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presented to the

LIBRARY of the
UNIVERSITY OF

TORONTO

by

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Corporate Literary

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ELECTRICAL WORKERS

STANDARD

LI

BRARY

Practicalc^uffontative- ComprehensiveZ/p to '"JOate^y^jfina (O^anuals ivr


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PUBLISHER'S
"NATIOl^AL INSTITUTE of PRACTICAL
e/ficaff^o

<.^ MECHANICS
78

-^^ US.cD^.

't

y
1985

ELECTRICAL WORKERS'
STANDARD LIBRARY
A

Complete Series of Practical Text Books Prepared


the Use of Electricians, Engineers,
Mechanics, Students, Telegraph and Telephone
Operators and Anyone Interested in Electricity.

Especially for

BY

HORSTMANN AND TOUSLEY


Assisted by a Corps of Experts, Electrical Engineers, and Designers
Connected with the National Institute of Practical Mechanics.

VOLUME
Call

Bell

IV

Annunciator Circuits, Electric Gas


and Secondary Batteries, Testing, Light,

Circuits,

Lighting, Primary

Wiring Tables, Alternating Current Motors, Transformers,


Storage Battery Connections, Economy of Conductors,
Calculation of Materials, Conduits and Wires, Tables of

Carrying Capacity, Alternating Current Wiring Tables,


Fuily Explained.

PROFUSEL Y ILL USTRA TED

PUBLISHERS

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PRACTICAL MECHANICS


CHICAGO,

U. S. A.

Copyright

1912

BY TUE
National Institute of Practical. Mechanics
Chicago, Illinois

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED
SYLVANUS

P.

THOMPSON,

Author of Elementary Lessons in Electricity and Magnetism.

C.

WALTON SWOOPE,

Author of Lessons

HENRY

S.

in Practical Electricity.

CARHART,

LL.D.,

and

HORATIO

N.

CHUTE,

M.S.,

Authors of Physics for High School Students.

ROBERT ANDREWS MILLIKAN,

Ph.D.,

and

HENRY GORDON GALE, Ph.D.,


Authors of A First Course in Physics.
FRANKLIN LEONARD POPE,
Author of Modern Practice of the Electric TelegrapL

FRANCIS

B.

CROCKER,

Author of Electric

E.M., Ph.D.,

Lishtincr.
'0**^'*'fc5>

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED

CLARK CARYL HASKINS,


Author of Electricity Made Simple,

HENRY

C.

HORSTMAN

and

VICTOR

H.

TOUSLEY,

Authors of Modern Wiring Diagrams and

L. P.

Author of

Deis^riptions.

DICKINSON,

Easy

Electrical Experiments.

FREDERICK BEDELL
and
A. C.

CREHORE,

Authors of Alternatino: Currents.

LOUIS BELL,
Author

of

The Art

H.

C.

of Illumination.

CUSHING,

Author of Standard Wiring for Electric Light and


Power.

CARL BERING,
Author of Ready Reference

Tables.

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED

R.

Author

W. HUTCHINSON,

of

Long Distance

H. F.

JR.,

Electric Power.

PARSHALL
and

HOBART,

H. M.

Authors of Electric Railway Engineering.

E.

PARRY,

'Author of Electrical Equipment of Tramways.

F. A. C.

PERRINE,

A. M. D. Sc,

Author of Conductors for Electrical Distribution.

WM. JOHN MAC QUORN RANKINE,


Late Professor of Engineering, Glasgow University.
Author of Manual of Applied Mechanics.

DR. R. H. THURSTON,
Author of Manual

of the

Steam Engine.

KENELM EDGOUMB,
Author of Electrical Engineers' Hand Book.

HENRY

M.

HOBART,

Author of Electric Motors, Their Theory and


Construction.

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED

PROF. WM. KENT,


Author of Mechanical Engineers' Reference Book.

DR.
Author

of

PROF.

PEABODY,

Manual

of

WALTER

Steam

S.

Boilers.

BUTTON,

Author of Practical Eno^ineers'

Hand

Book.

PROF. JxVMEISON,
Author of

Applied

Mechanics

Mechanics

of

Engi-

neering.

HENRY ADAMS,
Professor of Engineering, London College.

Author of Handbook for Mechanical Engineers.

WILFRID

J.

LINEHAM,

M. E., M. Inst., E. E.,


M.
Author of Text Book of Mechanical Engineering.
Inst.,

DR. A.

STODOLA
and

DR. LOUIS

C.

LOEWENSTEIN,

Authors of Steam Turbines, Gas Turbines, Heat Engines.

GEO. H. BABCOCK,
Ex-President American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED

W. GEIPEL, M.

HAMILTON KILGOUR,

M.

Inst, E. E.,

A. M.

I.

C. E.,

M.

I.

E. E.,

Authors of Pocket Book of Electrical Formulae.

T.

O'CONNOR SLOANE,

Author of Arithmetic of

A. M., E.

Electricity,

Member American

M.

Society

Member American

Standard Electrical

BARR,
of

Mechanical Engineers.

Author of Boilers and Furnaces


and Metal.

C. E.

Ph. D.,

Handy Book.

Dictionary, Electricians'

WM.

M,

KNOX,

Chimneys

of Brick

E. E.,

Institute of Electrical Engineers.

Author of Electric Light Wiring.

H. A.

H
f

FOSTER,

Author of Electrical Engineers* Pocket Book.

S.

A.

FLETCHER,

Chief Westinghouse Companies' Publishing Department.

F. H.

GALE

and

MARTIN

P.

RICE,

General Electric Companies* Publication Bureau.

Authorities Consulted

FRANCIS BACON CROCKER, M.

E., Ph.

D.

Professor of Electrical Engineering, Columbia Col-

New

lege,

SCHUYLER
Electrical

S.

York.

WHEELER,

D. Sc.

Expert of the Board of Electrical Control,

New York

City.

EDWIN JAMES HOUSTON,

Ph. D.

Professor of Physics, Franklin Institute. Pennsylvania.

ARTHUR

E.

KENNELLY,

D. Sc.

Author of Algebra Made Easy, Alternating Currents, Arc Lighting, Electric Heating, Etc.

DUGALD

C.

JACKSON,

C. E.

and

JOHN PRICE JACKSON,

M.

E.

Joint Authors of Text-Book on Electro-Magnetism and the Construction of Dynamos, and


Alternating Currents and Alternating Current Machinery.

CALVIN

F.

SWINGLE, M.

E.

Author of 20th Century Hand Book for Steam


Engineers and Electricians, etc., etc.

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED

WILLIAM ESTY,
Head

M. A.

S. B.,

of Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Lehigh


University.

DUGALD
Head

JACKSON,

C.

C. E.

of Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University


of Wisconsin.

GEORGE
Assistant

Professor

C.

SHAAD,

of

B. S.

Electrical

Engineering,

University of Wisconsin.

CHARLES THOM.
Chief Quadruplex Department, Western Union

Telegraph Company.

KEMPSTER

B.

MILLER, M.

E.

Consulting Engineer and Telephone Expert,


Ai.liior of

"American Telephone Practice."

LOUIS DERR,
Associate

Professor of
Institute

S.

B.,

Physics,

A. M.
Massachusetts

of Technology.

H. R. VAN DEVENTER, C. S. E. E.
Author of "Telephonology."

PREFACE
The National

of Practical Mechanics,

Institute

grounds of to-day are industrial and that we combat in the name of Commerce, also know that the same valour and quality
realizing that the battle

of daring

is

business.

The weapon

command

required to

nobility, but the mightiest is utility

now

peerless

and

of

the forces of

of this hour

is

the

no longer
worker is

the castes, labor

all

the

is

highest.

In order to meet the

the great need

test,

more

is

to

knowledge
of its work.
The Electrical Workers' Standard
Library has been prepared under our direction,
assist skilled labor to a

with

this idea in

scientific

mind of presenting

understood manner, the

in a clear cut,

methods and
working electrician ought
to know.
A library that one can understand
work complying in all respects with the safety rules
of the National Board of Fire Underwriters.
easily
all

latest

essential principles a

Electricity

twenty-five

is

still

years

changes that those

chosen

field

know

in

its

infancy,

has

wrought

who

are

now

that there

greater rewards sure to

come
i

is

yet the

last

wonderful

such

a success in this
still

further and

to those

who meet


PREFACE

11

the test she offers

of the

many

in

furtherance and perfection

secrets she

The National

yet to divulge.

is

Institute

of Practical Mechanics,

following out her plan of instruction which has


proven so successful in the past in teaching scientific principles, has combined its many years of experience in teaching with the practical experience

of trained electricians and engineers and presents

an acknowledged authority, that

is

no longer an

experiment.
It

presents to the beginner or electrician a com-

and compact

plete
tion

Work,

on Electrical Construc-

treatise

a reliable guide for installing

the most improved method

and

work

in

especially in ac-

^making

the arti-

san's finished product absolutely standard

and cor-

cordance with the Safety Rules


rect.

We
all

have aimed throughout the volumes

to cover

elementary principles in detail and give neces'

in simple

Many

and especially to furnish


and non-technical form.

sary tables

test questions are

all

formulae

furnished for practice

as a helper to the student in fixing the essentials

and rudiments in his mind, thereby combining in


the one set, a textbook, a ready reference, a quizzer, that lead .to that great asset, a permanent and
lasting knowledge of the subject.
We gratefully acknowledge our indebtedness to
the corps of electrical experts who have assisted us
so kindly, and to their generous aid and their hearty
support in our behalf this work is due.

PREFACE

The work has been


plumb

line,

111

tried with the spirit level

the straight line

is

now

and

the shortest dis-

tance to the given point.

Go back

to School.

to page 2 until you


plish volumes, the

Select the text.

know page

I.

Don't turn

You'll accom-

weary hours of searching

scat-

tered text books will be abandoned and that your

need

is

presented

is

the hope of the compilers.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER

I.

Page.

Call Bell Circuits, Bells, Dynamo Connections.

CHAPTER

II.

Annunciator Circuits

21

CHAPTER

III.

Fire and Burglar Alarms

28

CHAPTER

IV.

Telephone and Telegraph Circuits

CHAPTER

....

43

V.

Electric Gas Lighting

53

CHAPTER

VI.

Primary and Secondary Batteries

CHAPTER

....

58

VII.

Connecting Up, Locating Trouble

68

CHAPTER VIIL
Miscellaneous

78

CHAPTER
Electric Lighting

...

IX.

CHAPTER

X.

....

Arc Lamps, Nernst Lamp, Cooper Hewitt Lamp

CHAPTER
Recording Wattmeters

89

106

XI,
115

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

XII.

Page.

Direct Current Motors

CHAPTER

121

XIII.

Automobiles, Charging Stations, Gas Engines

143

Direct and Alternating Current Generators, Compensators

151

CHAPTER XV.
Alternating Current Motors, Transformers

168

CHAPTER

XIV.

CHAPTER
Armatures

XVI.
185

CHAPTER

XVII.

Switchboards, Ground Detectors

CHAPTER
Storage Battery Connections

CHAPTER

188

XVIII.
.

200

XIX.

Testing

203

CHAPTER XX.
j

Light

217

CHAPTER XXI.
j

Wiring Tables

221
]

CHAPTER

XXII.

Electric Signs, Flashers, Display Lighting

229

INDEX
Absorption of

light, 276.
Alternating current generator, 182.
Alternating current motor, 196.

Annunciator

circuits, 21.

telephone, 47.
Arc-circuits, 105.

dynamo,

Candle-power, test for, 276.


Capacity, 230.
Carbons, consumption cf, 275.
Cascade connection for motors, 206,
Charging circuits for automobile**
163.

167.

storage batteries, 18, 250.


Circle, area of, 95.

lamps, A. C, 117.
lamps, D. C, 116.
switchboard, 236.
Armatures, 233.

Circular mills, 95.

Circumference of
Compensator, D.

Arresters, lightning, 49.

Automatic cutout, gas

circle, 95.

C,

177.

alternating current, 198.

lighting, 65.

in parallel, 180.

Automobiles, 159.

Compound wound dynamo,

Auto-starter, 212.

Auto-transformer, 198.

motor, 134.
Condenser, 89.

Battery, dry, 69.

Connecting

170.

action of, 226.

grouping

of, 66.

secondary, 71.
tese of, 84.

^et, 68.

Bell circuits, 7.

Cooper-Hewitt lamp, 122.


Copper wire, dimensions of, 283,

control of, 11.


differential, 14.

on dynamo

bell circuits, 76.

incandescent circuits, 231.


Continuous ringing attachmenta,
Controller, motor, 152.
A. C. motor, 211.
Convertible system, 98, 108.

resistance of, 72.

resistance of, 96.

circuit, 16.

weight

polarized, 16.

of, 95.

short-circuit, 14.

Counter E. M. F., 229.


Cumulative winding, 134.

single stroke, 15.

Current, induced, 58.

Booster, 250.

Bridging system, telephones, 44.


Brush arc lamp, 116.
armature, 234.

Differential bell, 14.

winding on motor, 134.

Bunsen photometer, 276.

Direction of current, 86, 90,


Discount meter, 129.

Burglar alarms, 28.

Divided

circuits, 92.

Door opener,
Callow's

constant

ment, 34.

ringing

attach-

7.

Drum armature,
Dynamo current

185, 233.
for bells, 16, 391

IflL

INDEX
Dynamo, A. C,

single-phase, 182.

arc, 177.

compound wound,

Monogram

170.

direct current, 131.

Edward's condenser system,

63.

reversing, A.

C,

197.

D. C, 135.
series wound, 131.
shunt wound, 133.
reversing,

Electric signs, 285.

Electrolytic interrupter, 60.

A.

controller,

C.

motor,

single-phase, 201.

216.

synchronous-, 196.

signals, 113.

End

letter, 290.

Motor, compound wound, 134.

wound, 167.
shunt wound, 168.

series

Elevator

Magneto, testing with, 263.


Monocyclic generator, 187.

three-phase, 199.

switch, 250.

cell

Equalizer, 174.
Fire alarm system, 28.

Nernst lamp, 121.


Neutral wire, 176.

Flashers for electric signs, 285.


Fort Wayne single-phase motor, 204.

Ohm's law, 91.


Organ controller,

Frequency meter, 222.


Fusing currents, 284.

Over-compounding, 171.
Overload starting box, 137.

Gas

143.

lighting circuits, 61.

Generator, monocyclic, 187.


single-phase, 185.

ring armature, 229.

connections, 7.

detectors,

in, 171, 191.

&

Wilkins annunc'*

ator system, 25.

three-wire, 182.

Ground

dynamos

Partrick, Carter

three-phase, 190.

Gramme

Parallel wires in, 281.

D. C, 243.

detectors, A. C, 247.
Incandescent light circuits, 97.

lamps as resistance,

17, 165.

lamps, eflBciency of, 273.


lamps, wattage of, 263.
Induction coil, 58, 89.
Induction motor, 196.

Photometer, 276.
Polarized bell, 16.
Power factor, 231.

Power

factor meter, 222.

Printing press controller, 139, 144,


152.

Pump motor

controller, 141.

Rawson & Evans

Flasher, 286.

Recording wattmeters, 125.


Rectifier,

mercury

arc, 256.

Intercommunicating telephone, 45.

Reinforcing wires, 125.

Interrupter, current, 59.

Remote

Iron wire, resistance


weight of, 96.

Repeater, telegraph, 50.

of, 96.

Joints in wires, 278.

Jump

spark, 163.

control, 107.

Resistance of batteries, 72.


Return call annunciators, 24.
bell circuits, 7.

Self induction, 229.

Light, intensity of, 273.

Lines of force, 86.


Long shunt, 171.
Losses, on wires, 277.

on three-wire system, 176.


Magnetism, 94.

Separate exciter, 195.


Series arc circuit, 110.

arc

dynamo,

167.

incandescent circuit, 109.


motors for constant current, 150.
motors for constant potential, 131.

INDEX
Short-circuit bell, 14.
Short-circuits

on

bell syBtema, 83.

test for, 259.

Short shunt, 171.


Shunt motor, 133.
multiplying power

dynamo,

of, 93.

168.

Signs, electric, 285.

Single-phase armature, 234.

dynamo,

182.

motor, 201.
Single stroke bell, 15.
Split phase motors, 203.

Testing board, A. C, 220.


Testing incandescent circuits, 259.
T.-H. arc switchboard, 238.
armature, 234.
Theater switchboard, 112.
Three-phase armature, 235.
system, lights on, 100.
Three-wire generator, 182, 190.
system, 97.
Transferring arc circuits, 236.
Transformers, 226.
Tree system, 97.
Trouble, locating on bell systems, 79

Starting, A. C. motors, 198.

Underload starting box, 137.

box, 137.
switch, A. C. motors, 209.

Storage batteries, 71.


circuits for automobiles, 159.
connections, 250.
Street car

motor

testing with, 263.

formula for

test, 265.

circuit, 147.

Switchboard, arc, 236.


direct current, 240.

theater, 112.

Synchronous motor, 196.


Synchroscopes, 191, 226.

Tandem

connection for motors, 206.


Teaser wire, 187.
Telautograph, 52.
Telegraph circuits, 49.

Voltmeter conn:;ctions, 213.

repeaters, 50.

Telephone circuits, 43.


Test for insulation resistance, 84.

Wagner

shigle-phase motor, 201.


Watts, definition of, 94.
Wattage of incandescent lamps, 273.
Wattless current, 231.
Wattmeter, recording, 125.
Western Electric Co. arc dynamo^
167.

Wheatstone bridge, 266. 270.


test with, 263.

Wiring tables, 277.


Wright discount met^r, 130.
X-ray, 67.

MODERN
WIRING DIAGRAMS AND DESCRIPTIONS.

CHAPTER
CALI. BELl. CIRCUITS.

I.

BELLS.

DYNAMO CONNEC-

TIONS.

Figure 1 shows a simple

bell

circuit with extra

wires for a door opener to be operated

A
FIGURE

^E
ity of the bell.
left

vicin-

1.

In this diagram the wire

may

be

out and two ground connections used as shown

at E.

from the

y^

WIRING DIAGRAMS

may

and

call

also receive

an answering ring as an

indication that the signal has been heard.

Figure S shows another method of wiring to accomplish the same purpose as the foregoing figure.

In this case the

must

also be

Two

This method

bells are in series.

quires greater battery

power and one of the

re-

bells

arranged to act single stroke.

ordinary circuit breaking

bells

will

not act

well in series as for instance the one having the stiff er

spring or slightly weaker magnet would always lag

']

behind the other never coming to a full stroke.

The

Qniiiii

FIGURE

advantage of
the caller to

3.

arrangement

this

know (by

that the one at the other end


single stroke bell

and the

circuit

the employer

is

is

that

the ringing of his


is

it

enables

own

ringing.

bell)

If the

located at the employer's end

breaking

may know

bell at the attendant's

end

absolutely that the bell at

the other end rings when the one at his station does,
since
cuit

it

is

the attendant's bell which breaks the cir-

and causes the one

one station (which

may

at his

own desk

to ring.

At

b^ taken as the attendant's)

CALL BELL CIRCUITS

shown a 3-waj switch by which the attendant may change his bell from vibrating to single

there

is

This

stroke.
bell

may

will enable

him

noticed only by one near

^
^

it

From

stations.

single

stroke

station

is

may

be

it.

A
FIGURE 4.

Figure 4 shows one

two

to arrange so that the

attract general attention or that

bell

arranged to be rung from

one of the stations

and the ringing

will

it

will act

indicate which

calling.

QD Q QD
f?

F?

FIGURE

f^

5.

Figure 5 shows a number of bells arranged to be


rung from one push button. With this method it is
essential that the battery be of low internal resist-

ance and of ample current capacity.

may

be obtained by grouping the

the figure;
cells
cell

it

is,

This result

cells as

shown

in

however, preferable to use large

singly rather than smaller ones in multiple.

WIRING DIAGRAM?

10

Figure 6 shows connections by which either of the


right hand pushes will ring the single bell near battery, while
bells

may

from the station at battery the other two

be rung with one push button.

D
FIGURE

6.

Figure 7 shows two bells arranged with one wire


and grounds so that parties at either end may call.
This method is economical in regard to wire but re-

and 3-way push at each end. The


push buttons must normally keep the line closed
from bell to bell, leaving the battery circuits open.
When a push button is pressed the battery at that end
quires a battery

rings the bell at the other.

Qa I
FIGURE

Figure 8 shows a
controlled

from

1
bell so

either

7.

connected that

of two stations.

it

may

be

If both

switches are set to the same wire the bell rings.

If

CALL BELL CIRCUITS


moved

11

either

switch

stops.

The advantage of this method lies in the fact


may be left to ring continuously or
desired.
At one station the wiring is arranged

is

to

the other wire the bell

that the bell

not as

>
FIGURE

8.

for a double throw knife switch and at the other end


for a 3-way snap switch.

Figure 9 shows an arrangement of switches which


enables one to turn the bells on or off at

any number of

stations.

These

FIGURE

may

any one of
and

bells are in series

9.

be left to ring continuously or not as desired.

diagram throw-over knife switches, snap


and specially designed switches are shown
to illustrate the different ways of attaining the same
In

this

switches

object.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

12

Figure 10 shows two


the switch

bells

so that either

connected by means of

may

be used alone or both

B==Mn
FIGURE

together.
alone.

With

the

If the switch

switch as
is

g=?^

10.

shown b

will

turned to 2 and 2^ both

ring
bells

CALL BELL CIRCUITS

13

Figure 11 shows the manner of wiring commonly


used
It

connection

in

may

with

speaking

tube

systems.

Any

also be used with interior telephones.

station is able to call and may also be called from


any other station. Only one battery is used and
from one of its poles one wire connects to all of the

From

push buttons.

the

other pole

another wire

passes to one binding post of each bell.

From

the

other binding post of each bell wires are then run


to

the corresponding push buttons at each of the

other stations.

Figure 12 shows an arrangement of wiring often


used in connection with

push buttons
first

One

buildings.

set

of

arranged at the main entrance on

is

usually

floor

flat

boxes

and

of push buttons

may

together with

Another

speaking tubes.

set

letter

also be placed one at the front door of each flat.

This enables the

bell to

be rung either from main

entrance or from entrance to

flat.

In addition to

these, three

diff'erent

connections are shown in the

three

In

a buzzer has been added and

is

flats.

flat 1

connected to ring from rear door.

In

flat

2 the

bell

rings from main hall, front door and rear

entrance.

In this case small signs requesting par-

same

ring a certain number of times will be found


very useful at front and rear doors. In flat 3, buzzer and bell will ring from main entrance; the buzzer

ties to

alone will ring from rear entrance and the bell alone

WIRING DIAGRAMS

14

Three-way pushes are used

from front entrance.


for front and rear door.

Figure 13 shows the plan of a

two

coils

are

when current

wound

When

through one

coil

ture,

which in turn

other

coil.

is

Both

current

first

it

the circuit through the

closes

coils

applied at

is

only; this attracts the arma-

now

balance,

and the armature

producing the same vibrations as in

released, thus

an ordinary

The

flowing through both there will be

is

no magnetism.
flows

differential bell.

to oppose one another, so that

bell.

=^
FIGURE

FIGURE

13.

Figure 14 shows a short


rent in

its

circuit bell.

14.

The

circuit is never broken, but, as the

cur-

mag-

nets attract the armature, the spring in connection

with
coil

it closes

the shunt circuit and this deprives the

of current, thus destroying

releasing

its

armature.

its

magnetism and

This, and also the diff^eren-

CALL BELL CIRCUITS


tial

will

bell,

operate with

ordinary vibrating

higher

of

cuits

bell,

less

15

sparking than an

and both are useful on

The

voltage.

short-circuit

should be used only on circuits where other


ances prevent any

great rise in current.

ordinary battery circuit

Figure 15 shows a

it

may

bell

be

made

bell

On an

arranged to act either

For temporary purposes


by simply

to act single stroke

adjusting the vibrator spring so that

open the

resist-

would not be useful.

single stroke or vibrating.

cir-

bell

it

does not

circuit.

Ky^ o--

FIGURE

FIGURE

15.

Figure 16 shows a
attachment.
falls

2.

As

with continuous ringing

the armature

and completes the

From

bell

this post

16.

circuit

is

attracted the lever

through binding post

a wire leads to the battery and

completes the circuit through post 1.

This attach-

^^^ may be added to any of the other


^^m ment

bells.

The

WIRING DIAGRAMS

16
bell

will

placed in

continue to ring until the


its

little

lever

is

normal position.

Figure 17 shows the arrangement of a polarized


This

bell.

bell

may

be used in connection with

ternating currents, and


telephone work.

is

al-

the type generally used in

This type of

bell

may

also be used

with continuous currents when provisions for revers-

ing are made; and in this way can be made to act


as a single stroke bell, each reversal of current caus-

ing one stroke.

^^oC::^

It

is

often desirable to operate bells from electric

light circuits, either direct or through suitable stor-

age

may

batteries.

For

be placed in

this
series

purpose incandescent lamps


with the

bell

system, and

by choosing lamps of the proper candle power and


voltage any necessary current

may

be obtained. There

are also special resistances designed for this purpose

may
may be

which

take the place of lamps shown in diagram

or

placed one with each

jection to lamps as

shown

bell.

in the

The main

ob-

diagrams would

CALL BELL CIRCUITS


be encountered

when

17

several bells in a system are to

be used at the same time; since only a certain

amount

of current can pass through the lamps, only one bell

work properly.

