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Bridge Design


Bridge Design
The SOFiSTiK module portfolio is especially powerful and versatile for the
advanced analysis and design in all fields of bridge engineering.
Powerful graphical AutoCAD-based 3D pre-processing and interactive
parametric input enable the user to control and adjust the model and
the calculation to any demand. Analysis with nonlinear effects as well as
economical influence line evaluation is possible. Seamless integration of
construction stage analysis, precamber determination and automated
force optimization are available. Design code specific tasks are supported
ranging from a library of standard load models (road and railway) to special
design and serviceability checks and assessments. Interactive graphical
and numerical post-processing as well as open interfaces for individual
result treatment are part of this package which is used worldwide by leading consulting engineering firms, contractors and project joint ventures.

Cross Sections and Geometry

 ABD-Technology: Parametric axis-based geometry input. Variables and
formulas enable complex parametric modeling.
SOFiPLUS: 3D General AutoCAD-based pre-processing with automatic
Rhinoceros Interface: FE meshing for NURBS surfaces (freeform areas)
Parametric master cross sections
Cross Section Editor: AutoCAD-based cross section input
High-End sectional analysis for R/C, steel and composite sections
(Warping, FE cross sections)
Consideration of sectional construction stages
(in-situ concreting, composite shear etc.)
Open and closed sections
Non-effective areas (shear lag)
Steel and composite class 4 sections with automatic determination of
effective widths acc. t. EN 1993-1-5
 eneral stress output points (automatic and user defined)
Dedicated input wizard for standard bridge types
(beam, slab and arch bridges)

General Features and Bridge Types

 D Finite Elements: Beam, shell, volume, cable, truss, spring and
dampers with nonlinear material and geometric capabilities
Elastic bedding, nonlinear bedding, pile elements, analytical halfspace
model for soil-structure interaction
BIM/IFC 2x3 structural view interface (e.g. Dlubal RFEM/RSTAB)
Single or multi-web beam systems
Cable stayed bridges
Suspension bridges
Slab/Frame/Integral systems
Moving and foldable systems
Hybrid systems (beam and orthotropic shell deck)
Extradosed bridges
Composite systems

Pre- / Post-Tensioning
 ENDON: Prestressing of beam and shell structures
PT Editor and AutoCAD based tendon input
Full 3D geometry definition in plan, elevation and cross sectional views
(cubic 3D spline)
Computation of stressing forces considering jacking sequences, wedge
slip, friction, wobble, primary and secondary effects
Jacking and construction sequences including partial prestressing options
Immediate bond
Unbonded tendons
Internal and external tendons
Library of prestressing systems
Tendon stress diagram

 OFiLOAD-V: Library for traffic loads (road and railway) e.g.: EN 1991-2
TS/UDL/Special vehicle bridge loading, BS 5400 HA/HB vehicles,
AS M1600/S1600, US AASHTO, High-Speed Trains (ICE3, TGV etc.)
Traffic-Loader Task: Graphical traffic load input
Free or element/node related general load definition
Settlement, temperature, wind, collision and support jacking loading
Load combinations according to selected standard
Lifeload evaluation acc. to groups of traffic loads Table 4.4a of EN 1991-2
Massetal Railway Bridge, Germany
DB Netz AG
Engineering: Obermeyer, SSF Ingenieure AG,

Bchting + Streit AG

 SE: 1st, 2nd and 3rd order 3D FE analysis
(linear, P-Delta and fully geometric nonlinear analysis)
ELLA: Influence lines and influence surfaces
 ISOLV: High-End parallel sparse and iterative solvers (Windows and LINUX)
Earthquake and response spectra analysis
Soil-structure interaction
Nonlinear material models for R/C and steel
Nonlinear spring and damper elements
Contact elements for ILM
Implicit beam hinges with PMM-worklaws (Moment-Normal force interaction)
Primary states for deformation and stress (construction memory)
Time-step integration / Time history analysis
Buckling analysis
Dynamic wind analysis
Moving loads (Rolling Stock)
Vehicle-structure interaction (passenger comfort analysis)
Train and rail-bridge interaction (UIC 774-3)

Construction Stage Simulation

 SM: Tabular graphical supported construction stage simulation with all
time-dependant effects (automatic determination of all CSR parameters)
Span-by-span erection with precamber
Free and balanced cantilever method (FCM/BCM)
Nonlinear construction methods (suspension bridges)
Integrated force optimization and iterative shop forms
Incremental launching with special contact bearing elements (ILM)
Retrofitting, collapse and forensic analysis

