approved by the Engineer.
The screen shall be solid and continuous, not less than 1.2 metres in height. The screen shall be
constructed of painted metal and shall be neat in appearance. The details of construction shall be
as proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. The screen shall be of substantial
construction such that it will not be damaged or displaced by wind or other normal natural or
manmade forces. The screen shall be maintained by the Contractor until the work requiring the
erection of the screen is no longer considered a hazard to the public as approved by the Engineer.

104.05

Temporary Sight Screen Fencing

In areas as determined by the Engineer, where sensitive construction operations are to be


screened from the general public, the Contractor shall construct temporary sight screen fencing to
separate the work area from public view. The location and extent of the fencing shall be as directed
and/or approved by the Engineer.
The fencing shall be solid and continuous, not less than 3.0 metres in height. The screen shall be
constructed of painted wood and/or metal and shall be neat in appearance. The details of
construction shall be as proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. The fencing
shall be of substantial construction such that it will not be damaged or displaced by wind or other
normal natural or manmade forces. The fence shall be maintained by the Contractor until such
sensitive operations are complete as approved by the Engineer.

104.06

Temporary Pedestrian Bridges

In areas as determined by the Engineer, where trench excavations result in obstructions to


pedestrian access to buildings, the Contractor shall construct temporary pedestrian bridges to
maintain the access.
The bridge shall be solid and continuous, not less than 1.82.0 metres in width, with rigid
handrailings. The bridge shall be constructed of wood and/or metal and shall be neat in
appearance. The details of construction and the installation locations shall be proposed by the
Contactor and approved by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall maintain the bridge until the trench excavations are backfilled and public right
of way is no longer obstructed as directed and approved by the Engineer.

104.07

Existing Street Name and Numbering Signs

In locations where existing street name and numbering signs, installed by the Municipality, conflict
with proposed improvements, the Contractor shall adopt the following procedure for their removal,
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storage and reinstatement.

104.08

1.

The Contractor shall obtain the appropriate forms from the Municipality Internal
Roads and Infrastructure Directorate to apply for permission to remove the signs.

2.

Only after permission has been granted, the Contractor shall proceed with the
removal of the sign.

3.

It is the Contractors responsibility to remove, store and reinstate the signs upon
completion of the works, to the satisfaction and approval of the Municipality
Internal Roads and Infrastructure Directorate and the Engineer. The Contractor
shall be responsible for the safety of the sign and shall replace and/or repair signs
damaged by him or through his negligence.

4.

If the sign is not to be reinstated in the same location, the foundation shall be
demolished or removed along with all associated cabling, conduit, pull boxes and
other appurtenances with the resulting excavations being properly backfilled in
accordance with the specifications.

5.

When appropriate, the Contractor shall have any new locations approved by the
Municipality Internal Roads and Infrastructure Directorate before commencing the
reinstatement works.

6.

The Contractor shall construct new foundations, all necessary ducting and pull
boxes, reinstall the previously removed signs, and if applicable, reconnect the sign
to a suitable power source.

7.

The Contractor shall obtain a clearance certificate from the Municipality Internal
Roads and Infrastructure Directorate to record that the signs have been reinstated
to their satisfaction.

Existing Flower Pot Structures

In locations where flower pot holding structures installed by the Parks and Recreation Facilities
Division (PRFD) will conflict with roadway improvements, the Contractor shall advise the PRFD
and then proceed to carefully remove those structures when required for construction. The
removed structures shall be stored in a manner and at a location acceptable to the PRFD while
construction proceeds.
After removal of the structures, their foundations shall be demolished (or removed if such can be
suitably done) with the ensuing excavations being properly backfilled.
In coordination with the PRFD and with the approval of the Engineer, locations for the
reinstatement of the removed structures compatible with roadway improvements shall be
determined. The Contractor shall then construct new foundations and/or reinstate removed
foundations and reinstall the previously removed structures.
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All work related to the removal, storage and reinstatement of the existing structures shall be done
in accordance with the requirements of the PRFD. The Contractor shall be responsible for the
safety of the structures and shall replace and/or repair any damage caused by him or through his
negligence.

104.09

Removal, Maintenance
Landscaping

and/or

Replanting

of

Existing

Trees

and

Existing trees, plants, and other vegetation in the areas requiring permanent or temporary
construction will be removed by the Contractor after the Contractor has obtained the approval
of the PRFD, unless otherwise specified.
Prior to commencing the works the Contractor shall survey all trees, plants, and other
vegetation that will require removal and prepare shop drawings that detail the location and type of
each individual tree or plant that is required to be removed. These drawings shall be
supplemented by colour photographs that clearly identify the specific locations that require
tree or plant removal as shown on the shop drawings. After the Engineers approval, the
Contractor shall forward the shop drawings for the PRFD approval.
On site, following formal approval from the PRFD, the Contractor shall mark each tree or plant
that has been approved for removal. These locations shall be verified by the Engineer before
commencing the removal operations.
The Contractor shall be responsible for removing and transporting, to new locations
determined by the PRFD, all trees or plants that require relocation as a result of the construction
works.
Prior to removal of the vegetation, and if required by the PRFD, the Contractor shall pay to the
Municipality all costs related to the various statutory charges that are applicable from time to time
during the period of execution of the Contract.
The Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining the schedules of charges as issued by the
Municipality and/or the PRFD and in effect during the execution of the Contract. The Contractor
shall pay all charges in accordance with the applicable schedule of charges.
The removal of existing trees and landscaping shall be programmed by the Contractor to fit into
the approved construction staging. The premature removal of the existing trees and landscaping
for the convenience of the Contractor will not be permitted.
The removal of the existing landscaping will not commence until the Contractor is mobilized
and prepared to commence installation of facilities or actual construction of proposed Works.
The Contractor shall provide access to all areas as required and cooperate with the PRFD
during the maintenance and/or replanting of all existing and new landscaping.

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The Contractor shall protect existing trees and landscaping which are to remain adjacent to the
Works. Any existing trees or landscaping damaged by the Contractor's operations shall be
replaced by the Contractor with trees or landscaping equal to and of the same species.
The schedule of charges is subject to change without notice and the Contractor shall verify the
validity of the respective charges for the respective items in the schedule at the time of tendering
and throughout the period of execution of the Contract. No claim for adjustment of the schedule
of charges, due to inaccuracy of available information or due to any subsequent revisions to
the charges, will be considered by the Department.
The Contractor shall submit his proposed method for protection of trees and landscaping to the
Engineer for approval. The protection shall consist of fencing, block walls on a suitable foundation,
or as approved by the Engineer. The area to be enclosed by such protection shall be as
determined by the Engineer. Upon completion of construction or when directed by the Engineer,
all temporary protection shall be removed by the Contractor.

104.10

Measurement and Payment

a. Temporary Detour Pavement. Measurement of temporary detour pavement, Type I or Type


II, for temporary roadway shall include full section asphalt pavement shoulders and will be
by the square metres of finish course asphalt pavement top surface area, unless otherwise
indicated on the Drawings.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Detour Pavement, Type I or Type II, will be made at the
unit rate per square metre area as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be
considered as full compensation for furnishing all labour, materials, tools, and equipment for
temporary detour pavement construction for temporary roadways as indicated in the
Drawings, as specified herein and as directed by the Engineer. The work to be paid for
under this item shall include, but not by way of limitation, all clearing, grubbing, compaction
of subgrade; application of prime coat; placing and compacting of pavement; resurfacing,
repair and maintenance of pavement; and subsequent removal and restoration of the site
as approved by the Engineer. No separate payment will be made for any item of work
associated with the construction of temporary detours unless specifically allowed by the
Contract Documents.
No separate payment will be made by the Department for the maintenance of existing
pavement within the limits of construction used for detouring traffic, which is considered a
subsidiary obligation of this item.
No separate measurement and payment will be made by the Department for utility
protection except for the specific utility protection items described in the specifications
and included in the Bills of Quantities.
No separate measurement and payment will be made by the Department for borrow
material except for borrow material placed and compacted below the Type I or Type II
detour pavement section when such fill material is required and approved by the Engineer.
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If such extra fill material is required and approved, its removal, if required, will be measured
and paid as unclassified excavation.
b. Temporary Sidewalk. Measurement of temporary sidewalk will be made by square metres
of temporary sidewalk surface area.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Sidewalk, will be made at the unit rate per square metre
area as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full
compensation for furnishing all labour, materials, tools, and equipment for temporary
sidewalk as indicated in the Drawings, as specified herein, and as directed by the Engineer.
The work to be paid for under this item shall include, but not by way of limitation all clearing,
grubbing, compaction of subgrade; application of prime coat; placing and compacting of
pavement; and subsequent removal and restoration of the site as approved by the
Engineer. No separate payment will be made for any item of work associated with the
construction of temporary sidewalks unless specifically allowed by the Contract Documents.
No separate measurement and payment will be made by the Department for utility
protection except for the specific utility protection items described in the specifications and
included in the Bills of Quantities.
No separate measurement and payment will be made by the Department for borrow
material except for borrow material placed and compacted below the sidewalk when such
fill material is required and approved by the Engineer. If such extra fill material is required
and approved, its removal, if required, will be measured and paid as unclassified
excavation.
c. Temporary Rumble Strips. Measurement for temporary rumble strips will be the computed
linear metres of the marked segment only, for each width of stripe or line separately.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Rumble Strips, will be at the unit rate per linear metre
as included in the Bill of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation
for furnishing, installing and removing the temporary rumble strips and shall be
deemed to include, but not be limited to, materials, equipment, labour, protection from
marring and other related costs to complete the Works in accordance with Specifications,
and as directed by the Engineer.
d. Temporary Roadway Stripes or Line Markings. Measurement of temporary roadway stripes
or line markings will be by the linear metre of marking materials installed, maintained
and removed by the Contractor. Measurement will be made only by the linear metre of
marking, regardless of width, colour or shape.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Roadway Stripes or Line Markings, will be at the unit rate
per linear metre as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full
compensation for all labour, materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances as required to
install, maintain and remove temporary road stripes or line markings.

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e. Temporary Construction Signs. Measurement for temporary construction signs will be made
by the square metre of sign face, measured to the nearest one-hundredth square metre of
sign face using the dimensions shown on the drawings or as approved by the Engineer.
The sign face area will be the nominal area determined by multiplying height by length. No
deductions will be made for corners, etc. The area for round or irregular shaped signs,
(including "stop" signs) shall be determined by multiplying the extreme width by the extreme
height of the signs. No area shall be deducted for the irregular shapes cut from this
rectangle. The area for triangle signs will be calculated by the standard formula for the area
of a triangle with no deductions made for rounded corners.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Construction Signs, will be made at the unit rate per
square metre as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full
compensation for all labour, materials, equipment and appurtenances required for
furnishing, fabricating, placing, repairing, cleaning, maintaining, relocating and removing the
temporary construction signs. More than one sign may be installed on a single post or signs
may be installed on light poles or other temporary supports when approved by the
Engineer. Payment for signs regardless of the numbers or types of supports will be made
by the square metre of sign face installed.
f. Temporary Advance Traffic Warning Signs for Work Zones. Measurement for temporary
advance traffic warning signs for work zones will be made by unit square metre of traffic
warning signs furnished, installed and maintained at site.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Advance Traffic Warning Signs for Work Zones will be
made at the unit rate, as included in the Bill of Quantities, which shall be full compensation
for all labour, materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances required for temporary
advance traffic warning signs for work zones.
The work to be paid for under this item shall include, but not by way of limitations
furnishing, installation, placing, repairing, cleaning, maintaining, relocating and removing
the temporary advance traffic warning signs for work zones, accessories, complete with
all associated items including reflectors, structural mounting frames, anchorage,
signage, lighting and appurtenances, as approved by the Engineer.
g. Temporary Construction Identification Signs. Measurement for temporary construction
identification signs will be made by the number of approved signs furnished, installed and
maintained on site.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Construction Identification Signs, will be made at the unit
rate per number as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full
compensation for all labour, materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances required for
temporary construction identification signs. The work to be paid for under this item for
temporary construction identification signs shall include, but not by way of limitation,
furnishing, placing, repairing, cleaning, maintaining, and removing the temporary
construction identification signs complete with foundation, frame, sign panels, paint,
lettering, printed images / text, lighting and all other elements as indicated on the Drawings
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and as directed by the Engineer.


h. Temporary Construction Barricades, Type I, Type II or Type III. Measurement for
temporary construction barricades, will be made by the number of approved barricades per
type (either Type I, or Type II, or Type III with total numbers for each type being measured
separately) furnished, installed and maintained on the site.
Payment for the Items, Temporary Construction Barricades, will be made at the unit rate
per number per type of temporary construction barricade as included in the Bills of
Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation for all labour, materials,
tools, equipment and appurtenances required for temporary construction barricades. Work
to be paid for under this item for temporary construction barricades shall include, but not by
way of limitation, furnishing, placing, repairing, cleaning, maintaining, relocating, removing
and disposing of the temporary construction barricades complete with posts and panels,
warning lamps, reflective sheeting, and all appurtenances as indicated on the Drawings and
as directed by the Engineer.
i. Temporary Drums. Measurement for temporary drums will be made by the number of
approved drums furnished, installed and maintained on site.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Drums, will be made at the unit rate per number as
included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation for all
labour, materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances required for drums. The work to be
paid for under this item shall include, but not by way of limitation, furnishing, placing,
repairing, cleaning, maintaining, relocation and removing the temporary drums, complete
with reflective sheeting, lights and all appurtenances as indicated on the Drawings and as
directed by the Engineer.
j. Temporary Safety Barrier Fence Systems. Measurement for the item temporary safety
barrier fence systems will be made by unit number of each type of temporary safety
barrier fence systems with warning lamps and associated items furnished and installed at
site.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Safety Barrier Fence Systems, will be made at the unit
rate, as included in the Bill of Quantities, which shall be full compensation for all labour,
materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances required for Safety Barrier Fence System.
The work to be paid for under this item shall include, but not by way of limitations
furnishing, installation, placing, repairing, cleaning, maintaining, relocating and removing
the Temporary Safety Barrier Fence Systems (A) and (B) with Warning Lamps and
accessories, complete with all associated items and appurtenances, as approved by the
Engineer.
k. Temporary Traffic Cones, Traffic Cone Lamps, Traffic Cone Warning Lamps and
Accessories. Measurement for temporary traffic cones, traffic cone lamps, traffic cone
warning lamps and accessories will be made by the number of approved temporary traffic
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cones or traffic cone lamps or traffic cone warning lamps, and accessories, furnished,
installed and maintained on site.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Traffic Cones or Traffic Cone Lamps or Traffic Cone
Warning Lamps, and Accessories, will be made at the unit rate per number as included in
the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation for supplying
and maintaining temporary traffic cones or traffic cone lamps or traffic cone warning lamps
and accessories. The works to be paid for under this item shall include, but not by way of
limitation, furnishing, placing, repairing or replacing, cleaning, maintaining, relocating and
removing the temporary traffic cones or traffic cone lamps or traffic cone warning lamps and
accessories as indicated on the Drawings and as directed by the Engineer.
l. Temporary Advance Warning System, Directional Arrow. Measurement for the item
temporary advance warning system, directional arrows will be made by unit number of
advance warning system, directional arrow and associated items furnished and installed at
site.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Advance Warning System, Directional Arrow, will be
made at the unit rate, as included in the Bill of Quantities, which shall be full
compensation for all labour, materials tools, equipment and appurtenances required for
temporary advance warning system, directional arrow. The work to be paid for under
this item shall include, but not by way of limitations furnishing, installation, placing,
repairing, cleaning, maintaining, relocating and removing the temporary advance
warning system, directional arrow and accessories, complete with all associated items
including computer periphery and appurtenances, as approved by the Engineer.
m. Temporary Flexible Delineators. Measurement for temporary flexible delineators will be
made by unit rate of number of flexible delineators and associated items furnished,
installed and maintained at site.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Flexible Delineators, will be made at the unit rate, as
included in the Bill of Quantities, which shall be full compensation for all labour,
materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances required for temporary flexible delineators.
The work to be paid for under this item shall include, but not by way of limitations,
furnishing, installation, placing, repairing, cleaning, maintaining, relocating and removing
the temporary flexible delineators and accessories, complete with all associated
items and appurtenances, as approved by the Engineer.
n. Temporary Crash Cushion Systems, Type 1, Type 2, Type 3 or Type 4. Measurement for
temporary crash cushion systems (either Type 1, Type 2, Type 3 or Type 4) will be made
by unit number of each type of crash cushion systems furnished, installed and maintained
on the site.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Crash Cushion Systems, will be made at the unit rate, as
included in the Bill of Quantities, which shall be full compensation for all labour,
materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances required for the temporary crash cushion
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systems. The work to be paid for under this item shall include, but not by way of
limitation, furnishing, installation, placing, repairing, cleaning, maintaining, relocating,
removing and reinstalling the temporary crash cushion system, complete with all associated
items including warning lamps, reflectors and appurtenances as approved by the Engineer.
o. Temporary Water Filled Portable Barriers. Measurement for temporary water filled portable
barriers will be made by the linear metre of approved water filled portable barriers
furnished, installed and maintained on the site.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Water Filled Portable Barriers, will be made at the unit
rate per linear metre as included in the Bills of Quantities, which payment shall
be full compensation for all labour, materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances
required for temporary water filled portable barriers. The work to be paid for under this
item shall include, but not by way of limitation, furnishing, placing, repairing, cleaning,
maintaining, relocating and removing the water filled portable barriers, complete with
warning lamps, reflectors, and appurtenances as approved by the Engineer.
p. Temporary Concrete Barriers. Measurement for temporary concrete barriers will be made
by the linear metre of approved temporary concrete barriers that are furnished, installed
and maintained on site.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Concrete Barriers, will be made at the unit rate per linear
metre as included in the Bills of Quantities, which payment shall be full compensation for all
labour, materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances required for temporary concrete
barriers. The work to be paid for under this item shall include, but not by way of limitation,
furnishing, placing, repairing, cleaning, maintaining, relocating and removing the temporary
concrete barriers, complete with warning lamps, reflectors, paint, and appurtenances as
approved by the Engineer.
q. Temporary Concrete Barriers with Screens. Measurement for temporary concrete
barriers with screens (including supplemental screens) will be made by the linear metre
of approved temporary concrete barriers with screens furnished, installed and maintained
on the site.
Payment for the Item, Temporary Concrete Barriers with Screens, will be made at the unit
rate per linear metre as included in the Bills of Quantities, which payment shall be full
compensation for all labour, materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances required for
temporary concrete barriers with screens. The work to be paid for under this item shall
include, but not by way of limitation, furnishing, placing, repairing, cleaning, maintaining,
relocating and removing the temporary concrete barriers with screens, complete with
warning lamps, reflectors, paint, and appurtenances as approved by the Engineer.
r. Temporary Portable Steel Barrier Gate. Measurement for temporary portable steel barrier
gates will be made by the number of approved barrier sections that are furnished, installed
and maintained on the site.

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Payment for the Item, Temporary Portable Steel Barrier Gates, will be made at the
unit rate, as included in the Bills of Quantities, which shall be full compensation for
all labour, materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances required for the temporary
portable steel barrier gates. The work to be paid for under this item shall include, but not
by way of limitation, furnishing, installation, placing, repairing, cleaning, maintaining,
relocation, removing and reinstalling the portable steel barrier gates, complete with all
associated items including lighting, reflectors and appurtenances as approved by the
Engineer.
s. Temporary Light Standards.
1.

Furnish and Install Temporary Light Standards Complete. Measurement for


furnishing and installing temporary light standards will be made by the number of
approved temporary light standards furnished, installed and maintained on site.
Payment for the Item, Furnish and Install Temporary Light Standards, Complete,
will be made at the unit rate per number as included in the Bills of Quantities,
which rate shall be considered as full compensation for all materials, labour, tools,
equipment, and appurtenances as required, as specified, and as directed by the
Engineer. The work to be paid shall include, but not by way of limitation, furnishing
and installing the temporary light standard (pole), complete with lantern, ballast,
lamp, foundation, anchor bolts, PVC conduits, cables, and all related materials and
works for a complete installation, and maintenance of the temporary light standard.
No separate payment will be made for the associated work for assembling the
overall temporary lighting system; of obtaining approvals; preparing shop
drawings; furnishing, assembling and installing circuit cables; furnishing and
installing control cabinets and foundations; connecting the power supply; testing;
energizing; replacing damaged standards; paying for electrical power costs and/or
any other fees to ADWEA; cleaning and maintaining the lighting system and
removing the temporary light standards and related materials. Payment for all
works associated with the overall temporary lighting system will be considered
subsidiary to and included in payment for the Bill of Quantities Item, Furnish and
Install Temporary Light Standards, Complete.

2.

Install Temporary Light Standards Supplied by ADWEA. Measurement for


installing temporary light standards (poles) supplied by the ADWEA will be made
by the number of approved temporary light standards supplied by ADWEA that are
installed and maintained on site.
Payment for the Item, Install Temporary Light Standards Supplied By ADWEA, will
be made at the unit rate per number as included in the Bills of Quantities, which
rate shall be considered as full compensation for all material, labour, tools,
equipment and appurtenances required, as specified and as directed by the
Engineer. The work to be paid for under this item shall include, but not by way of
limitation, arranging with the ADWEA for the supply of the temporary light

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standards; loading, transporting and unloading all temporary light standards


obtained at ADWEA storeyard; furnishing and installing all foundations, PVC
conduits and cables; connecting the power supply for the temporary lighting
system, paying for all electrical power for operation of temporary lighting system;
cleaning and maintaining the temporary lighting system including the replacement
of lamps which fail; the replacement or repair of damaged temporary light
standards; the removal, salvage, loading, transporting and unloading at the
ADWEA storeyards of all temporary light standards; and all related materials and
Works for the complete installation and energizing the temporary light standards.
No separate payment will be made for the associated work for assembling the
overall temporary lighting system; of obtaining approvals; preparing shop
drawings; furnishing assembling and installing circuit cables; furnishing and
installing control cabinets and foundations; connecting to the power source;
testing; energizing; paying all electrical power costs and/or any other fees to
ADWEA; replacing or repairing damaged light standards; cleaning and maintaining
the lighting system. Payment for all works associated with the overall temporary
lighting system will be considered subsidiary to and included in payment for the
Bills of Quantities item, Install Temporary Light Standards Supplied by ADWEA.
3.

Use of Existing or Newly Installed Street Lighting System for Temporary


Detour Lighting. Measurement for use of existing or newly installed street lighting
system for temporary detour lighting will be made by the number of existing or
newly installed lighting standards (poles) per the number of months that the
existing or newly installed lighting standards are in use for temporary lighting.
Measurement will be made by multiplying the number of approved existing or
newly installed light standards by the number of months the temporary lighting is in
use for a total number of pole-months. The days of an incomplete month will be
converted into a fraction of a month for the purpose of calculating the total polemonths.
Payment for the Item, Use of Existing or Newly Installed Lighting Standards for
Temporary Detour Lighting will be made at the unit rate per pole-month as
included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full
compensation for all material, labour, tools, equipment and appurtenances
required, as specified and as directed by the Engineer. The work to be paid for
under this item shall include, but not by way of limitation, furnishing and installing
any required ducts, cables and controllers, control cabinets, control cabinet
foundations and making power connections necessary for the purpose of utilizing
the existing or newly installed light standards for temporary detour lighting; paying
for all electrical power costs and/or any other fees to ADWEA; coordinating with
ADWEA and preparing shop drawings; cleaning and maintaining the existing or
newly installed lighting standards and overall system during the time the detour is
in use. No payment will be made in any month when a light is intended to be in
use on a detour but is not lighted and is not immediately repaired by the
Contractor.

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t. Relocate Temporary or Existing Light Standards. Measurement of relocation of temporary


or existing light standards will be made by the number of approved temporary light
standards that are relocated on site.
Payment for the Item, Relocate Temporary or Existing Light Standards, will be made at the
unit rate per number as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as
full compensation for all labour, materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances as
specified, and as approved or directed by the Engineer. The work to be paid for under this
item shall include, but not by way of limitation, the removal, transport, repair and
reinstallation of temporary light standards (poles) complete with all lanterns, hardware,
cables, concrete foundations, controllers, and power connections, and other appurtenances
as required and all power costs, fees, maintenance and other expenses associated with the
installation and operation of the existing poles.
u. Temporary Traffic Signals. Measurement for furnishing and installing temporary traffic
signals will be made by the number of approved three or four lens traffic signal heads
installed and maintained on site.
Payment for the Item, Furnish and Install Temporary Traffic Signals, Complete, will be
made at the unit rate per number as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be
considered as full compensation for all labour, materials, tools, equipment and
appurtenances required for furnishing, installing, operating, cleaning, maintaining,
removing, transporting and suitably storing temporary traffic signals where directed by the
Engineer, with each signal complete with pole, signal units (heads), signal faces, conduit,
wiring, electric power, and all appurtenances installed, complete and as directed by the
Engineer.
v. Temporary Traffic Signals, Materials by Municipality, Except Cables. Measurement for
installation of temporary traffic signals, with materials supplied by the Municipality, except
for the cables, will be made by the number of approved three or four lens traffic signal
heads installed and maintained on site.
Payment for the Item, Install Temporary Traffic Signals Supplied By Municipality, Except
Cables, will be made at the unit rate per number as included in the Bills of Quantities, which
rate shall be considered as full compensation for all labour, materials, tools, equipment and
appurtenances required for furnishing foundations, conduit, cables and/or wiring, installing,
operating, cleaning, maintaining, removing, transporting and suitably storing temporary
traffic signals where directed by the Engineer.
w. Relocate Temporary Traffic Signals. Measurement for relocation of temporary traffic signals
will be made by the number of approved temporary traffic signals relocated and maintained
on site.
Payment for the Item, Relocate Temporary Traffic Signals, will be made at the unit rate per
number as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full
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compensation for all labour, materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances required for
relocating, installing, operating, cleaning, maintaining, removing, transporting and suitably
storing temporary traffic signals where directed by the Engineer, with the temporary traffic
signal complete with pole, signal units (heads), signal faces, foundations, conduit, wiring,
electric power and all appurtenances to complete the relocation of temporary traffic
signals.
x. Temporary Traffic Signal Controllers. Measurement for furnishing and installing temporary
traffic signal controllers will be made by the number of approved temporary traffic signal
controllers installed and maintained on site.
Payment for the Item, Furnish and Install Temporary Traffic Signal Controllers, Complete,
will be made at the unit rate per number as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate
shall be considered as full compensation for all labour, materials, tools, equipment and
appurtenances required for furnishing and installing the complete traffic signal controller
and foundation including operating, cleaning, maintaining, removing, transporting and
suitably storing the temporary traffic signal controllers where directed by the Engineer. The
number of temporary traffic signal poles and signal units (heads) controlled from a
temporary traffic signal controller may vary. Payment will only be made per temporary traffic
signal controller with no regard given for the number of actual signal units controlled.
y. Temporary Traffic Signal Controllers, Supplied by Municipality. Measurement for installing
temporary traffic signal controllers that are supplied by the Municipality, except for the
cables, will be made by the number of approved temporary traffic signal controllers installed
and maintained on site.
Payment for the Item, Install Temporary Traffic Signal Controllers, Supplied By Municipality,
Except Cables, will be made at the unit rate per number as included in the Bills of
Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation for all labour, materials,
equipment and appurtenances required for furnishing and installing the foundation, conduit,
cables and/or wiring; and installing, operating, cleaning, maintaining, removing, transporting
and suitably storing temporary traffic signal controllers where directed by the Engineer.
z. Relocate Temporary Traffic Signal Controllers. Measurement for relocation of temporary
traffic signal controllers will be made by the number of relocated temporary traffic signal
controllers installed and maintained on site.
Payment for the Item, Relocate Temporary Traffic Signal Controllers, will be made at the
unit rate per number as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as
full compensation for all labour, materials, equipment and appurtenances required for
furnishing and installing new foundations and cables and relocating, operating, cleaning,
maintaining, removing, transporting and suitably storing the temporary traffic signal
controllers where directed by the Engineer. The number of temporary traffic signal poles
and signal units (heads) controlled from the relocated temporary traffic signal controller may
vary. Payment will only be made per temporary traffic signal controller relocated with no
regard given for the number of actual signal units controlled.
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aa. Temporary Retaining Structures. No separate measurement or payment will be made by


the Department for furnishing, cleaning, maintaining and removing temporary retaining
structures. Temporary retaining structures shall be considered a subsidiary obligation to the
applicable Items in the Bills of Quantities.
bb. Flagmen. No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for
flagmen. Flagmen shall be considered a subsidiary obligation to the applicable Items in the
Bills of Quantities.
cc. Temporary Traffic Ramps. No separate measurement or payment will be made by the
Department for temporary traffic ramps, temporary traffic ramps shall be considered a
subsidiary obligation to the applicable Items in the Bills of Quantities.
dd. Temporary Staging for Structures. No separate measurement or payment will be made by
the Department for temporary staging for structures. Temporary staging for structures shall
be considered a subsidiary obligation to the applicable Items in the Bills of Quantities.
ee. Restoration of Site. No separate measurement or payment will be made by the
Department for restoring the site. Restoring the site shall be considered a subsidiary
obligation to the applicable Items in the Bills of Quantities.
ff. Maintenance of Traffic Plans. No separate measurement will be made for the work
required for the preparation and acquiring of the required approvals of the maintenance of
traffic plans required by the Contract Documents or the Contractor's operations.
Payment for maintenance of traffic plans will be considered a subsidiary obligation to the
applicable items in the Bills of Quantities.
gg. Temporary Utility Protection and Removal at Detour Roads.

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1.

Temporary Concrete Slab Protection. Measurement and Payment for temporary


concrete slab protection will be made in accordance with the various sections of
these Standard Specifications and as included in the Bills of Quantities.

2.

Temporary Concrete Encased Split PVC Duct. Measurement and payment for
temporary concrete encased split PVC duct at detour roads will be made in
accordance with the various sections of these Standard Specifications and as
included in the Bills of Quantities.

3.

Removal of Temporary Concrete Slab Protection. Measurement and payment for


removal of temporary concrete slab protection will be made in accordance with the
various sections of these Standard Specifications and as included in the Bills of
Quantities.

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4.

Removal of Temporary Concrete Encased Split PVC Duct. Measurement and


payment for removal of temporary concrete encased split PVC duct will be made in
accordance with the various sections of these Standard Specifications and as
included in the Bills of Quantities.

hh.
Maintenance of Detours. No separate measurement and payment will be made by
the Department for maintenance of detours. Maintenance of detours shall be considered a
subsidiary obligation of the various items of this section. Failure by the Contractor to
maintain the various components making up the complete temporary system will result in
deductions being made from payments for various items in this section as determined
appropriate by the Engineer on a pro-rata basis for the period of time each temporary
system is not maintained.
ii. Temporary Screen. Measurement and Payment for the Item, Temporary Screen, shall be
by the linear metre of installed temporary screening which rate shall include all materials,
labour, tools and equipment for the installation, maintenance and removal of the temporary
screening.
Measurement and Payment for the Item, Relocate Temporary Screen, shall be by the linear
metre of temporary screening previously erected and then relocated as directed by the
Engineer which rate shall include all materials, labour, tools, and equipment for the
relocation, re-erection, maintenance and removal of the temporary screening previously
installed.
jj. Temporary Sight Screen Fencing. Measurement and Payment for the Item, Temporary
Sight Screen Fencing, shall be by the linear metre of installed temporary sight screening
fencing, which rate shall include all materials, labour, tools and equipment for the
installation, maintenance, and removal of the temporary sight screen fencing.
Measurement and Payment for the Item, Relocate Temporary Sight Screen Fencing, shall
be by the linear metre of temporary sight screening fencing previously erected and then
relocated as directed by the Engineer which rate shall include all materials, labour, tools,
and equipment for the relocation, re-erection, maintenance and removal of the temporary
sight screen fencing previously installed.
kk. Temporary Pedestrian Bridges. Measurement and payment for the Item, Temporary
Pedestrian Bridges, shall be by the number of installed temporary bridges, which rate shall
include all materials, labour, tools and equipment for the installation, maintenance, and
removal of temporary pedestrian bridges.
Measurement and payment for the Item, Relocate Temporary Pedestrian Bridges, shall be
by the number of Temporary Pedestrian Bridges previously erected and then relocated as
directed by the Engineer which rate shall include all materials, labour, tools, and equipment
for the relocation, re-erection, maintenance, and removal of the Temporary Pedestrian
Bridge previously installed.

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ll. Existing Street Name and Numbering Signs. Measurement and payment for the Item,
Remove, Store and Reinstall Existing Street Name and Numbering Signs, shall be by the
number of existing street name and numbering signs actually removed and installed which
rate shall include all material, labour, tools and equipment necessary to carry out the work
described above. No other payment will be made for the various items of work involved
except that separate measurement and payment will be made for required new conduit, pull
boxes and cabling under the appropriate items in Section XVI of the Standard
Specifications.
mm.
Existing Flower Pot Structures. Measurement and payment for the item, Remove,
Store and Reinstall Existing Flower Pot Structures, shall be by the number of existing
structures actually removed and reinstalled in a new location, which rate shall include all
material, labour, tools and equipment necessary to carry out the work described above. No
other payment will be made for the various items of work involved.
nn.
Remove and Transport Existing Palm Trees. Measurement for the removal and
transportation of the existing palm trees to the designated location identified by the Parks
and Recreation Facilities Division (PRFD) will be by the number of palm trees removed
and transported regardless of the size of the palm trees.
Payment for the Item, Remove and Transport Existing Palm Trees, will be at the unit rate
per number as included in the Bill of Quantities, which rate shall include all materials,
labour, tools, and machines required for the removal and transportation of the palm trees
to the designated location identified by the PRFD.
oo.
Remove and Transport Existing Trees Other than Palm Trees. Measurement for the
removal and transportation of the existing trees other than palm trees to the designated
location identified by the PRFD will be by the number of trees removed and transported
regardless of the size of the trees, provided that each tree counted must be at least 25
mm in diameter at a height of 300 mm above the ground. Trees other than palm trees that
are less than 25 mm in diameter at a height of 300 mm above the ground shall be
removed and transported as a subsidiary obligation to this work.
Payment for the Item, Remove and Transport Existing Trees Other than Palm Trees, will
be at the unit rate per number as included in the Bill of Quantities, which rate shall include
all materials, labour, tools, and machineries required for the removal and transportation
of the trees to the designated location identified by the PRFD.
pp.
Replant Existing Palm Trees. Measurement for the replanting of existing palm trees
at the locations designated by the PRFD will be by the number of palm trees replanted
regardless of the size of the palm trees.
Payment for the Item, Replant Existing Palm Trees, will be at the unit rate per number
as included in the Bill of Quantities, which rate shall include all materials, labour, tools,
and machineries required for the replanting of the palm trees at the designated locations
identified by the PRFD.
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qq.
Replant Existing Trees Other than Palm Trees. Measurement for the replanting of
existing trees other than palm trees at the location designated by the PRFD will be by
the number of trees replanted regardless of the size of the trees.
Payment for the Item, Replant Existing Trees Other than Palm Trees, will be at the unit
rate per number as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall include all
materials, labour, tools, and machineries required for the replanting of trees at the
designated location identified by the PRFD.
rr. Bushes and Greeneries. No separate measurement and payment will be made for the
removal, transportation, and disposal of bushes, grass, or vegetation other than the
trees identified in the Bill of Quantities, as such work shall be considered a subsidiary
obligation of the Contract.

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SECTION II - EARTHWORK
200.01

Description

This work consists of all clearing, grubbing, removing, wholly or in part, within the designated limits
or adjacent thereto and satisfactory disposal of debris, vegetation, buildings, fences, structures,
walls, old pavement, abandoned pipe lines and any other obstructions which are not designated on
the Drawings or permitted to remain; dewatering; removing unsuitable materials; excavating
selected borrow material from borrow pits for use as specified; the placing and compacting of
borrow material; unclassified excavation; structure excavation; backfilling; pervious backfill; and
doing all the earthwork that may be required to construct and maintain the roadway, bridge
structures and other facilities as indicated on the Drawings, as specified herein and/or in the
Particular Specifications and included in the Bills of Quantities.

