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You should model a rubber joint just like you would model a metal joint and as discussed in

the users manual. In regard to the spring rates, unfortunately most rubber manufacturers
don't provide these values because they are so low and normally not a factor. You could
contact the manufacturer with a request or just assume some low values.
Do the joints have the optional tie rods across the joints? If no, then you'll be exposing your
system to the longitudinal pressure thrust. If yes, then the joints will only take lateral
Excessive forces on a pump often cause bearing and alignment problems resulting in high
maintenance costs.
Since this is a new system, the pressure thrust & API 610 are applicable and you probably
should NOT use an unrestrained joint. I'd recommend you look at putting tie rods across
the joint to eliminate the pressure thrust and axial & angular movement capability. Then
locate your joint perpendicular to the major system movement to absorb it in lateral
I am new for tied bellow design so kindly advise me how to create the tied expansion bellow
and what are the stiffness values to be filled in the CAESAR II expansion bellow design
dialog box (axial stif, trans stif, bending stif, torsional stif and effective id).
I have studied books but I am not getting clear idea about tied expansion bellows, mainly I
have conflict on tied bellow restraints.
I modeled 24 inch pipe dia, 200 meters long (straight pipe), temp @ 46 degree C, pressure
@ 16 bar, corban steel pipe for chilled water piping application.
What are the stiffness values to be filled in the CAESAR II expansion bellow
design dialog box (axial stif, trans stif, bending stif, torsional stif and effective
The values depend on the movements to be absorbed by the joints. Make a run,
calculate the movements to be absorbed and then go to the catalog for X-Press
style joints and select the joint that is capable of those movements. You will then
find the axial stiffness in the catalog. The lateral and angular values will be rigid
due to the self-guiding feature of the X-Press.
The rods you are discussing are LIMIT RODS and are a safety device designed to engage
only in the event of a main anchor failure. They will have no impact on your model and
should not be included.
In the normal axial compression configuration, X-----|||------X, the pressure thrust will
develop at the elbows and then be resisted by the thrust anchors (X) and the only load in
the pipe line would be the thermal movement times the axial spring rate of
the expansion joint (|||). Since the pressure thrust is being eliminated at its source, the
elbows, the pipe will no longer be in tension but slightly compressive. As a result, the line
will need to be guided as though it was a compressive column.

When you model tied expansion bellow in Caesar there is absolute zero axial flexibility
hence huge thermal axial load will be there.
In practical purpose cooling water line will not have much thermal expansion.
One of the well-known engineering companies we use to put tied bellow in pump nozzle
then put limit stop support after the bellow.
Concept was isolate pump nozzle by limit stop. End Caesar model at limit stop considering
the fact that very minor expansion in between pump nozzle & limit stop will be taken care
by bellow & flange gaskets.
Mind it this kind of concept to be applied only for cooling water line or low temperature line.
High temperature line cannot be conceptually isolated like this.
The above system is NOT a tied EJ, it is an unrestrained EJ with limit stops which will absorb
movement in any of the three axis. It will also expose the system to the longitudinal
pressure thrust. So, it would be acceptable in low pressure systems.
I did the flexibility analysis for 16" CS pipe (Fire water, Operating 16 bar, 50 degC) which is
connected to the Pump Nozzle. In the result, Piping Load on the Pump nozzle is exceeding
the Pump allowable.
Now we go for the Simple Bellows (Rubber Expansion joint) near to the pump nozzle to
resolve this.
From the REJs vendor, we got the below information
Axial compression (25 mm),
Lateral deflection (15 mm),
Torsional stiffness (5 deg)
REJ Vendor doesnt have stiffness values.
In the Caesar, stiffness value needs to be given as input.
I dont know how to calculate this data and to proceed the analysis.
Kindly help me out in this regard.
The stiffness of a rubber EJ is usually not significant in an average piping system. If you
cannot get better data from the manufacturer, I would advise use 10 N/mm, 10 N.mm/deg
(or similar depending what units you are using), and carefully monitor the relative
movements of your EJ to judge acceptability.
Simple (untied) bellow will not work. You must use
1) Tied expansion bellow in discharge line

2) Untied bellow may work in suction line but prefer to have a tied bellow.
Consider the effect of pressure thrust if going for untied bellow.

Tied Bellows Expansion Joint - Simple Model

Calculate the lateral stiffness for the bellows. The flexible length, or convolution
length, of the bellows is not listed in most expansion joint catalogs. The listed
lengths include the rigid end pieces, such as flanges or pipe ends. Because the
transverse stiffness is based on the flexible length, the flexible length must be
known. A very simple way of pulling this value from the catalog is to examine the
incremental increase in overall length of the joint as additional convolutions are
added. With all convolutions the same length, this incremental length can be used
to calculate the total flexible length.
In the following example, the total length of a four-convolution joint is 8-inches, and
the total length of an 8-convolution joint is 12-inches. This means that the extra four
convolutions add 4-inches, making the length of all twelve convolutions 12-inches.
This also indicates that the rigid end pieces on this joint of four, eight, or twelve
convolutions are 4-inches.
Deff = (4Aeff/p)1/2 = 10.0 in.
KTR = (3/2) (KAX) (Deff/L)2
L = Flexible Convolution Length = 12 in.
KTR = (3/2) (850) (10.0/12.0)2
= 885.4 lb/in.

Build the CAESAR II model of the flexible portion of the expansion joint. The
rotational restraints between nodes 29 and 30 keep the two flanges parallel, which
assumes three or more tie rods. In the field, the tie bars at four points around the
expansion joint keep the flanges parallel.
The flanges and the tie bars form a parallelogram upon lateral deflection.