This

by placing a lamp or

resist-

at a time can be arranged to

trouble can be avoided

ance in series with each

shown

it

is

One lamp on one

in diagrams.

circuit

side of the

to insure proper operation, but

sufficient

is

and leaving out those

bell

advisable to use one on each side, as shown in

the figure, to prevent serious

be caused by grounds

if

damage which might

one side only contained re-

sistance.

If

dynamo

current

is

to be brought into connec-

tion with bells, the wiring

and insulation should be

fully equal to that required for incandescent wiring.

Push-buttons should be mounted on fireproof bases

and no inflammable material should be used either


within or about the

When

bells.

the ordinary incandescent

resistance,

it

must be borne

of the lamp when cold

is

in

lamp

is

mind that the

very

much

used for
resistance

greater than

when hot or burning; varying in the ordinary 110


volt 16 c. p. lamp from 900 ohms cold to 220 ohms
hot.

If the

current
if

is

lamp

is

to be used in a circuit where the

low the cold resistance must be figured, but

the current approaches that at which the

lamp

burns the hot resistance must be figured, othenvise


the rise in current

age the instruments

when the lamp heats might damin the circuit.

To

overcome

this>

WIRING DIAGRAMS

18
special

lamps are made to be used on

the current

is

In Figure 18 an arrangement
the battery

is

attracts

its

where

is

shown by which

automatically disconnected when the

is

FIGURE

dynamo

circuits

low.

18.

The magnet when

in operation.

energized

armature, thus breaking the battery

cir-

cuit

and completing the dynamo connections to the

bell

system.

When

the

dynamo

current

ceases

spring draws the armature back again, closing the


battery circuit.

E^
Tohelh

)fator

-T_
FIGURE

Figure 19 shows two

a throw-over
bells

switch.

the other

is

19.

batteries, each provided with

While one

charging.

is

operating the

The dynamo

current

CALL BELL CIRCUITS

19

never comes in contact with the bell wiring and no


po^^ o^ ^^^
The
extra insulation is necessary.

dynamo must connect

to

pole of battery always, in

order to charge.

FIGURE

20.

Figure 20 shows dynamo connections direct to the


bells

and a primary battery provided

when dynamo

to operate bella

is at rest.

FIGURE

21.

Figure 21 also shows direct dynamo connectio^j to


In this diagram a master circuit

the bell wiring.

breaker in the form of a buzzer or bell


into the circuit,

ing
is

may

and the

bells

often causes

introduced

throughout the build-

be arranged single stroke.

always more

is

The sparking

destructive with high potential,

much

and

trouble with ordinary cheap bells;

therefore this circuit breaker should be of high grade

WIRING DIAGRAMS

20

and located convenient to engineer or janitor,

may

be kept in order.

This

so

it

circuit breaker should

also be selected with reference to the bells used, as

it

must not vibrate faster than the natural vibration


of the

bells.

CHAPTER
ANNUNCIATOR

II.

CIECUITS.

Figures 22, 23 and 24 show diagrammatical representations of ordinary annunciators.

In Figure 22

two annunciators are shown, one to be located

in the

kitchen or hall and the other perhaps in the servant's

bedroom.

By

means of the switches

1, 2, 3, the

push

buttons are connected to either one of the annunciators as

may

be desired.

The

bell

annunciator has a continuous

connected with each

ringing attachment

shown by the extra wire attached to the middle bind-

FIGURE
ing post.

The overthrow

necessary but

is

22.

switch S

is

not absolutely

quite desirable as a safeguard

it

sometimes happens that the continuous ringing at-

21

WIRING DIAGRAMS

22

tachment

falls,

and without

this switch the bell

would

ring and run battery down, even though the annun<;.tor

were disconnected by the switches

a
WW

1, 2, 3.

QD
FIGURE

23.

Figure 23 shows a method of connecting- two annunciators which should be avoided.

With

just the

right battery strength and accurate adjustment of

drops

it

may work

fairly well for a time, but sooner

ii.

Q.
a

'Lk

& 1Q
H'H'h
FIGURE
or later

it will

the circuits

24.

result in confusion.

it will

are several paths which the current

one

is

others.

more

direct

By

tracing out

be seen that from any push there

and has

less

may

take although

resistance than the

ANNUNCIATOR CIRCUITS

23

Pigure 24 shows an annunciator to which have

and

been added the switches

1, 2, 3,

leading to the three

shown below

bells

also the wires

ated at once.

The switches
may be oper-

it.

are mechanically connected so that all

These switches serve to disconnect the

annunciator magnets and at the same time to con-

push buttons.

nect the three bells with the

switches set to the magnets, the current

With

the

from any

push button passes through the corresponding magWith


net and through the single bell at the right.
the switches set to the wires leading to the bells the

cuirent passes through the corresponding bell without

FIGURE
[disturbing the single

bell.

jether are of different


ite

25.

The

three bells

sound and the ring

shown towill indi-

location of the caller without the necessity of

[looking at the annunciator.

This

may

be useful in

V7IRING

24

DIAGRAMS

many

residences where the

ciator

is

located

is

room

it

is

call

annunciator system

frequently used in hotels, where

sary that a guest


called

which the annun-

not always occupied.

Figure 25 shows a return


as

in

from the

may

office.

it

is

neces-

call the office as well as

be

This system requires one bat-

tery and two leading wires for each room, one leading

wire passing from each room to the annunciator, while

another passes from each push to one of the

bells lo-

cated in rooms.

FIGURE

26.

Figure S6 shows another system of annunciator


This

wiring for the same purpose as Figure 25.

system requires only

one leading wire

room, but two general battery wires.

from each

One battery

wire leads to each bell and to the annunciator, while

ANNUNCIATOR CIRCUITS
the other leads to one point of each

25

push button.

Three-way push-buttons are used in the rooms and


Pressing any of the buttons
at the annunciator.
1, 2, 3, will operate the annunciator, while

any

pressing

of the buttons at the annunciator will ring the

bell in the

corresponding room.

FIGURE

27.

Figure 27 shows diagrammatically the wiring used


in the Partrick, Carter

which

is

&

Wilkins annunciator system,

quite extensively used.

wires are necessary,

and

to the corresponding

also

Two

general battery

one wire from each room

drop on the annunciator.

Two

three-way pushes, one at the annunciator and one in


each room, are also necessary.

These push-buttons

are mounted on bells and on annunciator respectively,

making the whole arrangement very compact.

With

reference to each other, the polarities of the two sets

of batteries must be as shown.

If

it

were otherwise

WIRING DIAGRAMS

26

both batteries, acting in


bells

and attract

all

series,

pushed at the same time.

By

seldom occur.

circuits thus

all

of the

of the annunciator needles when-

ever the two push-buttons

2 the

would ring

on the same wire were


This

will,

means of the dotted

however, very
lines at 1

and

formed can be readily traced.

an

0^'

IF

D
FIGURE

28.

The annunciator magnets used in this system are


made so as to partially retain their magnetism after
the current ceases to flow, in order to hold the indicator until an attendant releases

it.

The magnets

are magnetized in a certain direction before the an-

and it is advisable to connect


the battery so that this magnetism is not reversed.
nunciator

is

sent out,

ANNUNCIATOR CIRCUITS
The binding

27

post on annunciator to which the zinc

pole of battery should be connected

is

plainly

indi-

cated on each instrument.

must not be understood that the

It

P., C.

& W.

annunciators can be used with this method of wiring


only

in fact, either of the

25 or 26 are applicable
ferred where

may

it is

to

methods shown
it,

likely that at

be connected with

in

Figures

Figure 25 being pre-

some time telephones

it.

Figure 28 shows an arrangement of annunciators


which

is

quite economical in hotels or restaurants,

where there

is

ent hours.

Each floor has an annunciator which inroom sending a call, and each of these

dicates the

annunciators

a great variation in business at differ-

is

in series with one

annunciator located at the main


cates the floor

from which the

drop of another

office

call

and which

indi-

The

bells

came.

located with annunciators on the different floors are

each provided with a switch, by which any one of

them may be made

to act single stroke or be cut out

During busy hours an attendant is kept


on each floor and the bells are set to act independently, while the annunciator and bells at the main office
are cut out altogether by the switch shown. During

altogether.

slack hours the bells on the different floors

may

cut out and an attendant stationed at the main


only.

may

The

figure shows switches

be cut out.

by which the

be

office

bells

CHAPTER

III.

AND BURGLAR ALARMS.

FIRE

Figure 29 shows a number of annunciators arto act as a manual fire alarm. When an^^ one

ranged

of the switches S

on each
which

floor,

is

closed

it

causes a bell to ring

and each annunciator

floor the

alarm came.

indicates

from

Independent batteries

are provided for each floor to insure greater reliability,

as one battery failing will disable one floor

only.

The

batteries

diagram, so that

must

all will

all

be arranged as shown in

send current in the same di-

rection.

Figure 30 shows the building system of the Consolidated Fire

Alarm Telegraph Company, of New

York, and the description here given

from a memorandum furnished by

this

is

condensed

company

to

the Underwriters' Bureau of Fire Engineering, and

which forms part of Electrical Signal Report No. 14.

The house wiring used with


entirely of

two parallel

this

system consists

circuits led

throughout the

building in close proximity.

At

suitable intervals,

by the local insurance boards, thermoand manual switches, D, are installed. The

as required
stats, c,

current flows continuously through both circuits, in-

cluding the magnets

and B.
28

The magnet

while

FIRE

AND BDKGLAR ALARMS

29

energized holds at rest a transmitting device which,

when

released, automatically causes a fire signal to be

sent in.

FIGURE

In order to send
both

coils

29.

in a fire signal, it

of magnet

is

necessary that

be de-energized; this will oc-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

30

cur only when both

lines are

broken, either through

the melting of a fuse in each

FIGURE
one of the manual switches.

are

wound

line,

or

by means of

30.

The two

in opposite directions,

coils of magnet
and hence there

AND BURGLAR ALARMS

FIRE
is

31

no magnetism while current flows equally


Should,

lines.

however,

any variation

both

in

current

in

strength occur in either of the lines the balance

now

once destroyed, and the armature being


releases a transmitting device

alarm.

may

at

is

attracted

which sends in a trouble

In order that any possible electrical defect

disturb the balance of the

magnet

and send

in a trouble alarm, the battery in one of the lines

The

of higher voltage than the other.

is

resistance of

the magnets and lines vary in the same proportion,


so that normally the current in both lines

M'.

The double

contact springs

keep the outside circuit

and M' are provided

X-Y

equal.

is

Part of the transmitting devices are shown at

and

and \J normally

The

closed.

to connect the

springs

ground

by

means of projections on the contact wheels, whenever


the double contact springs close on any of the other
projections.

In this way, by means of the ground,

signals are transmitted, even though the circuit

X-Y

be broken somewhere.

In view of the importance of the grounds

and P,

they are placed under constant test by means of the

battery O, which maintains current from

through the relay N.


ture of

If this current

short-circuits the

trouble call to be sent

in.

main

fails,

to

wires, causing

Whenever a

the arma-

fire

alarm oc-

curs the transmitting device revolves the cylinder G.

This cylinder, by means of raised teeth, engages the


contact springs of wires led to

it

from the

different

WIRING DIAGRAMS

32
floors,

and

way

in this

magnet

controls the

in the an-

nunciator H, which moves the pointer forward one


step for each impulse received.

When

a point be-

yond the broken line is reached, the impulses cease


and the pointer stops, indicating the location of the
fire.

The

cylinder

ringing circuit

so

is

arranged that the local

closed only

is

when a

fire

alarm

is

sent in.

\^

^M

FIGURE

31.

Figure 31 shows an annunciator arranged as a


burglar alarm.

When

used for this purpose

it

is

usual to have the bell arranged to ring continuously

when once

started.

for what

known

is

It

is

also necessary to

as the silent test.

each circuit leaving the annunciator


a,

switch by which

it

may

For
is

this

arrange
purpose

provided with

be disconnected during the

FIRE AND BURGLAR ALARMS

33

day to avoid giving an alarm whenever a door or win-

dow

is

opened.

When

night the switch S


circuit

is

then thrown in singly, and

window has been

left

without ringing the


switch

is

ready to close the house at

turned to connect at 1

is

open the drop

bell.

When

if

each

any door or

will indicate it

all is in

order the

turned to 2, thus completing the circuit

FIGURE

through the

bell.

The

32.

dotted lines show the wiring

for the continuous ringing attachment as shown in

Figure 16, Chapter I.


With burglar alarm systems

it

is

quite usual to

connect the wiring through a suitably arranged clock,

which can be made to connect or disconnect the wiring


at certain hours.

Provision

which the current, when

may

also be

made by

releasing the annunciator

WIRING DIAGRAI.1S

34

drop, also releases a weight or spring, allowing them


to operate a mechanical bell.

Figure 32 shows the same annunciator and

bell

arranged to act as a combination burglar alarm and


house annunciator.
test has been

made

The same
as in

provision for silent

Figure 31.

The

solid lines

show the wiring for window and door springs, while


the dotted lines indicate wiring to push buttons. By
means of the four switches shown on the annunciator,
the window and door circuits

may

be shut off during

the day, leaving only the push buttons connected.

The push buttons are always in circuit,


alarm may be turned in at any time.
In

this figure

an extra

bell is

connected in series with the

ing the switch S to point

shown, which

annunciator

In

3.

an

so that

bell

may

be

by mov-

this case the current

entering through any drop of the annunciator will

pass through both bells and the magnet


switch S and the battery.

to point 3,

Current passing through

A, allowing the switch to

attracts the armature

drop, thus closing the battery circuit through both


The extra
bells, causing them to ring continuously.

wiring for this purpose

is

shown

in dotted lines.

Figure 33 shows an attachment for constant ringThis consists of a


is known as Callows.

ing which

magnet provided with two


button

is

coils as

shown.

pressed current passes around

this attracts the

armature A, which

connection with the battery.

is

When
coil 1,

the

and

also in electrical

part of the current

FIRE AND BURGLAR ALARMS


now

35

passes along the armature to the wire leading to

the bell, and at the junction

passing through the


of the magnet.

bell

The

it

divides, one-half

and the other around

coil

current passing around coil 2

FIGURE

33.

keeps the armature in position while the current in


the bell

is

interrupted.

If the switch

bell will ring only while the button

this

is

open the

With

attachment the switch controlling the constant

ringing

may

be at any distance from the

FIGURE

Figure 34 shows a closed

bell.

34.

circuit

burglar alarm.

always flowing along the main

Current

is

current,

by means of relay R, keeps the

is

pressed.

line.

This

local bell cir-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

36
cult open.

Whenever the main

where the relay armature

and causing the

local circuit

also

circuit

flies

is

opened any-

back, closing the

bell to ring.

This figure

shows combination wiring, whereby the

be used single stroke for calling.

bell

may

Switches are pro-

vided at 1, 2 and 3, and arranged so that connection


is

made with the

circuit

shown

in dotted lines before

While current passes


through
the relay only. When one of the buttons makes connection with any of the wires shown in dotted lines,
that in the full lines

is

broken.

along the wires shown in

full lines it passes

The

the current passes through the bell and relay.


bell

is

arranged single stroke for calling, but

ring vibrating when the relay closes the local

FIGURE

35.

Figure 35 shows a -simple closed


alarm.

In

will

circuit.

circuit

burglar

this case the current passes continuously

through the

bell

tures attracted.

magnets and keeps the

bell

arma-

In this way the local circuits B',

B"

are kept open as long as current from the closed cir-

FIRE
cuit battery

AND BURGLAR ALARMS

37

through the magnets.

When-

flows

ever the main wires are opened both bells will ring

continuously.

Short-circuiting the main wires will

also cause one or both bells to ring, according to loca-

tion of the short circuit.

useful arrangement,

number of

bells in

This

is

a very simple and

and may be extended

to

any

a building.

If crow foot batteries are to be used in connection

with this system the

bells

must be

the ordinary bell has not a sufficient

wound;
number of turns

specially

of wire to operate properly with the small currents


obtainable from these batteries.

FIGURE

36.

Figure 36 shows a burglar alarm system using


Both circuits are run
circuits.

both open and closed


to each opening.

The wiring

is

the same as in Figure

WIRING DIAGRAMS

38

31, and the three closed circuits passing through the

While current

three relays, 1, 2, 3, have been added.

passes through these relays their armatures are attracted; if

armature

any

circuit

is

back and

flies

opened the corresponding

closes the circuit

corresponding drop on the annunciator.

through the
This system

when
provision must be made

requires a closed circuit battery, and,

kinds of

cells

are used,

the battery at work if the annunciator


for any great length of time.

As

is

certain
to

keep

disconnected

here shown, the

battery will always be at work unless a window or

door in each section

is

open.

FIGURE

Figure 37

shov/s

37.

an annunciator as

either as a fire or burglar alarm.

magnet M, an

electric circuit

is

it

may

By means

be used
of the

closed whenever con-

FIRE AND BURGLAR ALARMS

39

made by one of the push buttons or contact


springs. With each electric light, L, an electric bell
is placed, and whenever the alarm is set off bells will
tact

is

ring in the different sections and a general illumina-

The

tion will take place.

used for this purpose

bells

should be of the tjpe shown in Figures 13 or 14,

and should be carefully installed,


may be no grounding or bad contacts.
Chapter

The

I,

electric light circuit here

any of the

to

so there

shown may be added

closed or open circuit burglar alarm

systems described by simply arranging a magnet like

M,

which, by attracting or releasing

allows the switch


circuit.

Any

used as a

fire

S to

fall

and

its

burglar alarm annunciator

alarm

armature,

close the electric light

if suitable

may

also be

thermostats are con-

nected with the wiring, arranged to open or close the

when the temperature

circuit

rises

above a certain

point.

Figure 38 shows a system of burglar alarm wiring


which can be used when some special object
protected.

This object

may

is

to be

be a safe, vault or room,

and may be located any distance from the alarm

sta-

tion.

In the diagram

which

By

is

is

coil

of any chosen resistance,

to be placed inside the object to be protected.

tracing the circuits

it

will be seen that

current

from battery B, which is a closed circuit battery,


flows through this coil and through a closed circuit

WIRING DIAGRAMS

40

burglar alarm spring G, thence through magnet

R''

back to battery.

Another

circuit

running from the same

M, back

goes through magnets R'' and

When

is

current

is

flowing from battery

held in a balanced position

and R''

(this

is

facilitated

shown), and the armature

FIGURE
the local bell circuit open.
is

is

the line running to

attracted.

This holds

38.

If the line running to


R'' ceases,

The armature

by magnet R'' and the

the armature

midway between R'

by means of springs as

opened, the current through

comes demagnetized.

batter}*

to battery.

is

and

be-

then attracted

bell circuit is closed at

is

it

F.

If

short-circuited, the increased

current in R' attracts the armature and the bell circuit

is

closed at F'.

If for any reason the battery

FIRE

AND BURGLAR ALARMS


magnet

gives out, the

armature

circuit.

is

demagnetized and the

closes the bell circuit.

not in use the switch S

alarm

M
is

41

When

alarm

is

thrown over, opening the

This device was designed and patented

by G. B. Lehy, of Medford, Mass.


/

WIRING DIAGRAMS

42

In systems of

this

kind the wires

braided into cables, and

it will

may

be very

be twisted or

difficult to

de-

termine which wires must be short-circuited or cut in


order to

make

the alarm ineffective.

The

switch

is

provided to cut the alarm bell in or out of use as desired.

This arrangement

on "Haus

is

Max Linder's book


and was devised by O.

taken from

Telegraphic,"

Schoeppe, of Germany.

CHAPTER

IV.

TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH

CIRCUITS.

Figure 40 shows diagrammatically the connections


of an ordinary telephone instrument when in use.

While the
cuit

is

receiver

hangs on the hook, the

complete through the polarized

neto generator to ground.

This

is

bell

line cir-

and mag-

the connection

when the instrument is not in use. T is the transmitter, and it is in series with a small induction coil and

f^

iMMk^

^^O

^:C^9/^:Z^

^^-UBJ
FIGURE
battery, which

shown; the
telephone

is

is

EXWH

40.

connected with the local circuit as

local battery circuit

not in use.

being open when the

The magneto generator

is

usually provided with a shunt circuit, which allows

the calling currents from other stations to pass around


it

and ring the

bell.

The generator
43

is

so arranged

WIRING DIAGRAMS

44

that this circuit


dle

is

automatically opened when the han-

is

turned.

Figure 41 shows the connections of the bridging


bell system.

ple

In this system the

bells are all in multi-

The

resistance of the bell

and always

magnets
great.

is

in circuit.

very high and the self induction quite

This gives them

sufficient

FIGURE

impedance to pre-

41.

vent telephonic currents from passing, but does not

prevent the lower frequency currents of the magneto

from ringing the

bells.

The magneto generator must

be of sufficient capacity to ring

same time.

all

of the

bells at the

This system requires some code of sig-

nals, since all the bells

ring whenever any station

is

called.

Figure 42 shows a telephone


arranged

in series.

no induction

coil is

With

line

with the stations

the instruments here shown

used, the talking batteries

and

transmitters being arranged directly in series with the

telephone instruments.

signalling battery

is

re-

TELEPHONE CIRCUITS

45

quired at each station, and also a 3-way push.


ever this push
will ring.

is

pressed at any station

The number of

y^

may

stations that

1^^

QD
FIGURE

ranged on a

line

be ar-

H>-^

QD
I

When-

of the bells

all

of this kind

42.

is

very limited, since the

talking currents must pass through the bell magnets

of

all stations

except those talking.

^r
&

U
I

WTf
FIGURE

m
I

43.

In Figure 43 an intercommunicating system

shown using magneto generators for calling.

is

Each

of the stations 1, ^ and 3 contains the arrangement

WIRING DIAGRAMS

46

shown
is

in

To

Figure 40.

call

any

station the

plug

inserted in the jack which connects with the wire

leading direct to the station wanted.

generator

the bells will ring,

receivers the line

is

On

turning the

and upon taking up the

ready for talking.

Figure 44 shows an intercommunicating system


using one common battery for signalling and individual talking batteries at each station.

FIGURE

43, the

plug

is

station will ring.

The

in

Figure

44.

inserted in the proper jack,

pressing the 3-way push

not ring.

As

and upon

the bell at the corresponding

bell at the calling station will

TELEPHONE CIRCUITS
With
through

all

47

systems such as these the plugs are likely,

carelessness, to be left in the jacks,

or less confusion

may

To

result.

and more

obviate this, special

shown

devices are made, to take the place of plugs

here, and which automatically make the proper connections when the receiver is replaced.
Figure 45 shows an ordinary annunciator system
adapted for the use of telephones. Each station can

communicate with the

office

only.

QD

is

the annuncia-

QD

Q
fwv-9

t>^SAg^

QD

fSTH'I'K
FIGURE

46.

ir

receiving the signals from the different stations.

plugging

'the

ton

in at the

button any station


is

released the line

proper wire

may
is

in

be called.

When

ready for talking

I^Jpeivers are removed from their hooks.

B, and pressing

As

the but-

if

the re-

here shown,

WIRING DIAGRAMS

48

common

one
tery

is

talking battery

is

used,

and another bat-

used for signalling.

In Figure 46 an adaptation for telephones of the


annunciator system given in Figure 26

Whenever the plug


B,

it

is

inserted in

is

shown.

any of the jacks

at

breaks the wire at this point, thus forming an

independent circuit through the station called and the

FIGURE
office

instrument.

With

46.

this

system there

one common signalling battery for

all

is

shown
and

stations

a talking battery at each station.


It

has not been thought necessary to give more

than the foregoing diagrams in connection with telephones, as anything approaching a full exposition
of the

many

would alone

different

fill

methods of connecting them

a volume.

The foregoing diagrams

TELEPHONE CIRCUITS

49

are sufficient to illustrate the methods usually em-

For a

ployed in house wiring.

fuller treatment,

and

for illustrations of exchange practice, the reader

is

referred to the more pretentious works dealing with

telephone practice only.

As telephone

receivers are very sensitive,

sential that the wires connecting


L

run very

1^

electricity.

close to

To

it

is es-

them should not be

other wires carrying currents of

avoid cross talk and other disturbing

influences, the lines should be

arranged so that both

sides are of equal length and resistance.

Arrange-

ments should be such that no electro-magnets are

l^pin

circuit

when the

line is

used for talking.

advisable to cross wires or twist

also

them together;

this

In factories

will help neutralize inductive influences.


i

and kindred places where there

may

l^pthe telephone instruments

left

is

is

It

much

vibration,

be suspended from

springs.

Figure 47 shows the connections of an ordinary


long distance telegraph

Iers

The

S.

lines it

line

with relays

and sound-

relays are used, because in long distance

has been found unprofitable to maintain cur-

rents sufficiently strong to control the heavy armatures necessary on sounders to

^ble.

For

make the

this reason the relays

signals audi-

are equipped with

very light armatures, and control a local circuit which


operates the sounder.

One-half the battery

is

placed

at each end of the line; this lessens the trouble from

leakage.

Each

station

is

also

equipped with a light-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

50

ning arrester connected to ground, as shown, and a


switch closing around the key. This applies to intermediate stations as well as end stations, and intermediate stations are also equipped with a switch,

by

^ Jm

^w

BL

LJJ

tt

FIGURE

which they

ground on

may

47.

be entirely cut out or connected to

either side, in case of a broken line or other

trouble.

^UiGst

FIGURE

48.