200.02

Standards and Codes

The following Standards and Codes in their latest editions shall be particularly applied to Works
covered by these Standard Specifications.
AASHTO: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
M-145
M-288
T-2
T-11
T-27
T-85
T-86
T-87
T-88
T-89
T-90
T-93
T-96
T-100
T-176
T-180
T-191
T-193
T-204
T-205
T-217

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Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction


Purposes
Geotextiles Used for Subsurface Drainage Purposes
Sampling Aggregates
Amount of Materials Finer than No. 200 Sieve in Aggregate
Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
Investigating and Sampling Soils and Rock for Engineering Purposes
Dry Preparation of Disturbed Soil and Soil Aggregate Samples for Test
Particle Size Analysis of Soils
Determining the Liquid Limit of Soils
Determining the Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils
Determining the Field Moisture Equivalent of Soils
Resistance to Abrasion of Small Size Coarse Aggregate by Use of the Los
Angeles Machine
Specific Gravity of Soils
Plastic Fines in Graded Aggregates and Soils by Use of the Sand Equivalent Test
Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 10-lb. Rammer and 18-inch Drop
Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone Method
The California Bearing Ratio
Density of Soil In-Place by the Drive Cylinder Method
Density of Soil In-Place by the Rubber-Balloon Method
Determination of Moisture in Soils by Means of a Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure
Moisture Tester
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ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials


B584
D1452
D1557
D1785
D2113
D2466
D2564
D2661
D2729
D3773
D3774
D3786
D4253
D4354
D4355
D4491
D4533
D4632
D4759
D4751
D5034
D5035
D5199
D5261
D5322
D6241

Standard Specification for Copper Alloy Sand Castings for General Applications
Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger
Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80 and 120
Diamond Core Drilling for Site Investigation
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40
Solvent Cements for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and
Fittings
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings
Length of Woven Fabric
Width of Woven Fabric
Hydraulic Bursting Strength of Knitted Goods and Non Woven Fabrics
Test Methods for Maximum Index Density of Soils using a Vibratory Table
Sampling of Geosynthetics for Testing
Deterioration of Geotextiles from Exposure to Light, Moisture and Heat in a XenonArc Type Apparatus
Water Permeability of Geotextiles by Permittivity
Trapezoid Tearing Strength of Geotextiles
Grab Breaking Load and Elongation of Geotextiles
Determining the Specification Conformance of Geosynthetics
Determining Apparent Opening Size of a Geotextile
Breaking Force and Elongation of Textile Fabrics (Grab Test)
Breaking Force and Elongation of Textile Fabrics (Strip Test)
Measuring the Nominal Thickness of Geosynthetics
Measuring Mass Per Unit Area of Geotextiles
Standard Practice for Laboratory Immersion Procedures for Evaluating the
Chemical Resistance of Geosynthetics to Liquids
Static Puncture Strength of Geotextiles and Geotextile-Related Products Using a
50 mm Probe

B.S.: British Standard


812
Testing Aggregates

200.03 Soil Information


Information concerning properties of the soil at the Site will be available for examination by the
Contractor at the offices of the Engineer or where designated in the Particular Specifications. The
Contractor shall comply with the requirements of Clause 4.10, Site Data, and Clause 4.12,
Unforeseeable Physical Conditions, in the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction
Works and the Special Conditions of Contract concerning inspection of the Site.
The Department does not represent that the borehole logs and other subsurface information
contained in the report of soil investigation indicate the conditions that shall be encountered by the
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Contractor in performing the Works. The Department represents only that such subsurface
information indicate conditions encountered at the particular point from which such information was
obtained. It shall be expressly understood by the Contractor that the making of deductions,
interpretations, and conclusions from all the accessible factual information, including the nature of
the materials to be excavated, the difficulties of making and maintaining the required excavations,
and the difficulties of doing other work affected by the geology, water level elevations, and other
subsurface conditions at the Site of the Works, are the Contractor's sole responsibility.
The Contractor shall be responsible for any assumption concerning properties of the soil as a
result of discussion with the Engineer or others and such discussion shall not be considered as
binding on the Department or the Engineer. The Contractor shall make such independent soil
investigation and subsurface investigation as he may require to fully familiarize himself with the
properties of the soil and shall be deemed to have included in his Tender all materials, plant,
services, labour and appurtenances and all provisions as may be required for all earthwork to
complete construction of the Works.
Suitable materials and equipment that are required for the Contractor to perform the necessary
subsurface investigations or obtain material for testing shall be supplied by the Contractor.
When visiting the Site prior to submitting his Tender, the Contractor shall determine the nature of
all earth, soils or other materials that he shall encounter during the Works and the quantities,
locations and suitability to meet the requirements as specified herein and in all Contract
Documents. The Contractor shall base his Tender on his own determination of soil conditions. After
award of the Contract, no claims for extras based on source of soil information or failure of the
Contractor to examine the Site and perform his own independent soil investigation and subsurface
investigation will be entertained by the Department.
In the event soil deemed to be unsuitable is encountered during the performance of Works or when
directed by the Engineer the material should be removed from site, unless the Contractor carries
out exploratory excavations and such tests as may be required to determine the suitability of such
material and what steps are to be taken at those areas.
The testing of all samples will be performed by the Engineer in the Site Laboratories or other
designated Laboratory. The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with all pertinent data as may be
required relative to the sample so as to aid the Engineer in his testing program. The Engineer shall
approve all materials sampled prior to use by the Contractor in performance of the Works.

200.04

Removal or Diversion of Water

At locations where the excavation extends below the groundwater table, the Contractor shall
provide a dewatering system which shall effectively reduce the hydrostatic pressure and lower the
groundwater levels below excavation levels, as required for the safe and proper excavation of the
work, and which shall result in obtaining a stable, dry subgrade for the performing of subsequent
operations. The dewatering system should be designed to reduce groundwater to 0.5m below
maximum excavation level, unless otherwise stated on the drawings.

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The Contractor shall design dewatering methods and settling basins so that neither during the
initial operations nor during construction operations any critical amount of soil, sand or silt is
removed. The Contractor shall submit also for review and approval by the Engineer complete shop
drawings showing the type of dewatering and groundwater control system proposed by the
Contractor.
The Contractor shall obtain all dewatering permits from the relevant authorities and provide copies
to the Engineer.
The Contractor's submittal drawings shall indicate the arrangement, location and depths of the
proposed dewatering system, a complete description of the equipment and materials to be used
and the procedure to be followed, the standby equipment, standby power supply, and the
proposed location or locations of points of discharge of water.
The proposed dewatering system design shall also include the protective measures to cut off all
water inflow, including but not by way of limitation, sheeting, shoring, cofferdams, concrete
diaphragm walls, grouting, and such other protection at sidewalls and bottom of excavation in all
materials including rock, where required or directed by the Engineer, to prevent damage due to
settlement of pavement, utilities, sewers, buildings and other structures outside the excavation but
within the area affected by the dewatering procedures. This should also include any provision for
installation of ground monitoring regime to observe effect of groundwater lower on nearby assets
and structure. It is the responsibility of the Contractor to ensure that no subsidence damage to
nearby structures will occur as the result of the excavation and dewatering systems.
The Contractor shall provide necessary facilities for dewatering, draining, or diversion of stream
flow when necessary for the protection of the Works or as directed by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall provide such temporary drainage outlet ditches as may be necessary to
maintain reduced water levels at all times. Temporary drainage ditches for protection of the works
during construction and their maintenance and cleaning as required to make them continuously
effective shall be deemed to be included in the rates in the Bills of Quantities.
After completion of the dewatering system all well points and monitoring installation shall be
removed. The resulting holes shall be grouted using cement bentonite, or equivalent grout as
approved by the Engineer. Subject to approval by the Engineer, the Contractor may request to
leave cut-off walls in place, if the withdrawal of such walls affects ground movements. In this
instance, all cut-off walls should be cut to one metre below the proposed finish ground level.

200.05
a.

Drainage
Ditches.
The Contractor shall construct ditches which run parallel or approximately
parallel to the road, and also any ditches for inlet and outlet of drainage, as indicated on
the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer according to the need for temporary as well
as permanent drainage of the Works. In order that the embankment, subgrade, subbase
and/or base courses are not subject to wetting, during or after construction, the Contractor
shall at all times, and especially at an early stage of the work, be required to provide

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adequate drainage by so scheduling ditch and outlet construction as to prevent such


wetting.
The Contractor shall clean and trim all such drainage ditches from time to time so that
there shall be a free water flow throughout the duration of the Contract. Damage to the
work attributable to wetting through failure to provide such adequate drainage shall result
in an order to correct such damage at the Contractor's expense. Ditches shall be trimmed
to the approximate dimensions noted on the approved cross-sections. Prior to completion,
as a condition for final acceptance and approval, corrective trimming shall be required to
restore the approved slopes to ditches damaged during construction.
b.

Stream Channels. Where indicated on the Drawings or when directed by the Engineer,
existing stream channels shall be cross-sectioned by the Contractor and, in collaboration
with the Engineer, these cross-sections shall be marked with details of the excavation to
be made for the altered stream channel on completion. Work shall not proceed without
written approval by the Engineer of the proposed cross-sections.

c.

Flood Control. The contractor shall ensure that his stormwater handling facilities are
adequately designed and capable of preventing erosion and temporary flooding during
storms, and excavations are maintained in dry condition during excavation and backfilling
operations. He shall further ensure that flow of water is controlled to such an extent as to
preserve strength of backfill and underlying natural soil, prevent instability of excavation
base, and not cause damage to adjacent structures. Open pumping with sumps and
ditches shall not be permitted by the Engineer if it results in heave, boils, loss of fines or
any loss of compaction of soil.
In the event of uncontrolled flow of water into the excavation, the Engineer reserves the
right to order immediate cessation of works in order to enable the Contractor to take
immediate countermeasures. Such action shall be to the Engineers approval.

200.06 Protection of Existing Utilities and Services


During construction the Contractor shall provide all protection for existing utilities and services as
may be required by his construction operations, Clause 102.14, Interruption of Supplies or
Services, Charges for Damages, of these Standard Specifications, as indicated on the Drawings
and as directed by the Engineer.
The Contractors procedures shall take into account potential inaccuracies in the locations of
utilities indicated on drawings provided by utility owners. The Contractor shall also cooperate with
the utility owners to remove or rearrange existing services in order to avoid interruption or duplicate
work by the owners.
The Contractor shall inform the utility owners in advance of any works which may result in potential
damage or breakage to existing utilities, and correct or pay for any repairs which may arise due to
carelessness or omission.

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Permanent protection of certain items shall be as included under other Sections of these Standard
Specifications or the Particular Specifications and where specifically included in the Bills of
Quantities for the respective Sections.
The Contractor shall comply with the following requirements:
a.

Use all necessary precautionary and protective measures required to maintain existing
utilities, services and appurtenances that must be kept in operation. In particular, the
Contractor shall take adequate measures to prevent undermining of utilities and services
presently in service.

b.

Protect existing or new utilities and services where required by the Contractor's operations
and/or as directed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall be responsible for bracing and
supporting utilities and services to prevent their settlement, displacement or damage.

c.

Where shown on the drawings or directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall remove
and cap abandoned utility and service lines as approved and directed by the Engineer.
The method of capping the lines shall comply with the requirements of the utility or
Service Company and the Engineer.

d.

Where shown on the drawings or directed by the Engineer, abandoned utility and service
lines shall be completely filled by pressure grouting. The grout shall have a 28-day
compressive strength in excess of 5 N/mm2 and volumetric shrinkage shall be less than
2%. Proposals for the grout mix design shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.
The Contractor shall also submit his proposed method of grouting the pipes. No grouting
shall commence until the Engineers approval has been obtained.

e.

The Contractor shall not remove any utility or service line, conduit or any structures,
above or below the ground, within the limits of the Works until receiving written permission
from the respective utility company or agency, or the Department and written permission
from the Engineer.

f.

The locations of all existing service facilities including all utility or service vaults, valve
boxes, manholes, inlets, jointing boxes and the like may not be indicated on the Contract
Drawings. The Contractor shall make his own determination of the existence and locations
of such utility facilities by manual excavation meeting the requirements of Clause 205.04,
Manual Excavation, of these Standard Specifications. The Contractor shall adjust to
finished grade or level all existing utility or service vaults, valve boxes, manholes, inlets,
jointing boxes and the like within the limits of the Contract. The adjustment to finished
grade or level for any existing utility or service vaults, valve boxes, manholes, inlets,
jointing boxes and the like will be measured and paid for in accordance with the
requirements of Section IV-5, Pavement Repairs, of these Standard Specifications. The
Contractor shall prepare and furnish all necessary shop drawings for Permanent and
Temporary Works required for completing the adjustment to finished grade or level, which
must be approved by the controlling utility agencies and the Engineer.

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g. The adjustment to the new finished grade or level of any existing service facilities such as
utility or service vaults, valve boxes, jointing boxes and similar structures occurring in
pavement or sidewalks or similar areas shall be adjusted in accordance with the
requirements of Clause 405.10, Adjust, or Demolish and Reconstruct Existing Inlets,
Manholes or Service Facilities to New Pavement Elevations, of these Standard
Specifications.
h.

Where any utility or service vaults are to be constructed under a separate contract by the
Department within the Site and concurrent with the execution of the Works, the Contractor
shall cooperate with the other separate contractor and shall coordinate his construction
operations to avoid interference with the other contractor's operations.

i.

The Contractor shall prepare shop drawings for utility protection work and obtain the
approval of the appropriate utility agencies before commencing with construction. The
Contractor shall relocate certain utilities to services reservation areas as indicated on the
Drawings and as specified under other Sections of these Standard Specifications or in the
Particular Specifications.
This work may only include constructing necessary protective housing (e.g. box culverts,
slabs, concrete encased sleeves, etc.) in the services reservation areas for utility lines to
be relocated, or the work may include the relocation of specific utility lines to the services
reservation areas.
In both cases, the Contractor shall prepare shop drawings and submit them to the
Engineer for his review and approval. The Contractor shall obtain approval from the
respective utility agencies before commencing this work. Review and comments by the
Engineer shall not relieve the Contractor of the full responsibility for all protection and
precautions against damages of utilities or services during execution of the Works and all
requirements as required by all Contract Documents. The Contractor's liability for
damages is outlined in Clause 102.14, Interruption of Supplies or Services, Charges for
Damages, of these Standard Specifications.

200.07

Boreholes

The purpose of these boreholes shall be to determine the character, thickness and stratification of
the subsurface material, the relative density and permeability of granular materials, the consistency
and plasticity of the fine-grained materials, and to obtain intact rock samples from cores for
determination of the properties of rock, and other such data as may be required by the Engineer to
adequately assess the subsurface material.
Boreholes shall be augered or core drilled as directed by the Engineer. Augered boreholes shall
comply with the requirements of ASTM D1452 and as specified herein. Core drilled boreholes shall
comply with ASTM D2113 with double tube, swivel-type, M-design core barrels and as specified
herein. The casing at boreholes shall be NX size, with outside diameter of 89 mm and inside
diameter of 76.2 mm. Subject to approval by the Engineer, the Contractor may progress boreholes
using other techniques such as; cable percussion boring, vibro-coring, push coring, Shelby Tube
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sampling and Impact coring.


The depth of such boreholes and the depth at which core samples shall be taken shall be as
directed by the Engineer. The boreholes or test borings shall be advanced between sampling
intervals by driving a steel casing to such depth below the ground surface. The casing diameter
shall be as required to facilitate removal of the soil sampling or rock coring that is required.
The method and the equipment to be used for advancing the borehole shall be submitted by the
Contractor to the Engineer for approval. The casing shall be driven without the use of wash water
unless the Engineer specifically approves simultaneous washing and driving. Washing, spudding
or drilling ahead of the casing will not be permitted.
Between the depth intervals at which sampling is accomplished as hereinafter specified, loose
material within the casing shall be removed by the usual wash pipe method or other suitable
means. No downward directed jets will be permitted. The casing shall remain in the hole until the
Engineer authorizes its removal.
The use of drilling mud to stabilize a borehole will be permitted only if the Engineer deems it as not
being detrimental to pumping tests or groundwater observations.
Samples and rock cores, immediately upon recovery, shall be placed in containers as approved by
the Engineer, identified as specified herein and delivered to the Site Laboratory or other
designated Laboratory for testing in accordance with these Standard Specifications.
Each sample or rock core shall be identified and include the following information:
a. Location of borehole.
b. Date when sample was taken.
c. Boring number.
d. Surface elevation.
e. Ground water elevation.
f.

Name of driller.

g. Description and length of casing, if any.


h. Depth of bottom of boring.
i.

Depth from which the sample or rock core was taken.

The testing of all samples and rock cores will be performed by the Engineer in the Site
Laboratories or other designated Laboratory. The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with all
data pertinent to the sample as may be required so as to aid the Engineer in his testing program.
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200.08

Geosynthetics

Geosynthetics utilized in the earthworks may be in the form of geotextiles, geomembranes, or


Prefabricated Composite Drains. Measures required for preserving the integrity of geosynthetic
materials during storage and installation such as, but not limited to, methods of protecting them
from overexposure to sunlight, as well as approved methodologies for their installation, shall be in
accordance with the Contract Drawings, or as directed by the Engineer.

200.09

Contaminated Soil

Soil containing petroleum products, organic constituents including volatile organic compounds,
heavy metals, asbestos, and any other materials encountered during excavation which require
specialty disposal of soil, shall be considered to be contaminated.
Contaminated soil shall be segregated from non-contaminated soil during excavation, and its
temporary storage and management shall be in accordance with a Contaminated Material
Handling Plan approved by the Engineer.
Soil shall be screened for contamination during excavation using field vapour monitoring
equipment and observations, by an independent firm hired by the Contractor, in accordance with a
monitoring plan approved by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall collect soil samples and arrange for them to be analyzed at an approved
laboratory in accordance with a sampling plan approved by the Engineer. The final classification of
the soil for the purpose of assessing methods and requirements for its handling, transportation,
treatment and disposal shall be based on the above analysis results. The segregation; storage;
sampling and analysis; and disposal shall be undertaken in accordance with BS 10175 (Code of
Practice for Investigation of Potentially Contaminated Sites) and CLR11 (Model Procedures for the
Management of Land Contamination).

200.10
a.

Measurement and Payment

General. No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the
work or details as described in Section II, Earthwork, of these Standard Specifications,
except as hereinafter specified.
All materials, labour, tools, equipment and appurtenances as required or as directed by the
Engineer to complete the Earthwork under this Section, except Grouting of Pipelines and
Boreholes, shall be considered as a subsidiary obligation to the Contract and included in
the Items in the Bills of Quantities unless otherwise specified in the Particular
Specifications.

b.

Grouting of Pipelines. Measurement for grouting of pipelines will be by the cubic metre of
grout required to completely fill the pipeline as directed by the Engineer.

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Payment for the Item, Grouting of Pipelines, will be at the rate per cubic metre inserted in
the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation for providing all
caps or plugs for the pipeline and all labour, materials, tools, equipment, and
appurtenances, and performing all work for grouting of the pipelines as specified herein and
as directed by the Engineer.
c.

Boreholes. Measurement for boreholes will be by the linear metre of borehole drilled as
directed and approved by the Engineer.
Payment for the Item, Boreholes, will be by the linear metre at the unit rate as included in
the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation for providing all
labour, materials, tools, equipment and appurtenances and performing all work required for
the boreholes, providing samples and rock cores and all related work as required, specified
herein or directed by the Engineer.

d.

Protection of Existing Utilities and Services. Measurement and payment for protection of
Existing Utilities will be as described under other sections of the Standard Specifications
and as included in the Bills of Quantities for the respective item.

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SECTION II-1 EARTHWORK EQUIPMENT


201.01

Description

This Section contains a general description of the equipment or machinery that shall be the
responsibility of the Contractor to furnish, maintain, operate and utilize to perform the Works. The
equipment or machinery shall include, but not by way of limitation, that described herein. The
Contractor shall furnish, maintain, operate and utilize such additional equipment as may be
required to complete the Works as directed by the Engineer.

201.02

Equipment Utilized in Earthwork Construction

The Contractor shall only use plant/equipment which is appropriate for the soils to be handled, and
under no circumstance should they damage or reduce the strength properties of the soil either in
its in-situ state or during handling and placing, or in its final compacted state.
The equipment and tools utilized in carrying out Earthwork and other related Works for the road
construction and in maintenance of the Works shall be in good working condition, and the
Contractor shall maintain them in good working condition and carry out periodic safety checks for
the entire duration of the Contract.
The Engineer shall approve the equipment and tools prior to the commencement of work, and the
Contractor shall supply an adequate number of tools and equipment as deemed necessary for the
proper execution of the Works with due speed and precision and shall by no means be limited to
the recommended minimum number required and stipulated in the Contract Documents, which
shall be used for guidance purposes only.
The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with copies of catalogues, technical data, charts, and
other information as directed by the Engineer, of the equipment to be utilized on Site prior to the
commencement of the work.
Notwithstanding the minimum number of each item required by these Standard Specifications,
the Tenderer shall include with his Tender, in the Plant and Equipment form, the actual number
of each type of machine and equipment which he intends to provide on Site.
These numbers shall then be regarded as minimum numbers, and the Contract is awarded on the
understanding that the actual numbers of equipment and other plant shall not be reduced below
the numbers shown in the Contract except after specific written approval from the Engineer.
In the event that during the Works the Engineer deems that the number and type of equipment
being furnished by the Contractor is inadequate for the timely completion of the Works, upon
written directions from the Engineer, the Contractor shall furnish such additional equipment as
directed by the Engineer.

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201.03

Rotary Cultivators

Rotary cultivators shall have axles rotated by a powerful motor and be equipped with metal teeth
or plates. They shall be designed in such a way as to ensure proper pulverization and mixing of
soil. They shall be equipped with apparatus to lift and lower the axles so as to be always at
the required depth.

201.04

Water Sprinklers

Water sprinklers shall be borne by trucks on pneumatic tyres and shall be equipped with a
pressure pump and water sprinkling distribution equipment. The pump shall be powered in a
manner such that the pump pressure shall remain uniform regardless of variation in truck speed.
The distributors shall be so designed as to allow sprinkling and adding water to the soil uniformly
and in controlled quantities and shall be equipped with an approved gauge to control the quantity
of water added during sprinkling operations. Special spray bar attachments shall be provided and
used in order to sprinkle water on sloped sections.

201.05

Bulldozers

Bulldozers shall be tracked vehicles and/or pneumatic-tyred and shall be equipped with a blade for
earth moving and levelling. A ripper attachment shall be provided when necessary. The blade level
shall be hydraulically controlled so that it may be raised or lowered in order that the worked surface
can be formed and adjusted as conditions require.
201.06

Motor Graders

Motor graders shall be on pneumatic tyres and shall be equipped such that it is possible to
lift, lower and adjust the angle of the blade as required to control the grading operation and to
perform grading without causing any undulations.

201.07

Shovel Tractors

Shovel tractors shall be tractors equipped with a shovel for earth hauling or moving and shall be
either on tracks or on pneumatic tyres. The shovel shall be hydraulically controlled for raising and
lowering as required.

201.08

Rollers

Roller equipment shall consist of pneumatic-tyred rollers and steel-wheeled rollers as described
below:
a.

Pneumatic-Tyred Rollers. Pneumatic-tyred rollers shall be equipped with tyres of


equal size and diameter, which shall be uniformly inflated so that the air pressure of the
tyres shall not vary by more than 0.35 kg/cm from one another. The wheels shall be
spaced so that one pass will accomplish one complete coverage equal to the rolling

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width of the machine. There shall be a minimum of 6.35 cm overlap of the tracking
wheels.
Pneumatic-tyred rollers shall be self-propelled and be of two ratings:

Description

Rating A

Rating B

Minimum weight without ballast

2,724 kg

9,534 kg

Minimum weight with ballast

4,540 kg

25,424 kg

Minimum size of tyres

7.5 x 15-4 ply

Tyre inflation pressure (min).

b.

10 x 20-14 ply
or
13 x 25-18 ply

3.86 kg/cm

5.26 - 8.42 kg/cm

Minimum number of tyres

Minimum wheel load

2,500 kg

Minimum wheel load with full ballast

3,632 kg

Steel-Wheeled Rollers. Steel-wheeled rollers shall be of four types: three-wheeled,


tandem, vibratory steel tandem and single drum vibratory steel rollers.
1.

Three-Wheeled Rollers: These shall be self-propelled and equipped with a


reversing clutch, a differential drive and adjustable scrapers to keep the wheel
surface clean. They shall be of two ratings:

Description

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Rating A

Rating B

Manufacturer rating, tons

7-8

15

Minimum diameter, rear wheel centimetres

152

182

Minimum width, rear wheel, centimetres

46

56

Minimum compression per centimetres


width of rear wheel, kilograms

51

83

Minimum lap, each side front and rear


wheel, centimetres

Maximum rolling speed, kilometres per hour

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2.

Tandem Rollers: These shall be self-propelled equipped with reversing clutches,


sprinkling system, having a water storage tank of not less than 265 litres to spray
front and rear rolls, and adjustable spring scrapers fitted to the driving and steering
roll to scrape in both directions. They shall be of two ratings:

Description

Rating A

Rating B

Manufacture rating, kilonewtons


(unballasted)

44.5

66.2 - 71.0

Manufacture rating, kilonewtons (ballasted)

71.0

88.9 - 106.7

Minimum diameter, driving roll, centimetres

106

132

Minimum diameter steering roll, centimetres

91

101

Minimum rolling width, centimetres

111

127

28

35

300

305

Minimum compression, per centimetre width


of driving roll, kilograms
Maximum driving speed, kilometres per
hour
Minimum wheel base, centimetres

3.

Vibratory Steel Tandem Rollers: These shall have the requirements of the
foregoing steel tandem rollers with a static weight of at least 44.5 kN and a
vibrating frequency between 1,500 and 2,000 cycles per minute.

4.

Single Drum Vibratory Steel Rollers: These shall be double axle, self-propelled
units with the rear axle equipped with pneumatic flotation wheels. They shall have
vibrating frequency capabilities between 1,500 and 2,000 cycles per minute.

c.

Portable, Vibratory Compaction Rollers. Portable, vibratory compaction rollers shall


be double axle tandem, single drum, self-propelled, equipped with a vibrating element
delivering an impact of not less than 1,598 kg at a frequency of about 5,000 VPM.
The roller shall be easily manoeuverable, of an adequate width and suitable for rolling
ditches and their side slopes with a grade up to 3:1.

d.

Mechanical Hand Compactors. Mechanical hand compactors shall be of the vibrating


type weighing 750 - 1,500 kg.

Although the above specifications for compaction equipment shall generally be applicable,
equipment complying with alternate specifications may be permitted, subject to the approval of
the Engineer.

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201.09

Measurement and Payment

No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the furnishing,
operating, maintaining, replacing, removing of any equipment and appurtenances as specified
in Section II-1, Earthwork Equipment, of these Standard Specifications. All labour, materials,
tools, equipment and appurtenances required or as directed by the Engineer to complete all
Earthwork shall be considered as a subsidiary obligation to the Items included in the Bills of
Quantities unless otherwise specified in the Particular Specifications.

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SECTION II-2
202.01

MATERIALS FOR EARTHWORK

Description

Materials shall meet the specifications provided in the following clauses:

202.02

Fill Material, General

The material used for filling and compacting embankments, low level areas of the roadbeds,
sidewalks, shoulders and drainage ditches and other areas on the Site shall consist of borrow
material approved for filling as specified herein and in the Particular Specifications. The Contractor
shall obtain and use approved filling material from borrow pits all in accordance with the provisions
specified herein.
It is advised to use suitable fill material excavated from within the Right-of-Way for embankments
and other backfilling purposes, prior to sourcing material from external borrow sites, subject to
approval of the Engineer. The Engineer will consider excavation unsuitable if it contains deposits of
saturated or unsaturated soil mixtures or high salt content (to be reviewed and agreed with the
Department) or organic matter unacceptable for embankment material. As directed by the
Department, the Contractor is to dispose of any unsuitable excavated material as waste.
All suitable material excavated at site, which cannot be accommodated within the Right-of-Way,
shall be disposed of as surplus materials, subject to approval of the Engineer and the Department.
The Contractor, prior to using fill material, shall be responsible for and carry out necessary field
and laboratory testing to establish the suitability of the said material for filling work. Whenever such
material indicates change in characteristics, the Contractor shall carry out additional testing as
directed by the Engineer and shall secure the Engineer's approval for continued use of such
materials. In the event the material is deemed unacceptable by the Engineer, on the basis of the
Engineer's test in accordance with Clause 200.03, Soil Information and Clause 202.07, Borrow
Material (Load Bearing), the Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining and supplying
material that will be acceptable to the Engineer.
Borrow material shall be clean and free from any objectionable matter.

202.03

Sweet Sand

The Contractor shall supply sweet sand from places permitted by the Department, provided that
the Contractor conducts prior analysis with the knowledge of and as directed by the Engineer and
suitability for agricultural purposes is established. Sweet sand shall be obtained from well-drained
inland dunes and shall be reasonably free from salts, refuse, roots, heavy or stiff clay, stones or
rocks larger than 3 cm in size, noxious seeds, sticks, brush, litter, debris and other deleterious
materials or substances.

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202.04

Water

The use of sea water or brackish water will not be permitted for roadway embankment earthwork
operations unless specifically stated to the contrary. Sea water or brackish water is not to be used
in pavement load bearing fill, hard/soft landscaping, backfill to metal pipes, structural backfill and
backfill adjacent to reinforced concrete, as specified in these Standard Specifications and/or in the
Particular Specifications, or where directed by the Engineer.

202.05
a.

Borrow Material, General


Description. Borrow material shall consist of the excavation and placing of suitable and
satisfactory material obtained from areas approved by the Department for the
construction of fill and backfill specified on the Drawings and in these Standard
Specifications and as approved by the Engineer. Borrow material shall not be taken from
roadway or structure excavations unless such excavated material complies with the
borrow specifications. The Contractor shall only uses borrow material approved by the
Engineer. Any borrow material used by the Contractor in the Works which has not been
approved by the Engineer shall be removed and disposed of by the Contractor at his
own expense. A certified hazardous waste site assessment shall be furnished for borrow
areas located outside the Right-of-Way or excavation limits. An alternate borrow source
shall be provided, or more detailed testing conducted in suspect locations.
Load bearing material shall consist of granular material free of excess moisture and
other unsuitable material conforming to the following:
1. Maximum particle size: 150mm.
2. Materials shall be classified according to AASHTO M 145. In general, suitable
materials shall meet soil classifications A-1, A-2-4 or A-3.
3. Material shall have a maximum Plasticity Index of 4 and a soaked CBR after 4 days
soaking of not less than 25% when compacted to 95% of MDD.
Suitability tests including material gradation, plasticity and CBR tests shall be done in
accordance with the testing of materials, as included in Section II-8, Testing, of the
Standard Specifications.
Laboratory tests for maximum dry density, soaked CBR, optimum moisture content,
grading, liquid limit, plasticity index, laboratory CBR test, tests for sulphate (0.5% max.)
and chloride (1% max.) contents shall be taken not less than one test per layer per
1,500m3 of fill.
Field density and moisture content shall be tested not less than one test of the suitable
layer depth per 750m2 of fill. The relevant areas shall be rejected if the test results do not
satisfy the specified requirements.

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Table 202.05 AASHTO Soil Classification


General Classification
Group Classification

Granular Materials
(35% or less passing the 0.075 mm sieve)
A1

A-3

A2
A-2-4

A-1-a

A-1-b

2.00 mm (No. 10)

50 max.

0.425 mm (No. 40)

30 max.

50 max.

51 min.

0.075 mm (No. 200)

15 max.

25 max.

10 max.

35 max.

40 max.

6 max.

N.P.

10 max.

fine sand

silty or
clayey
gravel and
sand

Sieve Analysis, % passing

Characteristics of fraction passing


0.425 mm (No. 40)
Liquid Limit
Plasticity Index

b.

Usual types of significant constituent


materials

stone fragments, gravel and


sand

General rating as a subgrade

Excellent to good

Borrow Pit Locations. The Contractor shall locate a borrow pit site within borrow areas
approved by the Department.
The Contractor shall obtain approval from the Department for the location of the borrow
pit site. The Contractor shall be responsible for determining the quantities and quality of
the available material in the borrow site approved by the Department to meet the
requirements of the Contract.

c.

Changing Borrow Site Location. The Department may at any time revoke approval of a
borrow site where the Contractor is obtaining borrow material for the Works. Upon
receiving such notice from the Department, the Contractor shall immediately cease work
of removing borrow material from the said borrow site.
In the event the Department revokes approval of a borrow site, the Contractor shall
locate a new borrow pit site as specified above.
The Contractor shall not claim any additional payment from the Department for any costs
or expenses incurred by reason of the necessity of changing borrow site locations due
either to the shortage of the supply of borrow material available from the borrow pit site
approved by the Department, or due to the Department's decision to revoke approval of

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the borrow site where the Contractor is obtaining borrow material for the Works.
d.

Cross-Sections. Where fill shall be measured to determine quantities of borrow material,


copies of profiles and cross-sections of borrow material in place shall be submitted by
the Contractor to the Engineer for approval as specified in Clause 203.05, Preparing
Preliminary Sections (Longitudinal and Cross-Sections), of these Standard
Specifications.

e.

Condition of Borrow Pits. The Contractor shall leave borrow pits in a condition
acceptable to the Department and to the Engineer.

202.06

Natural Ground

Natural ground material is that material which originally exists outside the limits of the load bearing
elements of the works and shall be left in place. Natural ground shall be used or left in place only in
areas to be landscaped (green areas) or in service reservations or where directed by the Engineer.
Natural ground shall only be used in areas that shall not carry or support any loading including, but
not by way of limitation, such areas as pavement, structures, sidewalks or similar areas. All debris,
excess natural ground, objectionable materials and the like shall be removed from the contract site
and disposed of in a legal manner, leaving the natural ground areas neatly graded and in a clean
condition.
Unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings or when unsuitable materials are encountered or
where directed by the Engineer, the natural ground materials shall be left in place. The existing
natural ground shall be graded or sloped to the required elevation as indicated on the Drawings
and as directed by the Engineer. The surface of the existing finished natural ground shall be free of
lumps, undulations or other irregularities.

202.07

Borrow Material (Load Bearing)

a.

Description. The Contractor shall take soil samples of the borrow material and submit
the samples to the Engineer for testing as specified in Clause 200.03, Soil Information,
of these Standard Specifications. Borrow material as specified in this Clause shall be
used in load-bearing areas where it shall constitute the new subgrade and/or replace
existing subgrade, and carry and support pavement, sidewalk, kerbs, structures and/or
other loads. It shall also be used in areas of high ground water table, to replace
subgrade as described herein. Borrow material to be used in areas to be landscaped
(green areas), service reservations, medians and raised islands, and under other nonload bearing conditions shall be as specified in Clause 202.08, Borrow Material (NonLoad Bearing), of these Standard Specifications.

b.

Materials. Borrow material specified in this Clause shall be furnished and placed in
accordance with this Clause and Clauses 202.05, Borrow Material, General, and 206.02,
Fill and Backfill with Borrow Materials, of these Standard Specifications.

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c.

Construction. Borrow material specified herein shall be compacted to meet the


requirements of Clause 206.05, Compaction, of these Standard Specifications.

202.08
a.

Borrow Material (Non-Load Bearing)


Description. Borrow material as specified in this Clause shall be used only in areas to
be landscaped (green areas), at service reservations and at medians and raised islands
as a fill and/or backfill as indicated in the Drawings and as directed by the Engineer that
shall not carry or support any pavement, structure, sidewalk and/or other loads.
Non-load bearing material shall be reasonably free from salts, refuse, roots, heavy or
stiff clay, stones or rocks larger than 30mm in size, sticks, brush, litter or other
deleterious materials or substances.
Borrow material to be used under pavement, structures, sidewalks and/or other loads
shall be as specified under Clause 202.07, Borrow Material (Load-Bearing), of these
Standard Specifications.

b.

Materials. Where required, borrow material furnished and placed by the Contractor as
specified under this Clause shall comply with the requirements of Clause 202.03, Sweet
Sand, of these Standard Specifications.

c.

Construction. Borrow material specified in this Clause shall be furnished, placed and
compacted in accordance with the applicable Clauses of Section II-6, Placement of
Borrow Materials, Backfilling and Filling, of these Standard Specifications and as
specified herein.

202.09

Measurement and Payment

a.

Sweet Sand. Measurement and payment for sweet sand will be made under the Bills of
Quantities Item, Borrow Material (Non-Load Bearing) unless otherwise specified in the
Particular Specifications and included in the Bills of Quantities.

b.

Borrow Sites. No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department


for obtaining borrow sites from the Department.
In the event the Contractor is required to change his borrow site, the Contractor shall not
claim any additional payment from the Department for any costs or expenses by
reason of the necessity of changing borrow site locations due either to the shortage of
the supply of borrow material available from the borrow pit site approved by the
Department, or due to the Department's decision to revoke approval of the borrow site
where the Contractor is obtaining borrow material for the Works.

c.

Water. No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the
use of water for Earthwork operations. All water shall be considered as a subsidiary
obligation to the Items in the Bills of Quantities.

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d.

Natural Ground. No separate measurement or payment will be made by the


Department for the cleaning, grading and shaping of Natural Ground as described in
these Standard Specifications. Such work shall be considered a subsidiary obligation to
the Items in the Bills of Quantities.

e.

Borrow Material (Load Bearing). Measurement for borrow material (load bearing) as
specified herein will be made by the cubic metre measured in place and as approved by
the Engineer. The volume will be computed in the final compacted position from the
subgrade levels indicated on the Drawings prepared by the Contractor in accordance
with Clause 203.05, Preparing Preliminary Sections (Longitudinal and Cross-Sections),
and approved by the Engineer.
Payment for the Item, Borrow Material (Load Bearing), will be made at the rate per cubic
metre as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered full
compensation for borrow material (load bearing) complete with all furnishing, hauling,
unloading, spreading and compacting in layers to required density, levelling and all
related work, including but not by way of limitation, all labour, materials, tools,
equipment, appurtenances, and incidentals required, all as specified in these Standard
Specifications and as directed by the Engineer. No other compensation will be allowed
by the Department.

f.

Borrow Material (Non-Load Bearing). Measurement for borrow material (non-load


bearing) specified herein will be by cubic metre measured in place and as approved by
the Engineer. The volume will be computed from the subgrade levels indicated on the
Drawings or established by the Engineer.
Payment for the Item, Borrow Material (Non-Load Bearing), will be made at the rate per
cubic metre as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be full compensation
for borrow material (non-load bearing) complete with all furnishing, hauling, unloading,
spreading and compacting in layers, levelling and all related work; including but not by
way of limitation, all labour, materials, tools, equipment, appurtenances and incidentals
required; all as specified in these Standard Specifications and as directed by the
Engineer. No other compensation will be allowed by the Department.

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SECTION II-3
203.01

EXECUTION OF EARTHWORK

Description

The execution of the earthwork including the setting out and other preparations required to
complete the Works as indicated on the Drawings shall be as specified herein.

203.02

Benchmarks

Before commencing the Works, the Contractor shall obtain from the Engineer all information
pertaining to all main benchmarks and shall subsequently establish and maintain all additional and
supplementary benchmarks as directed by the Engineer. All pertinent existing levels, lines and
locations must be checked and verified before commencing the Works. All the above shall be at
the expense of the Contractor.

203.03

Setting Out the Works

The Contractor shall comply with the requirements of Clause 4.7, Setting Out, in the Conditions of
Contract in the Field of Construction Works, the Special Conditions of the Contract and Clause
102.07, Setting Out the Works, in Section I-2, Contractor's Responsibilities, of these Standard
Specifications and as specified herein. The Contractor shall carry out, at his own responsibility
and expense, the setting out of the work, definition of levels and centrelines, and slopes, all in
accordance with the Drawings.

203.04

Protection of Existing Adjacent Structures

The Contractor shall carry out a detailed inspection of each utility and/or structure out to a
minimum of 100m in each direction from the limits of contract. The Engineer shall be notified three
days prior to the inspection so that he may accompany the Contractor on the inspection. The
Contractor shall obtain necessary permissions from utility and land owners in advance for carrying
out the inspection, refusal of which shall be notified to the Engineer within three days.
The Contractor shall submit a report for each structure or utility inspected, containing detailed
descriptions as required by the Engineer.

203.05

Preparing Preliminary Sections (Longitudinal and Cross-Sections)

Immediately after the Site is handed over, the Contractor shall, under the supervision of the
Engineer, commence preparing preliminary cross-sections at intervals not exceeding 50 metres.
Additional sections necessitated by the nature of the Works shall be prepared at the Contractor's
discretion and/or as directed by the Engineer. The locations (stations) of the cross and longitudinal
sections forming part of the Contract Drawings, if any, must be adhered to for preparation of the
preliminary sections. Also, during the progress of the Works, at a time and in a manner as directed
by the Engineer, the Contractor shall prepare additional cross-sections for areas between building
plots and for footpath areas. All sections must show existing ground levels as well as the proposed
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subgrade levels based on the cross slopes approved by the Engineer.


At the beginning of construction, the cross slope of the new pavement shall be determined by the
setting out of the Work in accordance with the requirements of Clause 206.02, Fill and Backfill with
Borrow Materials, of these Standard Specifications and as specified herein. The method to be
utilized for determining the required cross slope is as follows:
a.