Design Code Checks

 LS and ULS in general with reinforcement design, stress checks,
decompression, crack widths, robustness, fatigue
Integrated design of all elements
Eurocodes EN 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1999
National Annexes of Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy,
Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, UK
DIN-FB 101, 102-104
BS 5400 (opt. Hong Kong concrete model)
SIA 262
AASHTO 2004, 2010 (LRFD), ACI 318-08, AISC 2005
AS 5100 (Australia)
EHE (Spain)
IRC (India)
S-BRO 2004 (Sweden)
NBR 6118-2003 (Brasil)
TMH7 (South Africa)
SNIP 52.101-2003, II 01.03-89 (GOST Certificate)
Please contact us for latest code support information

 inGRAF: Graphical interactive post-processing for all results
Result Viewer: Numerical post-processing (copy-and-paste to Excel or
Report Browser: Tabular print-out results
SIR: Integration of FE shell results
Programming interfaces (VBA, C, C++, FORTRAN)
Excel interface /.pdf export

Additional Features
 re-camber and shop forms
Push-Over analysis (ATC-40 and EC8 procedures)
Optimization of structural answers
(cable forces, max. moment, min. displacement, etc.)
Formfinding of cable structures
Dynamic soil-structure interaction with Halfspace (SBFEM)
Nonlinear timestep analysis
Wave loading (e.g. Linear Theory (Airy), Stokes 5th order)
Dynamic wind properties for cross sections (incl. Scanlan-Derivatives)
Dynamic wind for bridge aerodynamics (SOFiLOAD-DW)
CFD Analysis
On-demand support with academy and individual expert trainings
Worldwide expert network

FEM Packages Modern Structural Analysis

Which FEM Package fits your needs? Visit the SOFiSTiK FEM Packages
page by scanning the QR code below or contact us for a customized
solution at info@sofistik.com

Bridge over River IJssel Hanzelijn, The Netherlands
Architecture: Quist Wintermans Architekten BV
Engineering: SSF Ingenieure AG, ABT BV adviseurs in boutechniek

Khor Al Batah Bridge, Sur, Sultanate of Oman
Owner: Ministry of Regional Municipalities, Environment and Water
Resources Directorate General of Technical Affairs Muscat,
Sultanate of Oman
Engineering: schlaich bergermann und partner

Promenade bridge, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Community Nijmegen
Architect and
Engineering: NeyPoulissen Architects & Engineers

Farris Bridge, Norway
Arcitecture: L2 Arkitekter
Engineering: Rambll Norge AS

Passerelle des deux Rives, StrasbourgKehl,

Architecture: Marc Mimram
Engineering: Leonhardt, Andr und Partner

1 Queensferry Crossing
Client: Transport Scotland
Contractor: Forth Crossing Bridge Constructors
Design Joint Venture: Ramboll, Grontmij, Leonhardt, Andr und Partner
Independent Checker: AECOM, URS
2 Jamal Abdul Nasser Street
Client: State of Kuwait
Contractor: Rizzani de Eccher, Obrascon Huarte Laln S.A., Boodai Constructions w.l.l, Trevi
Designer: Tony Gee and Partners (Asia) Ltd
Construction Engineering: Deal Srl
3 Ponte Silogno, Italy
Client: ANAS S.p.a.
Engineering: STIGEA S.r.l.



SOFiSTiK AG Germany
Burgschmietstr. 40
90419 Nrnberg
T +49 (0)911 39901-0
F +49 (0)911 397904