In Figure 48 a very simple form of repeater


shown, which
set up,

is

due to Edison.

is

It can be very readily

and requires no additional apparatus except

TELEGRAPH CIRCUITS

51

a 3-way switch shown in diagram. With the switch


S, as shown, the current from the eastern hne passes

through both batteries to ground and keeps the armaAt the same time current from the

ture I attracted.

west passes through the armature I and the main battery to ground.

armature I

is

When

released

thus repeating into

the eastern circuit

With

it.

is

and opens the western

opened,
circuit,

the switch turned to the

)ther point, the western circuit will repeat into the

Lstem.

ujesl

eaLsl

FIGURE

49.

In Figure 49 another form of repeater, known as


[Milliken's,

is

shown.

This

does

not

changing of any switch to make one


jinto the other,

jrent

ture

but

is

require

the

circuit repeat

entirely automatic.

The

cur-

coming from the east normally keeps the armaof magnet 1 attracted this armature controls the
;

WIRING DIAGRAMS

52
circuit of

magnet

ern circuit

is

2.

If,

now, the current in the east-

interrupted, the armature of

opening the local circuit of magnet 2;


releases its

A.

armature and breaks the western

The breaking

of this circuit

would

back,

circuit at

result in re-

same instant the

leasing the armature of 4, but at the

armature of 2 opens the western

circuit it also

the extra circuit controlling the magnet


leases the

1 flies

this in turn

pendant armature, which

is

3.

opens

This re-

drawn by

spring against the armature of 4 and prevents

opening the

its
its

The west end station is an exact


the eastern, and when sending from that

circuit.

duplicate of

side the operation

is

repeated in a similar manner.

THE TELAUTOGRAPH.

An

elementary diagram of the connections of the

telautograph

is

given in Figure 49a and the complete

connections showing switches,

etc., in

The message to be transmitted

is

Figure 49b.

written upon the

platen P, Figure 49b, by a pencil occupying the position

shown as a black dot. The movement of the pencil,


by means of light rods, moves the arms A, A', sometimes
pulling one and pushing the other. These arms move
over resistances and thereby vary the current strength
in two lines which lead to the receiver shown in upper
half of the figure. In the receiver each of the two
magnets
to

M, M', are fitted

move up and down.

ward by

springs

with plungers which are free

These plungers are drawn up-

and sucked

into the cores of the

mag-

TELEGRAPH CIRCUITS

On

53

WIRING DIAGRAMS

64
nets

by

currents passing through the coils of the

The magnets themselves

plungers.

are

separately

excited.

These plungers connect to two arms similar in principle to those of the transmitter and the nature of the
connection is such that every motion of the pencil

upon the platen P is reproduced by a similar pencil or


pen designated by a black dot in the receiver. Thus
the message written upon the transmitter platen is reproduced with great fidelity upon the platen of the
receiver.

The manner in which this is accomplished can best


be explained by reference to the elementary diagram
Figure 49a.

When

the instrument

is

in action current

shown with the transmitter at


the left, along the wires drawn as heavy lines, passing
through the main magnets M, M', and the auxiliary
The actual work of writing is done
magnets m, m!
It
entirely by the currents passing over these wires.
will be seen that the arms A, A', as they move over the
resistances cutting out or in resistance and also acting
flows from the battery

as shunts to each other, produce great variations in the

current strength in the two transmitting

changing currents affect the magnets


ingly

and reproduce the

In the transmitter
I

and

The

its

is

lines.

These

M, M', correspond-

writing.
also included

an induction

coil

secondaries, together with an interrupter

alternating currents produced

by these

I'.

coils are

TELEGRAPH CIRCUITS

55

Dx^^

"BriL ^^^^

FIGURE

40b.

^T^T^
loijX

WIRING DIAGRAMS

56

superimposed upon the continuous currents in the

main circuit.
S is a small switch so connected that
the instrument
pencil

is

not writing.

upon the platen opens

this switch

strengthens the alternating currents.


in current strength operates the relay

and causes
magnet L.

it

closed

it is

when

Pressure of the writing

and thereby

This increase

m in the receiver

to open the circuit through the pen lifting

This releases the pen so that

it

becomes

move in accordance with the arms of the


The arrangements are also (by vibration

free to
ceiver.

re-

of

armature of m) such that the alternating currents keep


the pen in a slightly vibratory state and thus reduce

When the pressure is withfriction to a minimum.


drawn from the platen the alternating currents become
too feeble to interfere with the continuous, the relay

again closes the circuit through the penlifter and

the pen

The

is

raised.

object of m' in the receiver

is

to control the

battery and the local circuits in the receiver.


its

armature

and

is

attracted, the circuit through L,

When
M, M',

are closed.

is

an electromagnetic device which shifts the


circuit is broken at the end of a line.

paper when the

When no

closed.

current

is

on the

This places the

and m, and as these are


bell,

line,

bell

O keeps the contacts


E in parallel with M

of higher resistance than the

the latter rings whenever the push-button

pressed.

This

is

used merely for signalling.

is

TELEGRAPH CIRCUITS

67

X-RAY CIRCUIT.

A diagram of the

wiring and instruments often used

X-ray tubes is given in Fig. 49c.


shown at T connected to the secondary of a strong induction coil. At the terminals of
this secondary winding of the induction coil an adjustable spark gap G is provided. This is used to protect
the tube against excess voltage. This gap properly
adjusted will act as a shunt and the excessive current
in connection with

The tube

will

itself is

jump the

air

between the spark points rather than

pass through the tube.

CnWq-JhD

mmm

Lp^_MAA/|
a

?*-,

1
I

FIGURE

The

49c.

exact nature of the light emitted depends some-

what upon the degree

of

vacuum maintained

in the

[tube.

As a general rule tubes of low vacuum take more


emit more light, and the light is of greater

[current,
[actinic

power.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

58

The
ever,

light emitted

from a high vacuum tube, how-

more penetrating, that

is

pass through

will

is,

greater opaqueness than the other.

To

obtain the best results in

all cases, it is

therefore

advisable to have on hand a stock of tubes suitable


for different kinds of work.

The

somewhat with the

color of the light also varies

nature of glass used.

tube

.In order to properly operate the

it is

necessary

to send a very rapidly interrupted current of electricity at

a very high voltage through

by means
the

of a

good induction

common form
is

which

differs

from

coil in

which no particular

make and
time of make

paid to the exact nature of the

break, secondary currents are induced at

and

done

only in the nature of the interrupter.

In the ordinary induction


attention

coil

is

This

it.

also of break.

An

induced current is produced in the secondary


whenever lines of force are increased or decreased in
the winding or iron core. These secondary currents
flow in one direction while the lines of force are increasing

and

The value

in the opposite while they are decreasing.

of the induced E.

M.

F.

is

the rate of change of the lines of force.


if

the current

second

it will

the E.

M.

is

increased from

in proportion to

That

is

to say,

to 10 amperes in 1

induce secondary currents with 10 times

F. as

if it

were increased the same amount

in the time of 10 seconds.

In the X-ray tube


be practically

all in

it is

essential that the currents

the same direction and therefore

TELEGRAPH CIRCUITS

one of the induced currents must be as far as possible


eliminated. The E. M. F. induced at time of break
of the primary current

make because

much
may be

is

the circuit

rent rises comparatively slow to

M.

make and

it

F.
is

its full

much

therefore

is

very suddenly (prac-

make

opened, while the

tically instantaneously)

break E.

greater than that at

the one that

is

value.

cur-

The

greater than the

used to produce the

Ught.

The

greater the difference between the

desirable

it is

low enough

for

it will

if

the

is

two the more

F. can be kept

not send current through the tube.

The sparking which


cuit

make E. M.

occurs at time of break of

cir-

the only element that prevents instantaneous

break of current, and to reduce

it

as

much

as possible,

for the double purpose of preventing destructive action

and increasing the suddenness


denser

is

provided.

of the break the con-

Part of the current at time of

break instead of continuing in the form of a spark

when the

rushes into the condenser to be discharged

make

occurs.

There are three


the current in use.

distinct

One

methods of interrupting

of these

is

the well

method employed with ordinary induction

known

coils

or

vibrating bells.

The second method is that of causing the interrupmade through a small motor which operates

tions to be

either a plunger or a disc with projections so arranged

that they enter and leave a mercury contact with


great rapidity.

motor

is

also sometimes

employed

WIRING DIAGRAMS

60

to throw a jet of mercury against a succession of con-

mounted on the inner periphery of a suitable jar.


The third method is known as the electrolytic.
This is an arrangement very similar to a battery.
tacts

The

positive pole of the circuit

is

connected to one of

the poles of the break (which

is

platinum) and the

other pole of the break

phuric acid

is

a lead plate.

is

As current passes through

also used.

this cell bubbles are

Diluted sul-

formed on the platinum and these

stop the current flow

by

their resistance.

They im-

mediately pass away and the current begins to flow

The interruptions produced in this way are


much more rapid than those of any other method and
this method can also take care of much stronger cur-

again.

rents.

These breaks are simple and easily kept in

order.

Always make the platinum the positive

if

otherwise
It

is

it will

pole,

soon be destroyed.

important to arrange that current cannot be

turned on to the induction

coil unless

are in action or ready to act.

For

the interrupters

this reason

where

motor drive interrupters are used the switch S may be


arranged to close the motor circuit before the circuit
to the coil

is

closed.

By means of the shunt resistance connected as shown


any desirable voltage is obtainable from a 110 volt
circuit.
Start with low voltage and work up to desired voltage.

an alternating current is to be used it must be


rectified by motor generator or some other means.
If

CHAPTER

V.

ELECTRIC GAS-LIGHTING.
Figure 50 shows the wiring of a complete metallic
return gas-lighting system. I is the spark coil, which
is

absolutely essential.

attachment, R, which
the spark coil
circuit occur

is

This spark

has a relay

whenever

Should a ground or short

energized.

on the system, the

bell will

OX^ yi^

coil

closes the bell circuit

FIGURE

^'if

immediately

V^^ ^VrW

._

50.

^B system divided into a number of circuits, and, by


^B disconnecting the circuits, one at a time, the one out
^B of order may be readily found.
is

For

so-called automatic burners it

is

necessary to

run two wires to each burner; and push buttons con61

WIRING DIAGRAMS

62

trolling one burner

may

be placed in different parts

With

of the building, as shown at top of figure.

pendants the gas can be controlled at the fixture only.

Automatic burners are not very

ways a

safe, as there is al-

of gas leaking.

liability

If a cheaper installation than the above

the relay,

bell,

is

desired,

and switches S may be omitted, and

the whole installation arranged as one

circuit.

The

gas piping can also take the place of the return wire.
Instead of employing a separate" battery to operate
the

tell-tale bell,

be used; as the

two

earlier

than the others,

tice to

do

JC

so.

cells

cells so

of the main battery

used, however, give out


it is

may
much

not considered good prac-

ELECTRIC GAS-LIGHTING
switch S or S' to the wire
to No. 2,

1.

This

and when the other party

button the gas will be turned

63

will give

current

presses the proper

This method pre-

off.

supposes that the switch S or S'

is

returned to

its

normal position after being used.

Figure 52 shows a system of gas lighting with an


induction

coil.

spark of high potential

is

produced

which can jump many small air gaps arranged above


gas jets in
time

is

With

series.

ignited.

the switch one circuit at a

In systems of

this

kind about 16

UJ-i
FIGURE

52.

burners are allowed to a 1 inch spark coil;


joil

;as

giving a spark 1 inch in length.


jets should be

ley will light

arranged so

i.

e.,

If possible,

close together that

from one another.

In such a case

mly a few of them need be equipped with spark conicts.


Very high insulation is essential with this sys;m,

and there may be but

little

use for

it in

these

lays of electric lighting.

In Figure 53 are shown the connections used in

Edwards condenser system. Here all of the burn^rs are wired in multiple and each is equipped with
a small condenser. This system is mentioned in Mr.
H. S. Norrie's work on gas lighting, and is said to
le

WIRING DIAGRAMS

e4
be successful.
it

suitable induction coil

is

used,

and

need not have a very great spark capacity, and

FIGURE
there

is

much

less

53.

danger of a breakdown

in the in-

sulation.

FIGURE

54.

Frictional gas lighting machines

and they are connected

may

also be used,

similar to Figures

52 and 53,

ELECTRIC GAS-LIGHTING
one terminal leading to ground or
wire,

and the other

As grounds and

65

common

return

to the switch.

short circuits on gas lighting sys-

tems are quite common, several forms of automatic


cutouts have been devised.

The

Figure 54.

One of

these

is

shown in

battery wire passes through a

mag-

net which controls clockwork connected with a long

pinion shaft.

This clockw^ork

is

in operation while current is

magnet
there

coils.

will

started

and continues

passing through these

If the current lasts only an instant

be but very

through a short

circuit or

little

movement;

while,

ground the current

is

on for any great length of time, the clockwork

open the

circuit.

if

kept
will

CHAPTER

VI.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY BATTERIES.

The Figures 55 to 58 show different ways in which


batteries may be grouped. Figure 55 shows the usual
manner. In this way the highest E. M. F. is ob-

H III
FIGURE
tained,

and

FIGURE

55.

56.

also the best results in all cases where the

line resistance exceeds the battery resistance.

It

must

be borne in mind that the battery has an internal resistance independent of that of the line,

FIGURE

temal resistance
as

any other

will

and

this in-

57.

modify the current quite as much

resistance.

The

battery resistance varies

inversely as the surface of the plates exposed in the

and directly as their distance apart.


Taking into consideration this law, we can

liquid,

readily

see that six cells placed in multiple, as in Figure 56,

66

PRIMARY BATTERIES
will

have but one-fourth the resistance of those in


In Figure 55 the resistance of six

Figure 55.

is

67

XR

in

Figure 56

^and

Figure 58

in

XR

it is

-'

is-^

it

cells

in

Figure 57

it is

Also in any ar-

I
rangement of
tery equals

cells

the internal resistance of the bat-

X V R where X

stands for the

^^^

of

cells in series

for the

for the resistance of one

number of groups

number
cell

and

in parallel.

^^
FIGURE

The

total

58.

E. M. F. of any battery equals

number of

NX

E,

and
for the E. M. F. of one cell. The E. M. F. of any
ell is independent of its size, and while no current is

where

stands for the

flowing

is

current

is

independent of

internal resistance.

flowing, however, the drop in E.

ual to the current


e

its

cells in series

When

M. F.

the internal resistance.

internal resistance of all

primary

cells is

is

As
quite

igh, this fact must not be overlooked whenever large


rrents are to be used.

As a

general rule

eir internal

cells

resistance

should be so grouped that


is

nearest equal to that of

WIRING DIAGRAMS

68

the line and instruments through which they are to

work.

Where very high

resistance lines are worked, as in

telegraphy, for instance, the internal resistance of the


is of little consequence, since an addition of
100 ohms resistance to a circuit of several thousand
ohms would hardly be noticeable. For circuits of low
resistance, such as gas lighting, it is, however, an
item which must not be overlooked. The resistance

battery

of an average gas lighting circuit does not exceed a

few ohms, and to place into such a

circuit a battery

having ten or twenty ohms resistance would obviously

Where

be poor practice.
is

advisable to use large

multiple has

many

be taken that

large currents are used

Placing small

cells.

it

cells in

disadvantages, and great care must


are of the same E.

all cells

M.

F.,

and

they should also be of the same make.

There are two general

classes of

primary

batteries,

each suited to a different class of work.

For

all

intermittent

work an open

circuit battery

Cells of this kind will last

should be chosen.

a very

long time on open circuit without deterioration, but

must never be

left

on short

circuit or used for continu-

ous work.

Perhaps the best known of


is

the Leclanche

will

apply most

cell,

all

circuit batteries

and the instructions here given

specifically to

in general with all

open

open

it,

but can be followed

circuit cells.

PRIMARY BATTERIES
Never use more

ammoniac than

sal

69
be readily

will

dissolved; about six ounces will be sufficient for ordi-

nary

It

use.

is

preferable to

make a saturated

solu-

and after filtering it through


cloth or cotton wool, add about 10 per cent, of water.

tion of sal ammoniac,

Do

fill jars more than three- fourths full of soand keep them in a cool place, well inclosed, to

not

lution,

prevent evaporation.

Never allow your battery to

Keep

all

freeze.

exposed parts covered with paraffine and

see that all connections are clean

Do

and

tight.

not allow the battery to be short-circuited or

run down.

If this has occurred let

circuit for a

few hours;

it will

If the solution appears milky

that more sal ammoniac


beneficial to

remain on open

it

often pick up.


is

it

required.

is

remove the carbon and

an indication
It will also be

let

it

dry out

thoroughly before using again.

Impure

zincs

which do not eat away evenly

facili-

tate the formation of crystals, which greatly increase

the resistance, and if not removed will destroy the


action of the battery.

Dry

batteries for general use are

same materials as open

circuit

difference being that the material

form of a paste.
for portable work.

may

They

made up of

batteries,
is

the

the main

applied in the

are used quite extensively

When

run down some of them

be recharged by sending a current of two or

three amperes through them for a few hours.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

70

If they are dried out so that current will not flow

through them an opening may be made

and the
This

cell

then soaked in a solution of

of the

cells

ammoniac.

The opening should


prevent evaporation. As the shells

will facilitate

be sealed again to

in the shell

sal

charging.

usually consist of the zinc element,

it is

well to see that they are covered, or at least that


cells

do not touch.

The primary

battery commonly used for closed cir-

cuit work, or continuous work,

foot" or gravity battery.


the bottom of the glass

is

the so-called "crow-

The copper element rests on


jar.
The jar is filled with

clean water and enough sulphate of copper


vitriol)

added to give a blue

is

of the water.

The

tint to

blue line should be maintained


zinc,

suspended from the top of the jar, and

made

(blue

about one-half

about midway between the copper and the


is

two

is

which

usually

in the shape of a crow's foot.

When

this battery is first set

action, as it

up

and

it

should be short-

must be kept in
deteriorates rapidly when left on open

circuited for several hours,

it

circuit.

While

this battery

remains in action the specific

gravity of the upper solution increases.


tion should be maintained at about

drometer

test.

If

it falls

be short-circuited for a

yond

this,

This solu-

25 degrees hy-

below this the battery should


little

while.

If

it

goes be-

some of the solution must be removed and

the rest diluted with clear water.

The

resistance

is

SECONDARY BATTERIES

71

much increased by dense sulphate of zinc solution.


The zinc oxide which sometimes forms on the zinc
may be removed with a brush and water.
The gravity cell has a high internal resistance,
and

suitable only

is

of small quantity

is

Leclanche exist in

where a continuous current flow


desired.

many

This

cell

and

also the

Enough

modified forms.

has been said to enable anyone to select a suitable


battery,

and

all batteries

detailed instructions will be

found with

where such instructions are necessary.

SECONDARY BATTERIES.

Storage, or secondary batteries, as they are often


called, are quite extensively
tice.

It

is

used in latter day prac-

beyond the scope of

this treatise to give

anything but a few working directions covering general operation.

Detailed instructions applicable to

the different types will accompany most

cells

when

purchased.

The E. M. F. of secondary batteries will average


over 2 volts. On discharging, the E. M. F.

little

should not be allowed to fall below 1.8 volts.

The charging

should proceed slowly, and should

never be carried beyond 2.5

volts.

The charging E. M. F. should not

exceed that of

the battery more than 5 per cent.


Cells

should not be discharged more than two-

thirds of their capacity.

uncharged.

They should never stand

WIRING DIAGRAMS

72
,

In battery rooms

all

exposed metal work should

be painted as a protection against acid fumes.

Wooden

floors

should also be protected against

acid.

If charging

is

continued after the active material

has been used up, oxygen and hydrogen gas


given

will

be

off.

Pure sulphuric acid should be used, and this should


be diluted with distilled watfer. Pour the acid into
Never pour water into

the water slowly.

much

heat

is

Whenever necessary,
distilled water and mix
will float
,

Two

acid, as

generated.
replenish

with

evaporation

well, as otherwise the

water

on top.

methods of measuring the internal resistance

of batteries are shown in Figures 59 and 60.

Figure 59

represents an

ammeter and

In

a volt-

Instruments for this purpose must be chosen

meter.

suitable to measure the small currents


likely to be used,

and must have a

and E. M. F.

scale sufficiently

large to admit of reading fractions of volts and amperes.

To make

the voltmeter.

the test,

first close

the circuit through

This gives us the E. M. F. of the

whole battery, and

may

be called E.

Next

close the

circuit through the ammeter and note the current

reading

also at the

same time note the reduced read-

ing of the voltmeter and


resistance of the battery

call this E'.

is

equal to

The

internal

where

SECONDARY BATTERIES
is

the

73

number of amperes flowing through the am-

meter, and the other two symbols as above.

The

readings must be taken in a very short time, or polarization will

modify both current and voltage.

ammeter used above

is

If the

of very low resistance, an ad-

ditional resistance should be placed in circuit with it

to prevent excessive current flow.

ItAt
FIGURE

FIGURE

59.

In Figure 60 no ammeter
ance of

ing as in

must be known.
Figure 59 and

is

60.

needed, but the resist-

Take

the voltmeter read-

E.

call it

Next take the

voltmeter reading with current flowing through

and

call it E'.

The

internal resistance of the battery

EE^
is

E'.

In other words, divide E' by R, which gives

the current flowing through


ference between

R;

and E' by

then divide the dif-

this current.

sult will be the battery resistance.

The

re-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

74

comparative test as to the value of the different

may

batteries

be made in the following manner

cure the same number of

of each kind to be test-

cells

A suitable resistance and a voltmeter with a

ed.

must

ble scale

also be procured,

The

as in Figure 60.

Pro-

suita-

and connections made

voltmeter should be of quite

high resistance, so the current flowing through


will

The

not materially affect the battery.

it

resistance

should be about equal to the battery resistance.

This

allow a current to flow which will gradually

will

polarize

any open circuit battery. When all is ready,


through R, and at regular intervals,

close the circuit

of say one minute, note the


voltmeter until the battery

open

and

nearly polarized.

is

shown

figures obtained
in

Now

same way take readings at regular


the battery regains its former E. M.

or, if this is too long, for

The

E. M. F. on the

in the

intervals, until

F.

fall in

may

any convenient

time.

be plotted in curves, as

Figure 61, where the time

is

plotted hori-

zontally each division representing one minute, while

the drop in E.

M. F.

is

plotted vertically, two divi-

sions representing one-tenth of one volt.

and recovery
initial
an
E. M. F.
curves of a Laclede cell having
of 1.2 volts, and discharging through a resistance of

The

figure shows the polarization

S ohms. During the first minute the E. M. F. fell


to .78 during the second to .68 third to .62 fourth
to .58 fifth to .55 and at the end of twenty-six min;

utes

it

had

fallen to .3.

SECONDARY BATTERIES
Upon opening
the

first

the circuit the E.

M. F.

75
rose during

minute to .47, and during the second to

and then in a more gradual and steady manner


dicated by the curve.
12

(.0

.5

as in-

CHAPTER
CONNECTING UP

VII.

LOCATING TROUBLE.

Figure 62 shows the rough wiring used to connect


tin

annunciator with a

and

1, 2, 3, 4,

those floors.

from each of the floors


from the office to each of

call

also a call

This figure

is

introduced to illustrate a

C-

>4

y>

*^

FIGlj.lE 62.

method of testing
connections,

and

to find the proper wires to

it

will

wires are concealed

and

that

it

is

be assumed that
all

all

make

of the

are of the same color, so

impossible to trace out

76

any part of the

CONNECTING UP
wiring.

Let

it

also be

77

assumed that the party who

to connect the system did not install the wiring,

is

and

knows nothing about any part except the purpose for


which it is installed.

The

step should be to separate the wires at

first

outlets

all

so

there

may

be no accidental connec-

would cause confusion.

tions which

The next

step

to connect the battery to the

two battery wires

as shown, which will very likely be

found without any

is

trouble.

found

Now go

and bunch

wires

all

there, testing each wire to all other wires with

a portable
tained

to floor

it is

bell before connecting.

an indication of a

If a ring

short circuit or

is

ob-

wrong

must be located and corrected beNext proceed to the push


buttons, P, and with the test bell find the wire coming from 1 when the bell is connected to the wire
coming from 1 and to the battery wire a ring will be
Now take up the annunciator wires and
obtained.
connection, which

fore proceeding farther.

find the wire

coming from

1 in the

same way.

Having now found one wire which rings with two


must be the battery wire, and may be
connected to one side of all the pushes, and to the
annunciator through the bell. The other two wires
others, this

may

be marked and the connections at 1 removed.

After this has been done, connect the two wires coming from 1 each to its proper place, push 1, and drop
1 respectively, and

fix

the push button so

it

will

........ .......,^.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

,78

opening the connections on

first

cuit

would have been the

Now

floor 1,

a short-cir-

result.

return to 1 and find the wire which rings the

annunciator, and also the one which rings the test


bell

The one

without disturbing the annunciator.

wire used in

common

for both

the battery wire,

is

and connects to one side of the bell and also to the


push for annunciator. The wire leading to push P
is to go on the other side of bell, while the one leading to annunciator goes to the other side of push

The fourth

button.

wire must necessarily be the

battery wire leading to the floor above, and

is

to

be connected to battery wire coming from floor below.

For

these tests a bell to act either single stroke or

vibrating
ciator

is

is

very useful, especially when the annun-

away that

so far

cannot be heard.

bell

the ringing of

its

bells

of this kind will indicate

at once whether the wire through which

it

rings

is

connected with the annunciator or the push buttons,


since

it

will

ciator bell

ring vibrating in

and single stroke

push button

series

with the annun-

in connection with the

wire.