Elevations shall be obtained at each entrance to each building and every ten (10) metres
unless directed otherwise by the Engineer, along both left and right edges of existing
pavements, with four copies furnished to the Engineer.
This is in addition to the requirements outlined in the above paragraph of this Clause.

b.

The final cross slopes shall be in accordance to the construction Drawings or as


specified by the Engineer, who will determine what final cross slope most compatible to
the existing cross slope should be used for relatively consistent existing cross slope
distances. If possible the same cross slope will be provided between main intersections.

The Contractor shall give the Engineer four copies of cross-sections and profiles of the graphical
record or notes and computations of his setting out as required by the Engineer, in order to
ascertain the measurements or variations.
The Engineer will mark on one copy his approval of the proposed lines of the work or his revision
thereof and return it to the Contractor.
The Contractor shall resubmit for approval any cross-sections the Engineer may revise.
The final drawings shall be signed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. One copy
shall be retained by the Contractor and the remaining three (3) copies shall be handed against
signature to the Engineer one week before commencing work. The Contractor must allow in his
work program adequate time for the above-mentioned procedure. These sections will be deemed
by the Department to be Contract Drawings replacing the originals and will be used by the
Engineer as the basis for re-measurement of the Works all as specified.
The Contractor's profiles and cross-sections shall be on transparent tracing for print reproduction.
On final submittal for approval of the Contractor's profiles and cross-sections, the Contractor shall
give the Engineer the original transparent tracings and three prints of the same.
These shop drawings of the cross-sections shall be of a size and complete with an identifying title
block as approved by the Engineer.

203.06

Clearing and Grubbing

The Contractor shall clear the Site of the Works within the limits of construction as defined
on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer, including areas required for temporary
construction and diversion roads, of all dead trees, stumps, brush, roots, hedges, fallen timber,
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rotten wood, rubbish, and other vegetation or objectionable material. Unless specified otherwise in
the Particular Specifications, this work shall include, but is not limited to, removal of fences,
walls, gates and other obstructions interfering with the proposed work. The salvaging of any of
these materials for the use of the Department or landowner shall be directed by the Engineer, and
unwanted material shall be disposed of in a satisfactory manner. Burying of materials will not be
permitted. The material shall be loaded and hauled away and disposed of by the Contractor in
accordance with the requirements of Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated Materials and Surplus
Materials, of these Standard Specifications.
The Contractor shall perform the work of clearing and grubbing so as to remove only the material
herein specified. In the event the Contractor chooses to do such work with mechanical equipment,
and thereby removes and wastes suitable material, such material shall be replaced with approved
borrow material by the Contractor at his own expense.
Within areas where excavations are to be made, the ground shall be cleared of all dead trees,
brush or other objectionable vegetation. All embedded stumps or root mats shall be removed to a
depth of not less than 90 centimetres below the subgrade or slope surfaces. Depressions formed
by the removal of stumps or roots shall be refilled with approved borrow material and shall be
compacted in accordance with Clause 206.05, Compaction, of these Standard Specifications.
Perishable material shall be disposed of or burned under the constant care of competent
watchmen at such times or in such a manner that any vegetation or other items designated to
remain in the Right of Way, or other adjacent property will not be jeopardized. Burning shall be
carried out in accordance with applicable laws and ordinances, including compliance with
permitting requirements if applicable.
Within areas where fill is to be placed, the ground shall be cleared of all dead trees, brush or other
objectionable vegetation. All embedded stumps or root mats shall be removed to a depth of not
less than 90 centimetres below the surface of the original ground. Depressions formed by the
removal of stumps or roots shall be refilled with approved borrow material and shall be compacted
in accordance with Clause 206.05, Compaction, of these Standard Specifications.
Grading operations shall not be started in any area until the operations of clearing and grubbing
within the area affected has been completed.
Buildings or structures of any character, exclusive of bridges, unless otherwise specified in the
Particular Specifications, within the limits of the Contract and not necessary for the construction
shall be removed in accordance with the requirements of Section II-4, Removal of Buildings,
Structures, Pavement, Kerbs and Other Obstructions, and as specified herein. The Contractor shall
clear away all rubbish, etc., produced as a result of these demolitions and break up and clear away
all foundations. The materials so removed shall be disposed of as specified in Section II-4 or as
directed by the Engineer.
When fences enclosing property or land are required to be removed, the property owner shall be
notified sufficiently in advance and the Contractor shall construct supplemental fences or make
other arrangements as approved by the Engineer.
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The removal of any guard fences shall be included as a part of clearing and grubbing. The material
which can be salvaged shall be carefully removed and stored as directed by the Engineer.

203.07

Measurement and Payment

No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the work or details as
described in Section II-3, Execution of Earthwork, of these Standard Specifications, as indicated on
the Drawings, as specified herein or as required to complete all Earthwork under the Contract. All
materials, labour, tools, equipment and appurtenances as required shall be considered as a
subsidiary obligation to the Items included in the Bills of Quantities under the Contract unless
otherwise specified in the Particular Specifications.

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SECTION II-4
204.01

REMOVAL OF BUILDINGS, STRUCTURES, PAVEMENT,


KERBS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS

Description

The removal of existing structures, pavement, kerbs, walks, walls and other obstructions as
indicated on the Drawings, shall be as specified herein and as may be required to complete the
Works under the Contract.

204.02

Demolitions

All demolition work necessary and as considered preparatory to interchange or improvement


construction work shall be carried out as specified in these Standard Specifications and in the
Particular Specifications.
In carrying out the work, care and precaution shall be taken so as not to cause any undue damage
to existing pavement, utilities, structures and appurtenances, and the Contractor shall provide
Temporary Works for protection when necessary and so required and in all cases shall be
responsible for any damage resulting from any carelessness or negligence on his part. All
Temporary Works for purposes of protection and safety shall be carried out by the Contractor at his
own expense.
All operations needed for the demolition and disposal work as required and specified, including
breaking, loading, hauling and dumping in accordance with the provisions of the Contract, shall be
deemed to be included in the Tender.
Where fences, boundaries and other obstructions along the line of the proposed interchange or
improvement have to be demolished, the Department will assist in making arrangements for the
demolition of these obstacles and the Contractor must coordinate his Works with the program of
demolitions proposed by the Department. The Demolition Section of the Municipality requires a
minimum of 45 days advance notice before any obstruction is cleared. Upon demolition of the
obstruction, the Contractor must occupy the site immediately in order to avoid reappearance of the
obstruction. The Department will not assist the Contractor a second time in the event the
obstruction reappears due to the Contractor's failure to occupy the cleared area. The Contractor
shall comply with all local laws regarding the demolition, clearing and occupying a cleared site.
The Contractor shall also afford to the Department every assistance to complete their Works in
good time to allow the construction of the roads, interchange or improvements to proceed without
delay.

204.03

Removal of Buildings and Structures

Unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall
complete the demolition and removal of buildings and structures together with all foundations and
retaining walls, piers, partitions and columns down to a plane 30 centimetres below the ultimate
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grade in the area. Walls shall be broken into pieces not exceeding 60 square centimetres for any
area of surface, mixed with pervious backfill material and placed in basement areas. Basement
floor slabs shall be broken and displaced into pieces not exceeding 60 square centimetres for any
area of surface and shall be left in place. The removal and disposal of excess debris, the removal
of all other foundations, concrete floor slabs, sidewalks, signs, sheds, garages and fences and all
other incidental and collateral work necessary to fully complete the removal of the buildings and
appurtenances shall be completed by the Contractor.
Right-of-way acquisition may not be completed in all areas at the commencement of the
construction period and the Contractor shall schedule his work accordingly.
Upon receipt of notification by the Engineer, the Contractor shall take over all responsibility of the
building or buildings then acquired and vacant and shall proceed with the removal thereof as
specified.
The Contractor shall inspect each building he is to remove and determine for himself the work
involved and the equipment and the materials required for such demolition work.
The Contractor shall arrange for the discontinuance of all utility services that serve the building or
buildings in accordance with the respective requirements and regulations of the governing Ministry,
and the utility agencies involved. The Contractor shall disconnect and properly seal, in a manner
approved by the Abu Dhabi Sewerage Services Company and the Engineer, all sewer outlets that
serve any building or buildings that the Contractor is directed to remove. The Contractor shall keep
the Engineer informed of his plans for the performance of any work in connection with the sealing
off of such outlets in order that proper inspection may be provided at the time the work is
performed.
Bridges, culverts and other drainage structures in locations traversed by traffic shall not be
removed until arrangements, detours and traffic management plans have been made by the
Contractor and approved by the relevant authorities.
The Contractor shall conduct his operations in such a manner as to avoid hazards to persons and
vehicles. After work is started on any building, the work on that building shall be continued to
completion, promptly and expeditiously.
A competent person shall carry out an engineering survey of the building or structure prior to
commencement of demolition works. Any asbestos or hazardous material encountered during the
engineering survey or any subsequent occasion shall be remediated prior to demolition.
All debris shall be removed from basement areas and concrete floors broken. The areas shall then
be filled with pervious backfill material simultaneously with the breaking of the foundation walls so
that the pervious backfill material will be well integrated with the pieces of broken concrete.
Concrete slabs resting on earth and forming walks, driveways, or the first floor slabs of buildings
without basements except as indicated on the Drawings shall be broken up and removed from the
site.
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The Contractor is responsible for removing any additional small "out buildings or miscellaneous
structures which have not been indicated on the Drawings.
Immediately upon award of the Contract and prior to the demolition of any structures, the
Contractor shall be required to paint or stencil in contrasting colours of an oil paint on all four sides
of each residence and on two opposite sides of other structures the following sign in English and
Arabic:
BUILDING TO BE REMOVED
FOR CONSTRUCTION
TO BE DEMOLISHED BY THE
DEMOLITION CO.
VANDALS WILL BE PROSECUTED
The signs shall be positioned in a prominent location on the structure so that they can be easily
seen and read, and at a sufficient height to prevent defacing. The Contractor shall not paint signs
or start demolition of any buildings prior to the time that the Department or Ministry becomes the
owner of the respective buildings.
Existing underground storage tanks on the site or within the buildings shall be removed and
disposed of by the Contractor. The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions during the
removal of the fluid within the tanks and the removal of the existing tanks. Where tanks are
removed, the Contractor shall backfill with fine aggregate. This backfill shall be compacted in
accordance with Clause 206.05, Compaction, of these Standard Specifications.
Structures designated to become the property of the Contractor shall be removed from the right-ofway. Operations necessary for the removal of an existing structure or obstruction, which may
damage new construction, shall be completed prior to placing the new work, unless otherwise
provided in the Contract.
All material removed and all debris, rubbish or other unsuitable material produced as a result of
demolition of structures shall become the property of the Contractor unless otherwise specified in
the Particular Specifications. All material produced by demolition shall be disposed of by the
Contractor in accordance with the requirements of Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated Materials
and Surplus Materials.

204.04

Removal of Existing Pavement

The Contractor shall remove wholly or in part and satisfactorily dispose of all pavements as
indicated on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer.
Removal operations shall be conducted with the least interference to the public and shall not be
started until approved by the Engineer. The Engineer shall have the right to reject off-site disposal
plans if disposal would leave an unsightly condition anywhere.
The Contractor shall perform the cutting of all existing pavement in such a manner as to avoid
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damage to the pavement which is to remain as indicated on the Drawings and where all new
pavement abuts existing pavement. Any damage to pavement areas which are to remain shall be
restored to the satisfaction of the Engineer and in accordance with the directions of the Engineer
and as specified in Section IV, Asphalt Works, of these Standard Specifications.
The Contractor shall remove the existing pavement to the subgrade level along its edge where the
new pavement shall meet the existing. The Contractor shall also remove the existing pavement to
the subgrade level where it shows failure as determined by the Engineer. The existing pavement
shall also be removed to the subgrade level where the roadway geometry is changed as indicated
on the Drawings and such existing pavement is no longer required.
When existing pavement is removed, the undisturbed edge of the remaining pavement shall be cut
to neat lines as indicated on the Drawings, as directed by the Engineer, and as specified herein.
After designated sections of the old roadway are no longer needed for traffic, existing pavement
shall be removed as indicated on the Drawings and as required for new work and the ditches shall
be filled and the roadway rough graded, to restore approximately the original contour of the ground
or to produce a pleasing appearance by forming natural, rounded slopes. After the rough grading is
completed, the area of the old roadbed shall be scarified or plowed to mix the remaining road
material thoroughly with earth and then shall be harrowed and smoothed.
When directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall break up and stockpile removed existing
pavement. The removed existing pavement shall be relatively free of other materials, including but
not by way of limitation, soil, subbase gravel and concrete. The separate asphaltic concrete shall
not contain more than five percent by weight of these materials. The separated asphaltic concrete
shall be broken up such that the maximum dimension is 25 centimetres and shall be stockpiled at a
location designated by the Department.

204.05

Removal of Existing Kerbs

The Contractor shall remove existing kerbs adjacent to pavement to be removed or as indicated on
the Drawings and that are no longer needed or kerbs that shall be replaced as indicated on the
Drawings. The Contractor shall also remove broken or damaged kerbs, if and when directed by the
Engineer.
When existing kerbs are removed, their foundations and haunching shall also be removed unless
otherwise indicated on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer. The resulting excavation shall be
filled and compacted with borrow material or granular material as directed by the Engineer. All fill
shall be placed and compacted as specified in Section II-6, Placement of Borrow Materials,
Backfilling and Filling, of these Standard Specifications.
Work required for removing kerb, foundation and haunching shall be carried out without damaging
the existing pavement to remain. In the event such damage occurs, the Contractor shall repair the
damaged pavement to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
Reuse of removed kerbs, foundations and haunching will not be allowed by the Department.
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All removed kerbs, foundations and haunching shall be hauled to and disposed of, in accordance
with Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated Materials and Surplus Materials, of these Standard
Specifications, at locations designated by the Department.

204.06 Removal of Existing Walks


The Contractor shall remove all existing walks as required and as directed by the Engineer for the
construction of all Works under the Contract. Where required, the Contractor shall restore or patch
existing walks prior to completion of the Works under the Contract. All restoration or patching of
walks shall match existing adjacent surfaces and materials.
Removal of Existing Walks shall be in accordance with Clause 204.04, Removal of Existing
Pavement.

204.07

Removal of Rock and Obstructions

The Contractor shall remove wholly or in part and satisfactorily dispose of walls, rock, structures,
abandoned manholes or other designated drainage structures, abandoned pipe lines, storm drain
lines, abandoned underground structures of reinforced or mass concrete, and any other
obstructions to be removed as indicated on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer. The
Contractor shall also include the salvaging of designated materials and backfilling the resulting
trenches, holes and pits.
Rock shall be defined as any naturally formed solid matter encountered in excavations and having
a crushing strength of not less than 70 kg/cm2 when dry and not less than 40 kg/cm2 after
submergence in water for twenty-four hours. This shall be determined in samples of 100 mm x 100
mm cubes obtained from said material or equivalent cores in lieu of cubes may be considered for
testing at the discretion of the Engineer. Individual masses of solid material found in excavations
and weighing less than 500 kg shall not be considered as rock. Any artificially formed solid matter
such as block work or concrete shall not be considered as rock.
The Contractor, at his own expense, shall supply any equipment and labour necessary to obtain
samples suitable for testing by the Engineer. The Engineer shall determine the location and
quantity of samples necessary to determine the extent of the rock. These samples shall be taken in
the presence of the Engineer.
In the event that the tests prove that the material is rock, the Engineer shall determine the extent of
such material and shall instruct the Contractor accordingly.
The use of explosives shall be governed by Clause 102.16 of these Standard Specifications.
The Contractor shall load, transport, unload and place in storeyards all salvaged materials.
Salvaged materials shall be as indicated on the Drawings or as designated by the Engineer. The
storeyards shall be as designated by the respective owners of the salvaged materials or as
designated by the Engineer.
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The Contractor shall perform the work described above, within and adjacent to the area of the
Works, on Government land or easement, as indicated on the Drawings or as directed by the
Engineer. All salvageable material as directed by the Engineer shall be removed, without
unnecessary damage, in sections or pieces which may be easily transported.
Unsatisfactory material encountered shall become the responsibility of the Contractor and shall be
disposed of in accordance with the requirements of Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated
Materials and Surplus Materials, of these Standard Specifications.
Removal operations shall be conducted with the least interference to the public and shall not be
started until approved by the Engineer. The Engineer shall have the right to reject off-site disposal
plans if disposal would leave an unsightly condition anywhere.
Where partial demolition of obstructions is indicated on the Drawings, the Contractor shall remove
the indicated obstruction with care and caution so as not to damage the remaining portions of the
existing obstruction. The Contractor shall be responsible for any and all damage caused by his
operations. The Contractor shall examine the existing obstructions and submit a written report of
any previously damaged areas of surface before proceeding with the demolition.
The drawings do not necessarily indicate all obstructions to be removed. However, it is the intent of
this specification that all obstructions in the area of construction shall be included to be removed
under this item as directed by the Engineer.
Old structures shall be broken down and removed. Where indicated on the Drawings or directed by
the Engineer, all material with salvage value shall be carefully removed to avoid damage.
Where indicated on the Drawings or approved by the Engineer, materials required for the new
roadway may be taken from the old roadway, and approved borrow material for the new roadway
shall be used in obliterating the old roadway. There will be no separate payment by the
Department for excavating, backfilling or compacting any remaining cavities.
The Contractor shall remove existing pavement materials, gutters, kerbs, walks and similar
construction as indicated on the Drawings and as required for all new construction under the
Contract.
All materials encountered shall be removed and all labour, tools, equipment and work required for
removal shall be included in the rates for the Items included in the Bills of Quantities for Section II,
Earthwork. No separate payment will be made by the Employer except for the specific Items
included in the Bills of Quantities. All materials removed shall be loaded, hauled, and disposed of
in accordance with the requirements of Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated Materials and
Surplus Materials, of these Standard Specifications.

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204.08
a.

Measurement and Payment


Removal of Buildings and Structures
Measurement for the removal of buildings and structures will be by the Item (lump sum)
as included in the Bills of Quantities unless otherwise directed in the Particular
Specifications.
If demolition of more than one building is required by the contract, the contractor shall
include in his unit rate analysis, the rate for demolition of each building comprising
the unit rate for the Item, Removal of Buildings and Obstructions.
Payment for the Item, Removal of Buildings and Structures, will be by Item (lump sum)
as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation
for all materials, labour, tools, equipment and appurtenances, as indicated on the
Drawings, as specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.
This work shall include, but not by way of limitation, all demolition work of buildings, out
buildings, walls, foundations, underground storage tanks and other obstructions as
indicated on the Drawings, as required by the specifications, and as directed by the
Engineer. The areas shall be computed on the measurement at the existing grade of the
building and structures being removed as directed by the Engineer.
The backfilling of voids or depressions which are the result of the demolition of buildings
and structures shall be in accordance with the applicable Sections under Section II,
Earthwork, of these Standard Specifications. No separate payment will be made by the
Department for this work. Such work shall be considered as a subsidiary obligation to the
Items in the Bills of Quantities.
The removal, disposal and acceptable backfilling of obsolete or discontinued drainage or
similar facilities and other related similar construction will not be paid for separately by
the Department but shall be considered as a subsidiary obligation to the Items in the Bills
of Quantities. Where such structures occur under the roadway or under paved or tiled
medians or shoulders, such obstructions shall be removed completely and backfilled in
accordance with Clause 206.05, Compaction, of these Standard Specifications.
Structures occurring under bridge structure foundations shall be removed completely
and backfilled with K140 concrete, in accordance with Section V-2, Concrete Classes
and Mixes. In other areas, such obstructions shall be removed to a minimum of 30 cm
below the final finish grade and suitably filled as required.

b.

Removal of Existing Pavement


No separate measurement and payment for the Item, Removal of Existing Pavement,
will be made. Measurement and payment for the removal of existing pavement will be
made under the Item, Unclassified Excavation.

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c.

Removal of Existing Kerbs


No separate measurement or payment for the Item, Removal of Existing Kerbs, will be
made. Measurement and payment for the removal of existing kerbs will be made under
the Item, Unclassified Excavation.

d.

Removal of Existing Walks


No separate measurement or payment for the Item, Removal of Existing Walks, will be
made. Measurement and payment for the removal of existing walks will be made under
the Item, Unclassified Excavation.

e.

Removal of Rock and Obstructions. Measurement for removal of rock and obstructions
will be by the cubic metre of actual material removed as approved by the Engineer.
Payment for the Item, Removal of Rock and Obstructions, will be at the rate per cubic
metre inserted in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall include all labour, materials,
tools, equipment, and appurtenances, and performing all work for removal of rock and
obstructions as specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.

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SECTION II-5
205.01

EXCAVATION

Description

The excavation required to complete the Works as indicated on the Drawings, shall be as specified
herein.
The bottoms of the footings and foundations at the piers and abutments as indicated on the
Drawings are approximate and are based upon available soil information.

205.02

Unclassified Excavation

a.

Definition. Unclassified excavation shall include all materials encountered during


excavation except that specified under Clause 205.03, Structure Excavation, or Clause
202.05, Borrow Material, General, or other specific excavation or materials specified
herein. Unclassified excavation includes the removal of all materials encountered and all
cut material indicated on the Drawings for construction of improvements required under
the Contract as specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.

b.

Removal and Disposal of Material. The Contractor shall remove and dispose of
unclassified excavated materials as specified in Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated
Materials and Surplus Materials, unless otherwise specified in the Particular
Specifications.

c.

Removal of Unsuitable Material. When directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall
remove material below the lines and grades indicated on the drawings when the material
is not considered suitable by the Engineer to support the construction of the Works.

d.

Approval of Cross-Sections. Copies of profiles and cross-sections shall be given by the


Contractor to the Engineer as required by Clause 203.05, Preparing Preliminary
Sections (Longitudinal and Cross-Sections), of these Standard Specifications.

e.

Removal of Contaminated Soil. The Contractor shall handle, sample, analyze, monitor,
transport and dispose of contaminated soil as described in Clause 200.09 of these
Standard Specifications, or as instructed by the Engineer.

205.03

Structure Excavation

a.

Definition of Structure Excavation. Excavation within the limit lines specified herein or
indicated on the Drawings, where such excavation is to be made for structures, shall be
defined as Structure Excavation and any excavation specified under the heading
Unclassified Excavation shall not be considered as Structure Excavation.

b.

General. The Contractor shall include all operations necessary to excavate and backfill
as required for the construction of the structures as indicated on the Drawings, as
specified herein and as may be required for all construction.

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This work shall consist of the necessary excavating and backfilling for bridges and other
structures not otherwise provided for in these Standard Specifications. Except as
otherwise provided for pipe culverts, the backfilling of completed structures with
approved borrow material and the disposal of all excavated material shall be in
accordance with these Standard specifications and in reasonably close compliance with
the Drawings or as established by the Engineer.
This work shall include necessary bailing, pumping, draining, sheeting, bracing, and the
necessary construction of cribs and cofferdams, and furnishing the materials, therefore,
and the subsequent removal of cribs and cofferdams and the placing of all necessary
backfill.
This work shall also include the furnishing and placing of approved foundation fill
material to replace unsuitable material encountered below the foundation elevation of
structures.
Laid back excavation slopes will not be permitted without the written permission of the
Engineer.
All excavations 1.2 metres or more in depth, trench or otherwise, shall be supported.
Trench excavation support systems for utilities shall be subject to the approval of the
Engineer. If the ground is deemed by the Engineer as unstable, he may instruct the
Contractor to provide support for shallower trench depths.
Prior to commencing any structure excavation work 1.2 metres or more in depth, the
Contractor shall design and submit to the Engineer for review, detailed shop drawings of
the structure excavation support systems and methods he proposes to use, showing
support member materials, sizes, spacing, and engineering calculations to validate the
design of the above, including the maximum theoretical deflections of the support
members. The support system shall be designed in such a manner that no rakers, struts
or any other support members extend through surfaces exposed in the finish
construction, and no shoring or bracing is placed under permanent structures.
The engineering calculations shall be in English and shall show lateral earth pressures
for the full excavation depths, forces at various stages of support during installation and
removal and concrete placement, the anticipated equipment loads, surcharge loads of
any description, the maximum design loads to be carried by various members of the
support system and strut preload forces.
In the event the structure support system proposed includes tieback anchors, the
Contractor's submittal drawings shall show the profile of the soil in which each anchor is
to be installed, the design load for the full depth of excavation, the maximum design and
proof loads, surcharge loads of any description, equipment loads, forces at various
stages of support during installation and removal, and the criteria proposed for
deformations under proof loads.
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Where a proposed system of tieback anchors projects beyond the vertical projection of
the contract limit lines indicated on the Drawings onto the adjoining property, the
Contractor shall obtain the permission of the owner in writing and submit such
permission to the Engineer at the time the shop drawings of the support system are
submitted.
The designs of the structure excavation support systems and the dewatering systems
specified in Clause 200.04, Removal or Diversion of Water, shall be prepared by and
signed by a professional engineer specializing in this type of design work and shall be
submitted to the Engineer in accordance with Clause 7, Plant, Materials and
Workmanship, of the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction Works. The
professional engineer shall be approved by the Engineer and the Department.
c.

Structure Excavations. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer sufficiently in advance
of the beginning of any structure excavation so that cross-sectional elevations and
measurements may be taken of the undisturbed ground. The natural ground adjacent to
the structure shall not be disturbed without permission of the Engineer.
Trenches or foundation pits for structures or structure footings shall be excavated to the
lines and grades or elevations indicated on the Drawings, or as ordered by the Engineer.
Excavations shall be of sufficient size to permit the placing of structures or structure
footings of the full width and length indicated. The elevations of the bottoms of footings,
as indicated on the Drawings, shall be considered as approximate only and the Engineer
may order, in writing, such changes in dimensions or elevations of footings as may be
deemed necessary to secure a satisfactory foundation.
Boulders, rocks, and any other objectionable material encountered during excavation
shall be removed.
In the event that during the progress of the work, loose or improperly compacted soil is
encountered at bottom of structure foundation levels, or adjacent thereto, which is the
result of prior removal of utilities or structures, such material shall be completely
removed within the limits as directed by the Engineer, backfilled with approved borrow
material and compacted in accordance with Clause 206.05, Compaction, of these
Standard Specifications. Any previous excavations encountered which would in the
opinion of the Engineer be detrimental to load distribution of new foundations on the
underlying soil shall be excavated and backfilled with Class K140 concrete in
accordance with Section V, Concrete Works, of these Standard Specifications and as
directed by the Engineer.
After each excavation is completed, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer to that
effect, and no footing, bedding material or pipe culvert shall be placed until the Engineer
has approved the depth of excavation and the character of the material on which the
foundations shall bear.

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d.

Disposal of Excavated Materials. All excavated material at structures shall be loaded


and hauled away to a approved dumping area as specified in Clause 205.05, Disposal of
Excavated Materials and Surplus Materials, unless the excavated materials are
approved by the Engineer for use as backfill.
When the Contractor is required to excavate turf, decayed vegetable matter or other
unsuitable material below the surface of the depth indicated on the Drawings, it shall be
done at the order of the Engineer. The depth to which these unsuitable materials are to
be removed will be determined by the Engineer. All materials removed shall be disposed
of as specified in Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated Materials and Surplus Materials.
Where shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, salvaged materials such as
existing concrete, bituminous or other pavements, shall be stockpiled for a specific
purpose or for future use. Such materials shall be excavated and handled in a manner
that will exclude foreign or undesirable material. Stockpiles will be neatly formed and
maintained in an approved manner.
Where specified or directed by the Engineer, suitable topsoil material shall be stockpiled
during excavation operations and shall subsequently be spread and compacted on
embankment slopes and elsewhere as directed, for landscaping.

e.

Cofferdams. Suitable and practically watertight cofferdams shall be used wherever


water or water-bearing strata are encountered above the elevation of the bottom of the
excavation. The Contractor shall submit shop drawings showing his proposed method of
cofferdam construction, as provided in Clause 7, Plant, Materials and Workmanship, of
the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction Works, and as directed by the
Engineer.
The Contractor shall employ an engineer to prepare the shop drawings who is
acceptable to the Department. The engineer who prepares the shop drawings shall be
familiar with cofferdam construction and shall submit complete shop drawings with all
details, design calculations, a description of the construction method, and such other
particulars as directed by the Engineer.
Cofferdams or cribs for foundation construction shall, in general, be carried well below
the bottoms of the footings; or when footings are to be founded on or in rock, the
cofferdam construction shall be placed at least to the level of top of rock or the bottom of
excavation in rock to suitably develop a stable cofferdam and shall be well braced and
as nearly watertight as practicable. In general, the interior dimensions of cofferdams
shall be such as to give sufficient clearance for the construction of forms and the
inspection of their exteriors, and to permit pumping outside of the forms. Cofferdams or
cribs which are tilted or moved laterally during the process of sinking shall be righted or
enlarged so as to provide the necessary clearance.
When conditions are encountered which, as determined by the Engineer, render it
impracticable to dewater the foundation before placing the footing, the Engineer may

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require the construction of a concrete foundation seal of such dimensions as he may


consider necessary, and of such thickness as to resist any possible uplift. The concrete
for such seal shall be placed as directed by the Engineer. The foundation shall then be
dewatered and the footing placed. In the event weighted cribs are employed and the
weight is utilized to overcome partially the hydrostatic pressure acting against the bottom
of the foundation seal, special anchorage such as dowels or keys shall be provided to
transfer the entire weight of the crib to the foundation seal. When a foundation seal is
placed under water, the cofferdam shall be vented or ported at low water level as
directed by the Engineer.
f.

Backfill. Excavated areas around structures shall be backfilled with materials as


approved by the Engineer. Backfill materials shall be placed in horizontal layers not more
than 15 cm in depth and compacted in accordance with Clause 206.05, Compaction, of
these Standard Specifications. Each layer shall be moistened or dried as required and
thoroughly compacted as specified. Backfill shall be placed to the original ground level or
as indicated on the Drawings.
A deposit of gravel or crushed stone, conforming to Type I or Type II gradation
requirements under Section II-9, Pervious Backfill, at least 60 cm in each direction, shall
be placed back of each drain hole in abutments, wingwalls, retaining walls, culvert
sidewalls or where weepholes or drains are indicated on the Drawings. The bottom of
this deposit shall be 5 cm below the drain hole. All form boards or other obstructions
shall be removed from the drains before such deposit is placed. No additional
compensation will be allowed by the Department for this work.
Backfill or embankment shall not be placed behind the walls of concrete structures or
rigid frame structures until the top slab is placed and cured. Backfill and embankment
behind abutments held at the top by the superstructure, and behind the sidewalls of
culverts, shall be carried up simultaneously behind opposite abutments or sidewalls.

205.04

Manual Excavation

The Contractor shall perform all manual (hand) excavation and other work which is required to
locate existing utilities or services within the limits of the Contract or at off-site locations in
accordance with the requirements as specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.
The existing utilities and services to be located by manual excavation shall include, but not be
limited to, all sewers, water mains and lines, gas mains, oil lines, electric (both power and lighting),
telephone, drainage and such others as may be encountered under the Contract or at off-site
locations.
The purpose of manual excavation is to determine the existence, location including depth, size,
shape, composition and condition of all existing utilities and services. Immediately after uncovering
existing utilities the Contractor shall coordinate with respective Utility Departments and Agencies to
obtain their assistance, if necessary, for the accurate identification of each uncovered utility line.
The information obtained is to be recorded and shown on working or shop drawings as specified in
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Clause 101.03 Contract Drawings, of these Standard Specifications, for the installation, relocation
or protection of proposed or existing utilities or other underground installations such as, but not
limited to, relocation of electrical distribution systems, waterline relocation, irrigation systems,
telephone systems, surface drainage lines, foundations, and other underground utility and
roadway appurtenances covered under this Contract. The Utility Agencies will require this
information to finalize their relocation and/or protection plans. The Contractor shall complete all
manual excavation work and submit the details to the Engineer sufficiently in advance and as
required by the Utility Agencies for the preparation of their relocation and/or protection plans.
The width of manually excavated trenches shall be such that a workman is able to excavate safely
and efficiently to a depth determined as reasonable by the Engineer in consideration of the best
existing utilities information available from local agencies.
Manual excavations shall be carried out in the presence of the Engineer, taking all precautions to
prevent damages to services, properties and persons, and any damage resulting from the
negligence of the Contractor, his agents, or his employees, shall be repaired at the Contractor's
expense. This is in addition to any indemnities stipulated in the Conditions of Contract in the Field
of Construction Works, the Special Conditions of the Contract and these Standard Specifications or
Particular Specifications dealing with Public Utilities and Safety Regulations.
Before commencing manual excavation, the Contractor shall comply with the provisions of Clause
102.13, Existing Utilities and Services, and Clause 102.14, Interruption of Supplies or Services,
Charges for Damage, of these Standard Specifications and he shall furthermore obtain approval of
the Engineer and shall maintain records of such manual excavation as specified herein. In addition,
the Contractor shall obtain necessary specific work permits from respective Utility Agencies for
manual excavation in close proximity to important utility lines such as, but not limited to, 33 KV
circuits, 132 KV circuits, water transmission and distribution main lines, telephone lines, sewerage
pumping mains and gas lines. The Contractor shall furnish two (2) copies each to the Engineer of
all the field notes and drawings with the details as recorded by the Contractor of all utilities and
services located by manual excavation as specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall provide all tools, labour, equipment and accessories as required completing
the manual excavation. Further, the Contractor shall provide, but not by way of limitation, all
materials, labour and equipment necessary to protect the existing utilities, as well as any shoring,
sheeting, dewatering and any other means required for protection during manual excavation.
All materials removed shall be disposed of by the Contractor in accordance with Clause 205.05,
Disposal of Excavated Materials and Surplus Materials, of these Standard Specifications, unless
the excavated materials are approved by the Engineer for use as backfill.
All manually excavated trenches shall be backfilled, when backfilling is required as directed by the
Engineer, with approved materials, placed and compacted, all in accordance with the requirements
of Clause 206.05, Compaction, of these Standard Specifications. The Contractor shall place and
compact material with care so as not to damage the existing utilities or services. The Contractor
shall be responsible for any and all damages caused by his construction operations.

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205.05

Disposal of Excavated Materials and Surplus Materials

Unless otherwise specified in the Particular Specifications, excavated materials and all other
unsuitable materials including, but not by way of limitation, material produced by demolitions,
pavement and kerb removal, rock and obstruction removal, clearing and grubbing, and as directed
by the Engineer shall not be used as backfill, fill, embankment material, or in any other way, but
shall be disposed of by the Contractor in accordance with the requirements of the Contract
Documents on sites furnished by the Contractor and approved by the Department and the
Engineer or at a location designated by the Department. The Contractor shall include all handling,
loading, hauling, off-loading, spreading, levelling, watering, and other related work for disposal of
all materials as directed by the Engineer.

205.06
a.

Measurement and Payment


Unclassified Excavation. Measurement for unclassified excavation will be by the cubic
metre of the excavated area including pavement, kerbs and walks. The measurement
will be made by taking cross-sections of the excavated area before and after excavation
to the required depth as specified in Clause 203.05, Preparing Preliminary Sections
(Longitudinal and Cross Sections), of these Standard Specifications or to an additional
depth approved by the Engineer for removing unsuitable material. Unclassified
Excavation will be measured from existing ground or pavement levels after clearing and
grubbing to the top of subgrade as specified or as indicated on the drawings. The lateral
pay limits shall be a vertical line located at the neat limit of the design section, unless
otherwise indicated on the drawings.
Payment for the Item, Unclassified Excavation, will be made at the rate per cubic metre
as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation
for unclassified excavation complete with all excavating; removal of pavement, kerbs and
walks; loading; hauling; disposing of such excavated material in accordance with Clause
205.05, Disposal of Excavated Materials and Surplus Materials, of these Standard
Specifications, protecting, supporting, levelling and cleaning the excavated area and all
related work. The Contractor shall include but not by way of limitation, all labour,
materials, tools, equipment, appurtenances and incidentals required, all as specified in
these Standard Specifications and as directed by the Engineer.
Measurement for the excavation and removal of unsuitable soil will be by cubic metre of
excavated material. The measurement may be made by taking cross-sections of the
unsuitable soil area before and after excavation or by measurement of the length, width
and depth of material to be removed as directed by the Engineer.
Payment for the excavation and removal of unsuitable soil, will be made at the rate per
cubic metre as included in the Bills of Quantities Item, Unclassified Excavation, which
rate shall be full compensation for removal of unsuitable material complete with all
excavation, loading, hauling, disposing of materials in accordance with Clause 205.05,
Disposal of Excavated Materials and Surplus Materials, protecting, supporting, levelling
and cleaning the excavated area and all related work; including but not by way of

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limitation, all labour, materials, tools, equipment, accessories and incidentals required;
and as specified in these Standard Specifications and as directed by the Engineer. No
other compensation will be allowed by the Department.
b.

Structure Excavation. Measurement for structure excavation will be by cubic metre of


excavated area as specified herein, as indicated on the Drawings and as directed by the
Engineer.
The volume of structure excavation will be measured by the number of cubic metres of
material acceptably excavated in compliance with the Drawings or as directed by the
Engineer, but in no case, except as noted, will any of the following volumes be included
in the measurement for payment:
1. The volume outside of vertical planes 45 cm outside of and parallel to the neat
lines of footings.
2. The volume outside of neat lines of underdrains as indicated on the Drawings,
and outside the limits of foundation fill as ordered by the Engineer.
3. The volume of water or other liquid resulting from construction operations and
which can be pumped or drained away.
4. The volume of any excavation performed prior to the taking of elevations and
measurements of the undisturbed ground.
5. The volume of any material rehandled, except that where the Drawings indicated
or the Engineer directs the excavation.
6. Structural excavation above subgrade elevation of the roadway. Such excavation
shall be included in the Bills of Quantities under the Item covering Unclassified
Excavation.
7. Borrow materials furnished, placed and compacted as backfill at the completed
structure.
Payment for the Item, Structure Excavation, will be at the unit rate per cubic metre as
included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation for
all structure excavation. The work shall include, but not by way of limitation, all
excavating for structures, all materials, labour and equipment necessary to provide any
shoring, dewatering or any other means for protecting the side slopes of excavation,
loading, hauling away and disposing of the materials excavated for structures and the
furnishing, placing and compacting of all approved material placed as backfill as
indicated on the Drawings and as specified herein. All materials excavated for structures
shall be removed from the Site and disposed of by the Contractor in compliance with
Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated Materials and Surplus Materials, of these
Standard Specifications unless the excavated materials are approved by the Engineer
for use as backfill.

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c.

