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Modulation Techniques

Norliza Farhah binti Abdul Radzak

Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang

I.

INTRODUCTION

Radio frequency transmission or the RF transmission is commonly used by many types of wireless devices. Cordless and cellular telephone, radio and television broadcast stations, satellite communications systems and two-way radio services all operated by utilizing the RF spectrum. It works on the principle that if a current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic (EM) field is generated suitable for wireless broadcasting or communications. In satellite communications, RF transmission is commonly used between the ground station and the satellite for data transmission and communication. In order to send information across the RF transmission, a high frequency carrier signal is used as a medium for the information. Modulation is the process of imposing the information on the carrier signal to

be transmitted.

II.

MODULATION

Carrier signal is a transmitted electromagnetic pulse of wave at a steady base frequency. Information can be imposed on the carrier signal by increasing the signal strength, varying the base frequency and varying the wave phase. The process of imposing information on carrier signal is called modulation. Modulation is the process of superimposing the information contents of a modulating signal on a carrier signal. This is done by varying the characteristics of the high frequency carrier signal according to the modulating signal. Modulation is divided into analog modulation and digital modulation. Analog modulation is the process of converting an analog input signal into a signal that is suitable for radio frequency transmission. This is done so that the information bearing analog signal can travel larger distance without the fear of loss due to absorption. There are two types of analog modulation, namely amplitude modulation and angle modulation. Angle modulation is further

divided into frequency modulation and phase modulation. In amplitude modulation, the strength of the carrier signal is varied with modulating signal. In frequency modulation, the frequency of the carrier signal is varied with the modulating signal while in phase modulation, the phase of the carrier signal is varied with the modulating signal. Digital modulation is the process of converting a digital bit stream into an analog signal suitable for radio frequency transmission. There are two bits types in binary, logic 0 (low) and logic 1 (high). This is done to convert the digital signal to analog for transmission. Afterwards, demodulating is applied to convert analog signal back to digital signal. Analog signal bearing information is transmitted by the digital method. There are four types of digital modulation namely, pulse code modulation, differential pulse modulation, delta modulation and adaptive delta modulation.

Modulation Techniques Norliza Farhah binti Abdul Radzak Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang I. INTRODUCTION

Figure 1: Carrier signal, modulating signal, amplitude modulation and frequency modulation (Source: www.hill2dot0.com)

Modulation is done mainly to achieve two main goals. The first is to allow simultaneous transmission of two or more signals by translation to different frequency. The second is to utilise the propagation properties of signal at different wavelength. Demodulation is the process done to recover the signal intelligence from the modulated carried

wave. This is done at the receiver to obtain the information from the radio frequency transmission.

wave. This is done at the receiver to obtain the information from the radio frequency transmission.www.tutorvista.com) III. AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION (ASK) Amplitude shift keying modulation (ASK) is the process of modifying the amplitude of a carrier sinusoid in a discrete manner depending on the value of a modulating symbol. It assigns bit values to discrete amplitude levels. Carrier signal is then modulated among the members of a set of discrete values to transmit information. The resultant bandwidth of the modulated signal is the same as the bandwidth of the baseband signal. The baseband signal is a long and random sequence of pulses with discrete values thus ASK is not bandwidth efficient. It is commonly used in applications that require simplicity and low cost. IV. FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING MODULATION (FSK) Frequency shift keying modulation (FSK) assigns bit values to discrete frequency levels. It uses binary system represented by analog waveform. Logic 0 and logic 1 are assigned with different frequencies. There are two forms of FSK, noncoherent and coherent form. In noncoherent form, there is an instantaneous frequency shift between two discrete values, “mark” frequency and “space” frequency. In coherent form, there is no phase discontinuity in the output signal. The modulated waveforms are strictly real values. A modem converts the binary signal from the computer to FSK for transmission. V. PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION (PSK) Phase shift keying modulation (PSK) is an angle modulation where the phase of the carrier is discretely varied. This is done either in relation to a reference phase or to the phase of the immediately preceding signal element. PSK is done to represent the data being transmitted. The simplest type of PSK is the binary phase shift keying modulation (BPSK) where there is only two phases. For m-ary or multiple phase shift keying, four phases is known as quadrature phase shift keying and eight phases is known as octo phase shift keying. Figure 2: Phase shift keying modulation (PSK) (Source: www.technologyuk.net) VI. BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK) In binary phase shift keying (BPSK), there are two opposite signal phases (0° and 180°). The digital signal is broken timewise into individual bits using binary digits. The states of the bits are determined by the state of preceding bits. If the phase is constant, the signal stays the same, either 0 or 1. If the phase of the wave changes by 180°, in which the phase reverses, the signal state changes either from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0. BPSK is also known as biphase modulation. VII. QUADRATURE PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK) Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) is one of the multiple phase shift keying. It is also known as quaternary PSK. In QPSK, there are four phase, 0°, +90°, -90° and 180°. The data is transmitted at a faster rate as the rate of data transfer is relative to the number of phase changes per unit time. VIII. RELATION BETWEEN MODULATION TECHNIQUES WITH BIT ERROR RATE (BER) Bit error rate (BER) is the percentage of bits that have error relative to the total number of bits received in a transmission, usually expressed as " id="pdf-obj-1-4" src="pdf-obj-1-4.jpg">

Figure 3: Amplitude demodulation process (Source: www.tutorvista.com)

III.

AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION (ASK)

Amplitude shift keying modulation (ASK) is the process of modifying the amplitude of a carrier sinusoid in a discrete manner depending on the value of a modulating symbol. It assigns bit values to discrete amplitude levels. Carrier signal is then modulated among the members of a set of discrete values to transmit information. The resultant bandwidth of the modulated signal is the same as the bandwidth of the baseband signal. The baseband signal is a long and random sequence of pulses with discrete values thus ASK is not bandwidth efficient. It is commonly used in applications that require simplicity and low cost.

IV. FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING MODULATION (FSK)

Frequency shift keying modulation (FSK) assigns bit values to discrete frequency levels. It uses binary system represented by analog waveform. Logic 0 and logic 1 are assigned with different frequencies. There are two forms of FSK, noncoherent and coherent form. In noncoherent form, there is an instantaneous frequency shift

between two discrete values, “mark” frequency and “space” frequency. In coherent form, there is

no phase discontinuity in the output signal. The modulated waveforms are strictly real values. A modem converts the binary signal from the computer to FSK for transmission.

  • V. PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION (PSK)

Phase shift keying modulation (PSK) is an angle modulation where the phase of the carrier is discretely varied. This is done either in relation to a reference phase or to the phase of the

immediately preceding signal element. PSK is done

to

represent the data being transmitted. The

simplest type of PSK is the binary phase shift

keying modulation (BPSK) where there is only two phases. For m-ary or multiple phase shift keying, four phases is known as quadrature phase shift keying and eight phases is known as octo phase shift keying.

wave. This is done at the receiver to obtain the information from the radio frequency transmission.www.tutorvista.com) III. AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION (ASK) Amplitude shift keying modulation (ASK) is the process of modifying the amplitude of a carrier sinusoid in a discrete manner depending on the value of a modulating symbol. It assigns bit values to discrete amplitude levels. Carrier signal is then modulated among the members of a set of discrete values to transmit information. The resultant bandwidth of the modulated signal is the same as the bandwidth of the baseband signal. The baseband signal is a long and random sequence of pulses with discrete values thus ASK is not bandwidth efficient. It is commonly used in applications that require simplicity and low cost. IV. FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING MODULATION (FSK) Frequency shift keying modulation (FSK) assigns bit values to discrete frequency levels. It uses binary system represented by analog waveform. Logic 0 and logic 1 are assigned with different frequencies. There are two forms of FSK, noncoherent and coherent form. In noncoherent form, there is an instantaneous frequency shift between two discrete values, “mark” frequency and “space” frequency. In coherent form, there is no phase discontinuity in the output signal. The modulated waveforms are strictly real values. A modem converts the binary signal from the computer to FSK for transmission. V. PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION (PSK) Phase shift keying modulation (PSK) is an angle modulation where the phase of the carrier is discretely varied. This is done either in relation to a reference phase or to the phase of the immediately preceding signal element. PSK is done to represent the data being transmitted. The simplest type of PSK is the binary phase shift keying modulation (BPSK) where there is only two phases. For m-ary or multiple phase shift keying, four phases is known as quadrature phase shift keying and eight phases is known as octo phase shift keying. Figure 2: Phase shift keying modulation (PSK) (Source: www.technologyuk.net) VI. BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK) In binary phase shift keying (BPSK), there are two opposite signal phases (0° and 180°). The digital signal is broken timewise into individual bits using binary digits. The states of the bits are determined by the state of preceding bits. If the phase is constant, the signal stays the same, either 0 or 1. If the phase of the wave changes by 180°, in which the phase reverses, the signal state changes either from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0. BPSK is also known as biphase modulation. VII. QUADRATURE PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK) Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) is one of the multiple phase shift keying. It is also known as quaternary PSK. In QPSK, there are four phase, 0°, +90°, -90° and 180°. The data is transmitted at a faster rate as the rate of data transfer is relative to the number of phase changes per unit time. VIII. RELATION BETWEEN MODULATION TECHNIQUES WITH BIT ERROR RATE (BER) Bit error rate (BER) is the percentage of bits that have error relative to the total number of bits received in a transmission, usually expressed as " id="pdf-obj-1-38" src="pdf-obj-1-38.jpg">

Figure 2: Phase shift keying modulation (PSK) (Source: www.technologyuk.net)

VI.

BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING (BPSK)

In binary phase shift keying (BPSK), there are two opposite signal phases (0° and 180°). The digital signal is broken timewise into individual bits using binary digits. The states of the bits are determined by the state of preceding bits. If the phase is constant, the signal stays the same, either 0 or 1. If the phase of the wave changes by 180°, in which the phase reverses, the signal state changes either from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0. BPSK is also known as biphase modulation.

VII.

QUADRATURE PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)

Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) is one of the multiple phase shift keying. It is also known as quaternary PSK. In QPSK, there are four phase, 0°, +90°, -90° and 180°. The data is transmitted at a faster rate as the rate of data transfer is relative to the number of phase changes per unit time.

VIII.

RELATION BETWEEN MODULATION TECHNIQUES WITH BIT ERROR RATE (BER)

Bit error rate (BER) is the percentage of bits that have error relative to the total number of bits received in a transmission, usually expressed as

ten to a negative power. BER is an indication of how often a packet or other data unit has to be retransmitted because of an error. BER is measured at the output of the receiver. During transmission over a long distance, the signal experiences the degrading of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This will affect the ability to demolute the signal. If the BER is high, slower transmission might be favourable as the time increases due to the need to resend the data again. Modulation techniques that are capable of delivering more bits per symbol are more immune to errors caused by noise and interference in the channel. Thus, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is more favourable compared to BPSK and QPSK. For BPSK and QPSK, error correction coding is necessary to decrease the BER.

IX.

REFERENCE

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