SOFiSTiK AG 2014

Authorised Value Added Reseller

Authorised Developer


Bruckmannring 38
85764 Oberschleiheim
T +49 (0)89 315878-0
F +49 (0)89 315878-23


Lightweight Structures

Steel Construction
Computational Fluid Dynamics


Buildings / Steel Construction

General Features/ Pre-processing
General 3D FE modelling
Beam, Shell, Volume, Cable, Truss, Spring and Pile Finite
Graphical pre-processing with AutoCAD (SOFiPLUS) and
Autodesk Revit Structure (BIM)
Rhinoceros Interface: FE meshing for NURBS surfaces
(freeform areas)
IFC 2x3 structural view interface (e.g. Dlubal RFEM/RSTAB)
Cross-Section Editor in SOFiPLUS
Dialog based user interface (SOFiSTiK Structural Desktop)
Thick-walled, thin-walled and FE cross sections
Arbitrary solid and plate-welded-sections
Graphical input for slab and beam post-tensioning
Parametric input language (CADINP)
Interactive graphical post-processing and plotting
Tabular output/Excel interface/.pdf export
FE results export for SOFiCAD reinforcement detailing and
Linear, 2nd-Order theory (P-Delta) and full geometric nonlinear
Parallel sparse-solver (32- and 64-Bit, Windows and LINUX)
Dynamic and buckling eigenvalue analysis
Construction stage analysis
Tensile failure for elastic bedding
Soil-structure interaction with elastic halfspace and pile elements
Nonlinear spring effects (crack, gap, yielding etc.)
Individual work laws for springs and hinges
Warping torsional degree of freedom for beams
Material nonlinear analysis for beams
Nonlinear RC material model for plate and shell elements
(realistic stiffness, crack prediction etc.)
Nonlinear layered shell element (e.g. steel plastification,
sandwich-glass, timber/OSB)
Global imperfections from scaled eigenmodes
Automatic determination of time-dependent effects
(creep, shrinkage and relaxation)
Library of standard steel profiles with profile family optimization
Heat transfer analysis
Loading/ Design-Features
Mesh independent loading
Load distribution surfaces/areas
Hydrostatic/Fluid loading
Wind loading (EN 1991-1-4, SNIP and physical wind profiles)
Library of earthquake spectra (EN 1998, SIA, I-DM, UBC/IBC,
SNIP etc.)
Nonlinear capacity spectra (Push-Over)
Elastic stress design, section classification, nonlinear interaction and plastification for steel sections
Centric buckling and LTB checks (EN 1993)
Steel and composite class 4 sections with automatic determination of effective widths acc. t. EN 1993-1-5
RC bending and shear design for various codes
RC serviceability and stress checks
Prestressed concrete design and stress checks
Automatic punching determination and checks
Integrated (downstand) beam design
Connection design acc. t. EN 1993 (FIDES STeelCON)

Bridge Design
General 3D FE modelling
Beam, Shell, Volume, Cable, Truss, Spring and Pile Finite
Linear, 2nd order theory (P-Delta) and full geometric nonlinear
Parallel sparse-solver (32- and 64-Bit, Windows and LINUX)
Influence line evaluation with automatic enveloping (ELLA)
Transverse influence lines for multi-girder and shell systems
Dynamic and buckling eigenvalue analysis
Linear and nonlinear construction stage analysis
Automatic determination of time-dependent effects (creep,
shrinkage and relaxation)
Contact elements for ILM
Train and Rail - Bridge interaction (Rolling stock, UIC 774-3)
System/ Cross-Sections
Axis-based parametric input technology (CABD)
Graphical axis, cross-section, super- and substructure
modeling in SOFiPLUS
Automatic cross-section interpolation along bridge axes
Non-effective cross-sectional areas
Composite sections with shear connector
Cross-sectional construction stages
Library of prestressing systems
Beam and shell prestressing
Cubic 3D spline geometry
Internal and external tendons
Friction loss calculation
Tensioning force diagrams
Load models to DIN-FB101, EN 1991-2, BS 5400, EHE,
Automatic loadcase combinations and superpositioning
Automatic track division relative to axis
Evaluation of load groups
Temperature, bearing change, wind and impact loading
Yamuna Birdge at Wazirabad, India
Architect: Ratan J. Batliboi, Mumbai
Structural Engineering: schlaich bergermann und partner

Supported Design Codes

Ultimate limit state checks (ULS)
Serviceability limit state checks (SLS)
Fatigue checks for reinforcement steel

Eurocodes EN 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1999

National Annexes of Austria, Denmark, Finnland, France,
Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, U.K.
AASHTO 2004, 2010 (LRFD), ACI 318-08, AISC 2005
AS 3600, 5100
BS 5400, 5950, 8110 (opt. HongKong Concrete Model)
DIN 1045-88, 1045-1:2008, 4227, 18800, 1052:2008
DIN-FB 102-104
DIN EN 1992-2
F-BAEL 91 revises 99
OEN 4700, 4750
SIA 262, 263, 265, 162
SNIP 52.101-2003, II 01.03-89 (GOST Certificate)
Please contact us for latest code support information