Manual Excavation. Measurement for manual excavation to locate existing utilities on-site
and/or off-site will be by linear metre of the excavated length, regardless of the width. The
measurement will be made and recorded separately for manual excavation of no more than
average depth of 150 centimetres, and for manual excavation of more than average depth of
150 centimetres.
Payment for the Item, Manual Excavation To Locate Existing Utilities and Services Average
Depth of Less Than 150 Centimetres, and for the Item, Manual Excavation, to Locate
Existing Utilities and Services Average Depth Greater Than 150 Centimetres, will be made
at the rates per linear metre as included in the Bills of Quantities, which rates shall be
considered as full compensation for manual excavation to locate existing utilities complete
with all excavation, including but not limited to shoring, sheeting, dewatering, loading,
hauling, disposing of excavated materials, measurements of the positions and determination
of size, composition and condition of all uncovered utilities, preparation of field notes and
recording of same on shop drawings indicating all such located existing utilities and
services, furnishing, placing and compacting of approved material and related work. The
work shall include but not be limited to, all labour, materials, tools, equipment, accessories
and incidentals required, all as specified in these Standard Specifications, and as directed
by the Engineer.
No separate payment will be made by the Department for manual excavations not
approved by the Engineer.

d.

Disposal of Excavated and Surplus Materials. No separate payment will be made by the
Department for disposing of excavated materials and surplus materials. Such work shall be
considered incidental to applicable Bills of Quantities Items.

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SECTION II-6
206.01

PLACEMENT OF BORROW MATERIALS, BACKFILLING


AND FILLING

Description

The placement of borrow materials, backfilling, filling and all related work to complete the
Earthwork as indicated on the Drawings shall be as specified herein and as directed by the
Engineer.

206.02

Fill and Backfill with Borrow Materials

a.

General. The Contractor shall furnish, haul, place and compact all borrow materials in
accordance with these Standard Specifications and in compliance with the lines, grades
and profiles as indicated on the Drawings and as directed by the Engineer.

b.

Construction Methods. The area over which the borrow materials or fill materials are to
be placed shall be cleared as specified in Clause 203.06, Clearing and Grubbing, of
these Standard Specifications and the Engineer will require the surface of the existing
ground to be scarified so that the borrow or filling materials shall bind into the original
ground.
Where borrow or fill materials are to be placed and compacted on hillsides, or where
new fill is to be compacted against existing embankments, or where fill is built one-half
width at a time on slopes steeper than 3 (three) horizontal to 1 (one) vertical, the slopes
of the original hillside, old or new fill, shall be cut into as the work is brought up in layers
(benching) and the grades shall slope according to the Drawing. It should be ensured
that benching is adequately wide to accommodate placing and compacting equipment.
Material thus cut out shall be incorporated and compacted with the new fill.

c.

Embankments adjacent to structures. Care shall be exercised during compaction of


embankment adjacent to structures, so as to avoid application of excessive pressure on
them. Placing of fill adjacent to the abutment of a bridge should only be carried out at the
bottom of the back wall until the superstructure is put in place. Embankment is to be
brought up equally on both sides of a concrete wall or box type structure.

d.

Placing of Borrow Materials, General. Borrow materials or fills shall be formed in


horizontal layers of uniform thickness for the width as directed by the Engineer, and the
work shall be carried out to adhere to the slopes, levels, depths and elevations indicated
on the Drawings. Materials shall be placed in successive layers of loose material not
more than 15 cm in depth for the width as directed by the Engineer. After adjustment of
the moisture content to that required to attain maximum density, the loose material shall
be compacted to obtain the required density.
Placement of borrow materials or fills at points inaccessible to normal compaction
equipment shall be made in horizontal layers of loose material not exceeding 10 (ten) cm
in depth and thoroughly compacted by the use of mechanical tampers.

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e.

Compaction Trials. Prior to the placement of any borrow materials, the Contractor shall
construct trial compaction tests as directed by the Engineer. The borrow material used in
the trials shall be the proposed borrow material and the compaction equipment to be
used shall be that specified and acceptable to the Engineer.
The object of these trials shall be to determine the relationship between the number of
compaction equipment passes and density for the proposed borrows materials.

f.

Density Required. The density to which borrow material or fill layers shall be compacted
is as required to comply with the requirements of Clause 206.05, Compaction, of these
Standard Specifications.
Borrow material which does not contain sufficient moisture to obtain the required
compaction shall have additional water incorporated therein by the use of approved
sprinklers and mixing. Material containing an excess of the amount of moisture required
to obtain the necessary compaction shall not, without written approval of the Engineer,
be incorporated in the fill until it has been allowed to dry prior to compaction. Drying of
wet material may be expedited by disking or other approved methods. The Engineer
shall be allowed access to all parts of the site at all times as required for ensuring
satisfactory placement, compaction and testing.
The compaction of borrow materials or fills shall be carried out at moisture contents
determined by the Engineer. In forming the embankments, the Contractor shall provide
that the work can be drained free of rain water and the Contractor shall make allowances
in the height and width of the work for any swelling or shrinkage.
When an embankment or filled area has achieved settlement and requires additional
material to bring it up to the required formation level, the top of the borrow or fill shall be
thoroughly scarified before the placement of additional material when the depth of the
additional material is less than 30 cm.

g.

Grade Lines and Superelevation. The Drawings supply the Contractor with the location
of points of intersection, of tangents and of grade lines. The Drawings indicate the
properties of horizontal and vertical curves, together with rates of superelevation where
required. The Contractor shall set out the work and secure the Engineer's approval of his
setting out before proceeding with construction. In the event that, in the opinion of the
Engineer, modification of the line or grade is advisable, before or after setting out the
Engineer will issue detailed instructions to the Contractor for such modifications and the
Contractor shall revise the setting out for further approval.

h.

Levelling of Existing Fill. Prior to commencing the placing and compacting of fill to the
new formation level (subgrade) on the existing alignment, the existing fill and/or
pavement shall be levelled by cutting, rooting or scarifying by approved mechanical
means to the levels to be determined by the Engineer to remove all unsuitable material.
The unsuitable materials accumulated from this excavation work shall be disposed of by

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the Contractor as specified in Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated Materials and


Surplus Materials, of these Standard Specifications.
i.

Backfill. Wherever excavation for structures, culverts, walls or drainage pipes results in
space to be backfilled, such space shall be backfilled with approved material satisfactory
to the Engineer and shall be compacted as specified and approved by the Engineer.
Jetting of fills or other hydraulic methods involving or likely to involve liquid or semi-liquid
pressure shall not be permitted.
Filling and backfilling around and/or on culverts, stormwater and sewage pipes, utilities
and structures and between building plots and footpath areas shall be with approved
borrow material unless excavated materials are approved by the Engineer for filling and
backfilling. Excavated materials which do not meet the specified requirements for filling
or backfilling materials shall not be used for fill or backfill and shall be disposed of as
specified in Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated Materials and Surplus Materials, of
these Standard Specifications. The Contractor shall allow a minimum period of 7 days,
or ensure achievement of a minimum compressive strength of 19 MPa prior to backfilling
against newly constructed concrete or masonry structures. Backfilling around and over
pipe culverts should not commence until headwalls and wing walls have been
constructed and adequate strength is reached.
Water used for compaction of backfill around metal pipes and reinforced concrete
structures shall be from an approved source, and shall not contain more than 0.5%
combined chlorides and sulfates, nor contain other harmful minerals.
Immediately on completion of any part of the work, the Contractor shall, at his own
expense, fill up all holes and trenches which have been made or dug by him within the
area of construction, and clear away all rubbish and material that is no longer required
for the execution of the work.
Successive layers of approved borrow materials complying with the requirements of
Section II-2, Materials for Earthwork, or approved excavated materials of not more than
15 cm in compacted thickness shall be placed and compacted to 95 percent of dry
weight compaction according to ASTM D1557. The extent of this backfill shall be as
specified on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Where specified on the
Drawings, the filling of porous stone or gravel shall be carried out as directed by the
Engineer.
Water shall be drained from the areas to be backfilled wherever practicable. In cases
where, in the opinion of the Engineer, it is not practicable to drain areas to be backfilled,
the initial backfill material shall consist of crushed, open graded material conforming to
an approved gradation, which may be placed without compacting, below the level of
water, prior to commencing normal laying and compaction.
During embankment construction, earthmoving equipment shall be routed in such a way

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as to prevent damage to any compacted lift. If such damage occurs at any time during
the course of construction, such as rutting under the loads imposed by earthmoving
equipment, it shall be fully repaired at the Contractors expense prior to commencing
subsequent lifts. At the close of each day, the working surface shall be crowned, shaped
and rolled with smooth steel wheel, or pneumatic tyred rollers, for positive drainage.
j.

Placing of Borrow Material in Load Bearing Areas. The placement of borrow material in
load bearing areas shall be made as follows:
1.

Under all pedestrian pavement, vehicular pavement and kerbs where the existing
subgrade is found to be unsuitable according to test results or is determined by
the Engineer as unsuitable, the existing subgrade shall be removed, in
accordance with Clause 205.02, Unclassified Excavation, of these Standard
Specifications, to a depth of 30 centimetres or 45 centimetres, depending on the
CBR test results, below the finished elevation of subgrade unless otherwise
indicated on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer. The surface of the
excavated area shall be levelled, cleaned and scarified after removal of
unsuitable soil. Borrow material, load bearing, shall be placed and properly
compacted. The finished surface of the area filled with borrow material shall meet
the slope and elevation requirements indicated on the Drawings, or as directed
by the Engineer. No lumps, undulations, or other irregularities will be allowed by
the Engineer.

2.

Under all pedestrian pavement, vehicular pavement and kerbs where existing
subgrade, although acceptable according to test results, is below the elevation of
the top of the subgrade indicated in the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer,
load bearing borrow material shall be added to raise the top of the subgrade to
required elevation. For this, first the surface of existing subgrade shall be levelled
and cleaned. Load bearing borrow material shall be placed and properly
compacted.

k.

Placing of Borrow Material in Non-Load Bearing Areas.


Non-load bearing borrow
material shall be placed in 15-centimetre lifts in green areas and service reservation
areas which will not have pedestrian pavement, vehicular pavement or kerbs constructed
on it, unless otherwise directed by the Engineer or described in the Particular
Specifications.

l.

Filling with Sweet Sand.


Non-load bearing borrow material conforming with
requirements for sweet sand shall be placed in green areas and service reservation
areas in accordance with the following requirements:
1.

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Before excavating any material, the Contractor shall test the existing soil (natural
ground) in a manner approved by the Engineer to determine if the existing
material complies with the requirements of sweet sand as specified in Clause
202.03, Sweet Sand, of these Standard Specifications. In the event the existing

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material is approved by the Engineer based upon the test reports prepared and
submitted by the Contractor, such material may remain in place.
In the event the slope and elevation requirements of the finished surface of the
area as indicated on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer necessitate the
removal of a layer of the existing soil, the Contractor shall excavate the area, in
accordance with the applicable Clauses of Section II-5, Excavation, of these
Standard Specifications, to provide the specified slope and elevations to the
satisfaction of the Engineer. The finished surface shall be free of lumps,
undulations or other irregularities.
2.

Existing soil (natural ground) that fails to meet the requirements of sweet sand as
specified herein, shall be removed, in accordance with Clause 205.02,
Unclassified Excavation, of these Standard Specifications, to a depth of 30
centimetres below the finished elevation or subgrade unless otherwise indicated
on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer.
Existing soil (natural ground) shall be levelled, cleaned and scarified after
excavation.
The Contractor shall obtain approval from the Parks and Recreation Facilities
Division (PRFD) of Abu Dhabi City Municipality for the acceptability of existing
soil (natural ground) prior to placing any sweet sand in planting areas where
indicated on the Drawings or where directed by the Engineer. The Contractor
shall follow the directions of the PRFD for the preparation of existing soil (natural
ground) in such areas.
Borrow material complying with the requirements for sweet sand shall be placed
and graded in layers of no more than 15 centimetres each.
The finished surface of the area filled with borrow material complying with the
requirements for sweet sand shall be graded to the slopes and elevations
indicated on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. No lumps, undulations
or other irregularities will be allowed.
The finished surface of green areas and unsurfaced service reservations shall be
10 centimetres below the top of the adjacent kerb unless otherwise indicated on
the Drawings or directed by the Engineer.

206.03

Placement of Warning Tapes

The Contractor shall furnish and place warning tapes during backfilling work over any cables,
pipelines, conduits, pipe sleeves and ducts. Warning tapes shall be installed over any existing
utilities uncovered by the Contractor, over new utilities constructed by the Contractor and over any
buried cables, pipe lines, conduits, pipe sleeves and ducts included in the Works. Warning tapes
shall be placed on the compacted backfill material approximately thirty centimetres below finished
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grade or as directed by the Engineer.


The warning tape shall be high quality, acid and alkali-resistant polyethylene film a minimum of 15
cm wide, a minimum thickness of 150 microns and with a minimum strength of 125 kg/cm2
lengthwise and 105 kg/cm2 crosswise, with an elongation factor of 350 percent.
Warning tapes shall be coloured and inscribed for identification, or as directed by the utility
agencies, as follows:

Utility

Colour

Inscription

Electric Cables

Red

Telephone Cables

Green

Waterlines

Blue

Sewer/Irrigation
Pipelines

Yellow

"Caution - Sewer/Irrigation Pipe


Lines"

Traffic Control System

Orange

"Caution - Traffic Control Cable"

"Caution - Buried Electric Cable"


"Caution - Buried Telephone Cable"
"Caution - Water Pipeline"

The printed inscriptions shall be of a permanent black lettering and shall be spaced a maximum of
two metres (2m) on center printed alternately in English and Arabic. The colours shall be vivid,
permanent and glossy with a life expectancy equal to the utility line which it marks.
The warning tapes shall be placed with the inscriptions facing up.

206.04

End Caps and Draw Lines for Ducts, Conduits, Pipe Sleeves and Culverts
before Backfilling

The Contractor shall furnish and install end caps for vacant ducts, conduits and pipe sleeves
before backfilling to prevent any intrusion of backfill material into the ends of such ducts, conduits
and pipe sleeves.
Open ends of vacant pipe culverts and concrete box culverts shall be closed with bulkheads. The
bulkheads shall be constructed with suitable concrete blocks or bricks and mortar and as approved
by the Engineer.
End caps shall be of the type and material as manufactured for respective types of ducts, conduits
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and pipe sleeves and as approved by the Engineer.


Prior to the installation of end caps and bulkheads as specified herein, the Contractor shall furnish
and install draw lines in all vacant ducts, conduits, pipe sleeves and culverts longer than ten
metres (10m). The draw lines are intended to facilitate future installation of utility cables and pipes.
Draw lines shall consist of 6mm dia. nylon rope as approved by the Engineer. The draw lines shall
be secured with a temporary fastener inside both ends of the ducts, conduits, pipe sleeves or
culverts as approved by the Engineer.

206.05
a.

Compaction
Load Bearing Areas. The Contractor shall carry out compaction of load bearing areas as
specified in the following procedure:
The procedure outlined below shall not relieve the Contractor of his duties to determine
the most suitable procedure for compaction and all such procedures shall be subject to
the approval of the Engineer.

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1.

Existing load bearing subgrade which does not have a minimum soaked CBR
value of 5 when compacted to a maximum dry density of 95% for a minimum
depth of 45 cm below the top of the finished subgrade shall be removed and
replaced with load bearing borrow material. Existing load bearing subgrade which
has a soaked CBR value of 5 or greater but less than 10 when compacted to a
maximum dry density of 95% for a minimum depth of 30 cm below the top of the
finished subgrade shall be removed and replaced with load bearing borrow
material.

2.

When load bearing borrow is required and after carrying out the grading,
leveling, scarifying, pulverizing, and other work as required, of the fill layer to be
compacted as per specifications, the Contractor shall add the necessary
amount of water to permeate the pulverized fill in the quantity required, all in
accordance with the directions of the Engineer.

3.

The fill shall then be thoroughly turned over after adding each lot of water so as
to achieve a homogeneous moisture content in the whole thickness of the layer.

4.

Before compacting, samples from the pulverized fill will be taken and tested in the
laboratory (field testing using "Speedy Moisture Device" or similar instruments
giving direct readings for the field moisture content may be used for guidance
only), in order to establish the natural moisture content. In the event that it is
more than Optimum Moisture Content, the area of subgrade represented by this
sample shall be scarified and aerated until the moisture content is within -2 and
+4% percent of the Optimum Moisture Content. Then the fill shall be primarily
levelled in order to commence fill compaction.

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5.

After primary levelling referred to above, compaction shall be commenced by


means of approved rollers depending on the type of material being compacted in
order to obtain the required density. Placement of borrow materials or fills shall
be in layers not exceeding 15 cm compacted thickness.

6.

When tested in place in accordance with testing methods as specified in Section


II-8, Testing, of these Standard Specifications, borrow material (load bearing)
shall have a minimum density (in percent of maximum dry density) of 95% with a
minimum CBR of 25 to a minimum depth of 30 cm below the top of subgrade or
to the top of the approved compacted existing subgrade which shall have a
minimum CBR of 10, unless otherwise specified or indicated on the Drawings or
directed by the Engineer.

7.

The rolling shall be carried out in the direction of the road axis until the fill
reaches the required density. In crowned sections, rolling shall start from both
edges of the road in the direction of the axis. If the road is superelevated, rolling
shall commence from the lower side and continue to the higher side. In order to
compensate for the amount of water lost in evaporation in the course of
compaction, additional quantities of water shall be added as required.

8.

The surface shall thereafter be levelled longitudinally and transversely by motor


graders and finally rolled to achieve uniform compaction free from undulations,
soft spots and depressions all in compliance with the allowable tolerances for
evenness of surfaces as specified in Clause 208.03, Testing Levels and
Evenness of Surface.

9.

Compaction of sloped sections of the road fills and drainage ditches shall be
carried out as specified herein with regard to pulverization of fill, addition of the
necessary water, shaping, and compaction to the required degree of compaction
and the required design sections.
The Contractor's attention is drawn to the necessity of providing all machinery,
equipment and attachments required for the effective and efficient shaping and
compaction of these sloped sections.

b.

Non-Load Bearing Areas. Non-load bearing borrow material shall be placed in 15


centimetre lifts and shall be free of voids, lumps, undulations and depressions as
specified in Clause 208.03, Testing Levels and Evenness of Surface.
Compaction of non-load bearing material shall have a minimum density (in percent of
maximum dry density) of 85% and in areas other than landscaped areas, as directed by
the Engineer. This material should only be subject to compaction during placement and
as a result of natural consolidation.

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206.06

Measurement and Payment

a.

Fill and Backfill with Borrow Material. Measurement and payment for fill and backfill with
borrow material will be as described in Section II-2 Materials for Earthwork.

b.

Placement of Warning Tapes. No separate measurement or payment will be made for


placing warning tapes. Such work will be considered a subsidiary obligation to the Items
in the Bills of Quantities.

c.

End Caps and Draw Lines for Ducts, Conduits, Pipe Sleeves and Culverts. No separate
measurement or payment will be made for end caps and draw lines for ducts, conduits,
pipe sleeves and culverts. Such work will be considered a subsidiary obligation to the
Items in the Bills of Quantities.

d.

Compaction. No separate measurement and payment will be made by the Department


for compaction. Such work will be considered incidental to the Items in the Bills of
Quantities.

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SECTION II-7
207.01

SUBGRADE PREPARATION

Description

The work required for the preparation of subgrade, upon which subbase or base course material is
to be placed, shall be in accordance with these specifications and to the lines, grades and typical
sections indicated on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer.

207.02

Construction Requirements

Immediately prior to the placement of the first course, the entire width of the vehicular and
pedestrian pavement shall be cleared of brush, weeds, vegetation, grass, and all other debris, as
specified in Clause 203.06, Clearing and Grubbing, and all debris shall be disposed of in
accordance with Clause 205.05, Disposal of Excavated Materials and Surplus Materials, and as
directed by the Engineer. All depressions or ruts which may contain storm water shall be drained.
When the upper 45 cm below the subgrade elevation of earth cut is found to be incapable of
compaction as specified under Clause 206.05, Compaction, and as specified in this Clause and
when the Engineer so directs, such subgrade material shall be removed and replaced.
After the foregoing work has been accomplished, the entire subgrade shall be shaped to a smooth
uniform surface within the tolerance specified in Clause 208.03, Testing Levels and Evenness of
Surface, of these Standard Specifications. Excess material which cannot be disposed of by normal
drifting to the low spots during blading and shaping operations shall be removed and disposed of
by placing it in subgrade areas deficient in materials and shall be watered and compacted as
necessary to yield a true finished subgrade as described above.
Once prepared, the subgrade shall be maintained in the finished condition until the first succeeding
course of subbase or base material has been placed.

207.03

Protection of Subgrade

The Contractor shall take all precautions necessary to protect the subgrade from damage; hauling
over finished subgrade shall be limited to that which is essential for construction purposes. Any
equipment used for hauling over the prepared subgrade, which, in the opinion of the Engineer, is
causing undue damage to the prepared subgrade or to the underlying materials, shall be removed
from the work at the request of the Engineer.
All cuts, ruts and breaks in the surface of the subgrade shall be repaired at the Contractor's
expense prior to placing any subsequent layer. The Contractor shall protect the prepared subgrade
from both his own and public traffic.
The Contractor shall maintain the subgrade by blading and rolling as frequently as may be
necessary to preserve the subgrade in a completely satisfactory condition.

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207.04

Vehicular and Pedestrian Pavement Subgrade

a.

Description. The Contractor shall take samples of existing subgrade areas for vehicular
and pedestrian pavement as directed by the Engineer. The existing subgrade is to
remain if it meets the requirements of all Sections under Earthwork of the Standard
Specifications. In the event the existing subgrade does not meet the specified
requirements and the approval of the Engineer, the existing subgrade shall be replaced
with borrow material and/or aggregate material. In the event the subgrade elevation is
lower than the required level, it shall be raised by filling with borrow material. In areas
which are susceptible to high ground water level, the subgrade shall be underlain by a
suitable drainage blanket consisting of a course of washed granular material conforming
to the requirements specified by the Engineer.

b.

Materials. In the event results of the tests performed on the samples of the existing
subgrade indicate a consistent and a uniform CBR of at least 10 when the subgrade is
compacted to 95 percent of maximum density as determined by ASTM D-1557, the
existing subgrade areas shall be acceptable. When the existing subgrade areas fail to
uniformly meet these requirements or when directed by the Engineer, the Contractor
shall excavate and replace the existing subgrade with borrow material or aggregate
material which when tested indicates consistent and uniform CBR of at least 25 when
compacted to 95 percent of maximum density as determined by ASTM D-1557.
The borrow material shall comply with the requirements of Clause 202.07, Borrow
Material (Load Bearing), of these Standard Specifications for load bearing areas.
The aggregate material shall comply with the requirements of Section III-2, Aggregate
Subbase and Base Courses, of these Standard Specifications, as specified herein and
as directed by the Engineer.

c.

Construction. In the event the existing subgrade material meets the required tests as
specified herein, such material shall remain in place and shall be reworked, spread,
levelled and compacted in accordance with the requirements of Clause 207.02,
Construction Requirements, of these Standard Specifications.
In the event that the existing subgrade material does not meet the required tests as
specified herein, such material shall be removed in accordance with Clause 205.02,
Unclassified Excavation, of these Standard Specifications.
On the completed vehicular pavement subgrade, geotextile fabric and aggregate
material shall be installed in accordance with Clause 207.05, Geotextile Fabric, of these
Standard Specifications.
The finished surface shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of Clause
208.03, Testing Levels and Evenness of Surface, of these Standard Specifications, and
shall meet the slope and elevation requirements as indicated in the Drawings, levelled,
cleaned, and prepared as directed by the Engineer. No lumps or undulations or other

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irregularities will be allowed.

207.05

Geotextile Fabric

a.

Description. The Contractor shall furnish and install geotextile fabric at locations and to
the lines and grades shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Geotextile
fabric shall be supplied, tested or suitably certified, and placed on the prepared roadway
subgrade and at other locations prepared for its use to restrain soil movement, to
provide for drainage, and/or to prevent soil erosion.

b.

Material. Geotextile fabric shall be supplied, tested or suitably certified, and placed on
the prepared base at the locations shown on the drawings or as directed by the
Engineer.
The geotextile fabric shall be a non-woven type produced from long chain polymeric
filaments or yarns such as polypropylene, polyethelene, polyester, polyamide, or
polyvinyl-chloride and formed into a stable network such that the filaments or yarns
retain their relative position to each other when subjected to the proposed use within the
limits of the physical characteristics required and specified herein. In addition, the fabric
shall be inert to commonly encountered chemicals and shall conform to the requirements
of AASHTO M288, Standard Specification for Geotextile Specification for Highway
Applications, except as amended and supplemented herein.
The physical characteristics of the geotextile fabric shall comply with the requirements of
Table 207.05 when subjected to the tests indicated therein. Prior to shipping of any
geotextile fabric to the Site, the Contractor shall provide the Engineer with certification by
the manufacturer of the date and location of its manufacture, and a statement that the
material has been manufactured and tested and found to comply with the requirements
of these specifications. A copy of such certification, a listing of test results obtained, and
date of such testings shall be physically attached to each roll by the manufacturer prior
to shipment. In addition, each roll of fabric shall show the date that it has been shipped
from the manufacturer's plant. At the discretion of the Engineer, random samples of
fabric from any or all rolls of fabric delivered to the jobsite shall be tested prior to use.
Such samples of material shall be tested at a laboratory approved by the Engineer for
the purpose of verifying the certification provided. Any sample of material that fails to
pass the specified requirements or material that does not fully comply with these
specifications shall subject the entire roll of fabric to rejection by the Engineer, and such
rolls of fabric shall be removed from the jobsite within three (3) calendar days after the
date of such notification by the Engineer. To insure proper control of fabric delivered to
the jobsite, each roll shall be marked and identified by date of delivery and an alphanumeric designation approved by the Engineer.
The fabric shall be supplied in rolls wound on a suitable disposable paper tube or other
non-abrading resilient tube that has an outside diameter of not less than 10 cm. The
width of fabric supplied on each roll shall be such as to minimize the development of
longitudinal and transverse overlaps. Where longitudinal overlaps are required, the width

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of fabric used shall be not less than 4.5m. A narrower width may be used if the number
of longitudinal overlaps is the same as would be developed using the minimum fabric
width of 4.5m. Where transverse overlaps are required, the minimum length of fabric on
a roll shall be 90m. Shorter lengths of fabric may be employed provided that the number
of overlaps resulting there from is the same as that developed using the specified 90m
minimum length rolls.
As a minimum, geotextiles shall be randomly sampled for testing in accordance with
ASTM D4354, having a frequency of testing of once per 10,000 m, or as directed by
the Engineer. Samples shall be tested by an independent laboratory based on ASTM
D4759 for geotextile product acceptance. Tests not meeting the specified requirements
will result in the rejection of applicable rolls.
The values listed below provide general guidance only. A site specific geotextile design
should be performed especially if one or more of the following problematic soil
environments are encountered: unstable or highly erodible soils such as non-cohesive
silts; gap graded soils; alternating sand/silt laminated soils; dispersive clays; or rock
flour.
Compatibility testing in accordance with ASTM D5322, should be considered in
situations where the geotextile will be exposed to chemicals which could degrade its
physical properties.

Table 207.05
Geotextile Physical Requirements
Table 207.05A Subsurface Drainage

Description

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Geotextile Requirements

ASTM Test
Method

Non Woven

Fabric weight

D5261

135 g/m Min.

Grab Tensile Strength

D4632

750 N Min.

Grab Failure Strain

D4632

> 50 %

Puncture Resistance

D6241

990 N Min.

Tear Strength

D4533

275 N Min.

Ultraviolet Degradation

D4355

Min 50 % strength retained after 500 hrs

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Table 207.05B AASHTO M288 Permittivity and Apparent Opening Size (AOS)
Soil to be Filtered

Minimum
Permittivity

Maximum AOS

Test Method

ASTM D4491

ASTM D4751

Units

sec Min.

Millimetres

0.5

0.21

0.2

0.18

0.1

0.15

-1

Less than 15% Passing Sieve


200 m
15% to 50% Passing Sieve
200 m
Greater than 50% Passing
Sieve 200 m

Table 207.05C Soil Separation or Soil Stabilisation

Description

c.

Geotextile Requirements

ASTM Test
Method

Separation

Stabilisation

Fabric Weight

D5261

135 g/m Min.

180 g/m Min.

Fabric Thickness

D5199

1.7mm Min.

1.7mm Min

Max. AOS

D4751

210 m Max.

210 m Max.

Min. Permittivity

D4491

0.02 sec Min.

0.10 sec Min.

Grab Tensile Strength

D4632

1,200 N Min.

1,500 N Min.

Grab Failure Strain

D4632

> 50 %

< 50 %

Puncture Resistance

D6241

1,375 N Min.

2,750 N Min.

Tear Strength

D4533

400 N Min.

500 N Min.

Ultraviolet Degradation

D4355

Min 50 % retained strength after 500


hrs

-1

-1

Method of Installation. Installation shall comply with the following requirements


unless otherwise directed by the Engineer:
The subgrade surface to receive the geotextile fabric shall be in a relatively smooth
condition free from obstructions, depressions and debris. The geotextile fabric shall not
be laid in a stretched condition, but shall be laid loosely with the long dimension parallel

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to the centreline of the pavements. In the event the width of the proposed area for fabric
requires more than one panel width of fabric, the panels shall be overlapped a minimum
of 0.3m on a firm level subgrade and 1.0m on soft, uneven ground. To prevent slippage
of the over-lapping fabric, the areas of overlaps shall be stabilized as approved by the
Engineer with pins, anchor blocks or aggregate piles. In the event construction
machinery is used to place the fabric, the working platform for the machinery shall be the
soil subgrade and not the previously laid fabric.
The aggregate material shall not be dumped directly on the fabric, nor shall the haul
trucks run on the fabric. The aggregate shall be spread by a bulldozer or front-end
loader. The blade or bucket shall be kept sufficiently high so that the aggregate is not
being pulled over the fabric, but is being dropped at a minimum height to the satisfaction
of the Engineer. The aggregate material shall be compacted in accordance with Section
III-2, Aggregate Subbase and Base Course, of these Standard Specifications.
Fabric damaged or displaced before or during installation or during placement of
overlying aggregate material shall be replaced or repaired at the contractor's expense
and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
Construction equipment shall not be permitted to traverse the area of fabric placement
until at least 15cm of suitable material has been placed over the fabric to form a surface
protecting the fabric from the stress effects of such equipment.

207.06

Measurement and Payment

a.

Protection of Subgrade. No separate measurement and payment will be made by the


Department for the protection of the subgrade. Such work shall be considered a
subsidiary obligation to the Items in the Bills of Quantities.

b.

Vehicular and Pedestrian Pavement Subgrade. No separate measurement and


payment will be made for vehicular and pedestrian pavement subgrade. Such work shall
be considered incidental to applicable Items as included in the Bills of Quantities.

c.

Geotextile Fabric. Measurement and Payment for the Item, Geotextile Fabric, will be
made by the square metre of plan area (regardless of type) of the approved geotextile
fabric installation at the unit rate as included in the Bills of Quantities. Such payment will
be considered as full compensation for all materials, labour, tools, equipment and
appurtenances required for the installation of geotextile fabric, and shall include all
necessary preparation of surfaces; the protection of the fabric against damage prior to
project completion; the testing of fabric to verify compliance; the removal of all
unsatisfactory fabric; supply and installation of the geotextile fabric; supply and
installation of securing pins; and all work necessary to comply with the requirements for
the complete geotextile fabric supply and installation.
No additional payment will be made by the Department for required fabric overlaps nor
for trimming wastes along edges.

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No additional payment will be made by the Department for replacing damaged geotextile
fabric.
No additional payment will be made by the Department for replacing incorrectly installed
geotextile fabric.

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SECTION II-8
208.01

TESTING

Description

Testing of subgrade, borrow materials, placement of borrow materials and related work for the
Earthwork as indicated on the Drawings, shall be as specified herein, as directed by the Engineer
and as may be required to complete the Works under the Contract.

208.02

Inspection and Control of Material and Work

a. General. For verification of material, moisture content, compaction, thickness, and


similar requirements, the Engineer shall at all times have access to all portions of the Works
and sites. All sampling and testing of material and work shall be carried out by the Contractor
under the direction of the Engineer.
b. Testing of Materials. Materials shall be tested by AASHTO, ASTM, or other approved
equal test or procedure designated in these Standard Specifications.
Test

AASHTO Designation

Sampling
Sample Preparation
Sieve Analysis
Liquid Limit
Plastic Limit & Plasticity Index
Moisture Content
Moisture - Density Relationship
Sand Equivalent
Specific Gravity
California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
Classification

T-2, T-86
R-58
T-27, T-11, T-88
T-89
T-90
T-265, T-217
T-180
T-176
T-100, T-85
T-193
M-145

Where compaction tests fail to produce a well defined Moisture-Density relationship, such as
those carried out in cohesionless, free draining rock-soil materials, the relative density test
shall be used. Alternatively, an electronic compaction meter, or any other testing method as
approved by the Engineer, shall be used by the Contractor for determining level of
compaction achieved.
c. Testing Degree of Compaction. Testing shall be done in accordance with AASHTO
method of testing, ASTM or other approved equal test or procedure designated in these
Standard Specifications.
Test

AASHTO Designation

Sampling
Density in-place (Sand Cone Method)
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The density and thickness of any compacted layer shall be ascertained by obtaining a
specimen from the soil after completing compaction in accordance with the AASHTO
specifications, at the rate of at least one specimen per 100 metre run or one thousand
square metres, whichever is less, of the road and from any spot in the road width
including sidewalks and shoulders and drainage ditches up to finished level and/or
subgrade level as directed by the Engineer. In case this specimen does not comply with
the required density and thickness, additional tests may be taken to determine the limits
of the failing area, after which the Contractor shall scarify, pulverize, water, compact and
level the layer again and, if necessary, add new fill at his own expense, all in accordance
with these Standard Specifications, until the required result is obtained. The Contractor
shall allow enough time in his daily work program to permit the performance and
checking of the above tests, before he proceeds into any subsequent operations, all in
accordance with the instructions of the Engineer and under his guidance.

208.03
a.

Testing Levels and Evenness of Surface


General. The Engineer shall test the levels and evenness of the subgrade surface
and/or the finished surface to ascertain their compliance with the Drawings and these
Standard Specifications.
The Contractor shall make available to the Engineer a four-metre straightedge and a
crown template of sturdy and approved design and the necessary labour to assist in the
checking operations.

b.

Requirements

208.04

1.

When tested by a four-metre straightedge placed at right angles to, or parallel to,
the road centreline or when tested by a crown template placed centrally at right
angles to the road centreline, the maximum gap between the road subgrade
surface and the testing edge shall not be greater than 2cm.

2.

Variation in the falls to cross-sections of the road shall not exceed 0.4%.

3.

The levels of the finished surface shall not vary by more than 2cm from those
indicated on the Drawings and the variation in cross-sectional slopes shall not
exceed 0.8%.

4.

These tests shall be made at any point requested by the Engineer. In the event of
any failure, correction of the surface shall be carried out to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.

Measurement and Payment

No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the work or details as
described in this Section of these Standard Specifications. All materials, labour, tools, equipment
and appurtenances as required or as directed by the Engineer to complete the testing under the
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Contract shall be considered as a subsidiary obligation to the Items included in the Bills of
Quantities unless otherwise specified in the Particular Specifications.

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SECTION II-9

PERVIOUS BACKFILL

209.01 Description
This work consists of furnishing, placing, compacting and finishing pervious backfill material for use
in backfilling trenches, under, around and over underdrains and behind retaining walls and bridge
abutments, and at the subgrade as indicated on the Drawings and as directed by the Engineer.

209.02

Materials

The pervious material shall be clean, hard, durable sand, gravel or crushed stone free from organic
material, clay balls or other deleterious substances.
The type of pervious material shall be as indicated on the Drawings or in the Particular
Specifications or in the Bills of Quantities. Unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings or directed
by the Engineer, pervious backfill Type I shall be furnished. The percentage composition by weight
of pervious material in place shall comply with the following gradings when determined in
accordance with AASHTO test methods:
Percentage Passing

U. S.
Standard
Sieve Sizes

Type I

Type II

Type III

Type IV

Type V

Type VI

12 inch
8 inch
6 inch
5 inch
4 inch
2 inch
1-1/2 inch
3/4 inch
1/2 inch
3/8 inch
No. 4
No. 8
No.16
No. 200

100
95 - 100
50 - 100
15 - 55
0 - 25
0-5
0-3

100
90 - 100
40 - 100
25 - 80
15 - 33
5 - 15
0-3

100
95 100
70 100
0 55
0 10
03

100
80 - 100
65 - 85
50 - 75
30 - 50
20 - 40
10 - 25
5 - 20
-

100
0
-

100
95 - 100
90 - 100
60 - 80
35 - 50
15 - 30
0-3

All Type V and Type VI pervious backfill materials shall be crushed stone and shall have an
Average Crushing Value (A.C.V.) of less than 30 as determined by BS 812, Part 3, and a relative
density (S.G.) greater than 2.75 as determined by BS 812, Part 2, unless otherwise directed by the
Engineer.
All aggregates furnished shall have a loss after abrasion of less than 40 at 500 revolutions when
tested in accordance with AASHTO T-96.
All aggregates shall have a sand equivalent value of at least 55.
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Type V pervious backfill shall be inspected in place by the Department's Representative prior to
installing subsequent subbase lifts.
One sample every 3000 m of pervious backfill material shall be tested, or part of as directed by the
Engineer. The relevant areas shall be rejected if the test results do not satisfy the specified
requirements.

209.03

Construction Requirements

Pervious backfill material shall be placed in the areas designated on the Drawings or in the
Particular Specifications, or as designated by the Engineer. The material shall be placed in layers
not to exceed 20 centimetres in depth, and compacted to a density of not less than 95 percent of
the maximum dry density as determined by AASHTO Designation T-180, Method C or ASTM
D4253.

209.04

Measurement and Payment

Pervious backfill shall be measured in place to the lines, grades and cross-sections indicated on
the Drawings, or as directed by the Engineer.
Volumes will be computed from cross-section measurements by the average end area method. No
allowance will be given for settlement or for over building beyond the limits noted on the typical
sections and as directed by the Engineer. When it is impractical to determine pervious backfill
volumes by cross-sections, acceptable methods utilizing three-dimensional measurements will be
used by the Engineer.
Payment for the Item, Pervious Backfill, will be at the rate per cubic metre for the respective Type
as indicated on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer and as included in the Bills of Quantities,
which rate shall be considered as full compensation for all materials, labour, tools, equipment and
appurtenances for furnishing, placing and compacting pervious backfill.