The foregoing tests represent a


time and labor, much of which may

great deal of

be avoided by

using wire of one color for the battery wire


different color for all the other wires

For Figure 62

this

would require

on each

five colors.

and a
floor.

With

wires arranged this way, the steps necessary to con-

LOCATING TROUBLE
nect

up the system

79

First connect the bat-

will be:

tery wires on the different floors so that there will

be one continuous wire from the battery to the fourth


floor.

While doing

on each

may

ton wires

this note the color

of wire used

that the annunciator and push but-

floor, so

be connected

up

After

accordingly.

connecting these and the battery, return to each


floor

and

up

set

tery wire.

the bell and connect

Now

it

to the bat-

touch one of the two remaining

wires to the bell; if

it

rings

it

is

the wire coming

from the annunciator, and the other


wire to connect to the

is

the proper

bell.

Always locate the battery as near as possible to


the push buttons. In this way the chance of leakage
may be reduced to a minimum, since one wire only
is exposed for any considerable length, the other being cut short by the pushes.

When

one

is

valuable help in

alone a bell and battery


fish

work.

coming from the battery into the


is

is

a very

Insert one piece of wire

expected to bring the wire

to.

ceiling

where

Connect the

it

fish

wire to the other side of the battery and proceed in


the usual way.

When

the two wires meet the bell

will ring.

liOCATING TROUBLE.

While looking for trouble always work according to


haphazard testing and guessing will

a fixed plan

In

usually waste time.

thing to ascertain

is

all cases

the most important

whether the battery

is

in

work-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

80
ing order.
of them

is

If there are several bells and any one


working properly, the battery may be set

down

as all right.
If there is no bell in operation,
and none at hand, the most convenient way to test
the battery is by "tasting"; arrange wires so that

both poles come in contact with your tongue,


the battery

and a

is

little

in order

you

will notice

if

a peculiar taste,

experience will enable anyone to deter-

mine, approximately, whether the current


portion to the number of

cells

in pro-

is

employed.

It will be well to avoid "tasting" circuits provided

with an unusual number of


or spark

coils, as

the taste

cells
is

and large magnets

apt to be very strong,

especially if the wires are allowed to meet

tongue and then break.

If no current

on the

obtained

is

at the battery, examine the binding posts and connections; see whether each jar

whether any of the

is

properly

filled

zincs have been eaten

and

away, or

covered with crystals, which often causes a total cesIf the battery is not found deany of the above points it may be entirely
run down, either from overwork or a short circuit.
Some idea of the trouble may often be gained by
sation of current.
fective in

If

questioning parties interested.

suddenly
circuit.

it

would indicate a broken

the

bells

line or

stop

a short

If any bell were ringing continuously for a

long time

it

would run the battery down.

tery has been merely run

down

it will

short time if left on open circuit.

If the bat-

pick up in a

small galvano-

LOCATING TROUBLE
meter

very useful and will soon indicate whether

is

a battery
each

81

is

picking up;

separately.

cell

it

may

also be used to test

In any case,

it

is

best to have

the battery in good working order before looking


elsewhere for the cause of trouble.
in order the next step (if there

be to examine the

is

If the battery

but one bell) should

and push buttons;


order and that the bell

bell

contact points are in

is

see that

prop-

is

erly adjusted; also examine the line connections

and
and tight. A portable batvery convenient, and with it one can quickly

see that they are clean

tery

is

determine whether the bell


If, after the

is

in order.

foregoing, the bell

still fails

to work,

the trouble must be looked for in the line,


will

and

it

be well to examine the wires near bell and push

buttons, as these wires are handled quite often for

and

various reasons,

will often

be found broken quite

Splices are also quite often

close to their connections.

to be found quite close to terminals, as wires are often


cut short

and

when

installed.

When

there are several bells

to work, the inference would naturally be

all fail

that the main battery wires are cither broken or short

If the battery

circuited.

one

may

an open

From
that in

is

in

good working

order,

be certain that no short circuit exists, and


circuit

the
all

must therefore be looked

many foregoing diagrams


ordinary multiple

it

for.

will

bell systems,

coming from the battery leads to the

bells

other to the Dush buttons; this does not

be seen

one wire

and the

mean that

WIRING DIAGRAMS

82
the bells must

all

connect to the same wire and the

push buttons to the other, since, in Figure 63, the


location of any bell and its push button might be
exchanged without hindering

its

operation.

In Fig-

and 2 are the battery wires connecting with


and buttons as shown. Suppose none of the
will ring and we have come to the conclusion

ure 63, 1
bells
bells

that one of the battery wires

is

the best

way

with a test

bell,

broken

to locate a break in the main wires

is

starting from the battery end of the

line.

At any

sD QD aD
J^
FIGURE

63.

convenient place where both battery wires are accessible,

will

say at

and B, connect the

show that the

line

between

it

test bell;

a ring

and battery

is

in

order, while failure to ring would indicate the break

and the battery. Suppose no ring


has been obtained and we now wish to ascertain which
one of the main wires is broken; we can do so by
running a temporary wire from B back to the batto be between

it

tery as shown by the dotted

lines.

If the wire (1)

is not broken between B and the battery, a ring will


be obtained when connections are made to the oppoIf the wire is broken no ring can
site battery pole.

LOCATING TROUBLE

83

be had from either battery pole; but when the tem-

porary wire

is

connected to the wire and pole of the

battery in which the break

is,

the whole system will

be in working order.

C and D, Figure
by cutting a bell into the

If a short circuit exists, say at


64, one

way

to locate

it is

If the battery has been run

circuit at the battery.

down by the "short,"


recharge or wait for
battery

is

at hand.

ID!

as will likely be, one must either


it

to pick up, unless

Having connected

an extra

the bell near

WIRING DIAGRAMS

84

can be obtained.

By making

several tests as out-

lined above, the seat of trouble can be very closely

The foregoing

located.

wiring

is

difficult.

instructions assume that the

concealed or that a close inspection

Short

circuits

will

generally

be

is

very

found

where wires cross metal pipes or bars, or where one

Wire

staple holds two or

more

a very

of short circuits, and

prolific cause

wires.

lath
it

is

also

must be

borne in mind that two grounds on opposite wires


are equal to a short circuit.

bell

fact if

system can be kept clear of grounds, there will

be but very

An

As a matter of

little

trouble from short circuits.

easy and also a sufficient test for battery bell

systems can be made by means of a strong magneto.

Connect the magneto in place of the battery and


give it a few sharp turns; if a ring is obtained the
insulation between opposite poles

is

weak.

This

may

be caused by the leak across the surface of a push


button or kindred device, or

it

may

be the result of

poor general insulation, both poles being slightly


A ground on one side only would not
grounded.
be discovered in the above

To

test.

test the insulation resistance to

ground, con-

nect one wire of the magneto to a convenient water

or gas pipe, the former being preferred on account

of the poor conductivity often caused by rust or


red lead in the joints of the gas pipes; the other
wire connects to the whole bell system without the
If, on turning the magneto, a ring is obbattery.

LOCATING TROUBLE
tained, it

ance,

is

an indication of poor insulation

and very

damp

85

likely

some of the wiring

is

resist-

located in

place or in contact with metal or other

By

grounded material.

disconnecting one of the

batter}^ wires one can easily determine on which side

of a system a ground

may

be located.

All grounds

should be removed, as they are the cause of leaks

which run batteries down, and in time

may

broken wire through electrolytic action.

phone systems one or more grounds may

cause a

In

tele-

also serious-

ly interfere with the talking qualities of a line, even


if the

grounds are

all

on one side of the

circuit.

CHAPTER

VIII.

MISCELLANEOUS.

Whenever a current

flowing in a wire

is

duces lines of force surrounding that wire.


current in the wire flows
the lines of
right,

clockwise.

e.,

pro-

If the

away from the observer

force will encircle the wire

i,

it

from

(See Figure 65.)

left to

Lines of

magnet (compass needle) at


and
leave it at the north seekpole
seeking
the south
force always enter a

ing end.

FIGURE

From

this

it

65.

follows that if a compass be held

under a wire in which a current

flowing from you

is

the north seeking end of the needle will deflect toward


the left; while if the current

flowing toward you

is

it.

-^M>N

FIGURE
will deflect

66.

toward the right.

above the wire the deflections

If the compass
will

the above, as shown in Figure 66*

86

is

held

be the reverse of

MISCELLANEOUS

87

Unless an extremely delicate compass be at hand,


this

method of determining the directions of currents

in wires will be confined to comparatively large cur-

If there are any magnets in the circuit, and

rents.
if

we know

the direction in which they are wound,

we can very

easily determine

the direction of the

current, since the relative direction of current

magnetism

will

FIGURE
If there

is

and

be as in Figure 67.

no magnet

67.

available, one

may

be tem-

porarily constructed out of a screwdriver or pocketknife

by taking a few turns of the current carrying

wire around

it.

If no compass

is

at hand, one can

be made from a piece of cork and a


afloat in

steel needle set

a cup of water, the needle being

first

mag-

netized.

hand be held above a wire as in Figure 67, in which the current is flowing from you and
the winding as shown in the figure, the north pole of
If the right

WIRING DIAGRAMS

88

the magnet will be as shown.

If the direction of

winding be reversed, or the direction of the current,


the north pole will be at the other end.

All magnets have a retarding effect on alternating

or intermittent currents.

shown

in

erally

jump

With an arrangement

Figure 68, a lightning discharge

will

as

gen-

the small distance between the points of

the lightning arrester rather than pass through the

mx

noon
<sj

'^

'^

FIGURE
coils

'^

HII

of the magnet.

When, however, a

once been started around a magnet

tendency to continue, and

spark

if

h--

FIGURE

68.

will

it

manifest

69.

current has

has a strong

itself in

a long

suddenly interrupted, as in a gas-lighting

drawn to illustrate this, and the magnet there shown is of very


low resistance compared with the lamp shown in multiple with it. If the battery circuit is closed the magspark

coil,

for instance.

Figure 69

is

net will be energized, but no appreciable current will


flow through the lamp.

If

suddenly opened, there

will

now

the battery circuit

charge through the lamp, causing

an instant.

is

be a strong current disit

to flash

up

for

MISCELLANEOUS
Figure 70

89

designed to illustrate some of the dif-

is

The winding

ferences in electrical currents.

of mag-

net A, if properly proportioned, will be found to be

almost impenetrable to rapidly alternating or intermittent currents, while

it

may

offer hardly

sistance to continuous currents.

any

re-

continuous cur-

'5
FIGURE

70.

an ordinary bell would be much retarded


by it, however, and the bell would work very slow.
B has two windings opposed to each other. If one
rent working

winding only

is

in circuit it will act similar to

A;

if

r::

*i

FIGURE

71.

the switch on the second winding

be but

little

retardation.

is

closed there will

The condenser C

entirely

prevents the passage of continuous currents, but tele-

phonic currents pass readily through, and polarized


bells

may

also be

made

to ring through

it.

Figure 71 shows the plan of an ordinary induction


coil.

The

terrupter,

iron core

and

when energized

attracts the in-

this breaks the current at C, as in

WIRING DIAGRAMS

90
vibrating

primary

At

bell.

circuit

make and break

every

In the

secondary currents are induced in

the fine secondary winding.

The

circuit breaker is

bridged by a condenser in order to reduce the sparking to some extent.


is

With cheap

coils

the condenser

usually omitted.

Two

wires carrying current in the same direction

each other, while if currents are in oppo-

will attract

site directions

A leak
destroy

An

it;

they will repel each other.

ground on a

to

positive wire will gradually

the negative will not be affected much.

easy method of determining the direction of

current consists in letting the current pass through a


little

The

water confined in a cup.

from
hydrogen bubbles appear, which

current will flow

the positive pole to the wire at which small

This method

The
which

is

contacts of bells,

produce

is

frequent

relays

To

in

current,

determine whether

they are platinum or not, drop a

attack

negative.

and other devices

interruptions

should consist of platinum.

on them;

the

not applicable to low voltage systems.

little

nitric acid

this acid will not affect platinum, but will

German

A continuous

silver

and other

imitations.

current will carry an arc

than an alternating current.

much longer

It also produces

chemical action directly in proportion to

its

amount

in amperes.

magnet

in

an alternating

duce the current, and the iron

circuit will greatly rewill

be heated by the

MISCELLANEOUS

91

frequent reversals in the direction of magnetism.


the magnet

nations

is

lar^ and

the frequency of the alter-

very great, only a very small amount of

is

The magnetism has no such


The heat generated
on continuous currents.

current will flow.

continuous current magnet

effect

in

produced by the re-

is

and the current flow de-

sistance in the wire only,

pends on

If

Alternating currents

this resistance only.

and diminished by lead covered wire or wires run in iron pipe. These wires act
as condensers and currents are also induced in them.
Whenever it is necessary to run wires in this way,
both wires should be enclosed in the same sheath or
are also greatly retarded

Continuous currents are not affected in this

pipe.

way except

for an instant at

make or break.

USEFUL FACTS AND FORMULAS.


In any direct current circuit the current equals the
electromotive force divided

One

application of this law

72, where the voltmeter


rent.

by the

The

value of

ing through
divided

From

is

by R, the

is

is

resistance, I

E
R*

indicated in Figure

used to measure cur-

being known, the current flow-

equal to the voltmeter reading, E,


resistance.

the formula I

= p

- two others are deduced.

Jtv

In Figure 73, knowing the value of the electromotive

WIRING DIAGRAMS

we can

force E, and current I,

by dividing

by

I,

I and the resistance R,


force E,

The

find the resistance

Knowing

=-:j:-.

we can

any

the current

find the electromotive

by multiplying I with R,

volts lost in

= IR.

circuit equal the resistance

of that circuit multiplied by the current.

FIGURE

,V

^t
FIGURE

72.

among

Currents of electricity divide

derived cir-

cuits in proportion to their conductivities,

inverse ratio of their resistances;


sistance takes the

most current.

ance of two circuits in parallel

is

e.,

The

73.

which

is

the

the lower rejoint resist-

equal to the product

of the two resistances divided by their sum.

In Figure 74

5X5 = 2y2
+ 5

The

any number of circuits in


be found by dividing
parallel if all are equals
the resistance of one circuit by the total number of
circuits.
The joint resistance of any number of cirjoint resistance of

may

MISCELLANEOUS
cuits in parallel,

whether they are equal or not,

sum

the reciprocal of the


resistances.

93
is

of the reciprocals of their

Joint resistance equals


1

1
where R, R', R", are
ciprocal of a number
thus one-tenth

is

J_

JL
The reby that number,

different resistances.
is

divided

the reciprocal of 10.

10

^llYotTs

FIGURE

To

FIGURE

74.

find the total current. Figure 75,

find the joint resistance of 20

ing to the above formula,

the other resistance 10, in


electromotive force 11,
one-half

ampere,

of

by

and

we must

first

30, which, accord-

Next add this to


the circuit, and divide the
is

12.

this

sum.

The

which three-tenths

result is
will

pass

and two- tenths through C.


The multiplying power of a shunt

through

75.

is

the ratio of

the total current flowing in the circuit to that part


of it

which flows through the ammeter.

The shunt

WIRING DIAGRAMS

94

required to give a certain multiplying power

is

found

by dividing the resistance to be shunted by the multiplying power desired minus 1.


Thus, if the multiplying power desired is ten, we divide by 10
1,
which is 9. If the resistance to be shunted is 100

ohms, the proper resistance of the shunt


vided by 9, which

11 1/9 ohms.

is

is

100

di-

Nine-tenths of

the current wiil flow through this shunt and 1/10


will flow

through the ammeter.

The amount
tricity

is

of work done by a current of

measured in watts.

To

elec-

determine the num-

ber of watts multiply the square of the current by the


resistance, or

W = I^R.

erated in a wire

is

For

instance, the heat gen-

proportional to the square of the

current; thus, doubling the current wiU produce four


times as

much

Other formulas for determin-

heat.

ing the watts deduced from the above, using Ohm's


law, are

W=I E, or the current times the electromo-

tive force,

W = E^/R,

or watts equak the electro-

motive force squared divided by the resistance.

horse-power equals 746 watts.

To

One

reduce to horse-

power divide the watts by 746.


The magnetism produced in an iron core is to a
certain extent proportional to the number of ampere
turns (current times the number of turns of wire)
is

reached, although

increased,

stiU there will be

but when the point of saturation


the magnetizing force

but

little

is

increase in magnetism.

trates the increase in

magnetism

in

Figure 76

illus-

wrought iron and

MISCELLANEOUS
cast iron, the magnetizing force

95

(ampere turns) be-

ing represented by the distance measured along the


horizontal line and the resulting magnetism
distance along the vertical line.
to bear in

mind when adjusting

This

is

field coils

by the

important

or rheostats

on dynamos or motors.

The circumference of

a circle

is

found by multi-

plying the diameter by 3.1416, or roughly 3 1/7.


The area of a circle is found by multiplying the
square of the diameter by .7854, or the square of
the radius by 3.1416.

ir_

WIRING DIAGRAMS

96

The

resistance of copper wire increases

1^ for each degree

The
,

about

rise

21/100 of

in Fahrenheit.

resistance per mile of pure copper

54882

-o

,
5

The weight of

is

.,

d being

wire

mils,

where d

is

resistance per mile of galvanized iron wire

is

iron wire per mile

is

J At

the diameter in mils.

The
about

d being in mils; or about seven times

that of copper.

The

resistance of

times that of copper.

German

silver is

about thirteen

CHAPTER

EX.

ELECTRIC LIGHTING.

known
distribution.
The

Figure 77 shows what


of

electric light

floor

must be of

sufficient

At each

current.

is

floor or succeeding center of dis-

FIGURE

77.

may

is

be reduced, suitable

FIOIJRB

78.

cutouts being provided as

This system

wires at the lowest

capacity to carry the total

tribution the size of mains

FIGURE

as the tree system

shown

in the

79.

diagram.

not to be recommended, as

it

will

result in great diff'erence of potential between those

branch circuits nearest the dynamo and those at the


97.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

98

When

extreme end of the system.

the mains are fully

loaded, the nearest lamps will either burn too bright

or those at a greater distance be dim.

This

overcome by the arrange-

difficulty is largely

ment shown

in Figure 78.

Figure 79 shows a system of distribution which

very often used.

dynamo, or

The mains

is

are run direct from the

street service, to the last center of dis-

tribution without changing size of wire.

While

this

system has some of the disadvantages of the tree


system in regard to drop,
reduced owing to the

still

much

the losses are greatly


smaller losses on the

mains between those centers farthest away from the


source of supply.

may be run

If

the mains are of small size they

directly through the

branch blocks at

the various centers, as shown at the upper part of the


figure.

If

the mains are too large to be run directly

through the blocks, either of the methods shown in


the lower part of the figure

may be

used, that

shown

at the bottom being preferable for, in case of a short


circuit, across

the contacts on the branch blocks, the

smaller fuse will blow, while

the center

is

if

the method shown in

used the main fuse

will blow.

This ar-

rangement also allows any center to be disconnected for


testing without affecting the remainder of the circuits.
Figure 79a shows how a two wire system may be
converted into a three wire.
to be run.

If the

One

extra wire will have

change over results in doubling the

voltage of the system this wire will not require to be

ELECTRIC LIGHTING
as large as the original wires
to the neutral

shown

e.

i.

99

and should be connected

should run to

all

of the cutouts as

in cut.

FIGURE 79b.

FIGURE 79a.

FIGURE 79c.

Figure 79b shows method of arranging cutouts so


that

all

branch wires on any side of box are of the same

polarity.

This

is

frequently of use in electric signs

where large numbers of wires are often bunched.


In Figure 79c a three wire system is shown converted
into a

two

wire.

As

this usually is

accompanied by a

-^
FIGURE 79d.
reduction in voltage and a consequent increase in
current for the

same number

of lights it will likely

be

necessary to run an additional wire and divide the

cutouts as shown.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

IGQ

Figure 79d shows the manner of connecting cutouts


to a three phase system where cutouts are scattered

along the

line.

Particular attention

must be given to

see that lights are as near as possible balanced between

the phases.

FIGURE

The
is

79e.

delta connection for cutouts grouped together

given in Figure 79e.

By

tracing out the diagram

it

can readily be seen that the cutout connections are


similar to the connections of the single lamps

shown

at the right.

r-O-Tr-O-i

o--t---o

rf^

0:^:3:0

^^
^_^^
FIGURE

79f.

The Voltage of lamps used in connection with this


arrangement must be the same as that of the phases.

The

star connection of cutouts

is

given in Figure

ELECTRIC LIGHTING
79f

If this

connection

is

used

it

101

should have a balanc-

ing wire as shown.

The
this

voltage of lamps to be used in connection with

system must be equal to the voltage of the phases

divided

by

1.73.

This method

--^-T^SO

FIGaRE
Figure 80 shows

not generally used.

is

;>

80.

a two-wire

circuit

with seven

by a double-pole switch, S; three


Kghts controlled by a single-pole switch, S'; and two
lights not controlled by any switch.
lights controlled

_i~y^77o OOOO066e)6
FIGURE
Figures 81 and 82
[ure 81
itch
)y it.

[broken,

is

show

three- wire circuits.

Fig-

arranged with double-pole switches, each

completely disconnecting the wires controlled

In Figure 82 only the two outside wires are


the neutral wire remaining intact.

[9ingle-pole switches are


rire

83-

When

used in connection with three-

systems, they should be placed on one of the

mtside wires, as the neutral wire

is

nearly always

WIRING DIAGRAMS

102
grounded.
to

make

it

No

switch must ever be connected so as

possible to break the neutral wire without

also breaking the outside wires at the

<r

same

instant.

ELECTRIC LIGHTING

103'

Figure 86 shows a method of controlling a circuit


from any number of stations. Any number of doublepole switches, as shown in the center,

may

m
FIGURE

the

line.

Snap

2.
85.

switches as shown in Figure 87

may

also be used in place of the throw-over knife switch.

By

1.4
FIGURE

86.

the system shown in Figure 87, a circuit can

also be controlled

from any number of

places.

single-pole switches remain in the center

FIGURE

be cut into

87.

switches are added as required.

[ment polarities
[on

and

off.

may

The

and other

With

this

arrange-

also be reversed in turning

lamps

WIRING DIAGRAMS

104

Figure 88
This

is

able loss

is

known

as an equal potential loop.

useful on long lines where there


;

all

is

consider-

lamps receive the same pressure and

bum

at the same candle-power.

(r~5

FIGURE

88.

Figure 89 shows a method by which lamps may be


used at full candle-power; or, by throwing the
switch over, they

two

in series.

may

be used at half candle-power,

S
&

FIGURE

^3

89.

Figure 90 shows one switch arranged to

When

either two, four or six lamps.

the two top lights alone will burn


rr

5
FIGURE

bum

connected at 1,

at 2 the four bot-

90.

tom lights will burn alone, while by connecting 2 and


3 all six lights will burn.

ELECTRIC LIGHTING

105

Figure 91 shows wiring arranged to provide


call

The

for hotels or similar places.

and the lamp

in series with

it

will

bell

2,

will

is

thrown over, the

If the

bell 1

will

(m
ii^

my
fo

ring

burn only as long

as the switch at the cutout remains closed.

double-throw switch

guest

P
o

5U

FIGURE

91.

continue to ring and the lamp will burn until the

guest throws his switch over, or the party calling returns his to the original position.

HI

-X

-^^
O-

i^

ti
FIGURE

92.

In Figure 92 the wiring for low-tension arc lamps


is

shown.

Such lamps may be wired

either in scries

or in midtiple, the wiring being arranged to suit the

kind of lamps used.

With

all

some resistance must be used.

lamps of this kind

With lamps run

in

WIRING DIAGRAMS

106
multiple
is

it

is

usually provided with each lamp, and

generally built in with the lamp.

Figure 93 shows a throw-over switch

so

arranged

that only one lamp at a time can be used, one resist-

ance answering for both.

All switches used in con-

^^
FIGURE

93.

nection with direct-current arc lamps must be ar-

ranged so that

polarities cannot be

changed by them.

Figure 94 shows connections enabling one to burn


either the

two lamps at the right or those at the

only two at a time being used.

left,

This arrangement

re-

quires the use of series lamps.

3JI

51^ -X-

FIGURE

94.

Figure 95 shows a system of wiring which makes


it

possible to light all of the lamps in a building,

not controlled by key sockets, from three different


places at any time, even after they have been turned

ELECTRIC LIGHTING
off

by the occupants of rooms.

107

In the top part of

the figure one double-throw switch and one three-way

tit

FIGURE

snap switch are shown.

95.

Whenever, by either of

these switches, the lamps are turned off, the switches

WIRING DIAGRAMS

108

make connection with

the cutouts above, so that

by

throwing any one of the three knife-switches the

lamps

may

pose.

By

lights

may

In the lower part of

be lighted again.

the figure one circuit

is

arranged for the same pur-

closing the single-pole switch S,

of the

all

be turned on at any time, excepting, of

This

course, those that are turned off at the sockets.

arrangement

very useful in case of

is

emergency where

it is

fire,

or

any

desired to illuminate a whole

house quickly.

UM

3B

3_l

FIGURE

96.

Figure 96 shows the wiring of a convertible system.

By

means of the three-wire switch, connections may

be made to either a two or three-wire supply.


this system the middle or neutral wire should

as

much carrying capacity

it

must carry the

full load, while either of the outside wires

group
system.

have

as both outside wires, since

when used with a two-wire supply


but half the current.