Tunneling / Geotechnics
Non-linear beam, plate or volume analysis including design
Interface and contact elements
Automatic Phi-c reduction
Construction or excavation phases (TALPA CSG)
Load history
Combined systems and renovation
Seepage, groundwater flow (HYDRA)
Drained and undrained soil conditions
Earthquake and Dynamics (DYNA)
Analytical halfspace (HASE)
Halfspace stiffness according to the stiffness coefficient method
for 3D foundation simulation (soilstructure interaction)
Specification of soil parameters via bore profiles
Layer interpolation of soil properties
FE beams in the halfspace as extended piles with optional
limiting skin friction and pile foot load
Limitation of bedding stresses
Open construction (cut and cover)
New Austrian tunneling method
Pipe jacking, Underwater tunnels
Tunnel boring machine simulation
Sequential/segmental lining
Dynamic analysis (e.g. rockfall)
3D volume systems
Angled retaining walls (FIDES)
Dam analysis
Slope failure
Hydraulic heave
Piled foundations
Dynamic soil-structure interaction (SBFEM)
Residual stress from heat of hydration
3D settlement analysis
System input
SOFiPLUS (AutoCAD)/SOFiSTiK Structural Desktop
Parametric text input (CADINP)
Material modeling
Von Mises (optional viscoplastic)
Drucker-Prager (optional viscoplastic)
Lades law
Elasto-plastic with optimized consolidation formulation
(Hardening Plasticity Soil)
Orientated shear planes (crevasse/seam/fissure)
Non-linear concrete behavior
User-defined material modeling
Integrated design for beams and shells
Reinforced concrete and structural steel checks
Non-linear beam and shell elements for realistic stiffness
simulation in construction phases
Non-linear design
Fire design for beams and shells

Parallel buckling and eigenvalue solver (32 and 64 bit)
Methods: Simultaneous Vector Iteration and Lanczos
Optional filtering for positive buckling values
Direct integration of equations of motion for time-step methods with arbitrary damping
Steady-state oscillations and excitation via spectra
Consistent/diagonalized masses and damping matrices
Spring elements, boundary and FLEX elements
Damping elements (Rayleigh)
Library of response spectra (DIN 4149, EN 1998, I-DM, SIA,
SNIP, IBC etc.)
Artificial earthquake from energy, velocity and acceleration
Sign compatible superpositioning of corresponding internal
forces for spectra
SRSS and CQC superpositioning as well as absolute additions
Harmonised CQC and SRSS superpositioning for sign
Stationary response with frequency spectra
Damping properties different for individual groups
Time-history with modal calculation and direct integration
Advanced Dynamics
Rolling stock
Train-bridge interaction
Dynamic contact problems
Dynamic soil-structure interaction with Halfspace (SBFEM)
Load functions for pedestrian loads
Determination of non-linear capacity spectra (Push-Over)
Dynamic wind properties for cross sections (incl. ScanlanDerivatives)
Production of artificial wind patterns for dynamic time-step
analysis in bridge construction

Lightweight Structures / Membranes

 nalysis of complete system with a combination of different
element types such as beams, plates, layers and shells using
materials such as steel, glass, concrete and membranes
User-defined work laws for materials and spring elements
Construction stages with primary loadcases
Full geometric nonlinear analysis
Ultimate load iteration
Plastic hinge simulation
Local and global stability checks (buckling/slenderness/LTB)
 igenvalues and Eigenforms
 lobal imperfections based on eigenforms
 uckling eigenvalues
 arping torsion
 ables with internal cable sag
 restressing of arbitrary free-form shells
 embrane elements with compression failure and shear stiffness
 ormfinding using FE method (i.e. interaction with secondary
structural system)
 utting pattern (TEXTILE)

Pedestrian Bridge Sassnitz, Germany

schlaich bergermann und partner

PGE Arena Gdask, Poland

Architect: RKW Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky
Engineering Steel-Roof and Membrane: KBP Zoltowski

1: Hospes Huerto del Emir Hotel, Murcia Client: F.C.C. Engineering: Calter Ingeniera, Madrid
2: BC Place Stadium, Vancouver Architect: Stantec, Vancouver
Engineering: schlaich bergermann und partner
3: The Yas Hotel, Abu Dhabi Architect: Asymptote Architecture, New York
Engineering Grid-Shell: schlaich bergermann und partner
4: Massetalbrcke Client: DB Netz AG Engineering: Obermeyer, SSF Ingenieure AG,
Bchting+Streit AG
5: SOFiSTiK FE System: Prestressed Flat Slab
6: Earthquake Simulation Taiwan Highspeed Railway, Hochtief AG
7: Soil-Structure Interaction between existing Metro Tunnels and Media-Bridge Building, Munich
FE-Simulation: bwp Burggraf + Reiminger GmbH
8: FE-Earthpressure and Seepage simulation of a Liftlock at River Weser, Minden
FE-Simulation: Ingenieurbro Dr. Kupfer
9: CFD simulation for a bridge cross-section Prof. Dr.-Ing. Katz, SOFiSTiK AG

Pictures front page

Bruckmannring 38
85764 Oberschleiheim
T +49 (0)89 315878-0
F +49 (0)89 315878-23

Burgschmietstr. 40
90419 Nrnberg
T +49 (0)911 39901-0
F +49 (0)911 397904

SOFiSTiK AG 2013

Authorised Value Added Reseller

Authorised Developer


SOFiSTiK AG Germany