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SECTION II-10
210.01

UTILITY MARKERS

Description

This work includes the furnishing and installing of utility markers as indicated on the Drawings, as
specified herein and as directed by the Engineer.
Utility markers shall be installed at underground water, irrigation, oil, sewer, gas, electrical and
telephone lines or pipes. The location of such markers shall be as directed by the Engineer.
Generally the markers shall be installed at the ends of underground lines or pipes, where such
lines or pipes pass under pavement, where ducts or conduits are installed for use by future
underground lines or pipes to pass under pavement and at such other locations as directed by the
Engineer.
Utility markers for the 132 kV cable route shall be installed at locations as specified in Clause
1614.07i, Cable Joint and Route Markers, of these Standard Specifications.

210.02

Materials

a.

Markers shall be bronze castings as indicated on the Drawings. The material shall
comply with ASTM B584, Copper Alloy Sand Castings for General Applications, and
shall be Copper Alloy UNS No. C90300.

b.

All concrete work shall comply with the requirements of Section V, Concrete Works, of
these Standard Specifications.

c.

One sample every 100 pieces of bronze castings shall be tested, or as directed by the
Engineer. The relevant bronze castings shall be rejected if the test results do not satisfy
the specified requirements.

210.03

Submittals

The Contractor shall submit shop drawings to the Engineer for approval in compliance with Clause
7, Plant, Materials and Workmanship, of the Conditions of Contract in the Field of Construction
Works. Further, the Contractor shall submit samples of each utility marker including water,
irrigation, oil, sewer, gas, electrical and telephone. The Contractor shall not fabricate the markers
until the shop drawings and the samples are approved by the Engineer.

210.04

Installation of Markers

Markers shall be set level, to the depth required on the Drawings, and with the lettering facing the
roadway or street pavement.
In green areas, that portion of the hole not occupied by the marker shall be backfilled and
compacted in layers with suitable material up to the level of the original ground. The marker shall
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not be displaced during backfilling.


Markers to be placed in sidewalk areas shall be installed as indicated on the Drawings.
The number of each type of utility marker shall be as directed by the Engineer. Prior to placing
orders for utility markers, the Contractor shall verify with the Engineer the number of markers for
water, irrigation, oil, sewer, gas, electrical and telephone to be furnished and installed under this
Contract.
The Contractor shall bend the anchorage tabs at the utility markers as indicated on the Drawings
prior to installation.

210.05

Measurement and Payment

Measurement for utility markers will be by the number of such markers installed, complete,
regardless of location (in green areas or sidewalks) and regardless of type (water, irrigation, oil,
sewer, gas, electrical or telephone).
Payment for the Item, Utility Markers, will be at the rate per number included in the Bills of
Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation for furnishing all labour, materials,
tools, equipment and appurtenances and performing all work for the complete installation of the
utility markers as directed by the Engineer.

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SECTION III - SUBBASE AND BASE COURSES


300.01

Description

These specifications for materials and equipment used in the construction of subbase and base
courses, apart from other types of base courses specified in Section IV of these Standard
Specifications, apply to Works performed under Section III-1, Equipment for Subbase and Base
Courses, Section III-2, Aggregate Subbase and Base Courses, and Section III-3, Sand Asphalt
Courses, as indicated on the Drawings and as specified herein and/or in the Particular
Specifications and included in the Bills of Quantities.

300.02

Standards and Codes

The most recent version of the following standard specifications, as well as those standards
described in Clause 400.02, Standards and Codes, shall apply to materials included in this Section
unless otherwise noted herein. Materials which require drying prior to performing any of the
specified tests, except those materials which will be processed in an asphalt plant drier, shall be
dried at a temperature not greater than 60C for soil materials or 110C for aggregate.
AASHTO: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
M145
T002
T085
T089
T090
T096
T104
T165
T176
T180
T191
T193

Classification of Soils and Soil Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction


Purposes
Sampling of Aggregates
Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
Determining the Liquid Limit of Soils
Determining the Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils
Resistance to Degradation of Small Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and
Impact by Use of the Los Angeles Machine
Soundness of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulphate or Magnesium Sulphate
Effect of Water on Cohesion of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures
Plastic Fines in Graded Aggregates and Soils by Use of the Sand Equivalent Test
Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 10-lb. (4.54kg) Rammer and an 18inch (457mm) Drop
Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone Method
California Bearing Ratio (CBR)

B.S.: British Standards


812
Chloride Content, Flakiness Index, Elongation
1377
Sulphate Content
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials

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300.03

Storage and Handling of Materials

Materials shall be so stored and handled as to assure the preservation of their quality and fitness
for the Works. Materials, even though approved before storage or handling, may again be
inspected and tested prior to use in the Works. Stored material shall be located so as to facilitate
their prompt inspection. All storage sites shall be restored to their original condition at the
Contractor's expense prior to acceptance of the Works.
Handling and stockpiling of aggregates shall at all times be such as to eliminate segregation or
contamination of the various sizes. Stockpiles shall be kept flat and the formation of high coneshaped piles shall not be permitted. When conveyor belts are used for stockpiling aggregates, the
Engineer may require the use of baffle-chutes or perforated chimneys. When trucks are used to
construct stockpiles, the stockpiles shall be constructed one layer at a time with trucks depositing
their loads as close to the previous load as possible. The use of tractors or loaders to push
material deposited at one location to another location in the stockpile will not be allowed during the
construction of the stockpile and their use shall be limited to levelling the deposited material only.
Stockpiles of aggregate located at permanent asphalt plant sites shall be separated by bin walls
and shall be constructed on asphaltic or concrete floors. Stockpile locations and procedures at
temporary asphalt plant sites shall be as approved by the Engineer.
Intermediate storage of hydrated lime and commercial mineral filler for equipment feeding the
asphalt plant shall be silos of adequate sizes to ensure a minimum of one day's continuous
operation.

300.04

Inspection, Testing and Control of Materials

For verification of weights and measures, character of materials and determination of temperatures
used in the preparation of the asphalt mixes, the Engineer will at all times have access to all
portions of the mixing plant, aggregate plant, storage yards, crushers and other facilities used for
producing and processing the materials of construction. The Engineer will have authority to take
samples and perform tests thereon of any material supplied to the site from any source whatsoever
in order to establish their compliance with the Specifications and to accept or reject as he deems
necessary. Samples shall also be taken from completed work to determine compliance with the
specifications. The frequency of all sampling and testing shall be in accordance with these
Standard Specifications and/or as directed by the Engineer.
One sample every one thousand cubic metres (1000 m), or part of as directed by the Engineer,
shall be tested for loss by abrasion, maximum dry density, grading, plasticity index and CBR.
Three in-situ density tests shall be taken every 300 square metres (300 m) of granular subbase
and base course laid, or as directed by the Engineer.

300.05

Unacceptable Materials

Materials that do not comply with the requirements of these Standard Specifications shall be
rejected and removed immediately from the site of the Works unless otherwise instructed by
the Engineer. No rejected materials, the defects of which have been corrected, shall be used until
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approval has been given by the Engineer.

300.06

Sources of Materials

The materials used in the Works shall meet all quality requirements specified. All materials shall be
tested and approved before use. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer of the sources of
materials and the Engineer will approve the sources prior to delivery of materials to the Site.
Where the source of material does not meet Specification requirements, the Contractor shall
furnish material from other sources. Delivery of materials produced from commercial manufacturing
processes shall be accompanied by the manufacturer's certification and test report showing the
materials comply with the Specification requirements.

300.07

Water

Potable water shall be used for the purposes of mixing and compacting subbase and base course
materials. The use of sea water or brackish water will not be permitted, unless specifically stated to
the contrary.

300.08

Measurement and Payment

No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the work as described
in this Section. All work as specified herein shall be considered as a subsidiary obligation to the
Items included in the Bills of Quantities and specified in other Sections of these Standard
Specifications.

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SECTION III-1 EQUIPMENT FOR SUBBASE AND BASE COURSES


301.01

Description

The major equipment to be provided and maintained by the Contractor shall include, but not by
way of limitation, that as described herein, as required to complete the Works and as directed by
the Engineer.

301.02

Equipment Used for Aggregate Subbase and Base Courses

The provisions of Section II-1, Earthwork Equipment, of these Standard Specifications shall be
adhered to, subject to the following modifications and additions:
a.

Spreaders. Spreaders shall be self-propelled and shall be capable of spreading the


subbase and base materials in one operation so as to make it ready for compaction with
minimum shaping. The spreader shall be provided with a screed that strikes off and
distributes the material to the required width and level. The width of each spread shall
not be less than a traffic lane wide. The screed shall be adjustable to the required crosssection. Screed action includes any practical motion that produces a finished surface
texture of uniform appearance.

b.

Travel Mixers. Travel Mixers shall be of a type which is capable of mixing to the full
depth of the layer thickness being processed, by picking up the material, mixing,
agitating or otherwise blending into a homogeneous mass which complies with the
required general gradation and other specifications. Mixers shall be equipped with an
accurate depth control device to avoid the disturbance of previously accepted layers.
After mixing, the material shall be deposited by the mixer in its final position so that prior
to compaction no spotting, picking-up or otherwise shifting the material will be required.
Mixers may be equipped with pressure spray bars which can supply a uniform
distribution of metered water during the mixing process.

c.

Central Mixers. A central mixing plant shall be either of an approved drum or pugmill
type with a moisture control system so that the material may be spread without further
mixing or processing.

301.03

Equipment Used for Sand Asphalt Subbase and Base Courses

The provisions of Section IV-1, Equipment for Asphalt Works, of these Standard Specifications
shall be adhered to, subject to the following modifications and additions:
a.

Screens for Asphalt Mixing Plants. The asphalt mixing plant shall be equipped with
screens suitable for screening the aggregate into sizes such that they may be
recombined into a gradation meeting the requirements of the job mix formula.

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However, if the nature of the aggregate, in the opinion of the Engineer, is such that no
screening is required due to its satisfactory natural gradation, then the plant may be
equipped with a scalping screen of a size suitable to remove oversize aggregates and
other deleterious material.
b.

Rollers. Rolling equipment shall consist of steel-wheeled rollers and pneumatic-tyred


rollers as specified in Clause 401.05, Rollers, of these Standard Specifications. A
minimum of three rollers shall be required at all times: one self-propelled pneumatictyred and two steel-wheeled rollers. As many additional rollers shall be used as
necessary to provide the specified density and surface characteristics in any orderly,
efficient and continuous manner. Tandem steel-wheeled rollers shall be of such weight
that, under working conditions, will develop contact pressure adequate to obtain the
required density.

301.04

Unacceptable Equipment

The Engineer will have the right to stop the use of any equipment or plant which he deems to be
inferior to the quality required and to instruct the removal of such equipment and to have it
replaced by suitable equipment or to alter the method of operation at any time.
The Contractor shall immediately comply with such instructions without being entitled to any
indemnities or extensions as a result of such instructions. The Contractor shall not be allowed to
use any equipment or plant before obtaining the approval of the Engineer, and the Contractor shall
undertake to follow sound technical methods of operation and to engage skilled and trained
operators, mechanics and labour to carry out the Works. The Engineer will have the right to expel
any operators, mechanics or labour and to instruct suitable replacement thereof at any time he
deems such action is necessary.

301.05

Measurement and Payment

No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the work or equipment
as described in this Section. All work and equipment as specified herein shall be considered as a
subsidiary obligation to the Items included in the Bills of Quantities and specified in other Sections
of these Standard Specifications.

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SECTION III-2

AGGREGATE SUBBASE AND BASE COURSES

302.01 Description
Aggregate subbase and base courses shall consist of crushed mineral aggregates or natural
mineral aggregates of the gradation and thickness specified in these Standard Specifications and
as indicated on the Drawings.
The Contractor shall furnish, place and compact aggregate base course for approach slabs and
aggregate subbase course for paved roadways, service roads and parking areas complying with
the lines, grades, thicknesses and typical sections indicated on the Drawings, as specified herein
or as directed by the Engineer.
Unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings, specified in the Particular Specifications or directed
by the Engineer, all aggregate subbase materials shall comply with the requirements of Aggregate
Subbase (Gradation B) as specified in Clause 302.05, Types of Aggregate Subbase and Base
Courses, of these Standard Specifications.

302.02

Material Requirements for Subbase and Base Courses

The materials for subbase and base courses shall comply with the requirements as specified
herein and shall be as approved by the Engineer. The Contractor shall submit samples of all
materials to the Engineer for approval prior to furnishing and placing any materials. The material
sample shall meet the following criteria:
Aggregate Subbase shall meet the following test requirements:
Test

Standard

Limits

Sampling

AASHTO T002

N/A

Classification

AASHTO M145

N/A

Los Angeles Abrasion

AASHTO T096 (ASTM C131)

Soundness (Sodium)

AASHTO T104

12% Max.

Soundness (Magnesium)

AASHTO T104 (ASTM C88)

15% Max.

Sand Equivalent

AASHTO T176 (ASTM D2419)

25% Min.

Liquid Limit

AASHTO T089 (ASTM D4318)

35% Max.

Plasticity Index

AASHTO T090 (ASTM D4318)

6.0% Max.

Sulphate Content

BS 1377

0.5% Max.

Chloride Content

BS 812

1.0% Max.

Flakiness Index

BS 812

35% Max.

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Elongation

BS 812

35% Max.

Specific Gravity

AASHTO T100 & T085

2.20 Min.

Max Dry Density

AASHTO T180D

C.B.R. at 98% of MDD

AASHTO T193 (ASTM D1883)

2.10 gr/cc Min.


65% Min.

Natural Aggregate Subbase and Base Courses shall consist of coarse and fine mineral aggregates
which have been screened and blended to the various gradations specified herein and constructed
to the thickness as indicated on the Drawings.
Crushed Aggregate Subbase and Base Courses shall consist of crushed coarse aggregate and
crushed or natural fine aggregate screened and blended in accordance with the gradation specified
herein and constructed to the thicknesses as indicated on the Drawings.

302.03

Fine Aggregates

Fine aggregate (passing the No. 4 sieve) shall consist of natural sand and/or crushed sand and
shall be of such gradation that when combined with other required aggregate fractions in proper
proportions, the resultant mixture will meet the gradation specified.
The fine aggregate shall be clean and free from organic matter, clay and other extraneous or
detrimental materials. The portion of fine aggregates passing the No. 200 sieve shall not exceed
2/3 of the portion passing the No. 40 sieve.
The material passing the No. 40 sieve shall have a maximum liquid limit of 35 and the plasticity
index shall not exceed 6.
When the source of fine aggregates does not meet the above requirements, the Contractor may,
with the Engineer's approval, add additional fine aggregate and/or filler to correct the gradation or
to change the characteristics of the material passing the No. 40 sieve so as to meet the
Specifications. Such additional material shall be added in a manner which ensures a completely
homogeneous gradation as approved by the Engineer.

302.04

Coarse Aggregates

Coarse aggregate (retained on the No. 4 sieve) shall consist of crushed stone, crushed gravel or
natural gravel and shall be of such gradation that when combined with other required aggregate
fractions in proper proportion, the resultant mixture will meet the gradation specified.
When crushed aggregate is required, not less than 50 percent by weight of the particles retained
on the No. 4 sieve shall have at least one fractured face. The Flakiness Index of the crushed
aggregate shall not exceed 35 percent.
The percentage of wear of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 40 percent when tested for
resistance to abrasion (AASHTO T096).
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The course aggregate shall be hard and durable and free from organic matter, clay and other
extraneous or detrimental materials.
Coarse aggregate shall have a maximum sodium sulphate soundness loss of 12 percent and
magnesium sulphate soundness loss of 15 percent.

302.05

Types of Aggregate Subbase and Base Courses

The combined gradation including fine and coarse aggregates shall conform to the gradation of
Type (A), (B) or (C) in Table 302.05.
The gradation of materials to be used in the aggregate subbase and base courses as shown in
Table 302.05 indicates the limits within which the material could be accepted. The continuous
smooth gradation of materials used shall be kept within the specified gradation limits and gap
grading shall be avoided. Selection of one of the gradations shown in the table shall be as
indicated on the Drawings and/or in these Standard Specifications. Unless otherwise specified,
Gradation B shall be used when aggregate base or subbase is specified.
Table 302.05
Gradation Limits for Aggregate Subbase and Base Courses

Sieve Size

Percent Passing by Weight


Gradation A

Gradation B

Gradation C

50.8 mm

100

41.75 mm

100

75-100

25.4 mm

100

70-100

55-85

19.05 mm

70-100

60-90

50-80

9.53 mm

50-80

45-75

40-70

No. 4

35-65

30-60

30-60

No. 10

25-50

20-50

20-50

No. 40

15-30

10-30

10-30

No. 200

5-15

5-15

5-15

Note:
The final gradation of aggregate subbase and base course shall be subject to
the following tolerances during construction:
Passing 25mm sieve and larger 6%
Passing sieves 4.75mm (No. 4) to 19mm (No. 3/4) 5%
Passing sieves 425m (No. 40) to 2mm (No. 10) 4%
Passing 75m (No. 200) 2%

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302.06

Construction Requirements for Aggregate Subbase and Base Course

a.

Finished Subgrade Levels. Prior to commencing the construction of the subbase and
base courses, the Contractor shall make sure that the subgrade complies with the
specifications and is compacted to the maximum dry density as indicated in Section II,
Earthwork, of these Standard Specifications, and that the surface thereof complies with
the levels and slopes indicated in the longitudinal and cross-section Drawings. In all
cases the approval of the Engineer must be obtained before commencing spreading of
material for the subbase and base courses.

b.

Screening and Mixture of the Materials. Screening shall be required for the materials
used in aggregate subbase and base courses. Screens shall be of the size and number
required to remove oversize aggregate and, if necessary, to separate the materials into
two or more fractions so that they may be combined to meet the required gradation.
When conveyor belt samples from the end of the screening and/or crushing-screening
operation yield a product consistently within the specified gradation, no further mixing
shall be required and the material may be loaded and hauled directly to the road. In the
event the material is stockpiled, it shall be stockpiled so as to prevent segregation.
Mixing of material can be achieved through the use of the central mixing plant or travel
mixer as per Clause 301.02, Equipment Used for Aggregate Subbase and Base
Courses, of these Standard Specifications.
Where separate size materials are to be blended to meet the gradation, such blending
shall be as directed by the Engineer and shall be accomplished prior to delivery to the
roadway. Mixing of separate materials on the roadway by motor grader will not be
permitted by the Engineer.

c.

Spreading and Compacting. After carrying out the screening and mixing of aggregate
material, samples of the approved material shall be taken in order to determine the
optimum moisture content.
Material shall then be spread on the prepared surface in layers not more than 15cm
compacted thickness to achieve the total thickness as indicated on the Drawings.
Care shall be taken in spreading and compacting the aggregate subbase not to damage
the fabric as specified in Clause 207.05, Geotextile Fabric, of these Standard
Specifications.
The natural moisture content of materials constituting the subbase and base courses
shall be determined. If the natural moisture content is less than the optimum moisture
content, the necessary amount of water must be added to obtain the optimum moisture
content allowing for the quantity which may be lost by evaporation in the process of
raking, levelling and compacting, depending on atmospheric temperature, quantity of
material and the equipment and plant to be used in this operation, provided that the layer
shall be compacted when the moisture content therein is within -2 and +4 percent of the

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optimum moisture content in order to obtain maximum dry density, and the moisture
content is uniform in all parts of the section where the work is being carried out and in
the various depths of the layer thickness.
If the natural moisture content in materials exceeds the optimum moisture content, then
the Contractor shall aerate the material in order to reach the optimum moisture content.
Compaction shall start immediately thereafter, by means of pneumatic and steel rollers
or vibratory rollers and in accordance with the instructions of the Engineer.
Compaction shall start with rollers from extreme sides proceeding gradually toward the
road axis. Rolling shall continue until a relative density of not less than 98 percent of the
maximum dry density has been obtained as determined by the Moisture-Density
Relationship Test AASHTO T180. The CBR of the subbase material shall not be less
than 65.
d.

Multi-Layers. During the operations of mixing, spreading, compacting and levelling of


subbase and base course material, care shall be taken so that layers already compacted
under the layer being executed are not affected, or that the finished subgrade or base
surface is also not affected. This requirement shall be given special attention in places
where equipment makes turns in going back and forth and any such damage resulting in
mixing the various layers constituting the different subgrades and base courses shall be
carefully made good by the Contractor at his expense and to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.
If more than one subbase or base course is required for reaching the required thickness
described in the specifications, each such course shall be constructed as specified
herein.
Where the finished total compacted thickness exceeds 15cm, each layer shall be
executed in composite layers not exceeding 15cm in thickness after compaction, unless
otherwise approved by the Engineer in writing.

302.07

Protection of Surface

The Contractor shall protect the subbase or base course so that it shall be maintained sound
during work progress, after its completion and prior to receiving the bituminous layers or prior to
laying the surface overlay thereon. Any damage caused to the layer if exposed to traffic or natural
conditions resulting in damage to its surface should be made good to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.
The subbase and base courses shall not be rolled when the underlying material is soft or yielding
or when the rolling causes a wave-like motion in this course.
When the rolling develops irregularities, the irregular surface shall be loosened, then refilled with
the same kind of material as used in constructing the course and again rolled according to
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specifications. Along places inaccessible to rollers, the subbase and base course material shall be
tamped thoroughly with mechanical tampers.
Work on the subbase and base course shall not be permitted during rainy weather.
Hauling equipment may be routed over completed portions of the subbase and base courses
provided no damage results and provided that such equipment is routed over the full width of the
course to avoid rutting or uneven compaction.
The Engineer has the right to stop all hauling over completed or partially completed subbase and
base courses when in his opinion such hauling is causing damage.

302.08

Preparing the Surface before Priming

Following the completion of the base course and subbase courses the Contractor shall perform all
maintenance work necessary to keep the course in a condition for priming. The prime coat shall
be applied after preparation of the previously compacted surface, all in accordance with
Section IV-3, Prime Coat, of these Standard Specifications.

302.09

Testing and Acceptance of Aggregate Subbase and Base Courses

Prior to the application of any prime coat or any other paving course, the aggregate subbase
and/or base course shall have been tested and accepted by the Engineer. The following shall be
adhered to in accepting completed aggregate subbase and base courses:
a.

Requirements for Compaction. Wherever the degree of compaction is found to be less


than the 98 percent specified, the area of subbase or base course involved shall be
satisfactorily corrected so that the minimum specified density is achieved.

b.

Requirements for Gradation. Wherever the gradation is found to be outside the limits
specified, the area of subbase and/or base course involved shall be scarified, removed
or otherwise reworked as directed by the Engineer to provide a material within the
specified limits.

c.

Thickness Requirements. The total constructed thickness of aggregate subbase or base


course used for new construction, reconstruction or widening of roadways shall not vary
more than 8mm from the total thickness indicated on the Drawings.
In the event the constructed thickness of the aggregate subbase or base course is 8mm
more than the total thickness indicated on the Drawings, the area involved shall be
corrected as directed by the Engineer by removing excess material in an approved
manner to provide the required thickness.
In the event the constructed thickness of the aggregate subbase or base course is 8mm
less than the total thickness indicated on the Drawings, the Contractor shall provide
additional material in the next course (base course or wearing course). In no case shall

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the deficiency of the subbase or base course exceed 25 mm.


The aggregate subbase or base course shall be constructed to the grade level as
indicated on the Drawings, as specified and as approved by the Engineer.
In no case shall the total sum thickness of the subbase course, base course and wearing
course be less than the total sum thickness of all courses as indicated on the Drawings.
d.

Requirements for Evenness of Surface and Grade Level


The final surfaces of the subbase or base course shall be tested by means of a 5 metre
long straight edge; and no rises or depressions in excess of 1cm shall appear on the
surface; otherwise such areas shall be stripped, corrected and recompacted to comply
with all specification requirements and as approved by the Engineer. Further, the
finished surface of the subbase or base course shall be constructed to within 12mm of
the grade levels indicated on the Drawings.

e.

Minimum Test Requirements


One sample every one thousand (1,000) cubic metres shall be tested from the stockpile
for Grading, Soundness, Loss by Abrasion, Maximum Dry Density, Plasticity Index, Sand
Equivalent and CBR. One in situ density test shall be taken every three hundred (300)
square metres of aggregate subbase or base course laid.

302.10 Recycled / Secondary Aggregates


Recycled/secondary aggregates for use in Aggregate Base or Sub-base shall be in accordance
with DMA Circular No. 57/2012 requiring the mandatory use (if specified in the Contract and
subject to availability) of recycled construction and demolition waste in roads projects, as well as
any other infrastructure projects throughout the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.
This specification should also be read in conjunction with decree number 9/2011, as issued by the
Department of Municipal Affairs in Abu Dhabi (Chairmans Office) giving approval for RCA
specifications to be used in all infrastructure and road projects in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.
It should be noted that references to RCA shall mean recycled crushed aggregate as produced by
the sole and official concession holder for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi only and recycled crushed
aggregate material shall not be imported from other Emirates for use within the Emirate of Abu
Dhabi.
Compliance with all the requirements of Section III-2 is required for recycled products and also the
specific requirements for each type as detailed below. Approval shall be obtained from the
Department for each product variation, the additional quantity, performance requirements and the
quality control and assurance procedures to be adopted by the contractor.

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302.10.01 Recycled Crushed Aggregate (RCA) Subbase


The works described below shall consist of furnishing and placing one (1) or more layers of
Recycled Crushed Aggregate (RCA), including additives if required, on a prepared surface in
accordance with the Specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades, thicknesses and
typical cross-sections shown on the plans or established by the Engineer.
1. Materials
Material shall conform to the requirements for the class of Recycled Crushed Aggregate
Subbase specified on the plans or directed by the Engineer. All RCA for subbase material shall
consist of crushed rock and crushed concrete stone fragments, including sand.
Components
RCA shall consist of clean hard, durable, angular fragments of rock, concrete and sand fragments
of uniform quality complying with the general requirements specified in Physical Requirements
below.
Physical Requirements
All RCA subbase shall conform to the physical requirements described below.
Foreign material in the fraction retained on the 4.75mm sieve shall not exceed the percentages by
mass specified:
Foreign Material Type

High density materials such as glass, brick and asphalt

10

Metallic items such as steel, aluminium and iron

Low density materials such as plastic, rubber, plaster, clay


lumps and other friable material

Wood and other vegetable or decomposable matter

0.2

Grading and Test Requirements


RCA subbase shall conform to the following requirements:

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ASTM (D2940)
Sieve (mm)

Percent Passing

50
37.5
19
9.5
4.75
2.00
0.425
0.075

100
95 100
65 - 95
30 65
25 55
15 - 40
8 20
2-8

Parameter

Limit

Loss by Abrasion Test AASHTO T096

40% maximum

Liquid Limit AASHTO T089 (ASTM D4318)

25% maximum

Plasticity Index AASHTO T090 (ASTM D4318)

4% maximum

Sand Equivalent AASHTO T176

35% minimum

California Bearing Ratio at 98% MDD AASHTO T193

120% minimum

Soundness (Magnesium) AASHTO T104

15% maximum

Flakiness BS 812

35% maximum

Elongation BS 812

35% maximum

Sulphate Content BS 812

2% maximum

Chloride Content BS 812

2% maximum

2. Equipment
Equipment shall be according to the type and number outlined in the Contractors detailed
Programme of Work, as approved by the Engineer.
3. Construction Requirements
Groundwater Levels and Protection
The Contractor must establish the high watertable levels (HWT) along the length of the road,
relative to the accepted national benchmark (Ras Ghumays). Should the base of the proposed
road be within 1 metre of the HWT, a suitably engineered and approved barrier will be designed
and installed to prevent groundwater coming into contact with the RCA.

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Subgrade Preparation
Unless other subgrade preparation is called for on the plans or appears as a pay item in the Bill of
Quantities, the Contractor shall, as part of the Work and prior to the delivery of materials for the
subbase, prepare the roadbed surface by sprinkling, blading, rolling and lightly scarifying where
necessary, until the proper crown is obtained. However, in the process of shaping the roadbed,
the originally compacted crust or top portion of the roadbed shall be disturbed as little as possible.
When completed and ready for subbase construction the roadbed shall be well compacted,
smooth, hard and uniform, all irregularities having been bladed out and rolled down.
Spreading
Subbase RCA shall be spread on the subgrade which has been approved by the Engineer.
Subbase which has been placed on a subgrade not approved by the Engineer shall be removed.
Subbase RCA shall be spread on the approved subgrade in layers not exceeding fifteen (15)
centimetres in compacted depth. Where the required subbase thickness is greater than fifteen
(15) centimetres, the material shall be placed in layers of equal thickness, in no case shall a layer
be less than seven and one half (7.5) centimetres thick. Under no circumstances shall subbase be
dumped in a pile on the subgrade.
The material shall be handled so as to avoid segregation. Segregated materials shall be remixed
until uniform.
Suitable precautions shall be taken to prevent rutting of the subgrade during the spreading of the
RCA subbase. No hauling or placement of material will be permitted when, in the judgment of the
Engineer, the weather or road conditions are such that the hauling operations will cause cutting or
rutting of the subgrade or cause contamination of the subbase RCA material.
Compaction
The moisture content of the RCA subbase shall be adjusted prior to compaction, as directed by
the Engineer, to that required to obtain the specified density for subbase. RCA subbase shall be
compacted until a relative density of not less than 98% of the maximum dry density (MDD) as
determined according to AASHTO T180 is achieved.
The RCA subbase shall be compacted by means of approved compaction equipment progressing
gradually from the outside towards the centre with each succeeding pass uniformly over-lapping
the previous pass. Rolling shall be continuous until the entire thickness of each layer is thoroughly
and uniformly compacted to the specified density. Rolling shall be accompanied by sufficient
blading in a manner approved by the Engineer, to ensure a smooth surface, free from ruts or
ridges and having the proper section and crown.
The surface of the RCA subbase material shall on completion of compaction be well closed, free
from movement under the compaction plant and free from compaction planes, ridges, cracks, or
loose materials.
Any area inaccessible to normal compaction equipment shall be compacted by means of
mechanical tampers until satisfactory compaction is obtained.
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Each layer of RCA subbase must be completely compacted and approved by the Engineer, prior
to the delivery of materials for a succeeding layer of subbase.
Finishing
The Contractor shall programme his operations to avoid the drying out of the RCA subbase during
construction. If any layer of RCA subbase material, or part thereof, is permitted to dry out after
compaction, or does not conform to the required density or finish, the Contractor shall at his own
expense, rework, water or recompact the material, as directed by the Engineer, to the density
specified, before the next layer of RCA subbase or RCA base course is superimposed thereon.
All humps and depressions and thickness deficiencies exceeding the specified tolerances shall be
corrected by removing the defective Work or adding new material, as directed by the Engineer.
4. Minimum Test Requirements
One sample every 1,000m3 shall be tested for Grading, Plasticity Index, Sand Equivalent,
Maximum Dry Density, CBR, Loss by Abrasion. One in-situ density test shall be taken every
300m2 of RCA subbase laid, or as otherwise specified by the Engineer.

302.10.02 Recycled Crushed Aggregate (RCA) Base Course


The works described below shall consist of furnishing and placing one (1) or more layers of
recycled crushed aggregate (RCA), including additives if required, on a prepared surface in
accordance with the Specification and in conformity with the lines, grade, thicknesses and typical
cross-sections on the plans or established by the Engineer.
1. Materials
Materials shall conform to the requirements for the class of "Recycled Crushed Aggregate Base
Course" specified on the plans or directed by the Engineer. All RCA for base course shall consist
of crushed rock and crushed concrete stone fragments, including sand.
Components
RCA shall consist of clean, hard, durable, angular fragments of rock, concrete and sand fragments
of uniform quality complying with the general requirements specified in Physical Requirements
below.
Physical Requirements
All base course RCA shall conform to the physical requirements described below.
Foreign material in the fraction retained on the 4.75mm sieve shall not exceed the percentages by
mass specified:

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Foreign Material Type

High density materials such as glass, brick and asphalt

10

Metallic items such as steel, aluminium and iron

Low density materials such as plastic, rubber, plaster, clay


lumps and other friable material

Wood and other vegetable or decomposable matter

0.2

Grading and Test Requirements


RCA base course shall conform to the following grading requirements:
ASTM (D2940)
Sieve (mm)

Percent Passing

50
37.5
19
9.5
4.75
0.60
0.075

100
95 100
70 92
50 - 70
35 55
12 25
0-8

Parameter

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Limit

Loss by Abrasion Test AASHTO T096

40% maximum

Liquid Limit AASHTO T089 (ASTM D4318)

25% maximum

Plasticity Index AASHTO T090 (ASTM D4318)

4% maximum

Sand Equivalent AASHTO T176

35% minimum

California Bearing Ratio at 98% MDD AASHTO T193

120% minimum

Soundness (Magnesium) AASHTO T104

15% maximum

Flakiness BS 812

35% maximum

Elongation BS 812

35% maximum

Sulphate Content BS 812

2% maximum

Chloride Content BS 812

2% maximum

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2. Equipment
Equipment shall be according to the type and number outlined in the Contractor's detailed
Programme of Work, as approved by the Engineer.
3. Construction Requirements
Groundwater Levels and Protection
The Contractor must establish the high watertable levels (HWT) along the length of the road
relative to the accepted national benchmark (Ras Ghumays). Should the base of the proposed
road be within 1 metre of the HWT, a suitably engineered and approved barrier will be designed
and installed to prevent groundwater coming into contact with the RCA.
Subgrade Preparation
Unless other subgrade preparation is called for on the plans or appears as a pay item in the Bill of
Quantities, the Contractor shall, as part of the Work and prior to the delivery of materials for the
base course, prepare the roadbed surface by sprinkling, blading, rolling and lightly scarifying
where necessary until the proper crown is obtained. However, in the process of shaping the
roadbed, the originally compacted crust or top portion of the roadbed shall be disturbed as little as
possible. When completed and ready for base course construction the roadbed shall be well
compacted, smooth, hard and uniform, all irregularities having been bladed out and rolled down.
Method of Construction
Handling of RCA
Handling of RCA, including the loading of trucks and stockpiling, shall be effected in such a
manner as to minimize segregation.
Combining Aggregates and Water
RCA for base course shall be combined into a uniform mixture and at the approved moisture level
before final placement of the material.
The moisture added to the aggregates shall be that required, as designated by the Engineer, to
obtain the specified density thereby preparing an aggregate completely ready for compaction after
spreading on the roadbed.
Spreading and Combining Aggregates
Unless otherwise specified, RCA for base course shall be delivered to the roadbed as a uniform
mixture and shall be placed on the existing roadway, prepared subbase or prepared subgrade, as
the case may be, in a uniform layer not exceeding fifteen (15) centimetres in compacted depth.
The RCA material shall be so handled as to avoid segregation.
No hauling or placement of material will be permitted when, in the judgment of the Engineer, the
weather or road conditions are such as hauling operations will cause cutting or rutting of the road
surface or cause contamination of the base course material.
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Compaction
RCA shall be laid and compacted in a manner which will not result in segregation of the material
and at a moisture content which allows the compaction stated.
Immediately after placing the RCA material shall be compacted. The RCA material shall be
compacted until a relative density of not less than 98% of the maximum dry density (MDD) as
determined according to AASHTO T180 is achieved.
Rolling shall be continued until the entire thickness of each layer is thoroughly and uniformly
compacted to the density specified. Rolling shall be accompanied by sufficient blading in a
manner approved by the Engineer, to ensure a smooth surface, free from ruts or ridges and
having the proper section and crown. When additional water is required, it shall be added in the
amount and manner approved by the Engineer. Each layer of base course must be completely
compacted by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer, prior to the delivery of the materials
for a succeeding layer. The surface of the material shall be free from movement on completion of
the compaction.
All humps and depressions and thickness deficiencies exceeding the specified tolerances shall be
corrected by removing the defective work or by adding new material, as directed by the Engineer.
If the material for the base course is laid and compacted in more than one layer, the Contractor
shall plan and coordinate the Work in such a manner that the previously placed and compacted
layers be allowed ample time for drying and development of sufficient stability, before vehicles
hauling materials for the succeeding layers or other heavy equipment are permitted on the base.
Prior to placing the succeeding layers of material, the top of the underlayer shall be made
sufficiently moist to ensure bond between the layers. The edges and edge slopes of the base
course shall be bladed or otherwise dressed to conform to the lines and dimensions shown on the
plans and present straight, neat and workmanlike lines and slopes, as free of loose material as
practicable.
The Contractor shall also plan the Work and handle the various operations so that the least
amount of water will be lost by evaporation from uncompleted surfaces. Water shall be applied at
such times and in such quantities as directed by the Engineer, and the Engineer shall have full
authority to require the suspension of all other Works on the project to ensure the proper
maintenance of previously compacted material.
If after the base is compacted, any areas are above or below proper grade and true elevations,
such areas shall be loosened and after having had additional materials added or excess material
removed, as the case may require, shall be reconstructed as described herein. If after the base is
completed, any areas fail to meet the specified density and gradation requirements, they shall be
loosened or removed as directed by the Engineer and reconstructed as described herein.
Maintenance of Base Course
Following the construction of the RCA base course, the compacted base course shall be
maintained by the Contractor. The Contractor shall blade, broom and otherwise maintain the base
course, keeping it free from raveling, and other defects until such time as the bituminous prime or
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other surface is applied. Water shall be applied at such time and in such quantities as directed by
the Engineer.
The Engineer shall determine when the surface of the base course is in the proper condition to
permit the bituminous prime and/or surfacing to be applied. If the Contractor chooses not to apply
the bituminous prime and/or surfacing at the time, he must continue to maintain the surface of the
base course, including the application of necessary water, at his expense until such time as the
bituminous prime and/or surfacing is applied.
4. Minimum Test Requirements
The Contractor shall test the RCA and any approved components at a frequency which is
sufficient to ensure that the material supplied under the contract complies with the specified
requirements. The frequency shall not be less than that shown in the Table below, except that the
Engineer may agree to a lower frequency where the Contractor has implemented a system of
statistical process control and can demonstrate that such lower frequency is adequate to assure
the quality of the product.
Minimum Frequency of Testing
Test

Minimum Frequency of Testing

Grading

On each day one per 300 tonnes or part thereof

Foreign Material Content

On each day one per 300 tonnes or part thereof

Moisture Content

On each day 3 No.


One per 200 tonnes or part thereof on each day

Plasticity Index

In each month one per 5,000 tonnes or part thereof

California Bearing Ratio

Prior to the commencement of work and when in the opinion of


the Engineer the nature of the material has changed significantly

Los Angeles Abrasion

Once per month or when in the opinion of the Engineer the


nature of the material has changed significantly

Other tests

As instructed by the Engineer

(or as instructed by the Engineer).

302.11

Measurement and Payment

Measurement for aggregate subbase and base courses will be by square metre and will be
calculated from the top surface area, excluding the tapered edges, the cost of which will be
considered as a subsidiary obligation and included in the rate.