With

need carry

Cutouts of the kind shown in

1 should not be used in connection with this

They

are not very objectionable in straight

three-wire systems, but

when used

in connection with

two-wire systems the middle fuse must be doubled to

ELECTRIC LIGHTING

109

Such cutouts as are shown

carry the load.

2 are preferable.

Great care

is

in

group

necessary when arc

They

lamps are to be connected to such a system.

can be connected with one side of the neutral only,

and

this side

not reversed

must be arranged so that polarities are


when the main switch is thrown over.

^^/

i
Where

FIGURE

97.

arc lamps are used extensively and where

it is

necessary to balance the load, as on the Edison threewire system, the wiring used in Fig. 97

may

be em-

In place of the two double-pole, double-

ployed.

throw switches, a four-pole, double-throw switch

may

be used.

FBED

JF=C2J

FIGURE

^.

98.

Figure 98 shows incandescent lamps arranged

I^Beries.

This plan of lighting

I^Bonnection with

street

is

in

generally used in

railway work.

The

figure

110

WIRING DIAGRAMS

ent voltage.

Instead of the ground a return wire

may

be used.

Figure 99 shows the wiring of a high-tension arc


circuit.

group of incandescent lamps

shown.

When

nection

with

enough lamps

is

also

incandescent lamps are used in con-

arc

lamps as

shown there must be

group

to take the current used

in each

by the arc lamps. The switch S controls the incandescent lamps and also the arc lamps 1, 2, 3 by

The

simply short-circuiting them.

FIGURE
S' controls the group

turned off this group


is

the only safe

A
is

and

double-pole switch

99.

is

so

arranged that when

entirely disconnected.

way of switching

This

high-tension arcs:

where they are merely short-circuited they are nearly


as unsafe to handle as

incandescent lamp
switch.

When

is

this

when burning.

At B one

shown controlled by a single-pole


lamp is burning it robs the arc

lamp of as much current

as

it

requires, the

amount

of current depending on the candle-power of the

ELECTRIC LIGHTING

111

Incandescent lamps should be used on arc

lamp.

cuits only in

risk of

is little

cir-

an emergency and then only where there


fire.

Figure 100 shows a diagram of the connections of


a theater switchboard.
sets

The board

is

fed by the two

of mains shown by the arrows on the lower sets

of bus bars.

The

lower set of bus bars feeds the

lights in the house, or auditorium, switch 51 control-

ling the majority of these lights.

running from

all

of bus bars

number of smaller

this switch feeds a

main switches which control

set

the lights in the differ-

ent sections of the house, such as the gallery, bal-

cony, main floor,

etc.

Bus bars running from

these

switches feed other switches which control the differ-

ent groups of lights in the various sections of the


house.

The

other set of main bus bars at the bottom of

the board feeds the lights on the stage, these lights

being controlled by four main switches:


controls all the white lights

and 43,

all

35,

all

24, which

the red lights,

the blue lights, smaller switches being used

to control the different colored lights in the foots,

borders, strips, etc.

The

switches which operate the white lights, 17 to

23 and 26
tacts of
trolled

to 32, are all double-throw, the

which are connected to a

set

upper con-

of bus bars con-

by the main white switch, 24, while the lower

contacts are connected to a set of bus bars indepen-

dent of this switch.

By means

of this arrangement

WIRING DIAGRAMS

112

part of the lights can be thrown off by the main


switch while certain ones are left burning.

f
8

M
ai

lo

12

mi

jc

H||HJMjjji!nj!!njn!!

7-2'

7-J

7*'
}

3:i

3\j

o*

*xi

57

"^

."&

oO

7.-.

^0

V/

IUi!}!!J

OO

, 0! "

o5

03.

Stasc But Bars

s
FIGURE

few of the

circuits are

House Bus Bar

100.

shown connected to the

dimmers from which they run to the branch


cutouts.

circuit

ELECTRIC LIGHTING
1.

113

WIRING DIAGRAMS

114

burn when the car is traveling downward.


lamps are connected to a series of contacts,

^\

etc.,

These
^, 3,

1\

which are mounted on a device generally

lo-

cated at the top of the shaft near the elevator machine.

sliding

contact,

which

is

operated by

means of a screw geared to the


elevator

drum and

so designed that

the motion of the elevator car from

the top to the bottom of the shaft


will

move the contact

piece over

the entire length of bar

a,

makes

connection between the contacts a

ethfi.

6th

ft.

''*^

and 2, 3, ^, 5, 6, while the car is


moving upward, and between a'
and r, 2\ 3\ 4,\ 6\ while the car
is moving downward.
This movof such size that

able contact

is

connection

made

is

to three or four

of the contacts, ^, S, i, etc., at


one time. The operation is as fol-

3(1 ft.

lows:
3d ft.

Suppose the car

bottom of the shaft.

is

at the

The

sliding

contact piece will connect a with


ntp.

FIGURE

contacts 2,

3 and

^.

Current

will

101.

Main to the
"up" lamps on the 2d, 3d and 4th floors. As the car
moves upward contact is made to points, ^, ^ and 5,
while the contact to the 2d floor is broken. In this way
then flow from the

the lamps on three or four floors ahead of the car will

ELECTRIC LIGHTING

115

burn until the car reaches the top of the shaft.


last contact, 6, is

of such size that

it will

The

take in the

whole movable contact so that while the car

is

at the

top of the shaft the light on the 6th floor only will

burn and

this light

shows that the car

is

going down.

When the car starts to move downward the connection


l^fcbetween a and 6 is broken and connection made be^tween a' and 5\ ^' and 3\ the "down" lamps on the
corresponding floors then burning. As the car moves
l^pdownward

the operation previously explained will be

repeated except that the

"down" lamps

will burn.

CHAPTER

X.

ARC LAMPS, NERNST LAMP, COOPER HEWITT LAMP.


Figure 102 shows the

Brush arc lamp.

This lamp

rent, direct-current systems.

FIGURE
positive binding post

the resistance

R to the

of the improved

circuits
is

used on constant-cur-

The

current enters the

102.

and part of

it

goes through

carbon rods C, C, then through

the carbons to the negative post N.

The remainder

of

the current passes through wire a to the cutout block

C, O, but, as the cutout

is

closed at

116

first,

the current

ARC LAMPS

117

crosses over througli the cutout bar to the starting

R, and to the negative

resistance S,

a part of this current, however,

is

side of the

lamp

shunted at the cut-

out block through the coarse wire winding of the

magnets M, M, and so to the upper carbon rod and


carbons and out. The fine wire winding of the magnets

M, M,

is

connected in the opposite direction to

the coarse winding, and


posite.

When

its

attraction

is

therefore op-

the arc increases in length,

its

resist-

ance increases, and consequently the current in the


fine

wire

is

The

increased.

^^wire winding

is

attraction of the coarse

therefore partly overcome and the

^mrmature

begins to

^Bened and

the current in the fine wire decreases.

fine

fall.

wire of the magnets

As

it falls

M, M,

is

the arc

is

short-

The

connected in series

with the winding of the auxiliary magnet M'.

This

^pknagnet, which also has a supplementary coarse windI

ing, does not raise

its

armature unless the voltage at

the arc increases to 70 volts.


ect at the inside terminal

The two windings

con-

on the lower side of the

magnet and the current from the


ne wire of the main magnets passes through both
indings and then to the cutout block and so to the
tarting resistance and out.
If the main current is
uxiliary cutout

interrupted (as by the breaking of the carbons) the

lamp passes through the fine


ire circuit.
This will energize the auxiliary maget M' and close a circuit directly across the lamp
rough the coarse wire on M' to the main cutout
hole current of the

WIRING DIAGRAMS

118

and thence

When

to negative terminal.

the

main cut-

out C, O, operates, the armature of the auxihary cut-

out

falls

because there

circuit to energize the


off

by

In

is

not sufficient current in that

magnet.

This lamp

is

switched

N, N'.
current arc lamps care must be taken

simply short circuiting

all direct

it

across

to see that the current enters at the proper binding

away about

post, as the positive carbon burns

as fast as the negative carbon.

When

ing a small cup-shaped formation

a lamp

will

is

twice

burn-

be noticed at

the arc on the positive carbon and a small projection

on the negative carbon.

Lamps

nected so that the upper carbon

are generally conis

positive,

and

this

hollow formation on the positive will throw the light

downward.

way

In

the light

this

is

way

it

can be determined by the

thrown as to whether a lamp

is

burn-

ing right side up or not.

Figure 103 shows the


arc

circuits in

a constant current

lamp for use on alternating current systems.

When

the

lamp

is

switched on current passes through

the coarse winding of

magnet

M and then to the car-

bon rod and carbons and out at the other terminal.


This energizes

and

attracts the core

A, thus

ing the upper carbon and establishing the

arc.

rais-

The

magnet M'' is wound with a great length of fine wire


and opposes magnet M. As the resistance of the arc
increases more current is sent around the fine wire
winding of M' and the core A and the carbon thus
lowered.
If for any reason (breaking of the car-

ARC LAMPS

119

bons, etc.), the resistance at the arc

of the cutout

C come

rent will pass through


T'.

The

resistance of

in contact

C and

is

that just enough current

greatly in-

is

A will be lowered until the two points

creased, the core

is

when the main cur-

resistance

to the post

in such proportion to

sent around

M'

M'

keep

to

By

means of the spring S the


length of the arc may be adjusted. Tightening the
the cutout

spring

closed.

increases

the

amount of current

arc

to flow

by requiring a greater
around M' to lower the

carbons.

FIGURE

103.

FIGURE

104.

Figure 104 shows the winding of a constant potential,

alternating current arc lamp.

or choking

coil,

the purpose of which

is

is

the voltage of the line to that required

This

coil

a reactance
to cut

down

by the

arc.

takes the place of the resistance coil in the

120

WIRING DIAGRAMS

'

direct current, constant potential lamp.

The

current

T to the magnets M, M,
and then to the upper carbon, from there to the lower
carbon and then through the reactance coil and out
passes from the binding post

at the other terminal.

It will be noticed that this

lamp has no shunt winding


This

current lamp.
the terminals

bum away

is

is

similar to the constant

unnecessary as the voltage at

practically constant.

the current through

As the carbons

M, M,

due to the increased resistance of the


armature

is

is

decreased,

arc,

and the

lowered, thus lowering the carbons.

NERNST LAMP
lamps

stant-potential

cannot

be

121

operated

without

some resistance to steady the current.


Figure 105 shows the diagram of a Nernst lamp.
In the diagram,
is the heater, which is made up of
a winding of platinum wire on a porcelain tube. The

glower

is

composed of an oxide which at the ordi-

nary temperature

is

of very high resistance but when

heated lowers in resistance considerably.

is

made up of

sistance as

it

fine iron

The

ballast

wire which increases in re-

becomes heated, thus tending to

stead}*^

and keep the voltage over the glower as


near constant as possible. When the lamp is started
current passes through the heater H, gradually heat[ing it and the glower, which is located directly below
the current

sit.

As

through

the glower
it

is

heated current begins to pass

and the cutout magnet M,

until finally

[becomes strong enough to attract the cutout

opens the heater

circuit.

open as long as current

These lamps are made

This circuit

is

will

it

which

then remain

passing through the glower.

in several sizes

from one to

six

glower and they consume when burning 88 watts per


glower.

Each glower

the

lamp

when the lamp

equal in candle-power to

16 candle-power incandescent lamps.

three ordinary

When

is

is

is

started

more current

is

used than

burning, owing to the fact that the

heater coils are in circuit.

In the six-glower lamp

which takes when burning 2.4 amperes on 220

volts,

the starting current rises to about 3.2 amperes.

These

lamps are at present used only on alternating current

WIRING DIAGRAMS

122

systems as the glower becomes blackened in a short


time when used on direct-current systems.
Figure 106 shows a diagram of the connections
ot

the Cooper Hewitt mercury vapor lamp.

0^

The

COOPER HEWITT LAMP

123

the tube to which leading in wires are attached and


at the lower ends with iron cups which are partially

with mercury.

filled

Either of two different methods

are used to start the lamp.

great inductance

In one case a

coil

of

used to send a kick of current

is

through the tube between the positive and negative

down

electrodes, thus breaking

In the other method after

allowing current to flow.


the current

is

the high resistance and

turned on the tubes are tipped until

all

the mercury in the lower cup flows out into the tube

and forms a path


tube

is

to the

upper

the

tipped back and the column of mercury leaves

the upper electrode light

positive

main

flows

given

is

through the cutout, switch S, to

T' then through tube T'

positive terminal of tube

to the negative terminal

through

this tube

The connec-

off^.

Current passing from the

tions can be easily traced.

tlie

As

electrode.

and out

to the

of tube T,

and the adjustable resistance R to


The two tubes and the

the negative side of the line.

resistance are simply connected in series

to see that current flows through the

proper direction

wrong

the
will

for,

if

current

direction, even for a

be ruined.

through the

Great care must be taken

proper cutout and switch.

The type

is

lamp

in

through

sent

the
in

few minutes, the tube

of lamp shown

is

used for

photographic purposes and takes about 3.5 amperes


at

110

volts

when running normally.

time.

At

the start

little

over 100;^ for a very short

The ordinary lamp

consisting of a single tube

the current rises to a

WIRING DIAGRAMS

124
is

rated at about 750 C. P.

After the lamps have

been in use for some time (about 1600 hours), the

lamp becomes coated with a brownish substance and small globules of mercury will adhere to the

inside of the

sides.

The

tubes then have to be replaced.

For photo-

graphic purposes this lamp taking 3.5 amperes compares very favorably with a 10 ampere arc lamp.

CHAPTER

XI.

EECORDING WATTMETERS.
Figure 107 shows the

circuits in the two-wire

son recording wattmeter.

One of the mains

nected through the winding

con-

M, M, which forms

The armature of

of a motor.

fields

Thomis

this

motor

the

con-

is

nected across the mains in series with a resistance

and the shunt


cuit,

whether there

is

or not, and

it is

motor.

purpose

Its

This shunt

field S.

field is

always in

cir-

current used through the meter

so arranged that
is

it

tends to start the

to overcome the friction of the

iarmature so that the meter will register on very small


loads.

It will be noticed that the connection for the

potential circuit

is

taken off the main at A.

done so that the meter

This

will register the current

in the potential circuit,

and

this is

one reason

is

used

why

the generator must always be connected on the left


side
this

and the load on the right side of the meter.


is fed from the wrong side it

form of meter

run backward.

In Figure 107

it will

If
will

be seen that if

the feed were reversed (leaving polarities

unchanged)

the current through the fields would be in the opposite direction,

while that through the armature would

remain unchanged, hence the motor would be reversed.

Used on direct-current

this

125

meter runs as a simple

WIRING DIAGRAMS

126
direct current

motor and when used on alternating

current, at each reversal of the current the polarities

of both the

fields

and armature are changed simulta-

neously; and the motor will therefore continue to

run

in the one direction, because

tion of current in both the fields

changing the

direc-

and armature of a

shunt motor does not change the direction of rota-

There is no iron used in the construction of the


motor and therefore no loss from heating.
tion.

FIGURE

107.

FIGURE

108.

Figure 108 shows the two-wire meter for heavy


The circuits in this meter vary from the pre-

loads.

ceding one only in having but one main carried

through the meter with a tap to the other main.


Figure 109 shows the three-wire meter. The two
wires (positive and negative) are carried

outside

through the meter, one through each field, and the


is connected from one outside to the neutral.

armature

In some of the three-wire meters no neutral tap

is

RECORDING WATTMETERS

127

used, the potential circuit being connected directly


across the outside mains.

FIGURE

109.

FIGURE

110.

Figure 110 shows a meter for a balanced three


phase

line.

Figure 111 shows a station meter for use on


arc

series

lines.
J^ktiit^t

s u u niHi-u- -

FIGURE

111.

FIGURE

112.

Figure 112 shows a meter used on switchboards to


record the entire current passing through the bus
bars.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

128

Figure 113 shows the


This meter

wattmeter.
rents only

is

and depends for

circuits

the

in

Gutmann

used with alternating curits

action on an

aluminum

disk, slotted in spiral lines, operated in joint action

with a shunt laminated magnet


series coils S, S.

and a pair of

coil S'

In the two-wire meter the

series coils

are connected in series with one of the mains and the

shunt

coil is

diagram.

connected across the mains as shown in

The

loss in the

shunt

coil

does not exceed

1 J^ watts on the 110 volt 60 cycle meter and the drop


in the series coil does not exceed J4
full load

on the small

size meters,

ally less in the larger meters.

/^

of one Tolt on

and

is

proportion-

RECORDING WATTMETERS
No

coil.

circuit

is

tap

is

129

taken to the neutral as the pressure

connected across the mains as in the 200-250

volt meter.

Figure 116 shows a meter for use on either 100 or

200

volt systems.

lines is for

The

100

The

volts

reactance coil

connection shown in the full

and the dotted for 200

volts.

balanced to have exactly the

is

same choke as the shunt

coil.

.L^

sEi

FIGURE

FIGURE

115.

116.

In Figure 117 the connections of an Edison chemical,

three-wire meter are shown.

The two

outsides

only are carried through the meter, no neutral connection being used.
the

first

This type of meter was one of

used on commercial work, the amount of cur-

rent having passed through the meter in a given time

being determined by the amount of zinc deposited on


the negative electrode.

These meters are rapidly be-

ing replaced by the mechanical meters.


Figure 118 shows a diagram of what
the
is

Wright discount or demand

meter.

is

known as

This meter

used in connection with recording wattmeters to de-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

130
termine the

maximum

during a given time.


desired to

it is

know

passed through the

current which has been used

It

the

also used on circuits where

is

maximum

glass bulb connected to a tube

U which

Around bulb B

with a liquid.

current which has

is

flowing in this wire heat

in the bulb

is

and

until

I join,

resistance

When

current

generated and the air

is

it

FIGURE

117.

118.

reaches the point where the tube

when

it will

of liquid in tube I

flow into tube

will

I.

sistance wire on bulb B.

The

scale

graduated in amperes and watts.

eff'ected

the

by momentary

maximum

The amount

ter; ten minutes,

100^

will register.

95^

five

re-

back of tube I

The meter

is

increases in the current.

current lasts

depend on the maximum

amount of current which has passed through the


is

expanded thus forcing the liquid around

FIGURE
tube

is

partly fiUed

is

wound a

wire which carries the main current.


is

In the diagram,

circuit.

minutes 80^

not
If

will regis-

will register; thirty minutes,

CHAPTER

XII.

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS.

Figure 119 shows the winding of a


use on constant-potential circuits.
fields

and armature are

cuit.

The purpose of
a resistance in

sert

motor for

main

in series across the

the starting box

series

FIGURE
starting, to prevent

series

In this motor the

SB

is

cir-

to in-

with the armature when

119.

an excessive flow of current which

would result were the main current thrown on fully


with the armature at

rest.

To

start the

motor the

main switch S is closed, and the arm of the starting*


is moved gradually from one contact to another

box

until

it

has reached the position where no resistance

left in circuit.

magnet
off,

It is then held

is

by means of the small

in this position until the current is cut

or for some reason ceases to flow, when, by means


131

WIRING DIAGRAMS

132

of a spring attached to
original position.

the current on while

armature

circuit.

it,

arm

the

This makes
all

The

it

the resistance

small

back to

will fly

its

impossible to throw

magnet

out of the

is

is

connected

directly across the mains, generally having a resist-

ance in series with


box, and

it

to reduce the voltage on the

This resistance

winding.
is

is

placed in the starting

not shown in the drawing.

the automatic coil

is

In some motors

connected in series with the

main current, but in this case the variations in the


current from no load to full load make its use unsatisfactory.

The speed of a

series

motor varies with the load,

decreasing as the load increases and vice versa.


the load

is

entirely

removed the motor

will

If

run away,

unless, as in the case of very small motors, the

ohmic

and armature is sufficient to


control it. This type of motor is also used on street
car work, although in this case the starting box is replaced with a controller which, by varying the resistresistance of the field

ance or connecting the motors in

series

or multiple

(where two motors are used), varies the speed.

Figure 127.]

Reversing either the

field

[See

or armature

connections will reverse the direction of rotation.

If

and armature are both reversed the motor will


same direction.
This motor is always protected from overload by
a fuse or circuit-breaker placed in the main circuit.
Fuses are shown in the drawing on the motor switch.

the

run

field

in the

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS

133

Figure 120 shows the winding of a shunt motor.

The

field

and armature of

shunt across the main


is

motor are placed

this

The

circuit.

in

SB

starting box

placed in the armature circuit and performs the

same service as in the constant-potential,

series

The automatic

connected in

coil

series

with the

motor

is

of the starting box

field

The speed of

circuit.

practically constant,

type of motor

is

and for

extensively

FIGURE

started in the same

way

is

field

a shunt

this reason this

used.

The motor

is

and

is

120.

as the series motor,

protected from overload in the same way.


the

motor.

If either

or armature connections are reversed the mo-

tor will run in the opposite direction.

a shunt motor
in either the

may

The speed of

be varied by inserting resistance

armature or

field

circuit

[See Figure

124], or by shifting the brushes.


It

must

line in

also be

remembered that the

long runs feeding a motor

loss

will cut

in the

down

the

P. D. at the armature, and this will decrease the speed

WIRING DIAGRAMS

134

as the load increases.

To

obviate this the size of

wire should be chosen so that the drop in potential


shall be as small as possible.

Figure 121 shows the winding of a compound motor.

In addition to the shunt winding on the

an extra winding
armature.

The

is

added, which

starting box

is

is

in series with the

connected in series

with the armature, and the automatic


nected in series with the shunt

fields

field

coil

is

con-

as in the shunt

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS

135

the increased current in the series winding will partly


neutralize the effect of the shunt winding

the magnetism of the

field,

On

the speed of the motor.

and decrease

thus tending to increase


loads which have a con-

stant variation, such as the planer, for instance, when,

at the end of each stroke a great increase of load

comes on, the differential motor

The cumulative motor

is

apt to spark badly.

will in the

decrease in speed at each stroke.

motor

is

not as

efficient as

the fact that there

two

fields

same case slightly

The

differential

the cumulative form from

a waste of current due to the

is

opposing each other.

Where motors

are used in isolated plants the motor

switches should be opened before the plant

is

shut

down.

number of

speed of a motor

different

may

rotation reversed, are

the three-wire system

may

connections

shown
is

by which the

be varied or the direction of


in

Figure 122.

Where

in use the speed of a motor

be varied by using the three-wire, double-throw

switch shown at the left of the diagram.

With the

switch thrown to the upper position the armature will


obtain the full line voltage, and with the switch on the

lower position the armature will receive the voltage

between the outside and the neutral; while the

field

will receive in both cases the full voltage of the

line.

In the 110-220 volt system the upper connection

and the lower connection 110 volts on


the armature, the field receiving 220 volts. It is cusgives

220

volts

136

WIRING DIAGRAMS

tomary to use a

three-wire,

single-throw switch to

connect the service to the motor, this switch being

placed in the line before the double-throw switch and

being used whenever

it is

desired to shut

down

the

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS


The double-throw

motor.

switch

is

137

only operated

when the motor is at rest.


In the upper part of the diagram are shown the
connections of the Cutler-Hammer underload and
overload starting box. With the movable arm A on
contact shown in drawing no current will flow.
If
the arm is moved to contact 1 current will flow from
the main through magnet U to the arm A, through
all the resistance to the series field and armature and
to the other side of the line.

arm has made

As soon

through the winding of magnet


shunt

and opposite

field

contact, where all the resistance


circuit.

When

it

is

it

is

The arm

cut out of the

attracts the armature


this position as

long

flowing through the magnet.

If the main supply were for any reason shut


the

magnet

(which

is

is

reaches the last

reaches this point the

magnet M, which is energized,


on the arm A and holds it in
as current

and out to the

side of line.

gradually moved to the right until

armature

as the movable

contact with 1, current will also flow

off',

would be de-energized, and the arm

equipped with a spring) would

the "off*" position.

This makes

it

all

the armature circuit.

In case the

back to

impossible for the

supply current to be momentarily cut

thrown on again while

fly

the resistance

off'

is

and then
cut out of

field circuit

should

open, by the breaking of a wire, for instance, the

magnet
off'.

M would be de-energized and the current

When

the motor

is

cut

shut down by opening the

WIRING DIAGRAMS

138

motor switch, the arm

will

not fly back until the

speed of the motor has considerably decreased, owing


to the fact that the motor

is

acting as a generator and

sending current around the shunt

The purpose of
tor

from any

a short

magnet

the

field

is

excessive rise in current,

circuit in the

too heavy a load.

and

coil

mo-

due either to

motor or to the throwing on of

With

the normal current flowing

through the winding of U, the armature below


not be attracted; but

amount the armature

M.

to protect the

if
is

it will

the current exceeds a certain


attracted,

and the winding of

M short-circuited at the point


demagnetizing M and allowing the arm A to

the automatic magnet

P, thus

back and shut

fly

off^

the current from the motor.

The armature below magnet U is adjustable, so that


it may be set to operate at whatever current is desired.

Similar apparatus to the above

may

be used to

regulate the speed of the motor by applying resist-

ance in

down

series

with the armature, and thus cutting

the current; but in such case the apparatus

is

designed to carry the full current for an indefinite

The automatic

time.

coil

is

arranged to attract

an armature which is connected to a pivoted lever,


having a point at the other end which fits into a series
of indentations on the lower part of arm A, and holds
the
tion

arm squarely over the


it

may

contacts in whatever posi-

be placed for the required speed.