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Payment for aggregate subbase and base courses will be made at the rate per square metre (of
thickness indicated) included in the Bills of Quantities which rate shall include, but not by way of
limitation, all labour, tools, plant, materials, transport, mixing, screening, spreading, rolling,
compaction, shaping, levelling, testing and all other items necessary for the proper completion of
the work in accordance with the Drawings, Specifications and instructions of the Engineer.
No additional payment will be made by the Department for repairs to layers caused by traffic or
natural causes.
No additional payment will be made by the Department for extra material provided in the next
course for a deficiency in the subbase or base course.

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SECTION III-3

SAND-ASPHALT COURSES

303.01 Description
Sand-asphalt courses shall be composed of mineral aggregates, mineral filler and bitumen
combined in an asphalt mixing plant. Several mineral aggregates may be sized and combined in
such proportions that the resulting blend is well-graded and is within the specified gradation
requirements. The incorporation of mineral filler and/or other ingredients shall be in such amounts
as found appropriate to meet the required criteria and test limits specified and as instructed by the
Engineer.
The Contractor shall furnish, place and compact a course of bituminous stabilized granular material
composed of mineral aggregates, mineral filler and bitumen combined in an asphalt mixing plant.
Placement of the course shall be in compliance with the lines, grades, thicknesses and typical
sections indicated on the Drawings, as specified herein or as directed by the Engineer.
Unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings, specified in the Particular Specifications, or directed
by the Engineer, all sand-asphalt courses shall comply with the requirements of Sand-Asphalt
(Type B) as specified in Clause 303.03, Types of Sand-Asphalt Courses.

303.02

Material Requirements for Sand-Asphalt Courses

The materials used in Sand-Asphalt courses shall meet the requirements given in Section IV,
Asphalt Works, of these Standard Specifications as follows:
Fine Aggregate
Coarse Aggregate
Commercial Mineral Filler
Asphalt Cement
Hydrated Lime

303.03

Clause 400.07
Clause 400.08
Clause 400.09
Clause 400.10
Clause 400.12

Types of Sand-Asphalt Courses

The types of sand-asphalt shall be as designated on the Drawings or in the Bills of Quantities and
shall comply with the compositions as described below and as shown in Table 303.03.
SAND-ASPHALT (TYPE A) shall consist of natural or crushed mineral, aggregate, hydrated
lime, commercial mineral filler and bitumen combined to meet the specification
requirements, and shall be constructed to the thickness as indicated on the Drawings. A
minimum of 1.5 percent hydrated lime by weight of total mineral aggregates shall be added in
accordance with Clause 401.02, Asphalt Mixing Plant, of these Standard Specifications.
SAND-ASPHALT (TYPE B) shall consist of crushed coarse aggregate, natural and/or
crushed fine aggregate, hydrated lime, commercial mineral filler and bitumen combined to
meet these Standard Specification requirements and shall be constructed to the thickness as
indicated on the Drawings. A minimum of 1.5 percent hydrated lime by weight of total mineral
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aggregate shall be added in accordance with Clause 401.02, Asphalt Mixing Plant. The fine
aggregate portion shall consist of a minimum of 25 percent crushed sand.
SAND-ASPHALT (TYPE C) shall consist of natural or crushed mineral aggregates,
commercial mineral filler and bitumen combined to meet the specification requirements and
shall be constructed to the thickness so indicated on the Drawings.
Commercial mineral filler shall be used in all Types of Sand-Asphalt mixes as necessary to
meet gradation and design criteria.
The minimum quantity of hydrated lime specified for Type A and Type B Sand-Asphalts shall
be increased as necessary to meet design criteria.
Table 303.03
Composition of Sand-Asphalt Mixes Including Hydrated Lime and Commercial Mineral Filler
where required

Type A

1"
3/4"
3/8"
No. 4
8
30
50
200
Asphalt Cement
percent by weight
of total mineral
aggregate

303.04

Percent Passing by Weight

U.S. Standard
Sieve Size

Type B

Type C

100
95 - 100
85 - 100
58 - 100
22 - 74
10 - 50
4 - 12

100
85 - 100
70 - 85
38 - 56
27 - 43
4 - 12

100
95 - 100
85 - 100
58 - 100
22 - 74
10 - 50
4 - 12

5.0 - 8.0

5.0 - 8.0

5.0 - 8.0

Design Criteria

Laboratory test specimens of the sand-asphalt mix shall be prepared and tested in accordance
with the procedures set forth for the Marshall Method of mix design. Mix designs shall be checked
and approved by the Engineer prior to use.
Test requirements and criteria for sand-asphalt mixes prepared in accordance with these Standard
Specifications shall be as indicated in Table 303.04.

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Table 303.04
Design Criteria for Sand-Asphalt

Type A
Min. - Max.

Type B
Min. - Max.

Type C
Min. - Max.

Number of compaction blows,


each end of specimen

50

50

50

Stability, kilograms

200

175

150

Flow, 0.25 mm
Air Voids, percent

8 - 20
3 - 18

8 - 20
3 - 18

8 - 20
3 -18

50

60

No requirement

Test
Marshall Specimens
(ASTM D1559)

Immersion Compression
Specimens
(AASHTO T165)
Index of Retained Strength

303.05

Job Mix Formula and Allowable Tolerances

All the provisions of Clause 402.05, Job Mix Formula and Allowable Tolerances, shall apply,
except as hereunder specified for the maximum permissible ranges of tolerances:
Passing sieves No. 4 and larger
Passing sieves No. 8, 30 and 50
Passing sieve No. 200
Asphalt cement

303.06

+ 5.0%
7.0%
2.0%
0.4%

Sampling and Testing of Sand-Asphalt

Sampling and testing of sand-asphalt shall be in accordance with the procedures set forth in
Clause 402.06, Sampling and Testing of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), of these Standard Specifications.

303.07

Construction Requirements for Sand-Asphalt Courses

The Contractor shall comply with all of the provisions of Clause 402.07, Quality Control and
Assurance for Hot Mix Asphalt, of these Standard Specifications with respect to Sand-Asphalt,
subject to the following modifications and additions:
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a.

Preparation and Handling of Mineral Aggregates. The moisture content of the heated
and dried aggregate shall not exceed 1.0 percent. If the Engineer so requires, the angle
of the drier shall be reduced to such a position as to hold material in the drier for a longer
period of time for optimum condition of heating and drying.

b.

Proportioning and Mixing. The heated ingredients shall be combined in such a manner
as to produce a mixture which when emptied from the mixer shall have a temperature of
between 107C and 149C. The temperature of the aggregate immediately prior to
mixing shall be within 7.0C of the temperature of the asphalt cement and the
temperature of the aggregate and asphalt prior to mixing shall be approximately that of
the completed mix as defined in the job mix formula approved by the Engineer. The mix
temperature shall be within the allowable tolerance set out in the job mix formula when
emptied from the mixer but in no case shall exceed 149C.
Filler shall be proportioned into the mixer with the aggregate in the quantities specified in
the job mix formula, all as approved by the Engineer.

c.

Delivery of the Mix. The mix shall be delivered to the job site at a temperature between
80C and 149C and shall in all cases comply with the temperature and with the
permissible variation thereof set out in the job mix formula for mix temperature on
delivery to the job site.

d.

Spreading of the Mix. The sand-asphalt courses shall be laid in maximum 5 cm layers.
Thinner layers shall be used if excessive shoving, etc., occurs. Any additional layers
shall be placed as soon as practicable after the first layer has been executed to the
required grade, line, cross-section and density; finished, rolled and cooled; and after the
tack coat, if required, has been applied in accordance with requirements of these
Standard Specifications.

e.

Compaction of the Mix. The mix temperature shall not be allowed to drop below 74C
prior to initial breakdown rolling.
Tapered edges against which no additional layer is to be placed, shall be carefully rolled
along the entire length of the edges.

303.08

Testing and Acceptance of Sand-Asphalt Courses

All of the provisions of Section IV-2, Clause 402.13, Testing and Acceptance of Completed HMA
Concrete Courses, of these Standard Specifications shall be applicable to Sand-Asphalt subject to
the modifications and additions included herein.
a.

Requirements for Compaction of Sand-Asphalt. The minimum degree of compaction for


Sand-Asphalt Mixes shall be 95 percent of the Laboratory Marshall Specimen prepared
in accordance with the job mix formula.

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b.

Thickness Requirements. The total constructed thickness of sand-asphalt course used


for new construction, reconstruction or roadway widening shall not vary more than 8mm
from the total thickness indicated on the Drawings.
In the event the constructed thickness of the sand-asphalt course is 8mm more than the
total thickness indicated on the Drawings, the area shall be corrected as directed by the
Engineer by removing the excess material in an approved manner to provide the
required thickness.
In the event the constructed thickness of the sand-asphalt course is 8mm less than the
total thickness indicated on the Drawings, the Contractor shall provide additional material
in the next course (base course or wearing course). In no case shall the deficiency of the
course exceed 25mm.
The sand-asphalt course shall be constructed to the grade level as indicated on the
Drawings, as specified and as approved by the Engineer.
In no case shall the total sum thickness of the sand-asphalt course and subsequent
courses be less than the total sum thickness of all courses as indicated on the Drawings.

c.

Requirements for Evenness of Surface and Grade Level. The final surfaces of the sandasphalt courses shall be tested by means of a 5m long straight edge; and no rises or
depressions in excess of 1cm shall appear on the surface; otherwise such areas shall be
stripped, corrected and recompacted to comply with all specification requirements and
as approved by the Engineer. Further, the finished surface of the sand-asphalt course
shall be constructed to within 12mm of the grade levels indicated on the Drawings.

303.09

Measurement and Payment

Measurement for sand-asphalt courses will be by the square metre (regardless of type) and will be
calculated from the top surface area, excluding the tapered edges, the cost of which will be
considered as a subsidiary obligation and included in the rate.
Payment for sand-asphalt courses will be made at the rate per square metre (of thickness
indicated) indicated in the Bills of Quantities which rate shall include, but not by way of limitation,
supplying and spreading the mixture, thoroughly mixing and compacting each layer to reach the
necessary density, compacting and adjusting the finished surface to the proposed levels and
grades and supplying and distributing tack coats between layers where necessary, all according to
the specifications, Drawings and the instructions of the Engineer.
No additional payment will be made by the Department for extra material provided in the next
course for a deficiency in the sand-asphalt course.

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SECTION III-4
304.01

WET MIX MACADAM

Description

This work shall consist of furnishing and placing one (1) or more layers of Wet Mix Macadam,
including additives if required, on a prepared surface in accordance with these Standard
Specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades, thicknesses and typical cross-sections
shown on the Drawings or established by the Engineer.

304.02

Materials

All aggregates for Wet Mix Macadam shall consist of crushed gravel or stone fragments obtained
by crushing gravel that, if directed by the Engineer, has first been screened in such a manner that
no less than ninety percent (90%) of the material to be crushed is retained on a one quarter (1/4)
inch sieve.
The amount of crushing shall be regulated so that at least one hundred percent (100%), by weight,
of the pieces retained on the No. 4 sieve have at least one (1) fractured face.
All aggregates for Wet Mix Macadam shall conform to the following physical requirements:
Table 304.02a
Physical Requirements of Aggregate for Wet Mix Macadam
Parameter
Loss of Sodium Sulphate Soundness Test
(AASHTO T104)

10% maximum

Loss of Magnesium Sulphate Soundness Test


(AASHTO T104)

10% maximum

Loss of Abrasion Test


(AASHTO T096)

40% maximum

Combined Flakiness and Elongation, by Weight

25% maximum

Friable Particles
(AASHTO T112)

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Limit

0.25% maximum

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Material for Wet Mix Macadam shall conform to the following requirements:
Table 304.02b
Material Requirements for Wet Mix Macadam
AASHTO Sieve

Percentage Passing
By Weight

2 inch
1- inch
3/4 inch
3/8 inch
No. 4
No. 8
No. 30
No. 200

100
95 100
60 80
40 60
25 40
15 30
8 22
08

Parameter

Limit

Liquid Limit (AASHTO T089)


Plasticity Index (AASHTO T090)
Sand Equivalent (AASHTO T176)
Maximum Dry Density (AASHTO T180)
CBR on remoulded sample at 100% MDD
(Modified Proctor) after 4 days soaking

304.03

25 maximum
4 maximum
35% minimum
2.20 gr/cc minimum

80% minimum

Equipment

Equipment shall be of the type and number outlined in the Contractors tender and detailed
Program of Work as approved by the Engineer.
304.04
a.

Construction Requirements
Subgrade Preparation. Unless other subgrade preparation is indicated on the Drawings
or as a pay item in the Bills of Quantities, the Contractor shall, prior to the delivery of
materials for the Wet Mix Macadam, prepare the roadbed surface by sprinkling, blading,
rolling, and lightly scarifying where necessary, until the proper cross slope is obtained.
However, in the process of shaping an existing roadbed, the originally compacted crust
or top portion of the roadbed shall be disturbed as little as possible. When completed
and ready for Wet Mix Macadam construction, the roadbed shall be well compacted,
smooth, hard and uniform, all irregularities having been bladed out and rolled down.

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b.

Compaction Trials. If directed by the Engineer, prior to the commencement of Wet Mix
Macadam operations, the Contractor shall construct trial lengths, not to exceed one (1)
kilometre. The material used in the trials shall be that approved for use as Wet Mix
Macadam and the equipment used shall be that accepted as the Contractors approved
detailed list of resources.
The aim of these trials is to determine the adequacy of the Contractors equipment, the
loose thickness measurements necessary to result in the specified compacted layer
thickness, the field moisture content, and the relationship between the number of
compaction passes and the resulting density of the material.
The Contractor may proceed with Wet Mix Macadam work only after the method and
procedures established in the compaction trial have been approved by the Engineer.

c.

Method of Construction. Wet Mix Macadam shall be combined into a uniform mixture
and water added only in a central mixing plant before final placement of the material.
Mixing and watering by windrows will not be permitted. When binder is to be added, it
shall be combined with the Wet Mix Macadam by thoroughly mixing the binder and Wet
Mix Macadam in the central mixing plant.
The moisture added to the aggregates shall be that required, as designated by the
Engineer, to obtain the specified density thereby preparing an aggregate completely
ready for compaction after spreading on the roadbed. In no case will wetting of
aggregates in stockpiles or trucks be permitted.
The Wet Mix Macadam shall be delivered to the roadbed as a uniform mixture and shall
be placed on the existing roadway, prepared subbase, or prepared subgrade, as the
case may be, in a uniform layer or layers not exceeding one hundred and fifty (150)
millimetres in compacted thickness. Spreading shall be done by means of approved selfpropelled stone box spreader, distributing the material to the required width and loose
thickness. When the required thickness is greater than one hundred and fifty (150)
millimetres, the materials shall be spread in layers of equal thickness.
The material shall be so handled as to avoid segregation. If an aggregate spreader
causes segregation in the material, or leaves ridges or other objectionable marks on the
surface which cannot be eliminated easily or prevented by adjustment of the spreader
operation, such spreader shall be removed and replaced by another box spreader. No
skin patching will be permitted.
No hauling or placement of material will be permitted when, in the judgment of the
Engineer, the weather or road conditions are such that hauling operations will cause
cutting or rutting of the road surface or cause contamination of the Wet Mix Macadam.
Immediately after placing, the Wet Mix Macadam shall be compacted. The material shall
be compacted to an average density of one hundred percent (100%) of MDD as
determined according to AASHTO T180, with no single value below ninety-eight percent

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(98%). The field determination of density shall be made in accordance with AASHTO
T191. The percentage of density shall be adjusted to compensate for the weight and
volume of aggregate larger than the aggregate used in the compaction control test
where applicable.
Rolling shall be continued until the entire thickness of each layer is thoroughly
and uniformly compacted to the density specified. The final rolling of the compacted Wet
Mix Macadam shall be done with a self-propelled roller. Rolling shall be accompanied by
sufficient blading in a manner approved by the Engineer, to insure a smooth surface,
free from ruts or ridges and having the proper section and cross slope. When additional
water is required, it shall be added in the amount and manner approved by the Engineer.
Each layer of Wet Mix Macadam shall be completely compacted by the Contractor and
approved by the Engineer prior to the delivery of the materials for a succeeding layer.
The surface of the finished Wet Mix Macadam will be tested with a three (3) metre
straight-edge by the Engineer at selected locations. The variation of the surface from the
testing edge of the straight-edge between any two (2) contacts with the surface shall at
no point exceed six (6) millimetres when placed on or parallel to the centreline or six (6)
millimetres when placed perpendicular to the centreline of the roadway. The Wet Mix
Macadam shall be compacted to the thickness and cross section as shown on the
Drawings and shall not vary by more than five (5) millimetres from the required elevation.
All humps and depressions and thickness deficiencies exceeding the specified
tolerances shall be corrected by removing the defective work or by adding new material,
as directed by the Engineer.
If the material for the Wet Mix Macadam is laid and compacted in more than one (1)
layer, the Contractor shall plan and coordinate the Work in such a manner that the
previously placed and compacted layers be allowed ample time for drying and the
development of sufficient stability, before vehicles hauling materials for the succeeding
layers or other heavy equipment are permitted on the Wet Mix Macadam. Prior to placing
the succeeding layers of materials, the top of the underlayer shall be made sufficiently
moist to insure bond between the layers. The edges and edge slopes of the Wet Mix
Macadam shall be bladed or otherwise dressed to conform to the lines and dimensions
shown on the Drawings and present straight, neat and workmanlike lines and slopes as
free of loose material as practicable.
The Contractor shall also plan the Work and handle the various operations so that the
least amount of water will be lost by evaporation from uncompleted surfaces. If the
Contractor delays placing of succeeding layers of Wet Mix Macadam material to the
extent that additional water must be applied to prevent raveling or excessive dripping,
the application of such water shall be at the Contractors expense and not be considered
as the basis for a claim for additional compensation. Water shall be applied at such
times and in such quantities as directed by the Engineer. If after the Wet Mix Macadam
is compacted, any areas are above or below the proper grade and true elevations, such
areas shall be loosened and after having had additional materials added or excess
material removed, as the case may require, shall be reconstructed as described herein.
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If after the Wet Mix Macadam is compacted any areas fail to meet the specified density
and gradation requirements, such areas shall be loosened or removed as directed by the
Engineer and reconstructed as described herein.
Following the construction of the Wet Mix Macadam, the compacted layer shall be
maintained by the Contractor at his expense. The Contractor shall blade, broom, and
otherwise maintain the Wet Mix Macadam, keeping it free from raveling and other
defects until such time as the bituminous prime or other surface is applied. Water shall
be applied at such times and in such quantities as directed by the Engineer.
The Engineer shall determine when the surface of the Wet Mix Macadam is in the proper
condition to permit the bituminous prime and/or surfacing to be applied. If the Contractor
chooses not to apply the bituminous prime and/or surfacing at that time, he must
continue to maintain the surface of the Wet Mix Macadam, including the application of
necessary water, at his expense until such time as the bituminous prime coat and/or
surfacing is applied. Any additional expense incurred by the Contractor because of his
failure to apply the bituminous prime coat and/or surfacing when so permitted by the
Engineer will not be considered as the basis for a claim for additional compensation.

304.05

Minimum Test Requirements

One sample every one thousand (1,000) cubic metres shall be tested from the stockpile for
Grading, Soundness, Loss by Abrasion, Maximum Dry Density, Plasticity Index, Sand Equivalent
and CBR. One in situ density test shall be taken every three hundred (300) square metres of Wet
Mix Macadam laid.

304.06

Measurement and Payment

Wet Mix Macadam will be measured by the square metre as placed and compacted to the required
density on the approved subgrade or subbase, according to the theoretical dimensions of the Wet
Mix Macadam as shown on the Drawings or as otherwise directed by the Engineer. No
measurement for excessive thickness will be made even where such excessive thickness of
material is permitted to remain by the Engineer. Unauthorized excessive thickness of Wet Mix
Macadam material shall be at the Contractors expense and will not form the basis of a claim for
additional compensation.
Wet Mix Macadam shall include the furnishing, placing, and preparation of materials on the road,
the mixing of the various materials together with water, spreading, compacting, and finishing of the
mixed materials, and maintenance of the completed Wet Mix Macadam.
The amount of completed and accepted Work, measured as stipulated above, will be paid for at
the unit rate indicated in the Bills of Quantities for the Item, Wet Mix Macadam, which rate shall be
full compensation for furnishing all materials, for all labour, equipment, tools, and all other items
necessary for the proper completion of the Work.

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SECTION IV 400.01

ASPHALT WORKS

Description

This work consists of performing all operations and furnishing all materials, labour, tools,
equipment and appurtenances that may be required to construct and maintain the roadways, or
other asphalt works as indicated on the Drawings, as specified herein and/or in the Particular
Specifications and included in the Bills of Quantities.
All Asphalt Works shall be constructed in accordance with Section IV and Sections IV-1 through IV5 of these specifications unless otherwise indicated in the Particular Specifications.
The placing of asphaltic material shall be performed as a continuous operation. The mixing and
placing of the asphalt shall progress at a rate so that contamination of previous asphalt work by
dust/dirt or loss of bonding capability shall not occur. If due to a breakdown in the plant or other
emergency it shall be impossible to carry out this requirement, or if more than 48 hours has
elapsed between asphalt placement operations, a prime coat or tack coat complying with the
requirements of Section IV-3, Prime Coat, or Section IV-4, Tack Coat, of the specifications, as
directed by the Engineer, shall be applied to the surface and no separate payment will be
made by the Department for such tack or prime coat.

400.02

Standards and Codes

The most recent printing of the following standards and/or specifications shall be applied to
materials covered by this Section unless otherwise noted herein:
AASHTO: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
M017
M020
M033
M082
M085
M140
M208
M226
T002
T011
T027
T030
T096
T099
T104
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Mineral Filler for Bituminous Paving Mixtures


Penetration Graded Asphalt Cement
Preformed Expansion Joint Filler for Concrete (Bituminous Type)
Cut-Back Asphalt (Medium Curing Type)
Portland Cement
Emulsified Asphalt
Cationic Emulsified Asphalt
Viscosity Graded Asphalt Cement
Sampling of Aggregates
Amount of Material Finer than 0.075mm Sieve in Aggregate
Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregate
Mechanical Analysis of Extracted Aggregate
Resistance to Degradation of Small Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion
and Impact by Use of the Los Angeles Machine
The Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 5.5-lb. (2.5kg) Rammer
and a 12-inch (305mm) Drop
Soundness of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate
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T164
T165
T168
T176
T180
T219
T230
T166
T209

Quantitative Extraction of Asphalt binder from Hot-Mix Asphalt


Effect of Water on Cohesion of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures
Sampling Bituminous Paving Mixtures
Plastic Fines in Graded Aggregates and Soils by Use of the Sand
Equivalent Test
Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 10-lb. (4.54 kg) Rammer and
an 18-inch (457mm) Drop
Testing Lime for Chemical Constituents and Particle Sizes
Determining Degree of Pavement Compaction of Bituminous Aggregate
Mixtures
Bulk specific Gravity of Hot Mix Asphalt
Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity and Density of Hot Mix Asphalt

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials


C25
C50
C51
C150
D1559
D3142

Chemical Analysis of Limestone, Quicklime and Hydrated Lime


Sampling, Inspection, Packing and Marking of Lime and Limestone
Products
Definition of Terms Relating to Lime and Limestone
Specification for Portland Cement
Resistance to Plastic Flow of Bituminous Mixtures Using Marshall
Apparatus
Specific Gravity or API Gravity of Cut Back Asphalts by Hydrometer
Method.

BS: British Standard


812

Mineral Aggregates (Flakiness Index).

AIM: Asphalt Institute Manual


MS-2

400.03

Marshall Method of Mix Design

Storage and Handling of Materials

Materials shall be stored and handled so as to assure the preservation of their quality and fitness
for the Works. Materials, even though approved before storage or handling, may again be
inspected and tested prior to use in the Works. Stored materials shall be located so as to facilitate
their prompt inspection. All storage sites shall be restored to their original condition at the
Contractor's expense prior to acceptance of the Works.
Handling and stockpiling of aggregates shall at all times be such as to eliminate segregation or
contamination of the various sizes. Stockpiles shall be kept flat and the formation of high coneshaped piles shall not be permitted. When conveyor belts are used for stockpiling aggregates,
the Engineer may require the use of baffle-chutes or perforated chimneys. When trucks are
used to construct stockpiles, the stockpiles shall be constructed one layer at a time with trucks
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depositing their loads as close to the previous load as possible. The use of tractors or loaders to
push material deposited at one location to another location in the stockpile shall not be allowed
during the construction of the stockpile and their use shall be limited to levelling the deposited
material only. Stockpiles of aggregate located at permanent asphalt plant sites shall be separated
by bin walls and shall be constructed on asphaltic or concrete floors. Stockpile locations and
procedures at temporary asphalt plant sites shall be as approved by the Engineer.
Intermediate storage of hydrated lime and commercial mineral filler for equipment feeding the
asphalt plant shall be silos of adequate size to ensure a minimum of one day's continuous
operation.

400.04

Inspection, Testing and Control of Materials

For verification of weights and measures, character of materials and determination of


temperatures used in the preparation of the asphalt mixes, the Engineer shall at all times have
access to all portions of the mixing plant, aggregate plant, storage yards, crushers and other
facilities used for producing and processing the materials of construction. The Engineer will have
authority to take samples and perform tests on any material supplied to the Site from any source
whatsoever in order to establish their compliance with these specifications and to accept or reject
as he deems necessary. Samples will also be taken by the Engineer from completed work to
determine compliance with these specifications. The frequency of all sampling and testing shall be
in accordance with these specifications and/or as directed by the Engineer.

400.05 Unacceptable Materials


Materials that do not comply with the requirements of these Standard Specifications shall be
rejected and removed immediately from the Site of the Works unless otherwise instructed by the
Engineer. No rejected material, the defects of which have been corrected, shall be used until
approval has been given by the Engineer.

400.06

Sources of Materials

The materials used in the work shall be tested and approved before use. The Contractor shall
notify the Engineer of the sources of materials and the Engineer shall approve the sources
prior to delivery of materials to the Site. Where the source of material does not meet the
specification requirements, the Contractor shall furnish material from other sources. Delivery of
materials produced from commercial manufacturing processes shall be accompanied by the
manufacturer's certification and test report showing the materials comply with these specification
requirements.

400.07

Fine Aggregate for Asphalt Works

Fine aggregate is that portion of the mineral aggregate passing the No. 8 Sieve. Fine aggregate
shall consist of natural sand and/or crushed sand and shall be of such gradation that when
combined with other aggregates in proper proportions, the resultant mixture shall meet the
required gradation. The source of natural fine aggregate is considered to be the pit from which it is
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excavated and the source of crushed fine aggregate is considered as the crusher site at which it is
produced. Crushed sand shall be produced by crushing clean coarse aggregate and shall not be
thin, flaky or elongated. Sampling of fine aggregate shall be in accordance with AASHTO T002.
Sieve analysis shall be in accordance with AASHTO T027 and AASHTO T011.
If natural sand is included in the fine aggregate mixture, this material shall be fed to the dryer as a
separate aggregate and the amount used shall be limited to 25% by weight. No rounded
windblown sand will be permitted.
Fine aggregate shall be clean and free from organic matter, clay, cemented particles and other
extraneous or detrimental materials. Individual stockpiles of natural sand when tested in
accordance with AASHTO T176 shall have a sand equivalent of not less than 45. Individual
stockpiles of crushed sand shall have a sand equivalent of not less than 30. Individual stockpiles
of aggregate containing more than 10 percent by weight of fine aggregate shall be tested for sand
equivalent.
Fine aggregate shall have a maximum Sodium Sulphate Soundness of 10 percent and a
maximum Magnesium Sulphate soundness of 15 percent when tested in accordance with
AASHTO T104.

400.08

Coarse Aggregate for Asphalt Works

Coarse aggregate is that portion of the mineral aggregate retained on the No. 8 Sieve. Coarse
aggregate shall consist of crushed natural stones and gravel. Crushed particles shall be cubic
and angular in shape and shall not be thin, flaky or elongated. The gradation shall be such that
when combined with other aggregate fractions in proper proportions, the resultant mixture shall
meet the required gradation. The source of crushed aggregate is considered to be the crushing
site from which it is produced. Sampling of coarse aggregate shall be in accordance with AASHTO
T002. Sieve analysis shall be in accordance with AASHTO T027 and AASHTO T011.
Coarse aggregate shall be clean and free from organic matter, clay, cemented particles and other
extraneous or detrimental material. The degree of crushing shall be such that at least 100 percent
by weight of the material retained on the No. 8 Sieve has at least one fractured face and at least
70% shall be totally crushed. The flakiness index of each individual stockpile shall not exceed 30
percent for Base and Binder course materials and 20 percent for wearing course materials, when
tested in accordance with BS 812.
Coarse aggregate shall have a maximum Sodium Sulphate Soundness of 10 percent. when
tested in accordance with AASHTO T104. The abrasion loss (AASHTO T096) for coarse
aggregate used in asphalt mixtures shall not exceed 40 percent except that a maximum
abrasion loss of 50 percent will be allowed for asphaltic Base and Binder Courses when the
surface of these courses is not to be subjected to traffic.
Coarse aggregate for asphaltic wearing course for guide purposes shall have a Polished Stone
Value (PSV) of 30 to 50 when tested in accordance with (AASHTO T278 and T279).

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400.09

Commercial Mineral Filler

Commercial mineral filler shall consist of finely ground particles of limestone, cement, or
hydrated lime in accordance with AASHTO M017. It shall be thoroughly dry and free from lumps
and shall meet the gradation requirements of AASHTO M017.
When hydrated lime is used as mineral filler, the hydrated lime shall comply with Clause
400.12. When cement is used as mineral filler, it shall meet the requirements of Type I cement in
accordance with AASHTO M085 (ASTM C150).

400.10

Asphalt Cement

The asphalt cement specified for use in the asphalt mixes shall be in accordance with AASHTO
M020 and as shown in the Table 400.10 below:
Table 400.10
60-70 and 40-50 Penetration Grade Asphalt Cement
Penetration Grade of Bitumen
Test

60 70

40 - 50

Min

Max

Min

Max

Penetration @ 25 C 100 g. 5 sec.

60

70

40

50

Flash Point, Cleveland Open Cup C

232

232

Solubility in Trichloroethylene, percent

99

99

Thin Film Oven Test, 3.2 mm 163 C


5-hour Loss on Heating, percent

0.8

0.8

Penetration of Residue, % of original

54

58

Ductility of Residue @ 25 C
5 cm per minute cm.

50

Selection of the penetration grade of bitumen will be dependent upon the road category as defined
in Section IV-2, Hot Mix Asphalt, Section 402.05.
The asphalt cement shall be prepared by the refining of petroleum. It shall be uniform in
character and shall not foam when heated to 175C. Blending of asphalt cement materials
from different refineries will be permitted only with the written approval of the Engineer.

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400.11

Liquid and Emulsified Asphalts

Liquid asphalt for use in asphalt works shall be MC-70 medium curing cutback asphalt in
accordance with AASHTO M082, as modified by Table 400.11 below:
Table 400.11
Medium Curing Liquid Asphalt
MC-70

Description
Min.

Max.

Saybolt Furol Viscosity @ 50 C sec.

60

120

Flash Point (Tag Open Cut) C

38

Distillation:
Distillate (% of total distillate to 360 C)
to 225 C
to 260 C
to 315 C

20
65

60
80
100

Residue from distillation to 360 C


percent by volume of original sample.

55

Tests on residue from distillation:


Penetration 25 C, 100 g., 5 sec.
Ductility, 25 C cm.
Solubility in Trichloroethylene, %
Water, %

120
100
99

250
0.2

Rapid curing cutback asphalt for cold mix applications shall be as specified in the Particular
Specifications for cold patching as approved by the Engineer.
Emulsified asphalt for use in asphalt works shall be CSS 1h cationic emulsified asphalt in
accordance with AASHTO M208 or SS 1h anionic emulsified asphalt in accordance with AASHTO
M140.

400.12

Hydrated Lime

Hydrated lime shall comply with the definitions given in ASTM C51. Sampling, packaging and
marking of hydrated lime shall be in accordance with ASTM C50. Storage and use of the
hydrated lime shall at all times be such as to protect the material from the weather.
Hydrated lime shall comply with the gradation shown in Table 400.12a when tested in
accordance with AASHTO T219.
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Table 400.12a
Gradation of Hydrated Lime
U.S. Standard Sieve Size

Minimum % Passing

No. 30

97

No. 200

70

When tested by ASTM C25 the hydrated lime shall comply with the chemical requirements
shown in Table 400.12b.
Table 400.12b
Chemical Requirements for Hydrated Lime
Requirement

Test

Min.

Max.

3.0

50

Carbon Dioxide CO2 (%)

Unhydrated Lime (%)

Free Moisture (%)


Available Lime Index as CaO (%)

400.13

QA / QC Guidelines for Hot Mix Asphalt

The Department has developed these QA/QC Guidelines for Hot Mix Asphalt with the following
main objectives in mind:

Improve the quality of asphalt materials and processes used in the construction of road
and highway projects.

Significantly improve the ride quality on all newly completed road and highway projects.

Reduce the maintenance and life-cycle costs for the projects involved.

Place responsibility for quality on the Consultant and the Contractor.

The QA/QC guidelines for hot mix asphalt were developed with emphasis on quality control during
the mix design, production and placement of asphalt phases of projects. Hot mix asphalt
acceptance and payment shall be based on:
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The contractors fulfilment of quality control inspection, sampling, and testing.

The Engineers inspection, sampling, and testing to verify that the contractors quality
control inspection, sampling, and testing comply with specifications.

Compliance of all laid asphalt material with requirements of the project specifications.

The objective of the QA/QC Guidelines for Hot Mix Asphalt is to help the Contractor and
Consultant fulfil the QA/QC responsibilities for hot mix asphalt during the construction process on
all projects.
The contractor is responsible for quality throughout hot mix asphalt production and placement.
Therefore, the contractor must ensure that the materials and work provided by subcontractors,
suppliers, and producers are adequate and meet the specifications of the project. The contractor
provides the necessary quality control so that a QA/QC program is effective in producing materials
that comply with the specifications. The following are the major components of the QA/QC
program:

Quality control.

Quality assurance

Independent assurance (if required)

Acceptance and payment

The contractor is responsible for developing and implementing a Quality Control Plan for
inspection, laying, testing, and other specified actions so that all aspects of hot mix asphalt
production and placement meet the specifications. A quality control plan must address the
contractors process monitoring including inspection, sampling, and testing. Process monitoring
has action limits and specified steps to be taken if the action limits are breached. The specified
steps are taken for the following reasons:

To keep the process in control

To quickly determine when the process has gone out of control

To respond adequately to correct the situation and bring the process back into control

400.13.01

General Requirements

The contractor must submit a project-specific Quality Control Plan to the Engineer for acceptance.
The contractors quality control plan submittal letter should briefly describe key elements of the
quality control plan that have been developed to fulfil the contract requirements.
The Engineer should use the quality control plan minimum requirements outlined in this manual to
evaluate the contractors quality control plan for acceptance. If the Engineer does not accept the
quality control plan, the contractor shall submit a revised quality control plan. Each page of a
revised quality control plan shall indicate the revision number and date. The contractor cannot
begin hot mix asphalt production and placement without the Engineers acceptance of the quality
control plan.
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During work progress, the contractor must submit in writing to the Engineer quality control plan
supplements for changes to quality control procedures and personnel.

400.13.02

Quality Control Plan

As a minimum, the quality control plan must include the following elements:

Quality control plan certification by the Contractors quality control manager

Quality control organization

Quality control plan distribution list

Quality control inspection plans

Sampling and testing plan

Random sampling plan

Laboratories and equipment

Action limits and corrective action plans

Quality control documents

400.13.03

Certification

The Contractors quality control manager must certify that the quality control plan developed for a
project meets the requirements of the contract specifications and this manual. The manager must
review the qualifications of proposed quality control personnel and verify that proposed inspectors,
samplers, testers, laboratory, etc. meet the requirements of the Departments specifications and
this document. The quality control plan cover must contain a signed statement by the quality
control manager, as follows:
It is hereby certified that the information contained in this quality control plan for contract (insert
contract number) meets the requirements of contract specifications and the Departments QA/QC
guidelines for Hot Mix Asphalt. This quality control plan contains details of qualified inspection and
testing personnel and a suitably equipped laboratory in accordance with the contract
requirements.

400.13.04

Organization

The quality control plan must include the contractors quality control organization for the project.
The organization must, as a minimum, identify the following: quality control manager, inspectors,
samplers, testers, and laboratories. The organization section must provide the following
information:

Quality control organization chart

Quality control managers qualifications and experience

Request for assignment of inspectors, samplers, and testers

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Quality control inspector qualifications and experience

Sampler and tester qualification and experience

Related laboratory equipment calibration or laboratory accreditation

The following table outlines minimum numbers of field quality control staff for hot mix asphalt
production and placement:

Expected Daily Tonnage of


Hot Mix Asphalt

Minimum Quality Control


Staffing Levels
(excluding the Manager)

< 1500

3*

1500

4**

Notes:
* One hot mix asphalt production inspector, one hot mix asphalt placement
inspector, and one hot mix asphalt sampler.
** The additional quality control staff member serves as a hot mix asphalt
placement inspector.

The contractors organization chart must clearly identify all quality control staff involved in hot mix
asphalt production, placement, or evaluation. The chart must show how these personnel will
interconnect and communicate. The chart must show the following:

Reporting hierarchy of quality control organization, contractor, subcontractors/hot mix


asphalt producers

All quality control staff by name and function

The primary and secondary person for each function

The contact phone numbers for all quality control staff

When the contractor is using a testing laboratory independent of the project site laboratory
to confirm quality control testing, the name, contact name, and telephone number of the
independent testing laboratory

The roles and responsibilities for staff and laboratories

It is the Engineers responsibility to ensure that all the quality control personnel proposed by the
Contractor are suitably qualified and experienced for their intended roles.
Success of the contractors quality control program requires the quality control manager,
inspectors, samplers, laboratory, and testers to act as a team to accomplish desired results. The
contractor must ensure that adequate communication exists among quality control staff and
production and placement staff at all locations.