Strengthening the

field

of a motor tends to decrease

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS


the speed, and weakening the
speed.

shunt

may

SR
field

is

field

139

to increase the

a rheostat connected in series with the

by means of which more or

be cut in series with the

fields.

less resistance

Cutting in more

resistance will reduce the current in the fields,

and

thus weaken them and increase the speed, and cutting

out resistance will act in the opposite way.

The

two-pole, double throw switch shown in lower

may

right-hand corner

be used to reverse the direc-

With

tion of rotation of the armature.

thrown to the upper contacts the current

the switch
will enter

the armature from the right-hand side, and with the


switch thrown to the lower contacts current will enter

on the left-hand

side of the armature, thus reversing

This switch should never

the direction of rotation.

be thrown while the motor

is

running, but should be

thrown over while the armature

is

at rest.

Figure 123 shows connections for the Cutler-Ham-

mer printing-press
motor.
size

is

controller, as used with a shunt

a resistance box generally in the larger

motors installed separately from the controller,

and connected

to

it

by wire

leads.

The automatic

is connected in series with the field circuit, and


when current is on attracts an armature (not shown
in drawing) which is connected to a pivoted lever, the

coil

other end of which

fits

into a series of indentations

on the lower end of the arm


whatever position

made

in two

it

may

and holds the arm

in

is

be placed.

pieces, separated

The arm

by an insulator

so that

WIRING DIAGRAMS

140

the upper and lower parts are not in electrical con-

As the arm is moved to point 1, current


from the mains enters the lower part of the arm and
goes to the copper segment S. From there it is carnection.

ried to the

armature and back to the segment T.

It

10

FIGURE

123.

then crosses the upper part of the arm to the contact


1

and through

all

the resistance in

point 10 to the other side of the

and back

The

line.

simply connected across the mains through


If the

arm

is

moved

to

field is

coil

M.

to point 1, the current will

then flow through the armature in the opposite direction, thus reversing the direction of rotation.

With

the arm on contact 10

all

the armature circuit.

This controller has ten varia-

tions in speed forward,

the resistance

is

cut out of

and two backward.

At

the

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS


left is

shown a diagram of the connections of


when used with a compound motor.

141
this

starting box

In Figure 124 are shown connections for the Cutler-

Hammer
The

self-starter used with a

motor driven pump.

connections shown are for a

compound motor.

UufMH
FIGURE

is

124.

a solenoid connected across the mains through the

switch

and the arm

of the self-starter.

The

current in this circuit varies from 34 to 1 ampere,

according to the
controlled

that

bj a

size

motor used.

float in the tank,

it will close

The
and

is

switch

as the level of the water lowers

open again when the tank has become

is

so arranged

filled.

and
This

WIRING DIAGRAMS

1142

switch

When

may

be placed any distance from the m^tor.

the switch

and the

closes, the solenoid

copper contact piece,

end of which

core, at the lower

ener^zed,

is

attached a

is

closes the contacts

E, E', thus

allowing current to flow through the series

armature of the motor and through


in the starter.

At

the same time,

all

when

and

field

the resistance

E'' is closed

current passes through the solenoid S' and through


the small spring connecting contacts
energizes the solenoid S'

This

B'.

and draws up the core and

arm A, thus gradually cutting resistance out of the


When the arm reaches the upper
armature circuit.
contact, the circuit

at

through the solenoid S^

and the lamps thrown

in series with

is

it.

opened

This

is

done to cut down the current flowing through the


solenoid, as less current

in place than to
cuit

move

it

is

required to keep the

over the contacts.

The

arm
cir-

from the small solenoid S is connected to the


so that when the arm A moves upward

contact 1

lamps are thrown

down

in series with this circuit, to cut

S to that required
any reason the supply
current is cut off^, the contact E E' cannot be closed
until the arm A has moved to the lower point, where
the current in the solenoid

to just hold it; so that, if for

all

the resistance

is

in the

armature

circuit.

The num-

ber of lamps used varies with the size of motor. This

same apparatus can be used with any air pump, or


elevator in which the motor does not reverse, the
switch

being replaced with the necessary switch.

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS


On

the solenoid

S the small magnets

143

K are used to ex-

tinguish the arc at the break.

Figure 125 shows a diagram of the connections of

The

a shunt motor used for blowing a pipe organ.

arm of the

resistance

box

mechanically connect-

is

ed to the bellows of the pipe organ so that


tion

is

When

its

posi-

determined by the amount of air in the bellows.


all

of the air

is

out of the bellows the arm of

FIGURE
the rheostat

is

in circuit, or as

125.

where no resistance

in the position

shown

in the

diagram.

As

is

the motor

up and air is forced into the bellows the rheoarm slowly moves over the series of contacts cut-

speeds
stat

ting resistance into the circuit at each step.


bellows are completely

tact

series

where
with

all

filled

the

arm

is

When

on the

of the resistance of the box

the motor, this

resistance

the

last con-

is

in

being great

WIRING DIAGRAMS

144

enough to completely stop


scription

it

will

From

it.

the above de-

be seen that the action

is

automatic,

the speed of the motor being governed

by the amount
After the organ has been

of air taken by the organ.

at rest for some time the air gradually leaks out of

arm moves to the point


For this reason a

the bellows and the rheostat

where no resistance
starting box

is

is

in circuit.

always provided.

Figure 126 shows the connections of the Cutler-

Hammer compound drum


troller

controller, this

type of con-

being used on printing presses, cranes and

other work requiring a frequent change in speed and

In the upper part of the dia-

direction of rotation.

gram is shown the drum laid out, the contact rings


X, Y, Z, Y\ 7/ and W, and the segments below being
mounted on a revolving drum, while the contacts 1 to
7 and B, A, SF, B' A', SF' and L are stationary,
being supplied with fingers which make contact with

drum is revolved.
drum moved to the first point on the forward motion the rings X, Y, Z will come in contact

the segments opposite as the

With

with A,

the

SF and

and the rings

1 respectively,

with B', SF' and L.

Current

will

W, Y' 7/

then flow from the

main through the series field to the resistance box


R and through all the resistance to the point 1 of the
From 1 it passes to contact ring Z, and
controller.
-|-

then through ring

and contact

and back to B' and ring

to the negative side of the

to the armature

and contact L
As the drum is moved

to ring Z'

line.

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS

.SLudlhU.
-kiiiE

C3L

FIGURE

126.

145

WIRING DIAGRAMS

146

toward point 7 at each step, part of the resistance


in series with the armature is cut out, until at 7 the
armature and

series field are

connected directly across

the mains.

In the bottom of the controller are located two copper rings and a number of contacts, which are connected to their respective points in resistance box R.

small,

movable contact shoe short-circuits rings 11

and 17, while the

controller

is

moved from points

to 7, thus allowing current to pass from the positive


side of the line to 17,

the shunt

field

and out

to negative side of

line.

on to 11, and then through


to bar

As

the

Y^ on

drum

controller

and

passes point 7

the contact shoe connecting 17 and 11 will then connect 17 and 12, thus cutting the resistance between
points 11 and 12 in the resistance box

in series

and increasing the speed of the motor.


As the controller is moved still further, more resistance is cut in series with the field, until at point 14
all the resistance is cut in and the motor has reached
with the

its

field

highest speed.

drum

moved to 1 on the reverse motion


a,re made with the exception of
In this case current from contact 1
the armature.
passes to ring 7/ and then to B and armature, this
If the

is

the same connections

causing current to flow in the opposite direction in


armature and reversing the direction of rotation. In
printing press work a stop is used which allows the

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS

147

reverse motion to take in two contacts only, thus limit-

ing the reverse to two speeds.


Figure 127 shows the connections of the General
Electric

of the

K2

street car controller.

series parallel type,

and

FIGURE

is

varies the speed of the

127.

car by connecting the motors


in parallel, suitable resistance

gradual starting current.

This controller

first in series

and then

being used to give a

In Figure 128 are shown

the various connections between the rheostat and motors obtained at the different points of the controller.

In the upper left-hand corner the drum of the conT, Rl, R2, etc., are stationary

troller is laid out.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

148

contacts with fingers which


rious segments on the

At

drum

make contact with


as

it is

right of the controller

the

the va-

revolved.
is

the reversing

by means of which the car can be made

go
drum
on which are placed two sets of contacts, these making
connection with the stationary points F2, AA2, etc.,
If the controller drum is
as the drum is revolved.
moved to point 1, the current from the trolley wire
enters at T, then to segment on drum opposite T.

switch,

in either direction.

From

there

K, through

it

reverse switch

is

to

also a

passes to contact Rl, then to rheostat

all

reverse switch.
will

The

the resistance to the point 19 on the

With

the reversing switch on

it

then pass to Al, through the armature of motor

No. 1 back to AAl, on the reverse switch and through


field

of motor No. 1 to the point

From El

it

El on

passes to the point 15

the controller.

by means of

seg-

ments on the drum, and to 15 on the reversing switch

and to armature of motor No. 2 back to AA2 on the


reversing switch, and to the field of motor No. 2 and
back by means of E2 to the ground. The two motors
are

now connected

rheostat

in series with all the resistance in

This

in series with them.

is

shown in 1

of Figure 128.

As

the controller

Is

moved to points 2 and

of the resistance in rheostat

is

3,

part

cut out, until at 4

the two motors are running in series with no resistance.

At

point 5 the

fields

of both motors are weak-

ened by shunting them around the resistance in rheo-

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS

149

K2, thus further increasing the speed.


The
points between 5 and 6 are used to change the connections from series to multiple. At point 6 the menstat

tors are in multiple, in series with part of the resist-

At

ance in K.
is

points 7

multiple with the

-^-TTTl-'

IP .-^=^
-J=BXI
Nrl-^Thn

'-^TTn
*-^=rm

fields

biQ^

QjQ

-Ptn
>-qTh-

and 8 part of

this resistance

cut out, while at 9 the motors are connected in

o
o

O
O
i-WW-r

tAA/W^

'-^ANW^

^AMAA^^

wvv
'

oo

w/w-^i

>--MJI>-^

I
In case

may

it is

ww^
wwWW^

ww^

ww^

WW^'r-Q

WW^[

^WW^-L

[^WWh-'p-O

rA/WWr^

WVW-L

128.

necessary to cut out one of the motors,

If the switch at the left-hand

thrown to the upper contacts, motor No.


short-circuited.

Throwing

motor No.

ut, a stop

WW*

be done by means of the switches shown be-

low the controller.

circuits

ww^-^fo

FIGURE

this

^*A/\/V\/^

WW
WW
WW

O
f

0**'

t^AJ\/\A/^

o
o
O
O

--RtT'i
'-HXD-^-T

weakened.

2.

the other switch

When

will

up

one of the motors

is

be

short
is

cut

comes into play which allows the controller

WIRING DIAGRAMS

150
to

move over the

points only.

first five

If this were

not done and the controller moved to point 6, the

would be directly connected to ground through

trolley

the rheostat K.

This can be seen by reference to 6 in

Figure 128, where cutting out motor No.


circuits

The

19 and El.

1 short-

car should never be run

with the resistance in rheostat

in circuit, therefore

points 4, 5, 8 and 9 only should be used for any great

The diagram shows one

length of time.

set

of con-

trolling apparatus only, this set being duplicated at

the other end of the car.

The speed of a

constant current series motor varies

with the load, decreasing as the load becomes greater

and increasing

in speed as the load

If the load

entirely

away."

No

is

satisfactory

devised which would

becomes lighter.

removed the motor

will "run
method of winding has been

make

ing, so that if the motor

these motors self-regulatto be used on a varying

is

load some mechanical device must be employed to


regulate the speed.

In Figure 129 the arm

moves over a

series

of

contacts which are connected to different points of

the

field

hand,

winding.

or, as is

ugal governor.
its

This arm

may

either be

moved by

more common, connected to a centrifAs the load on the motor increases,

speed will slightly decrease, thus decreasing the

speed of the governor and moving the arm upward.

This cuts out part of the


the motor.

field

winding and speeds up

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS


In Figure 130 the arm

151

moves over a number of

contacts which are in connection with the resistance

FIGURE
wire R.

129.

Current coming from the left-hand main

passes through the lower part of the resistance

and

is

shunted at the arm A, part of

it

passing

B
FIGURE

130.

through the remaining resistance and part of it going


to the motor. By changing the position of the arm,

WIRING DIAGRAMS

152

more or

less current

can be sent through the motor,

amount passing through it when the arm


is at the lowest contact.
The arm may either be
moved by hand or used with a centrifugal governor,
the greatest

as described in the preceding paragraph.

It will be

method is not very efficient, as a great


deal of energy is consumed in the resistance wire.
There are a number of other methods used for constant current series motor regulation, but they are
seen that this

mostly variations of those shown.


This type of motor

is

fast being

constant potential motor.


these motors, as the current

replaced

by the

Fuses are never used on


is

always the same, and

the switch used to start and stop the motor closes


the main line

when

it

opens the motor

circuit.

The

ordinary snap switch cannot be used.

Figure 130a shows diagram of a printing press con-

known as of the Kohler system and


by the Cutler Hammer Co. This system is
widely used and there are many variations; modifications being made in some cases to fit different voltages and also to obtain different results as not all
presses are run in the same way.
In the diagram
is the main magnet which when
energized closes the armature circuit at A. The two
troller generally

built

A represent

blow out magnets which are


not always used. The circuit can readily be traced
along the heavy lines and through the rheostat R.
N is another magnet or solenoid which when energized
circles

below

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS

FIGURE

130a.

153

WIRING DIAGRAMS

154

up the contact bar


by dotted

pulls

of the rheostat

as indicated

resistance of

When

R until it rests

thus cutting

lines,

the

all of

into the armature circuit.

any position the solenoid is held in


by a ratchet device (not shown) and also by current which passes through N and the auxiliary resistance L at the left. The ratchet and also the circuit
through N are controlled by another magnet O. This
magnet when energized withdraws the ratchet and
allows the bar to slip down and also opens the circuit
at rest in

place

through N. at
solenoid

When

5.

the circuit of

circuit of

is

opened when

wherever

it

happens to be.

the resistance

may

The

is

closed the

N begins to move downward cutting out resist-

ance until the


rest

be

field circuit

left in

it

comes to

Thus more

or less of

the armature circuit.

can readily be traced and

be seen that as the solenoid moves down to

its

it

can

lowest

field circuit which


and cause the motor to attain its

notch resistances are cut into the

weaken the

field

highest speed.

is

the brake circuit and

being deenergized

it

when

closes the

descends after

armature

circuit at

B,

thus short circuiting the armature and quickly bringing the motor to rest.

is

a circuit breaker and the plunger shown opens

the circuit through


ceeds

The
are

its

M when the armature current ex-

allowable value.

by which the motor is controlled


the lower right hand corner. There may

various buttons

shown

in

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS

155

may be

be any number of these buttons and they

located at different convenient places about the

From any one

chinery.

may be
lows

The operation

started or stopped.

The motor cannot be

ma-

motor

of these buttons the

as fol-

is

started unless the solenoid

has drawn up the contact bar of the rheostat to

This

highest point closing the safety circuit at S.

its
is

accomplished as soon as the main switch (not shown)


closed.

is

Current passes from the positive pole of

the circuit to point

which

is

closed until

is

ener-

N to point 2 which is closed until

gized, thence through

has acted, and from there to the negative pole of

the

line.

The middle bar

at 5 rests upon the lower contacts


shown except when O is energized. When O is
active this bar is drawn up against the upper contacts.

there

Before current can be gotten into the armature


all

of the points 3

When

this is

done

<iircuit

on the buttons must be closed.

circuit

is

established through wire 4,

magnet M, resistance P and the negative pole of the


Owing to resistance P this current is not of

line.

sufficient strength to close the

When now

one of the buttons

established through

armature
is

circuit at

closed at 6 current

A.
is

to the negative pole of the line.

This releases the ratchet before mentioned and also


5, establishes a shunt circuit around P through
S and strengthens the current in
sufficiently to draw
up the core and close the armature circuit at A. This
starts the motor at its slowest speed and allows the

draws up

WIRING DIAGRAMS

156
contact bar of

to descend, thus cutting resistance

out of the armature circuit and speeding up the motor.

When the button


through

is

released 5 again closes the circuit

and holds

wherever

it

may

be, thus

keeping the motor running at that speed.


If the

speed of the motor

one of the buttons 7

will

is

to be reduced pressing

cause the contact bar of

N to

of

and cut in more resistance into the armature cirThe motor can be stopped by opening any one
the buttons 3, but all of them must be closed before

it

can be started.

rise

cuit.

This

is

a safety arrangement of

great value.

Another diagram of Kohler system printing press


controller

motor

is

is

given in Figure 130b.

reversible

In this case the

but can be used in the reverse

direction at the slowest speed only.

There

is

also

mechanism shown at P which can be set so that


the motor can be operated at a fixed speed only. In
this case it is intended that the pressman shall have
no control over the speed but have full control over
starting and stopping of motor.
The field and armature circuits can easily be traced
and will need no explanation. There is also the brake
lock

circuit as in the preceding Figure 130a.

With the reversing switch indicated in the lower


hand corner thrown to the right, circuit is at once
established through wire 1 solenoid N points 2 and 3,

right

and the negative pole of the line. When N acts the


circuit at 2 is opened and current is now forced through

DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS

F=^

Lc=feJ
I

M
P

<i

o-^

M/VW1
V,

CQO

""

FIGURE

130b.

9 9S

157

WIRING DIAGRAMS

158

R' which reduces


tain

it

so as to be only sufficient to main-

With the reversing switch

in its position.

thrown to the
button 4

is

left

closed

there

is

and when

bar descends until

it

current in
this is

only while

opened the contact

strikes the locked plug

the

position of which determines the speed at which the

motor

To

shall run.

close the

button

5.

M,

armature

circuit it is necessary to close

This sends current through point

6, sole-

and negative pole of line.


There is also a parallel circuit around the circuit
breaker C which keeps the circuit open after an overnoid

safety S, point 3

load in the armature circuit has caused the breaker to


act.

For normal operation

in the forward direction

button 4 must be closed and remain closed until 5


closed.

When 5

is

closed the armature circuit

is

is

closed

and the motor starts at its slowest speed. To speed


it up 4 must be opened; this allows N to descend and
cut out resistance and speed up the motor.

CHAPTER

XIII.

AUTOMOBILES.

ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE, CHARGING STATIONS, GAS


ENGINES.

The

following

methods of
the

diagrams

electric

Woods Motor

Vehicle Co., and

formation herein given

Wood's work, "The

taken

is

gives three speeds.

grouping the

The

first

four

batteries

This connection

ler connects all

much of

is

earlier

speed
in

methods and

is

obtained by

parallel

made when

and ten

the control-

of the points along line a with the

opposite points along line

b.

The

to bar 1, thence to

the reversing switch

+ poles of the

Y, through both

R; back

to

can readily

circuit

be traced, the current passing from the


cells

the in-

from Mr. C. E.

Electric Automobile."

Figure 131 shows one of the

in series.

some of the

illustrate

automobile wiring employed by

fields,

F, to

both annatures;

through other side of reversing switch and to X,


bar 2 and the
side of the batteries.

The second speed

obtained when the controller

is

connects the points along line a with those along

This places the battery

and twenty

in series.

in

groups of two

The
159

third step,

c.

in parallel

by connecting

WIRING DIAGRAMS

160

a and

d, places all

forty

cells in series

with the

fields

and armatures.

^
^

K>

-ir-+

-ir-i

-li- +

-^
6-&--a

T'"^?t^

<j

Q
D

e6

-_9- -,C^

Q-9-

-</^

FIGURE

^i>-

6 6

tiSc

'^

'

<Li>
-

9_9

131.

Figure 132 shows an arrangement giving four


speeds and in which not so
in battery connections, but

As

in the previous

main

in parallel.

many changes

more

are

made

in those of the fields.

diagram both armatures always

re-

AUTOMOBILES
The

first

speed

is

161

obtained when the controller con-

The two
and work
the current passing from

nects the points along a with those along 6.


halves

of battery

through both

are

now

fields in series,

FIGURE

in

parallel

132.

the positive pole of battery to bar 1, thence to

field

F, back to controller and through F', thence back to


reversing switch R, through both armatures and again

through reversing switch and back to negative pole


of battery and bar 2.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

162

The next
and

leaves batteries

time throws the


fields

and c
in parallel and at the same
parallel thus weakening the

step on the controller combines a


still

fields in

and speeding up the motor.


third step, combining a and

The

teries all in series

and the

J,

throws the batincreasing speed

fields also,

through increased E. M. F.
In the fourth speed, connecting a and
teries

remain in

and

series

and the

fields

The charging plug

in parallel.

to charge, the batteries

nections for electric

e,

the bat-

are again placed

shown
are thrown in
is

gong and lamps

at the right
series.

Con-

are also shown.

It w411 be noticed that with these motors fuses or


circuit breakers are not used.

It

would indeed be

quite dangerous to have a fuse blow out

ing a steep
signed that

hill.
it

The whole wiring

when climb-

therefore so de-

can safely carry for a short time

that the battery can deliver.

no

is

all

These diagrams show

resistances used as with other motors; the reduc-

tion of E.
lel is

M.

F. at starting by placing

cells in

far more economical and satisfactory.

paral-

Vehicles

have, however, been built which combine resistance


control with the methods just described.

Figure 133 shows the arrangement of an automoBy means of the rheostat R


bile charging station.
the current

is

regulated to the needs of the battery.

The charging plug P is usually so made that it can


be inserted only one way so that the polarities of the
charging dynamo and the batteries will always be cor-

AUTOMOBILES
The

rect.

voltmeter

may

be used to test the condi-

tion of the battery

and

dynamo or battery

if these are

also to indicate polarity of

double-throw switch shown


is

desired to test or

163

"form"

is

The

not known.

needed only in case


It provides

batteries.

it

an

easy connection for discharging batteries.

FIGURE

In Figure 134

is

133.

shown the general pnnciple of

A jump

ignition used in gasoline automobiles.


is

almost invariably used and this

means of an induction

coil

FIGURE

high voltage.

The

spark

produced by

capable of giving a very

134.

figure shows an induction coil

equipped with a vibrator, but this

is

and many equipments dispense with

cam C

is

that

makes and breaks the

it

is

not always used


it

entirely.

The

connected with the gearing and adjusted so


circuit at just the

proper

WIRING DIAGRAMS

164

time for ignition.

Whenever the current at C is


X. At this point a "spark

broken a spark occurs at

plug" equipped with proper terminals across which


the spark is to jump is fitted into the end of the cylinder.

Figure 135 shows a four-cylinder engine equipped


sets of batteries and independent coils.

with four

FIGURE

An
is

135.

arrangement using either battery or generator

shown

in

Figure 136.

Generators used in this con-

nection are usually fitted out with some form of gov-

ernor which keeps them running at a sufficiently uni-

form speed to allow of practical operation whether the


car be running fast or slow. This figure also shows
wiring arranged for a "double spark gap."

plug

is

very apt to "foul"

that

is,

to

spark

become covered

with soot from the combustion of gas in the cylinder.

When

it

is

thus "fouled" the current leaks through

the carbon from one terminal to the other and, of

AUTOMOBILES
course, there

no spark.

is

165

The proper remedy

is

to

new plug or clean the old one. It is,


however, claimed by some automobile users that if another spark gap be introduced in series with the one
which is "fouled" that both will then spark. Whether
either provide a

this

be true or not

it

can at best be only a temporary

for in time the plug in the cylinder will become so completely covered that it cannot possibly
spark. The throw-over switch in Figure 136 admits
relief,

using a single or double spark gap.

p3

FIGURE

137.

In Figure 137 are shown the connections of a gas


engine igniter where the gas engine
a

dynamo supplying

taken from an

L
is

electric lights.

is

used to drive

The

current

electric light circuit while the

running, a 50

c.

p.

lamp being placed

is

dynamo

in series with

WIRING DIAGRAMS

166
the spark
tery

The

is

While the engine

coil.

starting the bat-

is

used to supply current for igniting the gas.

single-pole throw-over switch

connections either way.

disadvantage that

and

light system

arranged to make

usually "grounds" the electric

it

is

is

This arrangement has the

therefore not approved

by most

insurance companies and inspection bureaus.

btsi

r
fe^^^^afl

To Qas-lightinj

To Bells

FIGURE

138.

Figure 138 shows another arrangement of gas en-

The

gine ignition.

small generator

the gas engine and driven by


is

the engine.

is

coupled to

While the engine


magnet
closes the
on the spark coil and cylinder C of
it.

at rest the armature of the

battery circuit

As

the engine gains speed the generator

sends current through the magnet

and raises
the armature, thus disconnecting the battery and clos-

ing

its

battery

own
is

circuit

used

it

on the spark

may

by throwing the switch

may

coil.

If a storage

be charged from time to time


S''

over.

The

switch near

be opened to prevent accidental short circuits

while the engine

is

at rest.

CHAPTER

XIV.

DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS, COMPENSATORS,


ALTERNATORS.

diagram of the

Co.'s series arc

circuits in the

dynamo

stant-current, series

shown

is

in

Western Electric

Figure 139. Con-

dynamos, hke the constant-cur-

rent, series motors, are not self-regulating, so that

some mechanical means must be employed to keep the

FIGURE
current constant.

This

139.

accomplished by shifting

is

the location of the brushes, or varying the

exciting turns on the

fields,

In the machine shown the

these methods combined.

voltage

is

number of

or in some cases by both

regulated by shifting the brushes.