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Quality Control Manager - The quality control manager must be an employee of the contractor,
the hot mix asphalt production/subcontractor, or a Consultant employed by the contractor. The
manager must not report to those directly responsible for the site construction activities and
production operations and cannot perform other quality control functions such as hot mix asphalt
inspection, sampling, or testing. The quality control manager should report to the project manager.
The quality control manager must have previous quality control experience on a project of
comparable size and scope and previous QA/QC training. The quality control plan must include
the managers name, qualifications, and experience.
The quality control manager is responsible for administering the quality control program, including
preparing the quality control plan, and reviewing test results, inspection reports, material
certificates, and production processes to ensure that all materials and completed hot mix asphalt
pavement conform to contract requirements. The quality control manager must indicate review of
quality control documents (test reports and inspection reports) by initialing each document. The
quality control manager must have full authority to institute all actions necessary for a successful
quality control program to ensure that hot mix asphalt complies with the specifications.
The manager must prepare and submit quality control plan supplements for the contractor when
there are changes to quality control procedures, inspection and testing personnel, or laboratory.
The contractor shall submit the supplements to the Engineer.
The manager must ensure that quality control plan supplements are distributed in a timely way.
Quality Control Inspectors - The contractor is responsible for inspecting the production,
transportation, placement, and compacting operations of hot mix asphalt and the finished roadway
surface. As representatives of the contractor, the quality control inspectors, are responsible for
inspection of hot mix asphalt production and placement to ensure compliance with the
specifications. Inspectors must be familiar with:

Plans

Project Specifications

Special provisions

Hot mix asphalt production and placement operations

Potential problem areas

Inspection documentation requirements

The hot mix asphalt quality control inspectors should have inspection experience on projects of
similar type and size.
Quality Control Samplers and Testers - The contractor is responsible for sampling and testing
aggregates and hot mix asphalt mix. Samplers and testers must be familiar with sampling and
testing requirements of the quality control plan, procedures for sampling and testing, proper care

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of materials samples and testing equipment, as well as sampling and testing documentation
requirements.
Quality Control Laboratories - The contractor is responsible for providing adequate laboratory
facilities, as per the project specifications, to fulfil the specified testing requirements and quality
control needs for production and placement of hot mix asphalt. The laboratory quality control
personnel must have adequate experience in testing of hot mix asphalt and have in-depth
knowledge of the project quality control plan. See the Laboratories and Equipment section of this
manual for more information about quality control laboratory requirements.

400.13.05

Distribution

The contractor develops a quality control plan distribution list that must include:

Individuals and locations to receive the quality control plan (quality control manager,
resident engineer, paving foreman, inspectors, samplers, testers, hot mix asphalt
production facility, laboratory, aggregate suppliers and hot mix asphalt producer).

The person responsible for distributing the quality control plan and its Supplements.

400.13.06

Inspection Plans

The contractor is responsible for inspecting the production, transportation, placement, and
compaction of hot mix asphalt and the finished roadway surface. The quality control plan must
include an outline of planned inspections and list hot mix asphalt inspectors duties for the
production facility and roadway. All inspectors must be familiar with the reporting forms used to
record their daily activities.
They must complete these records each day and submit them to the quality control manager for
review. The manager must, in turn, compile all daily records of inspection and submit them with a
summary report to the Engineer.
The contractors quality control inspection plans must address, at a minimum, the requirements
shown below for Hot Mix Asphalt Production Inspection and Hot Mix Asphalt Placement
Inspection.
Hot Mix Asphalt Production Inspection
Before the first day of hot mix asphalt production, the production inspector must ensure the
requirements are met for hot mix asphalt plant qualification.
Hot Mix Asphalt Plant Qualification
Hot mix asphalt plants must be inspected and approved by the Department. Approval from the
Department should be obtained for each project prior to placement of any asphalt on site.

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Before production begins, the hot mix asphalt production inspector takes the following steps
related to hot mix asphalt plant operations:

Verify that the quality control laboratory at the plant is properly equipped and staffed to
handle the intended production of HMA.

Verify that the hot mix asphalt plant has valid calibration certificates for the plant and all
plant laboratory equipment.

Verify that all QC test reports for the raw materials are available and current.

Inspection Requirements before Daily Start of Production


The hot mix asphalt production inspector must be familiar with the hot mix asphalt production
facility to be inspected. The inspector must document each days hot mix asphalt plant production
information.
Before daily start of production, hot mix asphalt production inspection requires:

Recording hot mix asphalt plant inspection information to document compliance with the
specifications.

Ensuring that aggregate is stored separately according to the specified sizes.

For proper storage of specified sizes, compare the material from each bin. If any
segregation, degradation, or intermingling occurs, the contractor must empty the storage
facility and to waste (discard) or re-screen the material.

Ensuring that the supplemental fine aggregate remains dry and is stored separately.

Ensuring that the JMF being used by the contractor is for the project and that no changes
have been made to:
1. Target asphalt binder percentage.
2. Asphalt binder supplier.
3. Asphalt type.
4. Combined aggregate gradation.
5. Aggregate sources.
6. Any material in the JMF. Notify the quality control manager if there has been
any change in the JMF.

Inspection Requirements During Production


Hot mix asphalt production inspection during production requires the following:

Recording daily hot mix asphalt plant production information.

Observing the overall plant operation.

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On the first day of production, ensuring that samples of aggregate, asphalt binder are
obtained during the first 750 tons for verification testing.

Ensuring that aggregate samples are tested for moisture content and based on the
aggregate moisture test results, confirm that any required plant adjustment has been
made.

Ensuring that aggregate samples for aggregate grading and sand equivalent testing is
obtained at the frequency shown in the Quality Control Sampling and Testing Plan.
Confirm that any required plant adjustment has been made to correct for out-of-action limit
aggregate gradation.

Ensuring that aggregate samples are obtained according to the frequency shown in the
Quality Control Sampling and Testing Plan for testing aggregate properties including:
1.

Los Angeles Abrasion

2.

Percent of crushed particles coarse aggregate

3.

Percent of crushed particles fine aggregate

4.

Fine aggregate angularity

5.

Flat and elongated particles

6.

Other aggregate properties specified in the project specifications

Obtaining the required Certificates of Compliance for all loads of asphalt binder and
providing them to the quality control manager for submittal to the Engineer.

Sample the asphalt binder at the frequency shown in the Quality Control Sampling and
Testing Plan.

If a single quality characteristic (parameter for raw materials or hot mix asphalt) has two
consecutive acceptance or quality control tests not in compliance with the specifications,
ensuring that the contractor stops production, notifies the Engineer, takes corrective action,
and demonstrates compliance with the specifications before resuming production and
placement of hot mix asphalt on the project.

Ensuring that the temperatures of the asphalt binder, aggregate, and hot mix asphalt
mixture are within limits specified. Record temperatures and times taken in the daily hot
mix asphalt production report.

Periodically check the batching by comparing the total weight of the batches in a truckload
with the platform scale weight for the same load.

Check the asphalt binder scales frequently to ensure that they return to within zero
tolerance limits and that the scale lever systems or load cells move freely.

Before trucks are loaded, ensuring the absence of an excessive amount of parting agent or
other contaminating material in the truck bed. The amount of parting agent is excessive
when it forms pools absorbed by the mix. Diesel or other petroleum based products are
prohibited from use as parting agents.

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After trucks are loaded, ensuring that the hot mix asphalt mixture is homogeneous
(aggregate is coated with asphalt binder and load is not segregated). Notify the quality
control manager if loads need to be rejected based on non-homogeneous hot mix asphalt
mixture.

Prior to dispatching, each consignment (truck load) shall be visually inspected to ensure
the HMA is homogeneous as well as consistent and it shall be certified by the inspector on
the delivery note (trip ticket).

If trucks are provided with proper tarpaulin covers.

Hot Mix Asphalt Placement Inspection


For hot mix asphalt placement operations, one or more inspectors must always be present during
hot mix asphalt placement. When daily production is less than 1500 tons, the hot mix asphalt
placement inspector may also perform sampling of hot mix asphalt from the mat.
Before Hot Mix Asphalt Placement
To ensure that the receiving surface has been prepared for hot mix asphalt placement, it must be
inspected by the Engineer as well as by the contractors quality control placement inspector.
Inspect the surface before hot mix asphalt placement:

Ensure that the surface is dry, stable, compacted, and smooth. The surface to receive hot
mix asphalt must comply with compaction and elevation tolerance specifications for the
material involved. Report any to the contractor and quality control manager.

Ensure the surface to receive the first course of HMA is properly treated with prime coat as
per specifications.

Ensure that any existing pavement surface to receive HMA is clean by removing loose
paving particles, dirt, and other extraneous material by any means, including flushing and
sweeping.

Ensure that any existing pavement surface to receive HMA is dry and dust free before
application of tack coat and paving.

During Hot Mix Asphalt Placement


As guidance for best practices for hot mix asphalt placement, refer to Placing Hot- Mix Asphalt in
Principles of Construction of Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements published by the Asphalt Institute.
Inspection during hot mix asphalt placement requires the following:

Recording daily hot mix asphalt placement information.

Ensuring that prime coat and tack coat is applied to surfaces to be paved, as applicable.

On the first day of production, during the first 750 tons of production, ensuring that hot mix
asphalt mix is sampled according to applicable standards.

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Ensuring that when hot mix asphalt compaction is done, hot mix asphalt placement occurs
within the specified temperature ranges by taking sufficient measurements of the
atmosphere, pavement, and hot mix asphalt mixture (not to exceed the specified limits).
Record temperatures and the times taken.

Ensuring that when placing hot mix asphalt against the edge of a longitudinal or transverse
construction joint that is damaged or not placed to a neat line, extraneous material is
removed by saw-cutting or grinding the pavement straight and vertical along the joint.

Ensuring that longitudinal joints between layers are offset 150mm and on finished surfaces
correspond to the edge of traffic lanes.

Ensuring that samples of hot mix asphalt mix are obtained according to the frequency
shown in the Quality Control Sampling and Testing Plan.

Ensuring that hot mix asphalt samples are tested at the frequency shown in Quality Control
Sampling and Testing Plan.

If a single quality characteristic quality control test is not in compliance with the
specifications, ensuring that the contractor and quality control manager are notified.

If a single quality characteristic (parameter for hot mix asphalt) has two consecutive quality
control tests not in compliance with the specifications, ensuring that the contractor stops
production and placement, notifies the Engineer, takes corrective action, and demonstrates
compliance with the specifications before resuming production and placement of hot mix
asphalt on the project.

Ensuring that hot mix asphalt delivery trucks have load slips (trip tickets) and collect them
from arriving trucks. If hot mix asphalt loads are rejected before placement, note on the
back of the load slip and on the daily form why the hot mix asphalt was rejected (cold mix,
segregation, contamination).

Ensure that, when backing up to the paver, the delivery trucks do not bump into it. The
truck driver should back his truck and stop just short of the paver. Once stopped, the brake
should be released so that when the paver comes forward and picks up the truck, there is
as little disturbance as possible.

The best way to end up with a high quality smooth pavement is to place the mat at a
consistent rate, without stopping the paver. This is not always possible, but the closer you
can come to this ideal, the better the end result.

The tendency of most paving operations is to unload a truck of HMA as quickly as


possible, which can result in poor smoothness. Ensure that the paver speed is adjusted to
try to allow for a truck to always be waiting to unload.

Ensuring that the paver performs hot mix asphalt spreading at the required thickness and
that layer thickness does not exceed the specified thickness.

Compare the hot mix asphalt spread rate with the theoretical rate, and, if necessary, order
the contractor to make adjustments. Check the daily theoretical spread rate against
distance actually paved for the day. Record the spread rate and layer thickness checks.

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When hot mix asphalt trucks are queuing, taking possible action to avoid excessive cooling
of hot mix asphalt mixture.

Confirming that the established rolling pattern and compaction effort are being met. If the
rolling pattern has changed, notify the quality control manager and make a note.

Ensuring that compaction (percent of maximum theoretical density) quality control testing
is performed at the frequency shown in Quality Control Sampling and Testing Plan.

Ensuring that compaction equipment complies with the following:


1.

Specified equipment performs the compaction in the specified order.

2.

The required number of coverages is made for each compaction type (first
coverage, breakdown, and finish).

3.

The hot mix asphalt compaction is completed above the specified minimum
temperature.

4.

When a vibratory roller is specified for compaction, its speed in km/hour per
hour must not exceed the vibrations per minute divided by 1,600.

5.

When the hot mix asphalt layer thickness is 25mm or less, the vibratory
must be in the off mode.

6.

When a pneumatic-tired roller is used for compaction, the speed should not
exceed 8 km/hour.

Visually inspect the finished hot mix asphalt surface for marks, tearing, and irregular
texture that may be caused by segregated mix. Notify the contractor of any defective
areas.

Ensure pavement smoothness by use of proper string line or laser level control.

Obtain pavement smoothness by frequent use of a straightedge to determine whether the


finished surface complies with the tolerances specified. Record such measurements and
notify the contractor and quality control manager of all out-of-specification areas.

It is the inspectors responsibility to ensure that hot mix asphalt placement and compaction are
conducted to meet specifications and hot mix asphalt industry standards of practice.
Sampling and Testing Plan
The quality control plan must contain a quality control sampling and testing plan that details the
sampling and testing to be performed by quality control personnel. The sampling and testing plan
should include each quality characteristic that requires quality control as specified in the contract.
The plan should be the basis of information used by the contractor to maintain control of hot mix
asphalt production and placement.
The quality control plan must also contain a detailed testing program that outlines the quality
characteristics (parameters) to be tested, test method to be used, frequency, and sampling
location. The Quality Control Sampling and Testing Plan must meet the minimum quality control
requirements of the specifications.
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Samplers and testers who perform quality control sampling and testing for gradations and asphalt
content must be experienced and qualified.
Laboratories and Equipment
A quality control testing laboratory includes the following laboratory types that participate in quality
control for a contract:

Plant quality control laboratory

Site laboratory

Independent laboratory

The contractor must see that each quality control testing laboratory used for mix design,
gradations, and asphalt content is properly equipped and has been approved by the Department.
The quality control laboratories should comply with the following, as applicable:

Facility safety manual

Safety equipment

Laboratory procedures manual

Laboratory quality control manual

Copies of current applicable test procedures

Proper test equipment

Equipment calibration and service documentation

Calibration and service decals on all testing equipment

Availability of contract plans and applicable project specifications

Availability of project-specific quality control plan

Corrective Action Plans


With respect to production, placement, and finishing of HMA, the contractor is responsible for
understanding what is necessary to keep the process in control, quickly determine when the
process has gone out of control, correct the situation, and bring the process back into control.
Corrective action plans are not intended to cover all possible problems and their solutions. They
are a beginning point to document that the contractor has considered potential breach of action
limits and established procedures to correct them.
The contractor must determine and establish action limits for each quality characteristic, based on
process control experience and the variability of test results expected between quality control and

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acceptance testing. When specified minimum quality characteristics or placement standards are
used as action limits, the contractors risk for out-of-specification material is increased.
The quality control plan must include a list of anticipated corrective actions needed in the event
inspection or test results indicate that production or construction processes do not meet the
specified minimum quality characteristics or minimum placement standards. Depending on the
severity of the problem, corrective actions may range from minor process adjustments to
temporary termination of hot mix asphalt production.
The corrective action plan should be an integral part of the contractors overall quality control with
routine reporting to the Engineer to ensure that his quality assurance documents variability in
results and corrective action taken, when required.
The quality control corrective action plan should, at a minimum, contain actions required to
address the following potential situations:
Hot Mix Asphalt Production

Asphalt binder content

Aggregate gradation

Aggregate moisture

Mix moisture

Asphalt binder temperature

Aggregate temperature

Mix temperature

Sand equivalent

Mix segregation

Uncoated aggregate

Mixing time

Mix storage time

Hot Mix Asphalt Placement

Receiving surface preparation

Prime coat / tack coat

Ambient temperature

Mix temperature

Screed heaters

Screed setting and adjustment

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Setting HMA mat width

Coordination between plant and site (paver operations)

Continuity of laying

Level and smoothness control system

Joint construction

Thickness

Placement yield

Cross slope

Joint offset

Manual placement

Pavement surface appearance

Mix segregation

Compaction testing

Pavement smoothness

Should problems arise during hot mix asphalt production and placement, the contractor must
notify the Engineer, identifying the problems, the means undertaken to pinpoint the cause, and
anticipated corrections. The specifications contain requirements for notification and production
termination. Corrective actions must be documented in the records of inspection.

400.14

Measurement and Payment

No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the work or details as
described in Section IV, Asphalt Works, Sections 400.01 to 400.13, of these Standard
Specifications. Such work shall be considered a subsidiary obligation to applicable items in the
Bills of Quantities.

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SECTION IV-1
401.01

EQUIPMENT FOR ASPHALT WORKS

Description

The equipment for asphalt works to be provided by the Contractor shall include, but not be limited
to, that specified herein, as required and as directed by the Engineer.
The machinery and tools utilized in construction of Asphalt Works shall be in good working
condition and the Contractor shall maintain and preserve them for the whole duration of the job.
The Engineer shall approve the machinery and tools prior to the commencement of work, and the
Contractor shall supply adequate quantities of such machinery in first-class operating condition in
order to execute the work with due speed and precision. Equipment approved for use shall not be
removed from the site without the approval of the Engineer.
The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with the manufacturer's catalogues, specifications and
other published data for the equipment and machinery he proposes to use.

401.02

Asphalt Mixing Plant

All plants used by the Contractor for the preparation of asphalt hot mixes shall comply with all the
requirements below under "a. Requirements for All Plants". In addition, batch mixing plants shall
comply with the requirements under "b. Special Requirements for Batching Plant" and continuous
mixing plants shall comply with the requirements under "c. Special Requirements for Continuous
Mixing Plant".
a.

Requirements for All Plants

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1.

Automatic Operation: The plant shall be designed, coordinated and operated so


as to continually produce asphalt mix within the job mix tolerances specified. The
plant shall be equipped and operated so that the proportioning of the hot
aggregate, commercial filler and bitumen, together with the dry and wet mixing
cycles, are all controlled automatically. Positive interlock shall be provided so that
proportioning, mixing and discharge are accomplished by one operation without
manual control of the separate phases.

2.

Cold Feed System: The plant shall include a sufficient number of cold storage
bins so that there is at least one bin for each different stockpile of material being
used. Intermixing of material from different stockpiles in one bin or on the ground
prior to putting into the bin is prohibited. The cold bins and loading equipment
used shall be compatible to prevent overflow between bins. Baffle plates shall
also be used between bins to prevent overflow of one bin into another. Each cold
bin shall include an accurate means for continuously feeding the required amount
of mineral aggregate so that uniform production shall be approved by the
Engineer and shall be checked and calibrated as often as he may deem
necessary to ensure its continued accuracy. Change of settings shall be made
only with the approval of the Engineer.
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3.

Drier: A drier of satisfactory design shall be provided. The drier shall be capable
of uniformly drying and heating the aggregate to the moisture and temperature
required without leaving any visible unburned oil or carbon residue on the
aggregate when discharged from the drier.

4.

Dust Collector: The plant shall be provided with a dust collector designed to
waste, or to return in a constant and uniform flow to the hot elevator, all or part of
the material collected. Prior to permitting the return of such collected dust, the
Engineer will examine its characteristics in relation to the mix requirements and
will designate the quantity to be returned.
The plant shall have a screen cover and such additional housings and emission
control equipment as may be necessary to ensure the proper control of dust in
accordance with all local regulations relating to control of dust.

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5.

Screens: Plant screens shall be capable of screening all aggregates to the


specified sizes and proportions. They shall have capacities equal to or greater
than the maximum rated capacity of the plant. The screens shall be placed
directly above the storage bins for the heated aggregate and shall receive the
material coming from the drier. They shall have an operating efficiency such that
the aggregate deposited in any bin shall not contain more than 10 percent of
oversize or undersize material. This screen tolerance shall not invalidate the job
mix tolerances specified.

6.

Hot Bins: The plant shall include at least three storage bins for hot aggregate of
sufficient size to supply the pugmill when it is operating at full capacity. They shall
be arranged to ensure separate and adequate storage of appropriate fractions of
the aggregate. Each compartment shall be provided with an overflow pipe that
shall be of such size and at such location as to prevent any backing up of
material into other bins or against the screens. Bins shall be so constructed that
samples can be readily obtained therefrom. An additional dry storage bin shall be
provided for commercial mineral filler and provision shall be made for
proportioning this filler into the mix.

7.

Equipment for Preparation of Bituminous Material: Tanks for storage of


bituminous material shall be equipped for heating the material, using positive and
automatic control at all times, to a temperature within the specified range. The
heating shall be accomplished by steam coils, hot oil, electricity or other
approved means such that no flame shall come into contact with the heating
tank. The circulating system for the bituminous material shall be of adequate size
to ensure proper and continuous circulation during the entire operating period.
Suitable means shall be provided either by steam or hot oil jackets or other
insulation for maintaining the specified temperature of the bituminous material in
the pipeline, meters, weigh buckets, spray bars, and other containers and flow
lines. The storage tank capacity shall be sufficient for at least one day's
operation. Circulation return lines to the asphalt storage tanks shall be
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submerged to the same elevation in the storage tanks as the feeder line. (Two or
three vertical slots may be cut in the return line above the high level mark to
break vacuum when reversing the pump).
The Contractor shall provide a sampling outlet in the bituminous material feedline
connecting the plant storage tanks to the bituminous material weighing or
metering box. The outlet shall consist of a valve installed in such a manner that
samples may be withdrawn from the line slowly at any time during plant
operation. The location of the sampling outlet shall be readily accessible and free
from obstruction. A drainage receptacle shall be provided for flushing the outlet
prior to sampling.
8.

Thermometric Equipment: An armoured thermometer reading from 38 C to


204 C shall be fixed in the bituminous feed line at a suitable location near the
discharge valve at the pugmill. Similar devices shall be fixed in the heating and
storage tanks.
The plant shall be further equipped with either an approved dial-scale, mercuryactuated thermometer, an electric pyrometer, or other approved thermometric
instruments placed at the discharge chute of the drier and in the hot fines bin, so
as to register automatically or indicate the temperature of the heated aggregates.
For better regulation of the temperature of the aggregates, replacement of any
thermometer by an approved temperature-recording apparatus may be required
by the Engineer and he may further require that daily temperature charts be
submitted to him by the Contractor.

9.

Control of Mixing Time: The plant shall be equipped with positive means to
govern the time of mixing and to maintain it constant unless changed at the
direction of the Engineer.

10. Pugmill: The pugmill shall include equipment to deliver the bituminous materials
in a thin uniform sheet or in multiple sprays over the full length of the mixer.
11. Temporary Storage of Mix: Plants may be equipped with skiffs or elevators for
delivering hot mix to hoppers or silos before discharging to hauling units. The
skiffs or elevators shall not be sprayed with diesel or other solvents; where
necessary they may be sprayed with a minimum amount of lime water, soap or
detergent solution. Hoppers or silos shall be of such design that no segregation
or loss in temperature of the mix occurs.
12. Safety Requirements: Adequate and safe stairways to the mixer platform and
guarded ladders to other plant units shall be placed at all points required for
accessibility to all plant operations. Accessibility to the top of truck bodies shall
be provided by means of a platform or other suitable device to enable the
Engineer to obtain mixture temperature data. To facilitate handling scale
calibration equipment, sampling equipment, etc., a hoist or pulley system shall be
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provided to raise or lower the equipment from the ground to platform or vice
versa. All gears, pulleys, chains, sprockets and other dangerous moving parts
shall be thoroughly guarded and protected. Ample and unobstructed passage
shall be maintained at all times in and around the truck loading space. This space
shall be kept free from drippings from the mixing platform.
13. Environmental Control: Prior to the Engineer's approval of the asphalt plant,
current certifications must be submitted that establishes the Department has
inspected and approved the environmental control devices fitted to the plant and
that it is in full compliance with the Government's current regulations related to
protection of the environment.
b.

Special Requirements for Batching Plant


1.

Weigh Box Hopper: The plant shall include means for accurately weighing each
size of aggregate in a weigh box or hopper, suspended on scales, ample in size
to hold a full batch without hand raking or running over. The weigh box or hopper
shall be supported on fulcrums and knife edges so constructed that they will not
be easily thrown out of alignment or adjustment. All edges, ends and sides of
weighing hoppers shall be free from contact with any supporting rods and
columns or other equipment that shall in any way affect the proper functioning of
the hopper. There shall also be sufficient clearance between hoppers and
supporting devices to prevent accumulations of foreign materials. The discharge
gate of the weigh box shall be so hung that the aggregate shall not be
segregated when dumped into the mixer and shall close tightly when the hopper
is empty so that no material is allowed to leak into the batch in the mixer during
the process of weighing the next batch.

2.

Scales and Meters: Scales or meters used for proportioning aggregate,


commercial filler and bitumen shall be accurate to one percent of the indicated
quantity. Scales and meters shall be substantially constructed and those that are
sensitive and that easily get out of adjustment shall be replaced. Scales shall be
constructed and located so as to prevent vibration in the dial pointer.
Scales for weighing aggregate and commercial filler may be either the beam or
springless dial type and shall be of standard make and design. Graduation
intervals shall be not more than 0.1 percent of the nominal scale capacity. Dial
scales shall be equipped with adjustable pointers for controlling automatically the
weighing of each aggregate and filler. The pointer shall be set close to the dial
face to prevent excessive parallax and all dial faces shall be so located that they
shall be in plain view of the operator at all times. Weighing sequence of hot
aggregates shall progress from coarse to fine.
Bituminous material shall be automatically proportioned by either weighing or
metering. The minimum graduation shall be not more than 1 litre or 1 kg.
Bituminous scales and weigh buckets shall be such that the required amount of

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bitumen is provided in a single weighing and delivered to the pugmill without loss
due to overflow, splashing or spillage. Bituminous weigh buckets shall be
satisfactorily insulated to prevent loss of heat in the bitumen or accumulation of
bitumen in the bucket. Bituminous metering devices shall be rotating positive
displacement pumps and shall be capable of providing the designated quantity of
material for each batch.
All scales and meters shall be approved by the Engineer and shall be checked
and calibrated as often as he may deem necessary to ensure their continued
accuracy. The Contractor shall provide and have at hand the necessary standard
weights and other necessary equipment in order to perform testing and
calibration of all scales and meters in a practical manner. An accurate platform
scale with a capacity of 250 kilograms or more and an accuracy of 0.5 percent of
the load shall also be provided.
3.

Pugmill Mixer: The batch mixer shall be an approved twin pugmill type, capable
of producing a uniform mixture within the job-mix tolerances. The batch mixer
shall be of such design to permit visual inspection of the mix. The mixer shall be
so constructed as to prevent leakage of contents and its capacity shall not be
less than 600 kilograms per batch. The mixer shall be enclosed and shall have
an accurate time lock to control the operation of a complete mixing cycle by
locking the weigh box gate after the charging of the mixer until the closing of the
mixer gate at the completion of the cycle. The mixer shall lock the bitumen supply
throughout the dry mixing period and shall lock the mixer gate throughout the dry
and wet mixing periods. The dry mixing period is defined as the interval of time
between opening of the weigh box gate and the start of application of bitumen.
The wet mixing period is the interval between the time the bituminous material is
spread on the aggregate and the time the mixer gate is opened. The control of
the time shall be flexible and capable of being set at intervals of not more than
five seconds throughout cycles up to three minutes. A mechanical batch counter
shall be so designed as to register only completely mixed batches.
The mixer shall be equipped with a sufficient number of paddles or blades in a
suitable arrangement to produce a proper and uniformly mixed batch. The
clearance of blades from all fixed and moving parts shall not exceed 20mm
except in the case of aggregates having a nominal maximum size of over
25.4mm in which case the clearance shall be so adjusted as to prevent undue
breakage of the coarse aggregate during the mixing operation.

c.

Special Requirements for Continuous Mixing Plant


1.

Version 2.0

Gradation Control Units: The plant shall include an accurate means of


proportioning each size of hot aggregate. The unit shall include a feeder mounted
under the hot bins. Bins shall have accurately controlled individual gates to form
an orifice for volumetrically measuring the materials drawn from each respective
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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

bin compartment. The orifice shall be rectangular with one dimension adjustable
by positive mechanical means provided with a lock. Indicators shall be provided
for each gate to show the respective gate opening in inches or centimetres. The
plant shall include provision for calibration of the gate openings by means of
weight test samples so that each of the materials fed out of the bins through
individual orifices may be bypassed satisfactorily to suitable test boxes, each bin
material being confined separately.
The plant shall be equipped to handle conveniently such test samples weighing
200 kilograms or more combined weight of samples from all bins; and not less
than 50 kilograms for any one bin sample. The interlocking feeders shall be
equipped with a dust-proof revolution counter with minimum graduations of one
tenth of a revolution.
Mineral filler shall be proportioned separately from a hopper equipped with
adjustable feed which may be accurately and conveniently calibrated and which
shall be interlocked with the aggregate and bitumen feeds.

Version 2.0

2.

Bitumen Metering System: The plant shall be equipped with a bitumen meter or
other proportioning device for providing a continuous, uniform supply of bitumen
to the mixer. The plant shall include a means of calibrating bituminous material
flow by spans of weight test samples in kilograms per revolution.

3.

Synchronization of Aggregate and Bitumen Feed: Satisfactory means shall be


provided to afford positive interlocking control between the flow of aggregate from
the hot bins and the flow of bitumen from the meter or other proportioning source.
This control shall be accomplished by interlocking mechanical means or by any
positive method satisfactory to the Engineer. The hot aggregate bins shall be
provided with signal devices and controls which shall warn of bin levels and
which shall automatically stop the flow of all aggregate and bitumen to the mixer
when the aggregate in any one bin is so low that the feeder shall not operate at
set capacity. The bitumen storage system shall be provided with signal devices
and control which shall warn of low levels of bitumen and which shall
automatically stop the entire plant operation when the bitumen storage level is
lowered to the point of exposing the feed end of the bitumen suction line.

4.

Mixer Unit for Continuous Method: The plant shall include a continuous mixer of
an approved twin pugmill type, capable of producing a uniform mixture within the
job mix tolerances. The paddles shall be of a type adjustable for angular position
on the shafts and reversible to retard the flow of the mix. The mixer shall carry a
manufacturer's plate giving the net volumetric contents of the mixer at the several
heights inscribed on a permanent gauge and charts shall be provided by the
manufacturer giving the rate of feed of aggregate per minute, at plant operating
speed.

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401.03

Equipment for Hauling

Vehicles used for the transport of aggregates or bituminous mix shall have tight, clean and smooth
metal beds and shall be free from dust, screenings, petroleum oil, volatile or other mineral spirits
which may affect the material being hauled. The vehicle metal bed shall, if required, be sprayed
with a minimum amount of soapy water or lime solution to prevent bituminous mix from adhering to
the bed. After spraying, the truck shall be raised and thoroughly drained; no excess solution
shall be permitted. Use of diesel or other solvents to spray in the truck bed is prohibited. Provision
shall be made for covering truck loads with canvas or other suitable material of such size as to
protect the bituminous mix from the weather.
When necessary, in order that a bituminous mixture be delivered on the road at the specified
temperature, truck beds shall be insulated to obtain workable temperature of the mix and all covers
shall be securely fastened. Any truck causing excessive segregation of material by its spring
suspension or other contributing factors, or that shows oil leaks in detrimental amounts, or that
causes undue delays, shall, upon the direction of the Engineer, be removed from the work until
such faults are corrected. End dump trucks shall be equipped with chains on the tail gates for
control when dumping the mix into the paving machine.
The Contractor shall provide an adequate number of trucks of such size, speed and condition to
ensure orderly and continuous operations of the work.

401.04

Spreading and Finishing Equipment

The equipment for spreading and finishing the asphaltic mixtures shall be of an approved
mechanical, self-powered electronic controlled screed type, capable of spreading and finishing the
mixture true to line, grade and required crown.
The pavers shall be equipped with hoppers and distributing screws of the reversing type to place
the mixture uniformly in front of adjustable electronic controlled screeds. The pavers shall be so
designed as to allow a maximum width of paving of not less than three metres and so that such
width may be reduced as required to two metres. Pavers shall be equipped with such provisions
and attachments to suit the paving width specified for road widening as well as paving on sloped
sections. They shall be equipped with fast and efficient steering devices and shall have reverse as
well as forward travelling speeds. The operational speed of the pavers shall be adjustable from
three to six metres per minute in accordance with the instructions of the Engineer.
The pavers shall employ mechanical devices as equalizing runners, straight edge runners, even
arms or other compensating devices to maintain trueness of grade and to confine the edges of the
pavement to true lines without the use of stationary side forms. The equipment shall include
blending or joint levelling devices for smoothing and adjusting longitudinal joints between lanes.
The assembly shall be designed and operated in such manner that it shall place the material at the
required compacted thickness.
Electronic screeds shall include automatic feed controls to maintain a constant level of material
along the full length of the screed, automatic profile grade control and automatic slope control. The
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profile grade controller shall be activated by a travelling, articulated averaging beam of not less
than 9.14m in length or taut stringline (wire) set to grade. The automatic slope control shall be
equipped with a proportioning manual override to enable smooth transition of changing slope rates.
Automatic screed controls shall be approved by the Engineer prior to use.
Screeds shall be provided with devices for heating the screeds to the temperature required for the
laying of the mixture without pulling or marring. Pavers shall also be provided with the standard
attachable screed extensions.
The term "screed" includes any cutting, crowning or other physical action that is effective in
producing a finished surface of the evenness and texture specified, without tearing, shoving, or
gouging the surfaces.
If, during construction, it is found that the spreading and finishing equipment in operation leaves in
the pavement surface tracks or indented areas or other objectionable irregularities that are not
satisfactorily corrected by scheduled operations, the use of such equipment shall be discontinued
and other satisfactory spreading and finishing equipment shall be provided by the Contractor.

401.05

Rollers

Rolling equipment shall consist of vibratory steel-wheeled rollers, steel wheel rollers and
pneumatic-tired rollers as required by the Engineer for proper compaction and finishing of the
asphalt surface. Unless otherwise permitted, rollers shall be equipped with reversible or dual
controls to allow operation both forward and backward with the operator always facing in the
direction of movement.
a.

Steel-wheeled Rollers. Steel-wheeled rollers shall be two-axle tandem rollers and threeaxle tandem rollers. These rollers shall be self-propelled and equipped with power units
of not less than four cylinders and under working conditions shall develop contact
pressures under the compression wheels of 44-64 kN per metre of width. Each two-axle
roller shall have a minimum weight of 89 kN; each three-axle roller shall have a minimum
weight of 116 kN. Rollers shall be in good working condition and shall be equipped with
a reversing clutch. Rollers shall be equipped with adjustable scrapers to keep the wheel
surface clean and with efficient means of keeping them wet to prevent mixes from
sticking. These surfaces shall have no flat areas or projections which shall mar the
surface of the asphalt courses. The three-axle rollers shall be equipped with a centre
axle which may be operated either fixed or floating. The three-axle tandem roller shall be
so constructed that when locked in a position for all treads to be in one plane, the roller
wheels are held with such rigidity that, if either front or centre wheel is unsupported the
other two wheels will not vary from the plane more than 6mm. Vibratory steel-wheeled
rollers shall have dual drums with a minimum weight of 62 kN. Vibrating frequency shall
be between 2000 to 3000 cycles per minute with individual controls for each tandem.
All steel-wheeled rollers shall be in good condition and the Contractor shall furnish to the
Engineer the manufacturer's technical data for each roller and no roller shall be used
except after approval of the Engineer.

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b.

Pneumatic-tired Rollers. Pneumatic-tired rollers shall be self-propelled. The rollers shall


be equipped with pneumatic tires of equal size and diameter which are capable of
exerting average contact pressures varying from 343 to 687 kN/m2 by adjusting the
ballast and/or tyre inflation pressures. The wheels shall be so spaced that one pass shall
accomplish one complete coverage equal to the rolling width of the machine. Where
shall be a minimum of 6mm overlap of the tracking wheels. The wheels shall oscillate
but not wobble. The roller shall be so constructed that the contact pressures shall be
uniform for all wheels and the pressure of all the tyres shall not vary by more than 34
kN/m2 from one another.
Pneumatic-tyred rollers shall be in good condition and with enough ballast space to
provide uniform wheel loadings as may be required.
The Contractor shall furnish to the Engineer charts or tabulations showing the contact
areas and contact pressures for the full range of tyre inflation pressures and for the full
range of tyre loadings for each type and size compactor tyre furnished and used in
pneumatic-tyred rollers.
The total operating weight and tyre pressure may be varied by order of the Engineer to
obtain contact pressures which shall result in the required asphalt course density.

401.06

Asphalt Distributor

The asphalt distributor truck shall be of the pressure type with insulated tanks. The use of gravity
distributors will not be permitted by the Engineer. The distributor shall have pneumatic tyres of
such width and number that the load produced on the road surface shall not exceed 98 kN per
metre of tyre width.
Spray bars shall have a minimum length of 2.04m and shall be of the full circulating type. Spray
bar extensions shall also be of the full circulating type. The spray bar shall be adjustable to
maintain a constant height above the surface to be treated. The spray bar nozzles shall be slotted
and shall be of such design so as to provide a uniform unbroken spread of bituminous material on
the surface. The valves shall be operated by levers so that one or all valves may be quickly
opened or closed in one operation. The distributor shall be equipped with a hose and nozzle
attachment to be used for spotting areas inaccessible to the distributor. The distributor and booster
tanks shall be so maintained at all times as to prevent dripping of bituminous material from any part
of the equipment.
The distributor shall be equipped with devices and charts to provide for accurate and rapid
determination and control of the amount of bituminous material being applied and with a
tachometer of the auxiliary wheel type reading speed in metres per minute. The spreading
equipment shall be provided with a separate power unit for the pump or a variable displacement
pump driven by a hydrostatic transmission so that a uniform application of bituminous material, in
controlled amounts, may be made ranging from 0.15 to 5.0 kg/m2 and with a range of pressure
from 441 to 1,324 kN/m2. The distributor shall have satisfactory heating equipment and
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thermometers in order to provide the full range of application temperatures for the bituminous
material being used.
Prior to the commencement of the work and as required by the Engineer, the bituminous distributor
shall be checked and calibrated such that the rate of transverse spread or longitudinal spread shall
not vary more than ten percent from the required rate of application.

401.07

Cold Planer / Profiler

The cold planer/profiler proposed for use shall meet the following minimum requirements:
-

Specialized equipment designed specifically for the purpose of removing, and/or surface
treating or levelling asphaltic or concrete pavement using a rotating cutter mandrel.
Capable of cutting flush to kerbs or other vertical objects.
Control system capable of maintaining profiles and cross-slopes such that after planing
the resulting surface will be within plus or minus four millimetres of the required profile
and cross-slope.
Capable of performing single pass cuts of up to 15 centimetre depth.
Approved by the Engineer for the specific use intended.

401.08

Unacceptable Equipment

The Engineer will have the right to stop the use of any equipment or plant which he deems to be
inferior to the quality required and to instruct the removal of such equipment and to have it
replaced by suitable equipment or to alter the method of operation at any time.
The Contractor shall immediately comply with such instructions without being entitled to any
indemnities or extensions as a result of such instructions. The Contractor shall not be allowed to
use any equipment or plant before obtaining the approval of the Engineer, and the Contractor shall
undertake to follow sound technical methods of operation and to engage skilled and trained
operators, mechanics and labour to carry out the works. The Engineer will have the right to expel
any operators, mechanics or labour and to instruct suitable replacement thereof at any time he
deems such action is necessary.