In

tlie

diagram, current flows from the lower or positive


brush to the center connection of switch S, and then

around the

fields

and out

to the positive side of th

107

WIRING DIAGRAMS

168
line,

returning through the regulator

The

brush.

down

switch S

in the position

When

it

to the

upper

used in starting and shutting

shown switch

is

running.

set for

desired to shut down, the switch

is

This

closed.

is

first

short-circuits the fields

is

and then

the armature.

switches shown at the left are

used to cut

The
down the

current bj short-circuiting part

of the

windings.

field

Thej

sired to operate either the

are used where

1200

c.

p. arc

de-

it is

lamp taking

6.8 amperes, or the enclosed arc lamp taking 6 amperes.

machine

With

the switches in the position shown the

will

generate 9.6 amperes, the current gen-

erally used

on the 2000

c.

p. arcs.

To

reverse the

direction of current the armature leads are reversed.

In connecting two arc machines


one machine

is

connected to the

in series the

of

the other.

of

The

positive side of the machine

must always be connect-

ed to the positive side of the

line.

Figure 140 shows the connections on a shunt-

wound dynamo. The winding varies from that of


the series dynamo in having the field magnets, which
are wound with a great length of fine wire, connected
The current in
in shunt across the dynamo brushes.
this field is then in
is

shunt with the main circuit, and

generally about 2 or 3 per cent, of the whole cur-

Shunt-wound dynarent generated by the machine.


mos are used where a current of constant potential is
desired, such as the lighting of incandescent

lamps

in parallel, furnishing power for motor? and in stor-

DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS


age battery charging and electro-plating.

dynamo

the voltage of a shunt


stant,

still,

gradually

as the load

fall,

of the rheostat
the

field.

is

Although

practically con-

increased, the voltage will

must be regulated by means

and

this

which

If resistance

current in the

is

169

is

is

connected in series with

cut out of the rheostat the

fields is increased,

and the voltage of

the machine rises, and vice versa.

This dynamo

is

always protected from overload by a fuse or circuitbreaker placed in the main circuit.

FIGURE

140.

To start the dynamo it is first brought up to speed


and the voltage regulated by means of the rheostat

and the voltmeter V, and the main switch is then


thrown in. The connection for the field is taken off
the dynamo leads so that the opening of the main
switch will not open the

son the

field

will

field circuit,

and for

this rea-

begin to build up as soon as the

WIRING DIAGRAMS

170

machine

is

started.

Pilot lamps are sometimes used

in place of voltmeter V, the voltage being determined

by

This

the brightness of the lamp.

method and

satisfactory

present time.

is

very

is

little

If either the armature or

a very unused at the


field

connec-

tions are reversed current will flow in the opposite


direction.

FIGURE

141.

Figure 141 shows the connections of a compoundThis machine, like the shunt-wound

wound dynamo.
machine,

is

used where a current of constant poten-

tial is desired,

but

machine in that

it

it

has the advantage over the shunt


maintains the voltage more con-

stant over a greater variation in load.

The winding

from that of the shunt dynamo in having, in


addition to the shunt field, an auxiliary field which

varies

is

in series with the armature.

winding of both the shunt and

It

is

series

in reality the

machine on one

DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS


As

machine.

171

by the dynamo

the current supplied

increases, the current in the series field

winding inmagnetism and the

creases, thus increasing the field

voltage.

In this way the voltage

kept practically

is

constant.

When

a dynamo of

this

kind

is

used to supply a

large load located at some distance from the generator,

the

sometimes desirable to have the voltage at

it is

dynamo

terminals increase as the load increases,

to overcome the increased drop in the line due to the

from increased current. To accomplish this a


method known as over-compounding is used, the series

losses

windings being so calculated that, as the current increases, the voltage will rise accordingly.

In some cases the shunt

is

connected between

series

winding, as shown

known

as the long shunt,

field

one brush and the end of the


in the dotted lines.

This

is

the method of connecting directly across the brushes

being known as the short shunt.


connected in the shunt

field

and

rheostat

serves the

is

same pur-

pose as in the shunt machine.

Figure 142 shows the connections when two shunt-

wound machines
140.

The

The wind-

are to be run in parallel.

ing of these machines

is

the same as shown in Figure

positive lead of each

to the same bus bar.

machine

In starting,

is

connected

if it is desired to

use but one machine, the method described in Figure

140 is followed. When one of the machines is running


and the other is to be thrown in, the idle machine

WIRING DIAGRAMS

172
is

brought up to speed with the main switch open and

the voltage regulated by means of the rheostat and


voltmeter until the voltages of the two machines cor-

The main

respond.

switch

is

then thrown in and the

load on the two machines, which

ammeters,
there

is

is

equalized

any great

is

ascertained

by means of the

by the
If

rheostats.

difference in voltage between the

FIGURE

142.

machines, the higher one will run the other as a motor

without changing the direction of rotation.

The

field

current will remain unchanged and the armature current of the low

cause

it

dynamo

will

be reversed, which will

to run in the same direction as a motor as

ran as a dynamo.

it

DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS


When

a plant feeding motors

switches on motors should


likely

motor fuses

first

is

down the

be opened, or very

As

will blow.

shut

173

the voltage goes

draw more current to do the


If a plant is shut down with the motor
work.
switches "on" it will generally be found impossible
to start up a shunt dynamo, the low resistance in the
mains not allowing enough current to flow around

down

the motors will

the shunt

fields

to energize them.

FIGURE

143.

Figure 143 shows connections for two compound-

wound dynamos run

in parallel, the

machine being the same as


or more

in

winding of each

Figure 141.

compound-wound dynamos are

When two

to be run to-

gether, the series fields of all the machines are con-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

174

nected together in parallel by means of wire leads

or bus bars, which connect together the brushes from,

which the

This is known as
shown by the line running to

series fields are taken.

the equalizer, and

is

the middle pole of the

out the series circuits

dynamo

it

from the upper brush of

will

By

switch.

tracing

be seen that the current

either

dynamo has two paths


leads through its own

bus bar. One of these


and the other, by means of the equalizer bar,
through the fields of the other dynamo. So long as

to

its

fields,

both machines are generating equally there

is

no

dif-

ference of potential between the brushes of Nos. 1 and


S.

Should, from any cause, the voltage of one ma-

chine be lowered, current from the other machine

would begin to flow through its fields and thereby


raise the voltage, at the same time reducing its own
until both are again equal.

The equalizer may never be called upon


much current, but to have the machines
closely

it

should be of very low resistance.

to carry

regulate
It

may

shown by the dotted lines, but this will


leave all the machines alive when any one is generatThe ammeters should be connected as shown.
ing.
If they were on the other side they would come under
also be run as

the influence of the equalizing current and would indicate wrong, either too high or too low.
izer should

little

The

equal-

be closed at the same time, or preferably

before, the mains are closed.

the middle, or equalizer, blade of the

In some cases

dynamo

switch

DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS

175

made longer than the outsides to accomplish this.


The series fields are often regulated by a shunt of
is

variable resistance.

To

insure the best results, com-

pound-wound machines should be run at just the


proper speed, otherwise the proportions between the
shunt and series coils are disturbed.

FIGURE

Figure

144<

144.

shows connections where two shunt-

wound machines are connected to operate on what is


known as the three-wire system. The two dynamos
are connected in series, three wires being carried from

them

one from the outside pole of each machine and

one from

t!ie

junction of the two machines.

voltage between these outside wires

is

equal to

The
th<*

WIRING DIAGRAMS

176

combined voltage of the two machines, and the

volt-

age between the outside and the central or neutral


wire

is

equal to the voltage of the corresponding ma-

If the load on both sides of the system

chine.

is

equal there will be no current flowing in the neutral


wire, while if the loads are unequal the neutral wire
will

have to carry only the difference in currents be-

tween the two outsides.

The advantage
wire system

derived from the use of the threein

lies

the fact that one wire

(which

would have to be used were the two machines operated


on two separate circuits) can be done away with, and

on account of the voltage being doubled the wires


can be of much smaller capacity. For the same per

amount of wire required

cent of loss the

the three-wire system,

same

size as the outsides, is

used to a great extent in the large


direct

current

is

of the

but three-eighths of that

required with a two-wire system.

station,

to operate

when the neutral wire

distribution,

This system
cities

and

is

for central
it

is

also

used on the secondary mains in alternating current


work.

In the feeder
neutral wire

is

lines

of the direct current system the

generally

made one-third the

size

of

the outsides, while in the secondary mains in both

and alternating current work all three wires


are made of the same size; for, if one of the outside
fuses should blow, the neutral would have to carry

direct

the full current.

DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS

]77

Figure 145 shows a diagram of the winding and


connections of a Western Electric

compensator

set.

This apparatus

compound-wound
is

used in connec-

220 volt generators and by means of it a


three-wire 110-220 volt system is obtained. This set
consists of two motors, the armatures of which are
mounted on the same shaft so that both run at the
same speed.
When the machines are started the
switch P and the circuit-breaker are left open and the
switch shown at the left closed.
The machines are
then started by means of the starting box. Tracing
out the circuits it will be seen that the main current
from the positive pole of the switch passes through
the starting box, through the armature and series
fields of machine B then through the armature and
series fields of machine A and back to the negative
tion with

side of the line.

The

circuit for the shunt fields

is

connected to the starting box, current flowing through


the resistance box, R, and then through the shunt
fields

of machine

connected in

and machine B, these

series, to

It will be noticed

being

fields

the negative side of the

by the

line.

direction of the arrows that

the current in the series fields and the shunt fields are
in opposition.

This remains so

in

both motors only

while the load on both sides of the neutral

and under

this condition the

series fields is

very small.

thrown on one

side,

is

amount of current

even

in the

If an additional load

say ten lamps at

X, part of

is

the

excess current flows along the neutral wire to the

178

WIRING DIAGRAMS

<-*^

COMPENSATORS
armature and

179

of machine A.

series fields

This cur-

rent being in opposition to the current in the shunt

weakens them and tends to speed up this motor.

fields

This speeding up increases the counter E. M. F. of


machine B, the
ened,

fields

and current

through the

of which have not been weak-

flows

series fields in

out of the armature and


a direction opposite to that

The
now be

shown by the arrows.


in this

machine

will

current in both
in the

field coils

same direction and

the machine will act as a

compound-wound generator.
more power than
a motor and will generate a

It cannot as a generator give out


it

receives

little less

X.

This

from

as

than one-half of the excess current used at


is

Figure 146.

shown a

little

With no

plainer

by the diagrams

in

load, or with the load evenly

distributed on both sides of the neutral, the conditions will be as

shown

in the

machines acting as motors.

upper diagram, both

With

excess of load be-

tween the positive and neutral approximately onehalf of the excess current will pass along the neutral

wire through the lower machine causing

it

to act as

a motor while the balance of the excess current

is

sup-

by the upper machine acting as a generator.


The lower diagram shows the conditions with excess
In the
between the neutral and the negative.
these machines, when they have attainecj
operation
of
Iload
plied

full

speed after starting, their voltages are equalized

by means of the

resistance

placed in the strongest

field.

box R,

When

this

box being

automatic start-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

130

ing boxes are used, as

in this case,

it is

almost always

necessary to place the resistance box in the opposite


field to

balance the resistance of the magnet on the

starting box.
tions are

made

For equalizing

the voltages connec-

to the voltmeter as

Mo tor

Motor

With

eifcess

between

-t-

shown

in

Figure

had

of

and*.

,-,<:

With excess of load

Motor\

between and-

:::::::X::

FIGURE

146.

143, so that reading for both machines can be taken.

When

the machines are at even voltage the circuit

breakers are thrown

in.

Figure 147 shows the switchboard and machine


connections

The two

for two

Compensator

sets

in

parallel.

panels at the left are for the 220 volt gen-

erators, the

two at the right are for the feeders while

COMPENSATORS

181

the two center panels are for the operation of the

compensators.

By

following out the circuits for the

0=^^

individual compensators

it will

be seen that, with few

exceptions, they correspond to the circuits

shown in

WIRING DIAGRAMS

182

Figure 145.
shunt

resistance

box

installed in each

is

while in Figure 145 there

field circuit

one resistance box.

On

is

only

the lower part of the com-

pensator panel shown at the

are

left

two switches,

the upper contacts of which are connected to the au-

tomatic switch, AS, on the right-hand panel, while


the lower contacts are connected to the compensator

windings at points between the series


armature.
panel
tral

is

The automatic

fields

and the

switch on the right-hand

operated by the current flowing in the neu-

wire and

so arranged that

is

it

short-circuits

either of the sets of contacts, 1-1' or 2-2', thus short-

circuiting the series fields of the

a motor and causing

it

machine acting as

to act as a simple shunt motor.

In later machines the connections are so made that


this switch is

done away with, the compensators being

entirely automatic.

The

principle

Generator

is

of

the

Westinghouse Three Wire

illustrated in Figures

FIGURE

147a.

147a,

147b, and

ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATOR


147c.

Figure

147a

dynamo armature.

183

shows the connections of the

The

outer circle represents the

ordinary armature winding connected by means of the

commutator to the brushes A and B. The fine coils


shown running through the center from C to D represent taps taken from diametrically opposite points
of the direct current winding.

If these taps are joined

through resistances as indicated alternating currents


will circulate in

them and

at

there will be a point at

w^hich just half of the voltage of

system

exists.

The

therefore be used to

the direct current

wire connected to this point can


fulfill

FIGURE

the same requirements as

147b.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

184

the neutral wire in the ordinary two generator three


wire system.

The

connections of a single machine are shown in

Figure 147b.

In actual practice the alternating cur-

rent connections of the armature are connected to two

auto transformers as shown.


are

known

These auto transformers

also as balancing coils.

Figure 147c shows the switchboard connections for

two

such

generators

operating

FIGURE

is

multiple.

On

147c.

account of the fact that the load

ammeter

in

is

often unbalanced an

provided in each leg leading from a ma-

chine to the switchboard.

The

series fields of

each

machine are also divided so that current from each


leg

may

pass through half of each

field.

Since the

ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATOR


series fields are divided it is necessary to

izer for

185

run an equal-

each division and two are therefore shown.

The balancing coils should be mounted as near to


dynamos or switchboard as practicable. Any

the

great resistance introduced into their circuit will affect

the voltage existing between the neutral point and the


outside wires.

It

should be noted that both the

and negative equalizer connections as well as


both the positive and negative leads are run to the circuit breakers in addition to the main switches on the
positive

This

board.

is

necessary in

all

cases.

Otherwise,

when two or more machines are running in parallel


and the breaker comes out opening the circuit to one
of them but not breaking its equalizer leads, its ammeter

is left

current

is

connected to the equalizer bus bars and

fed into

it

from the other machines through


it as a motor or burn-

the equalizer bars either driving


ing out the armature.

Once properly installed the balancing coils require


no further attention and give no trouble. Provision
should however be made so that their circuit cannot be
opened accidentally while in operation.
Figure 148 shows the connections of a single-phase,

The field of this maby a direct current, part of which is


taken from some outside source (generally a small
dynamo belted to the shaft of the alternator) and
alternating current generator.

chine

is

excited

part of which

is

taken from the windings of the

ternator, the current being rectified

by means

al-

of the

WIRING DIAGRAMS

186

commutator C. This commutator has as many segments as there are poles to the dynamo, and the alternate segments are connected together as shown in
the small diagram. S is a German silver resistance
which

is

connected in shunt across this rectifying

The main

commutator.
armature

is

current

coming from the

shunted, part going through the shunts,

the remainder around the

field

winding.

method of field excitation


is very similar to that used on the compound-wound
direct-current dynamo.
In the diagram shown both
It will

be seen that

this

FIGURE

148a.

of the field windings encircle every pole, but in

machines the

rectified

some

current will traverse a few

poles only, the current from separate exciter travers-

ing the remainder.

Current on these machines

is

usually generated at high voltage, and transformers


are used at the point of supply to cut the voltage

down

to that required.

The transformer

is

used

ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATOR


in connection with voltmeter

on that instrument.
Figure 148a shows a

to reduce the voltage

theoretical

cyclic generator of the

187

diagram of a mono-

General Electric Co.

Such

generators are sometimes used on systems where the


lighting load

is

the main factor and only a few

starting motors are to be operated.

It

is

self

essentially

a single phase alternator with an extra winding of


smaller capacity placed so as to produce a phase difference of 90 degrees between the currents in the
coil

and those

The

in the smaller.

main

smaller winding

is

known as a "teazer"

coil,

this coil attaches is

spoken of as the "teazer" wire.

The

machine

and the middle wire to which


three

carries

collector

rings.

The

arrangement of the wires placed upon the armature can

be seen from the figure at the

right.

The main

coils

are placed in the deep slots and the teazer coils into

the shallow ones.

In the General Electric generator,

between the two main wires


difference of potential

and the teazer

The
shown

field

is

if

the voltage

2080 there

will

be

between either of the outsides

of 1160.

connections of a monocyclic generator are

in Figure 148b,

and the diagram

is self

explan-

atory.

The armature connections

are given in Figure 148c,

and the following instructions are quoted from the


General Electric Co. "The armature of a standard
monocyclic generator rotates in the counter-clockwise

WIRING DIAGRAMS

188

CONNECTIONS OF MONOCYCLIC GENERATOR

jzzzzii-^

Separ-ately
Field

EI^ci'Leci

^/\/\^/ww
St-at-ionar-j/

SHuot.

Or Compounding Rheostat

6S>--Collect;-oin

Uir

Co nn nn

_it_

Rir<gs

a-Lo n

CONNECTIONS FOR SERIES FIELD

For 2300 Volt Generators, connect as shown by solid lines.


For 1150 Volt Generators, omit connections A \.oB,C to D,
to F, and 6^-to H, and connect as shown by dotted lines.

FIGURE

148b.

ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATOR


direction as one faces the

generator
coil

is

When

the

loaded, the voltage between the teazer

and the two terminals

different;

commutator.

189

therefore, it

is

of the

main

coil

may

be

necessary to have the com-

mutator connected in corresponding ends of the main


coil.

" If the machine has not been arranged for clockwise


rotation the following change in the connections

commutator-collector must be

FIGURE

made

if

on the

the machine

is

148c.

to be run in parallel with another.

The diagram

Figure 148b shows the connections of monocylic gen-

In this diagram the studs on the commutatormarked 1 and 6 are the terminals of the main
coil.
These should be reversed. The numbers are
stamped on the end of the stud and may be seen with
erators.

collector

the aid of a mirror.

By

referring to the

diagram

it is

WIRING DIAGRAMS

190

CONNECTIONS OF THREE-PHASE GENERATOR

JSe>3ara-t.ely Exci-bedl

Field
j

A/WWWWOr Compounding Rheostat


43 5 261

i^Collect>or Rin^a

L-io<

Line

Con-) rr-_it sa+'.otCONNECTIONS FOR SERIES FIELD

For 2300 Volt Generators, connect as shown by solid lines.


For 1 150 Volt Generators, omit connections A to B,C to D,
to F, and G to H, and connect as shown by dotted lines.

FIGURE

148d.

ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATOR

191

a simple matter to trace out the connections with the


aid of a magneto, after the armature leads have been
disconnected and the brushes raised."
Figure 148d shows the connections of a General
Electric three phase generator.

as

all

of the foregoing,

Many

type.

is

This machine, as well

armature

of the revolving

now

of the larger machines are

with stationary armatures and revolving

fields.

built

In

such case the exciter feeds the moving element and the
line currents are

Two

taken from the stationary windings.

three phase compoisite

shown connected together

wound

for

generators are

parallel

running in

Figure 148e.

Composite wound alternators

if

used with inductive

loads require considerable attention at the rectifier.

A change in
E.

M.

ment
For

F.

the angle of lag of the current behind the

must be followed by a change

of the rectifier or there will be

this reason such

in the adjust-

much

sparking.

machines are used mostly on

lighting circuits only.

Figure 148f gives the switchboard connections of

two two phase machines arranged for parallel running.


Each machine is equipped with a throwover switch
by which either phase may be connected to voltmeter.
Each phase is also equipped with an ammeter.
E E are the rheostats by which the field strength
of either machine can be adjusted. The synchronizing bus S is equipped with a throwover switch so
that the synchronizing

may be

either dark or bright.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

192

Whichever method

is

preferred should be settled

and the switch locked so that

it

upon

may not be accidentally

Synchronizing lamps of double the voltage

changed.

capacity of the system must be provided as the two

CO

o
u
z
u
CD
Z.

y
m
<

|yi

It
3

<?

-^

2^ z

ao
L_

O
CO

(0

3
c

ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATOR


machines are

likely to

be in

series

193

during part of the

time of synchronization.

The instrument

connections of a three phase 440

volt switchboard for parallel operation of

two ma-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

194

\.

O-A

If

<>/^-/^J'^

O oA.

Pr

If)

61

X\

<^
CO

2
feO-,
^o)
**-r<^^ZXl

/Vs">\

im

k<5--

1l\
r

\j'\/

>

ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATOR


To

chines are given in Figure 148g.

195

avoid confusion

the exciter circuits and those leading to lamps and

motors are omitted.

An ammeter
it

is

provided for each machine by which

can be determined whether

the load.

There

is

further

it is

taking

an ammeter

its

share of

in each phase

of the bus bars to indicate the balance maintained

the system.

IB

a recording watt meter;

is

watt meter;

W an

indicating

P a power factor meter, and F a frequency

IOmeter. (See Figure 154s.)


^P L and L' are the synchronizing lamps, two
are

on

provided

for

machine 2 with

each

which

is

machine.

To

of

which

synchronize

already running, the plug

is

inserted as at S, the lower half of the plug closes gap 3

and the upper


If the

gap 4 through the lamps L.


machines are not in synchronism the lamps will
half closes

and dark. The speed of the incoming machine must be altered until the periods of
alternately be bright

BCght and
^During

^may

darkness are of several seconds duration.

the middle of the dark period the main switch

be closed and the machines

will

then operate

together.

By

tracing out the circuits

lug placed as at S'


iddle, or

it

by being

can be seen that the

inserted in the upper,

lower set of contacts can be used to take

e reading of either of the three phases

eter V.

The voltmeter

vailable as a

is

on the

volt-

also connected so as to be

ground detector.

CHAPTER

XV.

ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS.


There are two general

known

rent motors,

classes of alternating-cur-

respectively

and "induction" motors.

TRANSFORMERS.

as

"synchronous"

As an example

of the

first

If two identical alternating-current dynamos

class:

are connected together

by

wires, one

running as a

generator and the other as a motor, the driven machine would run at the same speed as the driving

machine ;

for, at every

change

in the direction

and

strength of the current given out by the generator,


like

changes would be produced in the machine run-

ning as a motor.
ism.

It

may

They would then run

in synchron-

be advisable to state here that the ma-

chine running as a motor would

first

have to be

brought up to speed, as the majority of synchronous


motors are not self-starting.

When
rent

is

a multiphase (2 or 3-phase) alternating cur-

sent around the

rent motor, a revolving

fields

occupied by the armature.

what

is

known

of an alternating cur-

field is

If

set

up

in the space

now an armature of

as the squirrel cage type (a laminated

armature in which bars of copper, running parallel


to the shaft, are imbedded in slots in the periphery,

the ends of

all

the bars being connected together,

196

ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS


(Figure
will

149),

placed

is

induced

be

in

tion with the revolving

this

in

which,

it

currents

field,

acting

197

conjunc-

in

cause the armature

field, will

to turn.

These are known as induction motors, and

this class

is

Such motors
considerable

amount of

The

generally employed in commercial work.

from

will start themselves

and

torque,

will

stand

rest with

reasonable

overload.

direction of rotation of motors of this kind

by changing the relative position of wires


any phase. It can readily be seen that this will
cause the revolving field to move in the opposite diis

reversed

in

rection.

Otfftr-htrt

FIGURE

The

149.

action of the current in the starting of in-

duction motors

is

very similar to that in direct-cur-

rent motors in that

if,

while the motor

current was thrown directly on,


considerable value.

The

it

is

at rest, the

would

rise to

smaller size motors

directly connected to the circuit as

is

may be

often done with

direct current motors but with the larger size motors

some device must be used to keep down the excessive


current on starting.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

198

may

Resistance boxes
cuits

and operated

be inserted in the motor

in the

cir-

same way as on direct cur-

rent apparatus the resistance reducing the voltage at

On two and

the motor terminals.


resistances

must be inserted

three-phase work

in each phase

ranged to work together so that the changes


sure at the motor terminals will be the same.

FIGURE

and arin pres-

150.

Figure 150 shows the connections of the General


Electric

Company's compensator used

three-phase motors.
coilf-;

in

starting

This apparatus consists of three

wound on laminated

iron cores forming an auto-

transformer in which one wire

is

used for both pri-

mary and secondary, and works on the principle that,


if an alternate current is sent through a coil of
wire,

and a tap taken from some intermediate point

in the winding, the voltage between the tap and the

end of the

coil will

be

less hhani the full

voltage sup*

(P

ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS


plied,

depending on the position at which the tap

taken

off.

115

and

were

volts; then the difference of potential between

and 4 would be
and

To

4.

less

than 115, while the difference of

and 3 would be less than between


the motor the switch is thrown to

potential between

Is

In the diagram suppose that the differ-

ence of potential between the terminals

start

the lower position,

when the motor

will receive

the

reduced current due to the reduced voltage between

and

is

thrown to the "up" position, when the motor

When

4.

the motor

is

up

to speed the switch

receive the full voltage of the line.


is

will

If more current

required in starting than can be obtained with the

connection at 1 (this being the point of lowest volt-

age), connection can be made at either 2, S or


until the current required to start the

tained.
rectly

Were

motor

is

4f

ob-

the motor, while at rest, thrown di-

onto the mains without the use of the com-

pensator, the current would rise to six or seven times


that normally required; while in starting with the

compensator the current varies from

full

load to

about twice full load current according to whether


connection

is

made

at 1 or 4.