401.09

Measurement and Payment

No separate measurement or payment will be made by the Department for the work or details as
described in Section IV-1, Equipment for Asphalt Works, of these Standard Specifications.
Such work shall be considered a subsidiary obligation to applicable items in the Bills of Quantities.

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SECTION IV-2
402.01

HOT MIX ASPHALT

Description

The work shall consist of constructing a Hot Mix Asphalt paving course on a prepared surface in
accordance with these Standard Specifications and in compliance with the lines, grades,
thicknesses and typical cross-sections indicated on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer. The
general requirements of Section IV, Asphalt Works, and all other related Sections IV-1 through IV5 shall apply to the Works except where modified herein or in the Particular Specifications or
directed by the Engineer.
The most recent printing of the following standard specifications, as well as those standards
described in Clause 400.02, Standards and Codes, shall apply to materials included in this Section
unless otherwise noted herein.
AASHTO: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
M145

Classification of Soils and Soil Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction


Purposes
Bulk Specific Gravity of Hot Mix Asphalt
Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity and Density of Hot Mix Asphalt
Percent Air Voids in Compacted Dense and Open Asphalt Mixture
Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted Hot Mix Asphalt Using Saturated Surface-Dry
Specimens
Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity and Density of Hot Mix Asphalt
Determining the Asphalt Binder Content of Hot Mix Asphalt by the Ignition
Method

T166
T209
T269
T166
T209
T308

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials


T85
T165
D1559

Specific Gravity and Absorption of Course Aggregate


Effect of Water on Cohesion of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures
Resistance to Plastic Flow of Bituminous Mixtures using Marshall Apparatus

AI: Asphalt Institute


MS-2

402.02

Marshall Method of Mix Design (Asphalt Institute Manual Series MS-2)

Material Requirements for Hot Mix Asphalt

The materials used in Hot Mix Asphalt mixes shall meet the following requirements:
Fine Aggregate for Asphalt Works
Coarse Aggregate for Asphalt Works
Commercial Mineral Filler
Asphalt Cement
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- Clause 400.07
- Clause 400.08
- Clause 400.09
- Clause 400.10
Section IV-2
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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

Hydrated Lime

402.03

- Clause 400.12

Types of Asphaltic Concrete Mixes

The types of Asphaltic concrete mixes shall be as specified on the Drawings and shall comply with
the compositions shown in Table 402.03.
Table 402.03
Composition of Asphaltic Concrete Mixes

U.S. Standard
Sieve Size

1-1/2"
1"
3/4"
1/2"
3/8"
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 30
No. 50
No. 100
No. 200

Base Course

Binder Course

Wearing Course

Percent Passing by Weight


100
72 - 100
60 - 89
46 - 76
40 - 67
30 - 54
22 - 43
15 - 36
10 - 28
6 - 22
4 - 14
2-8

100
80 - 100
55 - 85
45 - 77
35 - 60
24 - 45
16 - 36
12 - 30
8 - 22
5 - 15
2-8

100
66 - 95
54 - 88
37 - 70
26 - 52
18 - 40
13 - 30
8 - 23
6 - 16
2 - 10

When directed by the Engineer, a minimum of 1.5 percent hydrated lime (by weight of total
aggregate) shall be added to all types of asphaltic concrete mix aggregates in accordance with
Clause 401.02, Asphalt Mixing Plant, of these Standard Specifications. The actual amounts of
hydrated lime to be added shall be established in the approved job mix design.
A minimum of 40 percent of the fine aggregate used in asphaltic concrete mixes shall be crushed
sand.
The material for asphaltic concrete shall be combined so as to be well graded within the limits
given in Table 402.03. Combined gradations which approach maximum limits on some sieves and
minimum limits on other sieves shall be avoided.

402.04

Design Criteria

Prior to starting the mix design process, Department approval shall be obtained for the following
raw materials:
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All sources of mineral filler

All sources of aggregates

All sources of asphalt cement and polymer modified binders

All sources of any other material intended to be used in asphaltic concrete, including
cement, hydrated lime, crumb rubber, silicone, polymers, fibers, Recycled Aggregate
Pavement (RAP).

The Marshall Method of Mix Design (Asphalt Institute Manual Series MS-2) will be used in
designing the asphaltic concrete mixes. All of the criteria shown in Table 402.04, not stability
alone, shall be considered in designing and evaluating each type of mix. The optimum bitumen
content determined by the Marshall Method shall be used in preparing specimens for the
Immersion Compression (AASHTO T165) test.
All asphaltic concrete designs shall be developed in close coordination with the Department.
Where the use of polymer modified binder is approved, the solubility content shall be agreed with
the Engineer for testing, alternatively the binder content can be determined by the ignition method,
AASHTO T308.

402.05

Job Mix Formula and Allowable Tolerances

The Contractor shall prepare his preliminary asphaltic concrete design at least one month prior to
commencement of the Works. The Engineer shall meet with the Department to discuss the details
and obtain approval to proceed with the necessary trials.
The Contractor shall carry out complete laboratory trials under the direct supervision of the
Engineer, as necessary, to determine the properties of the proposed design. The Department shall
be advised of the schedule of the planned laboratory trials so that it may attend, if it is desired.
After review of the laboratory trials jointly with the Department, plant trials shall be conducted. All
plant trials shall be carried out with direct coordination with the Department.
The properties of asphaltic concrete paving course shall be obtained by tests on samples taken at
the asphalt plant to avoid re-heat of the material. All plants shall have a properly equipped
laboratory to carry out the required plant trial testing and the routine production quality control
testing. As a general rule, the asphalt cement content to be selected shall be the minimum asphalt
cement content that will satisfy all the specified requirements for the particular asphaltic concrete
mixture without decreasing the durability of the asphalt layer. The asphaltic concrete design criteria
and mix properties shall comply with the requirements of Table 402.04.
Prior to final approval, specimens shall be prepared in accordance with Asphalt Institute Manual
Series MS-2, 500 blows each side. The resulting voids within the mix determined within AASHTO
T209 and AASHTO T166 shall not be less than the values stated in Table 402.04.
The Engineer will take samples of the materials proposed for use, in order to check their quality.
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The proposed Job Mix Formula (JMF) shall be submitted to the Department and the Engineer, who
will formally approve the JMF with characteristics and composition that shall be supplied by the
Contractor. The approved JMF will give a combined gradation showing a single definite percentage
passing each sieve, the percentage of each material to be used in the mix, asphalt cement content
by weight including modifier and type, and the percentage addition of hydrated lime or other
additives, including RAP. The JMF will also establish the mixing temperature and a compaction
reference density.
Where RAP (Recycled Aggregate Pavement) is to be incorporated into the mix design, agreement
should be reached between the Department on the methodology of determining the effect and bulk
specific gravities of the RAP for calculation of Voids in the Mineral Aggregate. Testing and control
of RAP shall be in accordance with the latest International Standards. The contractor shall assume
full responsibility for the design, production and construction of asphalt mixes which incorporate
RAP as a component material. The asphaltic concrete design including RAP should as a minimum
include the following criteria:
a. Blended aggregate gradation, including contribution from RAP.
b. Binder content, again including contribution from RAP.
c. Blended binder grade, based upon both the new binder added and the binder contributed
from the RAP.
d. Required new binder grade needed to achieve a specified binder grade, given a certain
RAP content and a binder grade for the RAP binder.
e. Estimation of the variability in aggregate gradation and binder content, given a JMF
containing a certain amount of RAP.
f.

Estimation of the maximum amount of RAP that can be used in a mix without exceeding
typical limits on variability of production, given variability in the RAP stockpiles being used.

g. Minimum and maximum RAP that can be used in a mix, given a new binder grade and a
grade for the RAP binder.
Where other alternative recycled or secondary aggregates are proposed, the above criteria will
form the basis of approval by the Engineer and Department for inclusion. Additional performance
testing will be required for approval of these materials.
Approval by the Department or Engineer of the JMF shall in no way relieve the Contractor of his
responsibilities and obligations stipulated in the Contract and the Contractor shall be responsible
for the soundness of the asphalt paving mixes and the satisfactory execution and performance of
the asphalt paving courses.
After the job mix formula has been established and approved, all mixes furnished shall conform
thereto within the following tolerances:
Passing sieve No. 4 and larger
Passing sieves between No. 4 and No. 200
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:

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5.0% passing
4.0% passing
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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

Passing Sieve No. 200

1.5% passing

Asphalt Cement content

0.2%, by total weight of mix

Temperature of mix when emptied from mixer :

10C

Should the source of material constituents or characteristic properties change during the course of
the Contract, then the design and JMF shall be re-established.
Table 402.04
Asphaltic Concrete Performance Characteristics
Properties
Type / Category
of Road

Binder
Course

Base Course
Parking
Lots,
Minor
Roads,
Driveways

Sector
Roads

Main
Roads,
Highways

All Road
Categories

Wearing Course
Parking
Lots,
Minor
Roads,
Driveways

Sector
Roads

Main
Roads,
Highways

Traffic volume

Light

Medium

Heavy

All

Light

Medium

Heavy

Penetration
grade of
bitumen

60/70

40/50 or
60/70

40/50

40/50 or
60/70

60/70

40/50

40/50

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

Minimum
Marshall
Stability (kg)

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

Marshall Flow
(mm)

24

24

24

24

24

24

24

Stiffness
minimum
(kg/mm)

400

400

400

450

450

450

500

Air voids in mix


(%)

3-5

4-7

5-7

5-7

3-5

4-7

5-7

Voids in mineral
aggregate, VMA
(% minimum)

11

13

13

13

13

14

15

No. of
compaction
blows each end
of specimen by
freely held
Marshall
hammer

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

Properties

Binder
Course

Base Course

Type / Category
of Road

Parking
Lots,
Minor
Roads,
Driveways

Sector
Roads

Main
Roads,
Highways

All Road
Categories

Wearing Course
Parking
Lots,
Minor
Roads,
Driveways

Sector
Roads

Main
Roads,
Highways

Voids filled with


asphalt cement
(%)

60 - 75

55 - 70

50 - 65

50 - 70

60 - 75

55 - 70

50 - 65

Bitumen content
by weight of mix
(%)

3.3 - 4.0

3.2 - 3.9

3.1 - 3.8

3.4 - 4.1

3.4 - 4.4

3.4 - 4.2

3.4 - 4.0

Loss of Marshall
Stability by
submerging
specimens in
water @ 60C
for 24 hours, as
compared to
stability
measured after
submersion in
water @ 60C
for 30 minutes
(max. % loss)

25

25

25

20

20

20

20

Residual voids
in total mix after
500 blows each
end of specimen

402.06

Sampling and Testing of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

Samples of loose HMA shall normally be taken behind the paver before compaction and shall be
obtained in accordance with AASHTO T168. Samples of compacted HMA shall be obtained by
coring in accordance with Method B of AASHTO T230. Determination of bitumen content and
extraction gradation may be performed on either loose or compacted samples in accordance with
AASHTO T164 and AASHTO T030 except that the ash correction shall be determined by using a
bitumenometer. The presence of a satisfactory amount of hydrated lime will be determined in
accordance with the tests as established by the Department and the Engineer. The specific gravity
and compaction of asphalt shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO T269, T166 and T209.

402.07
a.

Quality Control and Assurance for Hot Mix Asphalt


Weather Limitations. Production and spreading of HMA shall not be permitted when the
ambient temperature is less than 8C, nor during rain, fog, dust-storms or other
unsuitable weather.

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b.

Equipment Required. The equipment required for construction of the HMA courses shall
include the necessary major equipment listed in Section IV-1, Equipment for Asphalt
Works, of these Standard Specifications, in Clauses 401.02 through 401.06, together
with such miscellaneous equipment and tools as may be required for the satisfactory
preparation and performance of the Work. All equipment shall be checked and/or
calibrated and approved by the Engineer prior to use. The equipment shall be
satisfactorily maintained and shall be used in an approved manner to produce Hot-Mix
asphaltic concrete pavements in accordance with these Standard Specifications.
Adequate equipment and labour shall be used so that there is continual production and
distribution of the asphalt course being constructed. Intermittent or Stop and Go type of
operations will not be permitted by the Engineer.

c.

Survey and Preparation of Area to be Paved. The areas to be paved shall be true to
lines and grades indicated on the Drawings or established by the Engineer and shall
have a properly prepared surface prior to the start of paving operations. The areas to be
paved shall be prepared in compliance with these Standard Specifications and the
Particular Specifications.
When an HMA pavement course is to be placed on top of an existing pavement, the
existing pavement surface shall be prepared in accordance with Section IV-5, Pavement
Repairs, of these Standard Specifications.
Priming or tacking of surfaces to be paved shall be in accordance with Section IV-3,
Prime Coat or Section IV-4, Tack Coat, of these Standard Specifications.
The surface of kerbs, vertical faces of existing pavements and all structures in actual
contact with asphalt mixes shall be painted with a thin and complete coating of tack coat,
as instructed by the Engineer to provide a closely bonded, watertight joint.
All openings or structures in the road for water, drainage and other specified utilities
shall be constructed and their positions and levels determined before the start of paving
operations.
All utility trenches, cut in the bituminous road surfaces shall be backfilled, compacted
and prepared, all in accordance with Section IV-5, Pavement Repairs, of these Standard
Specifications.

402.08
a.

b.

Preparation of Hot Mix Asphalt


Preparation of Asphalt Cement. The asphalt cement shall be heated to a temperature to
yield viscosities in the range of 150-300 mm2/s (75-150 seconds Saybolt-Furol) when
delivered to the mixer, as determined from the Temperature Viscosity Chart of the
product used. Asphalt cement shall not be used if foaming occurs, nor shall it be heated
above 177C at any time.
Preparation and Handling of Mineral Aggregate. Coarse and fine aggregate shall be
stored at the asphalt plant in such a manner that the separate stockpiles will not become

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intermixed. The stockpiles shall be of sufficient size to provide a minimum quantity of


one week's continuous production of asphalt mix. Aggregates brought to the asphalt
plant to supplement stocks should be tested and approved prior to placing in the existing
approved stockpiles.
The cold bins shall be calibrated with the materials to be used and the settings shall be
such as to produce a combined gradation in accordance with the job mix. The
proportioning shall be such that surpluses and shortages in the hot bins shall not cause
breaks in the continuous operation. All the above shall be as approved by the Engineer.
The hydrated lime additive system shall be calibrated and set to add the required
amounts of hydrated lime and water. After the aggregates, water and hydrated lime have
been thoroughly mixed, they shall be fed to the asphalt plant drier.
The materials shall be thoroughly dried and heated so that their temperature is within
8C of the temperature needed to satisfy the viscosity requirements of the asphalt
cement. In no case shall the materials be introduced into the pugmill with a temperature,
including the 8C tolerance permitted, of more than that at which the asphalt cement has
a viscosity of 75 seconds Saybolt-Furol. The moisture content of the heated and dried
materials shall not exceed 0.5 percent. The quantity of materials fed through the drier
shall in all cases be held to an amount which can be thoroughly dried and heated within
the limits specified.
The heated materials shall be screened into sizes such that they may be combined into
a gradation meeting the requirements of the job mix formula and the hot aggregate
storage bins shall be such as to minimize segregation and loss of temperature of
aggregate. Hot bins shall be drawn and cleaned of material at the end of each day's
operation.
c.

Proportioning and Mixing. The heated ingredients together with the mineral filler, asphalt
cement and Recycled Aggregate Pavement shall be combined in such a manner so as
to produce a mixture which, when emptied from the pugmill, complies with the
requirements of the job mix formula. Plant settings, once established, shall not be
changed without the approval of the Engineer.
The temperature of the aggregate immediately prior to mixing shall be within 8C of the
temperature of the asphalt cement and the temperature of the aggregate and asphalt
prior to mixing shall be approximately that of the completed mix as defined in the job mix
formula approved by the Engineer. The mix temperature shall be within the limits set out
in the job mix formula when emptied from the mixer but in no case shall exceed 170C
for 40-50 pen and 165C for 60-70 pen.
Mineral filler in a cold dry state shall be proportioned into the mixer either with the
aggregate or after the introduction of the asphalt cement to avoid loss of filler that may
occur in dry mixing as a result of turbulence in the mixer.

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When anti-stripping additive is required, the additive device shall be calibrated and set
so that the specified amount of anti-stripping additive is thoroughly mixed with the
asphalt cement just prior to entering the pugmill.
d.

Control of Mixing Time. In a batch type plant, the Engineer will designate the length of
time of both dry and set mixing periods to ensure a uniformly and completely coated mix.
Mixing period time shall not be altered unless so ordered by the Engineer. A dry mixing
period of not less than four seconds shall precede the addition of the asphalt cement to
the mix. Excess wet mixing shall be avoided. Wet mixing shall continue as long as is
necessary to obtain a thoroughly blended mix but shall not exceed 75 seconds nor be
less than 30 seconds.
In continuous type plants, the weights shall be determined for the job from tests made
under the supervision of the Engineer and the determination of mixing time shall be by
the weight method in accordance with the following formula unless otherwise required:
Mixing time, sec = Pugmill Dead Capacity (kg)
Pugmill Output (kg/s)
The maximum mixing time in batch or continuous type plants shall be limited as directed
by the Engineer to avoid undue changes in the characteristics of the asphalt material.

402.09

Delivery of the Hot Mix Asphalt

The dispatching of the hauling vehicles to the job site shall be so scheduled that all material
delivered may be placed in daylight, unless the Engineer approves the use of artificial light.
Delivery of material shall be at a uniform rate and in an amount well within the capacity of the
paving and compacting equipment.
The mix shall be delivered to the paver at a temperature between 120C and 160C. All
precautions shall be taken to protect the mix from the weather.

402.10

Spreading and Finishing

Spreading and finishing equipment complying with Clause 401.04, Spreading and Finishing
Equipment shall be used. The mix shall be laid upon an approved surface in accordance with the
specifications and only when weather conditions are suitable. Upon arrival at the point of use, the
asphalt mix shall be spread and struck off to the grade, elevation and cross-section shape
intended, either over the entire width or over such partial width as may be required. If the mix does
not comply with the requirements, it shall not be used but shall be discarded.
The asphalt course shall be constructed to proposed levels and shall be homogeneous and
providing, after compaction, an even surface free from undulations, rises or depressions, and
within the tolerances stipulated. In no case shall construction of a new HMA course begin until the
previously laid course has been tested and approved in accordance with these Standard
Specifications.
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The asphalt course shall be laid in more than one layer, with no layer exceeding 5cm in thickness
unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings or approved in writing by the Engineer. The second
layer shall be placed as soon as practicable after the first layer has been finished, rolled and
cooled, and the Engineer may at his discretion request cleaning of the first layer and the
application of a thin tack coat thereon if he so deems necessary.
Transverse joints in succeeding layers shall be offset at least 2 metres. Longitudinal joints shall be
offset at least 15cm. All joints shall be a minimum of 15cm from all pavement markings.
The use of motor graders or hand spreading of the asphalt mix shall not be permitted except in
places where it is impractical to use pavers and shall be only with the specific permission of the
Engineer. This shall be to avoid segregation of the asphalt mix and shall comply with all conditions
regarding trueness of level, thickness and homogeneity of the mix. Automatic screed controls shall
be required on all pavers and shall be used for paving courses as instructed by the Engineer.

402.11

Compaction

Rolling equipment for use in compacting asphalt mixes shall meet the requirements of Clause
401.05, Rollers. At least three rollers shall be required at all times: one self-propelled pneumatictired and two steel-wheeled rollers. As many additional rollers shall be used by the Contractor as
necessary to provide specified asphalt course density and surface characteristics in an orderly,
efficient and continuous manner.
Immediately after the asphalt mix has been spread and struck off, the surface shall be checked
and any irregularities adjusted and then compacted thoroughly and uniformly by rolling.
To prevent adhesion of the mix to steel-wheeled rollers, the wheels shall be kept properly
moistened but excess water will not be permitted by the Engineer.
After the longitudinal joints and edges have been compacted, rolling shall start longitudinally at the
sides of the road and shall gradually progress towards the centre. On superelevated sections,
rolling shall begin on the low side and progress to the high side, overlapping on successive trips by
at least one-half the width of tandem rollers and uniformly lapping each preceding track. The rollers
shall move at a slow but uniform speed with the drive wheels nearest the paver. The speed shall
not exceed 4.8 kph for steel-wheeled rollers or 8.0 kph for pneumatic-tyred rollers. The operating
speed shall be approved by the Engineer.
The line of rolling shall not be changed suddenly or the direction of rolling reversed suddenly. If
rolling causes displacement of the material, the affected areas shall be loosened at once with hand
tools and restored to the original grade of the loose material before being re-rolled. Heavy
equipment or rollers shall not be permitted to stand on the finished surface before it has been
compacted and has thoroughly cooled.
When paving in a single width, the first lane placed shall be rolled in the following order:

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1.

Transverse joints

2.

Longitudinal joints

3.

Outside edge

4.

Initial or breakdown rolling, beginning on the low side and progressing towards the high
side

5.

Second rolling

6.

Finish rolling

When paving in echelon, five to ten centimetres of the edge which the second paver is following
shall be left unrolled. Edges shall not be exposed more than fifteen minutes without being rolled.
Particular attention shall be given to the construction of the transverse and longitudinal joints in all
courses.
a.

Transverse Joints. Transverse joints shall be carefully constructed and thoroughly


compacted to provide a smooth riding surface. Joints shall be checked with a straightedge to assure smoothness and true alignment. Joints shall be formed with a bulkhead,
such as a board, to provide a straight line and vertical face. If the joint has been distorted
by traffic or by other means, it shall be trimmed to line and the face shall be painted with
a thin coating of emulsified asphalt before the fresh material is placed against it.
To obtain thorough compaction of these joints, the material placed against the joint shall
be tightly pushed against the vertical face with a steel-wheeled roller. The roller shall be
placed on the previously compacted material transversely so that not more than 15cm of
the rear rolling wheel rides on the edge of the joint. The roller shall be operated to pinch
and press the mix into place at the transverse joint. The roller shall continue to roll along
this line, shifting its position gradually across the joint, in 15 to 20cm increments, until the
joint has been rolled with the entire width of the roller wheel. Rolling shall be continued
until a thoroughly compacted, neat joint is obtained.

b.

Longitudinal Joints. Longitudinal joints shall be rolled directly behind the paving
operations. The first lane placed shall be true to line and grade and have a vertical face.
The material being placed in the abutting lane shall then be tightly pushed against the
face of the previously placed lane. Before rolling, the coarse aggregate in the material
overlapping the joint shall be carefully removed with a rake and discarded. Rolling shall
be performed with a steel-wheeled roller.
The roller shall be shifted over onto the previously placed lane so that not more than
15cm of the roller wheel rides on the edges of the newly laid lane. The rollers shall then
be operated to pinch and press the fine material gradually across the joint. Rolling shall
be continued until a thoroughly compacted, neat joint is obtained.
When the abutting lane is not placed in the same day, or the joint is distorted during the
day's work by traffic or by other means, the edge of the lane shall be carefully trimmed to
line, cleaned and painted with a thin coating of emulsified asphalt before the abutting

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lane is placed.
c.

Edges. The edges of the asphalt course shall be rolled concurrently with or immediately
after rolling the longitudinal joint.
Care shall be exercised in consolidating the course along the entire length of the edges.
Before it is compacted, the material along the unsupported edges shall be slightly
elevated with hand tools. This will permit the full weight of the roller wheel to bear on the
material to the extreme edges of the mat.

d.

Breakdown Rolling. Breakdown rolling shall immediately follow the rolling of the
longitudinal joints and edges. Rollers shall be operated as close to the paver as possible
to obtain adequate density without causing undue displacement. In no case shall the mix
temperature be allowed to drop below 107C prior to breakdown rolling. If the breakdown
roller is steel-wheeled, it shall be operated with the drive wheel nearest the finishing
machine. Pneumatic-tired rollers may be used as breakdown rollers.

e.

Intermediate Rolling. Pneumatic-tired rollers or steel-wheeled rollers described in Clause


401.05, Rollers, shall be used for the intermediate rolling. The intermediate rolling shall
follow the breakdown rolling as closely as possible and while the paving mix is still of a
temperature that will result in maximum density from this operation. Rollers shall be used
continuously after the initial rolling until all of the mix placed has been thoroughly
compacted. Turning of rollers on the hot paving mix which causes undue displacement
will not be permitted by the Engineer.

f.

Finish Rolling. The finish rolling shall be performed with three-axle tandem rollers unless
otherwise permitted by the Engineer. Finished rolling shall be accomplished while the
material is still warm enough for the removal of roller marks.
All rolling operations shall be conducted in close sequence.
In places inaccessible for the operation of standard rollers as specified, compaction shall
be performed by manual or mechanical tampers of such design as to give the desired
density.
After final rolling, the smoothness, levels, cross falls, density and thickness shall be
checked and any irregularity of the surface exceeding the specified limits and any areas
defective in texture, density or composition shall be corrected as directed by the
Engineer, including removal and replacement at the Contractor's expense as directed by
the Engineer.

402.12

Protection of the Asphalt Courses

Sections of the newly finished work shall be protected from traffic of any kind until the mix has
been properly compacted and cooled. In no case shall traffic be permitted less than 12 hours after
completion of the asphalt course, unless a shorter period is authorized by the Engineer.
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402.13

Testing and Acceptance of Completed HMA Concrete Courses

Each completed asphalt concrete course shall be tested and approved in accordance with the
following requirements prior to placing any subsequent asphalt concrete course.
The Contractor shall, at his own expense, cut samples from each completed asphalt course during
the progress of the work and before final acceptance of the project, all as directed by the Engineer.
Compacted samples shall be taken by coring in accordance with AASHTO T230, for testing by the
Engineer. Where the Contractor fails to provide cores as required by the Engineer, the Engineer
may arrange for the taking of cores at the Contractor's expense. Samples shall be taken of the
asphalt mix for the full depth of the course from the location directed by the Engineer at a rate of
not less than one sample per 200 linear metres of road or 2,000 square metres of paving,
whichever is less.
Whenever deficiencies are noted in loose mix samples or core samples, the Engineer may direct
the taking of additional cores at the Contractor's expense in order to define the area of pavement
involved.
Hot asphalt mix shall be placed and compacted in holes left by sampling.
a.

Requirements for Compaction of Asphalt Concrete Courses. The degree of compaction


is the ratio of the specific gravity of the pavement sample determined in accordance with
AASHTO T209 to the specific gravity of the laboratory Marshall Specimens prepared in
accordance with the Job Mix Formula determined in accordance with AASHTO T166.
The minimum degree of compaction required for the various types of Hot Mix Asphalt
expressed as a percentage, shall be as given in Table 402.05 below:
Table 402.05
Minimum Degree of Compaction for HMA Courses
Type of Mix

Minimum Degree of
Compaction Required

Base Course

98%

Binder Course

98%

Wearing Course

98%

In the event the specific gravity of samples cut from any asphalt concrete course fail to
comply with the minimum required, this will be considered a major defect in the work on
the basis of which the portion of the asphalt course represented by these samples shall
be rejected.

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b.

Requirements for Asphalt Content, Gradation and Hydrated Lime. In the event it
transpires from the analysis conducted on samples of loose mix or cores that the asphalt
content or aggregate gradation are beyond the permissible tolerances specified for the
Project mix formula established for each respective asphalt course mix, or that a
satisfactory quantity of hydrated lime is not present, and that, as determined by the
Engineer, such variation affects the characteristics of the asphalt mix as far as its
compliance with the Contract Conditions and specifications is concerned, this shall be
considered a major defect in the work on the basis of which the portion of the asphalt
course represented by these samples shall be rejected.

c.

Requirements for Thickness. The total constructed thickness of Hot Mix asphaltic
concrete base course, binder course or wearing course used for new construction,
reconstruction or roadway widening shall not vary by more than 8mm from the total
thickness indicated on the Drawings and included in the Bills of Quantities.
In the event the constructed thickness of the Hot Mix asphaltic concrete base course,
binder course or wearing course is 8mm more than the total thickness indicated on the
Drawings, the area shall be corrected as directed by the Engineer by removing the
excess material in an approved manner to provide the required thickness.
In the event the constructed thickness of the Hot Mix asphaltic concrete base course,
binder course or wearing course is 8mm less than the total thickness indicated on the
Drawings, the Contractor shall provide additional material in the next course (base
course, binder course or wearing course). In no case shall the deficiency of the base
course exceed 25mm and in no case shall the deficiency of the wearing course exceed
8mm. In the event the total thickness of the wearing course is less than the total
thickness required by the Drawings by more than 8mm, the Contractor shall remove the
top layer of 5cm or to a depth as directed by the Engineer and a new layer constructed
so the total thickness of the wearing course is within the limits indicated on the Drawings
and as specified herein.
The HMA base course and the HMA wearing course shall be constructed to the grade
level as indicated on the Drawings, as specified and as approved by the Engineer.
In no case shall the total sum thickness of the subbase, base course, binder course and
wearing course, as required, be less than the total sum thickness of all courses indicated
on the Drawings.
The tolerances specified herein shall not invalidate the tolerances set forth for the
evenness of surfaces of the HMA courses.

d.

Requirements for Evenness of Surface. The Engineer shall test the evenness of surface
for each course of the various asphalt concrete courses incorporated in the Contract to
ascertain their compliance with the conditions, these Standard Specifications and the
Drawings with regard to levels, longitudinal falls, cross-sections and evenness of
surface.

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The Contractor shall put at the disposal of the Engineer a five-metre straight-edge and a
crown template of sturdy construction and approved design and enough labour to assist
in the checking operations.
Any layer containing deviations or variations exceeding the following tolerances shall be
corrected or removed and replaced, at the expense of the Contractor, to the satisfaction
of the Engineer and according to the specifications:
1.

Variation in the levels of the profile grade line after construction shall not exceed
one centimetre from the levels indicated on the Drawings.

2.

When tested by a five-metre straight-edge placed at right angle and parallel to


the road centerline at intervals not exceeding two metres, or when tested by a
crown template placed at right angle to the road centerline at intervals not
exceeding half the template length, variation of the surface of the road from the
testing edge between any two contacts with the surface shall not exceed the
following maximum tolerances:
Base Course:
Binder Course:
Wearing Course:

6 millimetres
4 millimetres
4 millimetres

The tolerances herein specified for evenness of surface shall not invalidate the
tolerances set forth for thickness of the asphalt concrete courses.
3.

In no case shall the final surface of the roadway be constructed such that surface
water will stand on the roadway in depths exceeding the above maximum
tolerances.

e. Ride Quality of Asphalt Pavement. After completion of the final wearing course of
hotmix asphalt, surface rideability shall be verified to ensure that a satisfactory ride
quality has been achieved.
Ride quality is a measurement of surface tolerance in terms of an International
Roughness Index (IRI). The IRI is an index derived from controlled measurements
of the longitudinal profile in the wheel tracks and correlated with panel ratings of
ride quality.
The rideability of the completed final wearing course, or other desired surface
courses, shall be tested using laser road surface profile measurement equipment
complying with the latest edition of ASTM E950, Class 1 device (or other equivalent
and internationally recognized standard). The device shall measure both wheel
paths with laser height sensing instruments and it shall have a valid calibration
certificate.
The IRI shall be computed according to the latest edition of ASTM E1926 (or other
equivalent and internationally recognized standard) from the longitudinal profile
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measurements of the road surface.


The IRI testing, processing of data and computation of results shall be carried out
by a qualified third party firm with trained and qualified operators, as approved by
the Department.
The project shall have at least 200m of pavement that can be tested without
interruptions at the required test speed based on the class of road. An IRI number,
in metres per kilometer (m/km), shall be established for each 10m section of
designated lane of asphalt pavement.
Areas of localized roughness will be identified using a report of continuous IRI with
the base length of 10m. This will yield the IRI of every possible 10m segment of the
roadway.
Areas of overall (segmental) roughness will be determined by the IRI values for the
10m increments averaged for each 100m segment of completed lane of asphalt
pavement for both wheel tracks produced by a minimum of two (2) test runs.
For newly constructed or re-surfaced pavements within the Contract, the acceptable
ride quality of each completed lane of asphalt wearing surface for each type of road
shall be as indicated in Table 402.06 below:
Table 402.06
Ride Quality
Classification of Road
Posted Speed Limit

IRI Value
(m/km)

100 kph

0.9

80 kph

1.1

60 kph

1.3

< 60 kph

1.5

When any 100m section of completed road lane exceeds the IRI values specified
above for each class of road, it shall be considered deficient and unacceptable to
the Department. Any such deficient section shall be rectified by removal and
replacement to meet the specified IRI limits without any additional cost to the
Department. The Department shall have the right to withhold payment for the
deficient asphalt pavement (or a portion thereof) until the deficiencies have been
corrected and the surface is re-tested and provides an acceptably smooth ride.
f. Requirements for Surface Texture. Hot Mix Asphalt Wearing course shall have a
texture depth of 1.2mm for heavily trafficked roads and 0.8mm for all other roads,
when tested in accordance with the Sand Patch Test ASTM E965.

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402.14

Cold Planing

a.

Description. Cold Planing shall be performed when directed by the Engineer to areas
which will receive an overlay.

b.

Removal. Before cold planing operations begin prior approval must be given by the
Engineer to ensure that existing pavement has not failed. If existing pavement has, in the
judgment of the Engineer, failed all pavement shall be removed and paid for in
accordance with Section II, Earthworks. If the existing pavement will be overlaid the
Contractor shall profile the pavement as follows, unless otherwise directed by the
Engineer.

402.15

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1.

Comply with applicable requirements in Section I-4, Maintenance of Traffic and


Related Work, of these Standard Specifications.

2.

The Contractor shall remove the required thickness of asphalt by means of cold
planning/profiling. The Contractor is responsible for controlling dust to the
approval of the Engineer.

3.

The final surface after cold planing the existing asphalt shall be finished
so that the surface elevation shall not vary more than 4mm from the specified
pavement surface elevations in profile and cross-section.

4.

Removed asphalt shall be collected into a collecting vehicle and stockpiled offsite for future use by the Department. If so directed by the Department, the
removed asphalt shall become the property of the Contractor and shall be
disposed of by him in accordance with normal practice.

Preparation of Existing Pavement for Application of Overlay


a.

Description. The Contractor shall prepare the existing pavement as indicated on


the Drawings, such as service roads and parking areas, for an application of
overlay. Preparation shall include, but not by way of limitation, all cleaning,
scraping and performing various types of repairs necessary to correct structural
failures, deterioration, drainage and grade elevations in compliance with lines,
grades, thicknesses and typical sections indicated in the Drawings, or as
required by field conditions, and shall be carried out as required herein or as
directed by the Engineer.

b.

Materials. Materials required for various repairs shall be in accordance with the
requirements of applicable Sections of these Standard Specifications.

c.

Construction. Before the application of an overlay, existing utility covers are to


be adjusted to the new levels and the existing pavement surface shall be swept
clean of all dirt, loose and foreign matter by the use of hand brooms or
mechanical sweepers of approved type in a manner approved by the Engineer.

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All sand, mud, dust and other loose material so swept off shall then be disposed
of in accordance with Section II, Earthwork, of these Standard Specifications.
When directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall make all necessary repairs to the
existing pavement surface (potholes, failed areas, depressed areas, utility cuts, cracks,
or other damaged areas). All repairs shall conform to the requirements of Section IV-5,
Pavement Repairs, of these Standard Specifications.
Immediately prior to the placement of the overlay, tack coat material shall be applied to
the areas to be resurfaced.
Care shall be exercised to prevent spraying tack coat materials upon adjacent
sidewalks, structures, plants and shrubbery, adjacent property and improvements, and
any other improvements and facilities not specifically mentioned. Any of the above
mentioned facilities so damaged shall be cleaned or replaced to the satisfaction of the
Engineer at the expense of the Contractor.
Contact surfaces of kerbings, gulleys, inlets, catch basins, manholes and other
structures shall be painted with a thin uniform coating of tack coat material immediately
before asphaltic material is placed against them. The tack coat shall be carefully applied
and in such a manner that the tack coat shall not show above the surface of the finished
pavement, all in accordance with Section IV-4, Tack Coat, of these Standard
Specifications.

402.16
a.

Measurement and Payment


Asphaltic Concrete Base Course. Measurement of Hot Mix Asphaltic Concrete, Base
Course, will be by the square metre, placed in accordance with the Drawings, these
Standard Specifications and acceptable to the Engineer. The areas of tapered edges will
not be included in the measurement and the cost of the areas of tapered edges shall be
deemed to have been included in the rates for the respective Hot Mix Asphaltic Concrete
Base Course.
Payment for the Item, Hot Mix Asphaltic Concrete Base Course, of the type and
thickness required in the Contract Documents, will be at the rate per square metre as
included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation
for all materials, labour, tools, equipment and appurtenances as required, as specified or
as directed by the Engineer. No other compensation will be allowed by the Department.

b.

Asphaltic Concrete Binder Course. Measurement of Hot Mix Asphaltic Concrete Binder
Course will be by the square metre, placed in accordance with the Drawings, these
Standard Specifications and acceptable to the Engineer. The areas of tapered edges will
not be included in the measurement and the cost of the areas of tapered edges shall be
deemed to have been included in the rates for the respective Items for Hot Mix Asphaltic
Concrete Binder Course.

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Payment for the Item, Hot Mix Asphaltic Concrete Binder Course, of the type and
thickness required in the Contract Documents, will be at the rate per square metre as
included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation
for all materials, labour, tools, equipment and appurtenances as required, as specified or
as directed by the Engineer. No other compensation will be allowed by the Department.
c.

Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course. Measurement of Hot Mix Asphaltic Concrete


Wearing Course will be by the square metre, placed in accordance with the Drawings,
these Standard Specifications and acceptable to the Engineer. The areas of tapered
edges will not be included in the measurement and the cost of the areas of tapered
edges shall be deemed to have been included in the rates for the respective Items for
Hot Mix Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course.
Payment for the Item, Hot-Mix Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course, of the type and
thickness required in the Contract Documents, will be at the rate per square metre as
included in the Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation
for all materials, labour, tools, equipment and appurtenances as required, as specified or
as directed by the Engineer. No other compensation will be allowed by the Department.

d.

Cold Planing. Measurement for Cold Planning or Profiling will be by the cubic metre of
existing pavement cold planed in accordance with these Standard Specifications and
approved by the Engineer. The measurement will be made by taking necessary cross
sections before and after cold planning existing pavement to the lines and grades
required and as approved by the Engineer.
Payment for the Item, Cold Planing, will be at the rate per cubic metre as included in the
Bills of Quantities, which rate shall be considered as full compensation for all labour,
tools equipment and appurtenances as required execut