Another method used

I^P

IH
^f

199

in starting alternating cur-

shown by the diagrams in Figure 151.


The upper diagram shows the connections on a threerent motors

is

phase armature where one end of each


to a

common

carried to contact shoes ^, ^, 2.

coil is

connected

wire, the other ends of the coils being

Between the

contact:

WIRING DIAGRAMS

200
fihoes ^, ^,

2 and

1, 1,

1 are connected resistance

wires, these wires ending in a connection

common

to

them all. When the motor is started current flowing from the armature coils passes through the reresistances r and s.
This is shown in the lower left
hand diagram. As the motor speeds up the contact

FIGURE
shoes

1,1,1

are short-circuited, thus short-circuiting

the resistances

As
^,

r, r,

r as shown in the middle diagram.

the speed further increases the contact shoes ^,


'2

are short-circuited, this in turn short-circuiting

the resistances

no

151.

s,

s,

s.

The motor

will

resistance in the armature circuit as

diagram at the

right.

now run with


shown

in th<

ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS

201

Figure 152 shows the connections for the Wagner


single-phase alternating-current motor.
the motor are three binding posts.

while post 2

tween 1 and

is

top of

Posts 1 and 3

are connected to the terminals of the

FIGURE

On

field

windingi

152.

connected to an intermediate point be-

3.

When

the motor

is

called

upon

to

heavy load, the double-throw switch shown in


the lower diagram is used.
With the switch thrown
start a

to the upper position connection

is

made

to posts X

WIRING DIAGRAMS

202

and

2,

when, on account of part of the

field

winding

being cut out, a greater amount of current

through the

fields

the motor

up

is

is

and the torque increased.

to speed the switch

is

sent

When

thrown to the

lower position, where current will be sent through


the entire

field

winding.

The armature winding

consists of a

number of

copper bars terminating in a commutator at one end.


While running up to speed the armature is shortcircuited through brushes which bear on the commutator and produce in the armature poles which, acting with the

On

cause the armature to revolve.

fields,

an automatic governor
mounted on the shaft lifts the brushes off the commutator, and at the same time short-circuits all the
commutator bars. The motor now runs as an inducThe upper connections are used where
tion motor.
an ordinary load is to be started.
This motor is reversed by moving the brushes on
Note the markings on the brush
the commutator.
The starting torque can also be varied by
holder.
attaining

speed

full

shifting the brushes.

on the brush holder

is

mark
moved farther from the center
It will be greater as the

mark.
Single-phase motors, unlike the multiphase motors,
will not start themselves

from

methods are in use to

In the small

rest without the provi-

number of different
make these motors self-starting.
fan motors made by the General Electric

sion of some special means.

ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS

203

Co. the ends of the pole pieces are slotted, and around

one of the projecting ends

per (Figure 153).


per

is

The

is

placed a band of cop-

effect

of this band of cop-

to cause two magnetic fields under each pole

piece, one being slightly out of step with the other.

This has an

effect

on the armature similar to a two-

and causes

phase current,

it

FIGURE

to revolve.

153.

Another method, known as the "split phase,"


used for the same purpose.

motors made by the Holtzer-Cabot Co. the

wound with two

separate

is

In some of the smaller

coils,

field

is

one having a few

turns of comparatively large wire and the other a

great number of turns of


is

of the two
is

fine wire.

When

current

turned on, owing to the difference in self-induction

set

coils,

up and

field similar

to the two-phase field

the armature caused to revolve.

When

the motor has readied synchronism, the current to


the high resistance coil

is

opened and the motor op-

erated on the low resistance coil alone.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

204

Other methods of bringing single-phase motors


*o

speed are described in Figures 154 and 152.

up

Any

small direct-current series motor can be used on al-

ternating current providing the


laminated.

much

The

field

magnets are

larger motors generally contain too

self-induction to be

operated on alternating

current.

FIGURE

154.

Figure 154 shows the connections of the Fort

Wayne

alternating-current, single-phase motor.

order to start this motor and bring

it

up

In

to speed,

ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS


the armature

provided with an extra winding con-

is

nected to the commutator C, shown at the


the motor

205

left.

When

to be started, the switch S, which

is

hinged at N, N',

is

is

Current from

closed to the left.

the left-hand main will then pass through the contacts

N', M', on the switch S to the series winding, and

then to the commutator and armature and out through

|J^

M, N, on

switch, to other side of line.

At each

^^Bversal of the current the magnetism in both

^^Kand armature

>^ing

re-

fields

reversed at the same time, thus caus-

is

a steady pull in one direction on the armature.

As

the motor comes to speed the pilot

gradually light up, and when

candlepower the switch S

is

it

T'',

will

thrown to the right. Cur-

rent from the left-hand main will

contacts N',

lamp

has reached full

now pass through

on switch, to the

collector

rings,

through the armature, and out through points T, N,


on switch to other side of line. At the same time
jthe contacts

V,

[short-circuited

and

W,

on switch S

will

be

(these points of the switch are not

an electrical connection with the blades, being sep-

by an insulator, as shown in figure


upper right-hand corner), and the shunt field cir;uit closed through the commutator; the direct cur:rent from the commutator passing from the lower
brush through the points V, V, on switch, to the
farated therefrom
in

W, W, and through
upper brush on commutator,
now run as a synchronous motor, the

Ishunt field and back to points


[the rheostat
'he

motor

will

to the

WIRING DIAGRAMS

206

armature receiving current from the mains, while the


field

is

energized

by means

of

the direct current

generated in the extra winding in connection with

commutator C.

When

the motor

switch to the right the series

FIGURE

is

field is

running with the


open.

154a.

Figure 154a shows theoretical diagram of what

is

termed the cascade or tandem method of coupling


induction motors for variable speeds.

The

rotors of

the two motors are mounted on the same shaft or in


other manner mechanically coupled together.

main current from the generator

The

feeds stator

The
of 1.

currents induced in the rotor R, of 1 traverse the

stator of 2

and the

controlling resistance

is

cut into

the rotor circuit of 2 as shown.

The number

of poles

on two such machines may be

so arranged that different changes in speed are possible.


It

is

also possible to arrange switches so that the

TRANSFORMERS
motors

may be

207

operated in parallel or No.

alone as

shown.
Figure 154b shows method of operating rolling mills
or other devices that require a large
for

a very short time.

The

FIGURE

amount

large induction

of

power

motor I

154b.

by a limited amount of current from the


mains. The amount of current that may be drawn
from the mains is governed by an automatically controlled resistance placed in the rotor circuit.
Whenever the main current rises above a predetermined
value the core of the solenoid is drawn up and resistance is cut into the rotor circuit, thus keeping the main
is

supplied

current in bounds.

On

the same shaft with the induction motor

is

heavy balance wheel operating at a high speed and also


the armature of a direct current generator. This
generator carries a double wound armature which

WIRING DIAGRAMS

208
feeds

two motors connected to the shaft

of the rolling

mill.

The only method

of reversing

and controlling the

speed of the motors consists in changing the

The

strength of the generator.


are separately excited

fields of

and controlled by

arranged similar to those of the well

With the arm

stone bridge.

no current
is

moved

is

resistances

known Wheat-

in the position

passing through the

in the direction of the

fields.

arm

when the arm

assumes the position indicated by broken

maximum.

its

shown

If the

arrow the polarity of

the fields will be as indicated, and

current strength will be at

field

the generator

line

If it is

the

moved

in the opposite direction the current in the generator

be reversed.

fields will

The motors

are also independently excited and the

which they move depends upon the direction of the armature current, which in turn is governed
direction in

by the current through the fields. With this arrangement it is possible to draw 4000 or 5000 H. P. for a
short time without overloading the 1000 H. P. induction motor.

Very small alternating current motors are usually


connected to the line direct, and only a switch suited
to the system
require to break

As the
motors

is

used.

all

This switch does not even

of the wires of the system.

starting current of

is,

however,

current (especially

if

much

most alternating current

greater than the running

the motor start under load)

it is

TRANSFORMERS

209

advisable to place the motor under the protection of

two sets of fuses. One such set of fuses is placed


where the branch circuit is tapped off the mains, and
the other at the motor switch.
The manner of connecting a throwover switch to
two and three phase motors so' as to accomplish the
desired result is shown in Figures 154c and 154d.

1 1 R

1 1 1 1

>

^J ri

,j

O O O
I

FIGURE

FIGURE

154c.

154d.

The black circles represent the centers of the switch.


Thrown upward the motor feeds direct from the mains
which are fused to the starting current of the motor.
After the motor has acquired
switch

is

its

proper speed the

thrown downward and the motor feeds

through the smaller fuses shown.


In order to guard against leaving the motor without
the proper fuse protection such switches are some-

times equipped with springs which will not allow the


switch to remain on the upper contacts.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

210

ii

^^h

-i

/\J\

U44444y^ L/uyyAJ
FIGURE

FIGURE

154e.

Throwover switches

for the starting of

154f.

motors in

connection with auto transformers or compensators


are

shown

To

in Figures 154e

start,

the switch

is

and 154f.
thrown to the

right;

this

forces the current to pass through the transformers

and reduces the voltage at the motor.


has attained some speed the switch

FIGURE

154g.

After the motor


is

thrown to the

TRANSFORMERS

rv^TvZ^

211

^\

^l^fcfet

8
FIGURE

154h.

and connects the motor to the mains. The starting torque of the motor may be increased by connecting the taps leading from the transformers so as to
left

leave less of their reactance in the circuit.

The

connections of General Electric controllers for

three phase;

two phase four wire and two phase three

wire are shown respectively in Figures 154g, 154h,

and

The contact
make connections

154i.

center

points on the

drums

in the

either to the upper or lower

b
FIGURE

154L

WIRING DIAGRAMS

212

The motor leads are connected


Thrown downward the current must

connections shown.
to the drum.

pass through the auto transformers which reduces the


voltage.

Thrown upward

motor

the

is

connected

direct to the mains.

Figure 154j shows diagram of a three phase auto

FIGURE
starter with over

and under load

the General Electric Co.

may

remain in

154i.

circuit there

must be current

Consequently when the voltage


the circuit.

release as

made by

In order that the starter

In case the motor

fails

is

in coil 1.

the starter opens

taking too

much

cur-

rent one of the coils 2 or 3 opens the circuit through

and trips the starter thus opening the circuit.

1,

TRANSFORMERS
A
but

similar arrangement
is

former

shown

is

213
Figure 154k,

in

designed for high voltages and a voltage transis

With

provided as shown.

large motors the wiring

is

arranged as in Figure

1541.

FIGURE

For motors that


finer gradations in

shown

in Figure

start

154k.

under

light load

and require

speed a controller as diagramatically

154m

coils are inserted in

is

often used.

The compensator

two phases only;

this results in

unbalancing of the line but as long as the load


this is

The speed
when

higher

is

light

not very objectionable.


of a three phase
its

stator

is

motor

is

considerably

connected in **mesh'* or

WIRING DIAGRAMS

214

Tap^

FIGURE
**

delta" than

1541.

when connected

in

Y or star.

154n the throwover switch at the

left is

In Figure
provided to

change the winding from one to the other when


quired.

Thrown

re-

to the left the motor windings be-

come star; thrown to the right they are delta. Motors


must not be changed from star to delta unless it is
known they are capable of running that way.
A method of obtaining reduced voltage for the
starting

formers

of
is

three

phase motors direct from trans-

given in Figure 154n.

the motor obtains the

full

Thrown one way

voltage of the

thrown the other way only about one

half.

line,

and

TRANSFORMERS

FIGURE

154m.

dli

Oil

ii

-d

OD

op

FIGURE

154n.

FIGURE

1540.

215

WIRING DIAGRAMS

216

Two and

three phase motors are often equipped with

wound armatures

In such cases the starting

or rotors.

can be controlled by resistances placed in the rotor


circuit about in the same way that it is placed in the
armature

circuit

resistances are also


in Figure

154p for

motors. Such
and are illustrated
three phase and Figure 154q for

of

direct

made

current

variable

two phase.

FIGURE

The

FIGURE

154p.

154q.

rotor of an induction motor acts like the second-

ary winding of a transformer, but as the rotor comes

up to

its

proper speed the currents in

it

are

much

reduced.

Small and medium

size

motors are sometimes con-

nected to three phase systems as shown in Figure 154r.

This

is

known

as the open delta method.

transformers are required whereas to get the

Only two
full

three

phase connection three would be necessary.


Figure 154s shows the diagram of an automatic

motor as made by Cutler


Hammer Co. The controller is operated by a single
pole switch placed as at P, or, if the circuit be permanently closed at this point, closing of the main switch
controller for three phase

TRANSFORMERS

FIGURE
will

and

154r,

automatically start the motor.

solenoids

217

1,

2,

3 and 4 are

which when energized draw up their cores

close the circuits indicated underneath.

Solenoid 1 simply closes the phase wires A and B


and thereby gives current to the stator windings of the
motor M. 2, 3, and 4 when energized short circuit
certain parts of the resistance

The

the rotor circuit.

which

is

inserted in

three small solenoids 5

must

at 5';

be conceived as attached to the extremity of


6

and 7 and 8 at corresponding points


R, but only when the solenoids shown above them

is

of

attached to

act.

The

6'

solenoids are supposed to act in quick suc-

cession in the order

short circuits the

The

operation

switch

wire B.

Thus

There

as follows:

is

established

1 line

when

it

is

By

acts finally

out.

closing the pilot

from phase wire

C point D pilot switch and phase

also a parallel circuit through

energizing 1 causes

drawn up;
the motor and also the

its

closes the stator circuit of

wire circuit at E.

4;

rotor at 8' cutting all of

circuit is

through solenoid

1, 2, 3,

core to be

X.
this
fine

Current in the stator at once in-

218

WIRING DIAGRAMS

duces currents in the rotor and these draw up the cores


of 5 opening the circuit underneath until the rotor has

some speed. As the rotor attains speed the


currents in it grow weaker and the cores of 5 drop back
attained

closing the circuit underneath again.

W%

-f

J
FIGURE

1548.

TRANSFORMERS
As the

circuit is

now

point

and underneath

5,

through solenoid 2 to

closed at

current passes from phase

219

D and thence to pilot switch and phase B.

causes 2 to

draw up

core

its

becomes short circuited at

and the rotor


6'.

The

This

resistance

small solenoids

and
Drawing up the core of 2 closes
the circuit at the left of G and opens that at the right.
Current now passes from the left of 2 to the right of
solenoid 3 thence to G and phase wire B at 1. Line
C is now open and current passes from 1 through X
act as those at 5 momentarily opening the circuit

then closing

it

again.

This reduces the current leaving

to the pilot switch.

only as

much

as

is

necessary to maintain the core of 1

against gravity.

Solenoid 3
of

now

and under

acts closing the circuit at the left

This sends current from point

7.

through solenoid 4 to the

left half of

point

and

pilot switch.

When

solenoid 4 acts

it

short circuits

ance of the rotor and develops the

In

motor.
the

left

F at

its

action

and opens

it

it

all

full

of the resist-

power of the

also closes the circuit of

at

Closing the circuit

at the right.

left establishes a circuit for 4 to point D, and


same time opening of F at the right breaks the
circuit of 2, and this core descending breaks the circuit

the

at the

of 3 at the left of G.

Two

one through solenoid

1 resistance

other around 2 and 3 to 4

thence to

oi^'^*

circuits

now remain

left side of

switch "nd phase B.

closed,

to point D, the

and point

WIRING DIAGRAMS

220

By

tracing out the various

that the arrangement

is

ci^-cuits it

can be seen

such that solenoid 2 cannot

act unless 3 and 4 are in the off position and that 3

cannot work unless 2 has acted and 4 must in turn


wait on

3.

The motor can

therefore not be started

unless all of the resistance

is

inserted in the rotor

circuit.

In Figure 154t a motor testing board suitable for


use with two or three phase currents

FIGURE
current in each phase

is

shown.

The

154t.

may be measured and

thus the

degree of unbalancing of the circuit on individual

motors determined.

many motors

In practice

it is

found that very

are considerably out of balance elec-

trically.

The ammeter

is

shown

in connection with the

wattmeter so that the power factor of the motor may


be determined. The power factor is found by dividing

TRANSFORMERS

221

the indicated watts of the wattmeter by the product


of the volts

and amperes

existing at the

same time.

The power factor is always less than unity.


The switches indicated are all single pole with
ception of the voltmeter switch V.

thrown upward the motor feeds

If 1,

direct

ex-

4 and 7 are

from the

line

ABC.
To

test

throw 5 and 6 up and open 7;


V to right and 2 down.

for current

to get voltage

AC

throw

TiJ

g
To

test

for current

2 up, and open 4

To
)pen

test
1.

ice

is

154u.

throw 3 up, 5 and 6 down, and


A B throw V to right.

to get voltage

for current

to get voltage

There
jircuits

FIGURE

throw

CB

2, 6, 5,

throw

and 3 down and

to the

left.

often considerable trouble on three phase

from an unbalanced

the current in

all

load.

For the best

ser-

three wires should be the same.

[A simple method by which any one of the branch


jircuits

may

be transferred to any one of the phases

illustrated in Figure 154u.


circuit is

As shown each branch

connected to a different phase.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

222

In Figure 154v the connections of the Westinghouse

The frequency meter

frequency meter are shown.

simply a voltmeter with two opposing

upon the pointer. Placed


would be no indications.

coils

in the circuit this

is

acting

way

there

In order to make

it

indicate different frequencies

inductive resistance

is

placed in circuit with one of the

FIGURE

an

154v.

and a non inductive resistance with the other.


These resistances are placed in a separate case and
mounted near the instrument to which they must be
connected as shown. The frequency meter in any
coils

given case

is

of course simply

the frequency of the

a speed indicator since

dynamos depends upon the speed

with which they revolve.

The

connections

of

the

Westinghouse

portable

powerfactor meter are shown for three phase circuit


in Figure

154w and

for

two phase

in Figure 154x.

TRANSFORMERS

223

The two phase meter has two and the


meter three
there

is

coils

another

coil

coils,

and

rotating field

three phase

In addition

is

produced by the

this field controls the position of the

pointer attached to the movable

FIGURE

fields.

the currents of which are in phase

with the voltage.

main

which form the

coil.

The connections

FIGURE

154w.

to the movable coil are

154x.

shown at the top and the


is shown in center.

arrangement for two phase

The

following instructions are quoted from publi-

cations of the Westinghouse

Company: "When the

top binding posts are disconnected and there

is

current

of at least one half full load in the series transformers,

the pointer should rotate


If it rotates in

left

hand binding

circuit the reversal should

series transformer

On a

the *lead' direction.

the *lag' direction reverse the leads

running to the lower

two phase

in

shown at the

posts.

On a

be made at the

left of

the diagram.

three phase circuit the leads should be reversed

at the meter

by connecting the common wire from the

WIRING DIAGRAMS

224

two series transformers to the left hand binding post,


and the single wire from the series transformer on the
left

Then connect the shunt

to the middle post.

circuit to the

upper binding posts as shown.

This

shunt connection should be made to the phase which


is

connected through the series transformer to the right

hand

side of the meter.

Should

it

be necessary to

reverse the series connection of the meter on three

phase circuits from that shown on the diagram in


order to obtain proper rotation, the shunt wire which
is shown connected to the wire of the circuit having
no series transformer should be changed to the wire
which is connected through the series transformer to
the left hand side of the meter. The upper half of
the scale indicates for power delivered from alternatingcurrent lines to the motor or rotary, and the lower half,

power returned to the

lines.

Should the pointer indi-

cate the reverse of that given above, the connections

at the upper binding posts should be reversed.

"Move

the scale by means of the projecting studs at

the sides of the

dial, until

the lower right hand

the

frequency index' at

portion of the scale points to the

marked with the number of alternations of the


on which the instrument is being used. The
instrument will now indicate the power factor of the

line

circuit

circuit."

Figure

154y shows the ordinary connections of


synchroscopes for voltages between

Westinghouse
1

and

200.

TRANSFORMERS

FtT

>

FIGURE

Hi?

JL

T
O

O
FIGURE

154y.

225

WT
O

^^
154a.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

226

The

connections for voltages from 200 to 500 are

given in Figure 154z and those for voltages in excess


of 500 in Figure 154'.

TRANSFORMERS.
Figure 155 shows the circuits in a single-phase
transformer.

Figure 156 shows the circuits in a single-phase


transformer

with

three- wire

This

secondary.

transformer has the advantages derived from the use

FIGURE

MAAAAAA

FIGURE

155.

large installation

is

FIGURE

156.

of three-wire distributing circuits,

VWW WWV
MAAA MAM

VWWVW

Vvvvww
MAMAAA

and

is

157.

used where

to be connected, or where one

large transformer feeds a set of secondary mains sup-

plying a

number

of residences.

Figure 157 shows the connections of a two-phase


transformer with two separate secondaries;

and Fig-

ure 158 the two-phase transformer with a

common

return wire for the secondaries.

TRANSFORMERS

227

Figure 159 shows a three-phase delta connection,


and Figure 160 a three-phase star connection.
Figures 161 to 167 show the connections used on
the Packard

Mark

windings of these transformers are

Wy/VMT^AAA/

Z^!!^^
AAAM

FIGURE

The primary
made in two sec,-

VI. transformers.

FIGURE

158.

tions, with leads

Ua/

FIGURE

159.

160.

brought out so that they may be

connected either in series or parallel.

2000

W wW

volt systems the

When

used on

two sections are connected in

iOd

FIGURE
series,

161

FIGURE

162.

FIGURE

and when used on 1000

shown

FIGURE

164.

volt systems the

sections are connected in parallel.


^are

163.

two
These connections

in the diagrams, where, in

Figures 161 to

WIRING DIAGRAMS

228

164, terminal blocks are used, and


and 168 the primaries are connected

in

Figures 165

in the

The secondaries of
wound in two sections,

same way

as the secondaries.

these trans-

formers are also

the same as

the primaries, so that either 50 or 100 volts or 100


or 200 volts

may

be obtained, according to the type

of the transformer used.

In Figures 161, 162, 165,

166, the primary windings are connected in multiple;


while in Figures 163, 164, 167, 168, the primary

FIGURE

165.

FIGURE

166.

FIGURE

windings are connected in

series.

windings are connected in

series in

167.

FIGURE

168.

The two secondary


Figures 161, 163,

165, 167, and in multiple in Figures, 162, 164, 166,

168.
)

When

a current of electricity

Is

sent through a

wire lines of force are sent out completely encircling


the wire.

As long

as the current in the wire remains

constant these lines of force remain constant, but,

if

the current increases the lines of force increase, or

transfor:\iers
if

229

the current decreases the lines of force decrease.

If the wire

is

wound

into a coil as the current in the

wire increases the lines of force sent out from each


wire of the coil will have to cut through
wires on the coil

and

in so

ter-electromotive force which

impressed electromotive
seen that this

is

force.

M. F.

the other

in opposition to the

can

It

readily

be

counter-electromotive force tends to

hold back the rise in current or


the E.

all

doing they induce a coun-

make

it

lag behind

In the same way, when the current in

FIGURE

169.

the coil decreases in strength the lines of force clos-

ing in on the wire add their E. M. F. to that of the


impressed E.

M. F. and tend

to

prolong the current,

again causing the change in the current to follow or


lag behind the E.

M.

F.

This

is

shown by the

(Figure 169), where C represents the current and V the E. M. F. This action is called selfcurve

induction.

Self-induction in a circuit acts in the

same way as resistance:

it

tends to cut

down the cur-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

230

For an

rent.

suppose the resistance of

illustration:

the wire in the coil just referred to was 5 ohms.


direct current of

110

110/5=22 amperes
we were

to send

through the

coil

to flow through the

coil.

But

an alternating current at 110

we would

much

rent would be

would cause a current of

volts

less

if

volts

find that the resulting cur-

than 22 amperes and

if

we

inserted an iron core in the coil the current would

be

still

farther reduced, because the resistance of iron

to the lines of force

is

much

less

than with air so

num-

that the lines of force would be increased in

The frequency of

ber.

the current, or the rapidity

of the alternations also effects the amount of current

produced, the current being smaller the greater the

number of

alternations.

condenser connected in a circuit acts in a

way

similar to an inductance except that the condenser

causes the current to lead the E.

When

M. F.

in phase.

an alternating current flows along a

across which a condenser

is

connected, as the E.

in the line rises the condenser

is

circuit

M. F.

gradually charged,

the charge increasing in value as long as the current


is

rising.

the E.

As

the E.

M. F.

M. F.

in the line begins to fall

across the condenser terminals lowers

and the condenser begins to discharge

into the line

and reached a

M.
maximum

this point the current

again be-

continuing to discharge until the impressed E.

F. has passed through


negative value.

At

gins to flow into the condenser.

It will be seen that

TRANSFORMERS
while the E.

maximum

M. F.

in the line

positive value to a

that the condenser current

is

mum

maximum

passing from a

is

maximum

negative value

negative or flowing out

of the condenser and while the E.


passes from a

231

M.

F. in the line

negative value to a maxi-

positive value the current in the condenser is

The condenser

positive.

maximum

current reaches a

90 degrees in advance of the E. M. F. and for


reason is known as a leading current.

this

In a circuit containing inductance or capacity,

where the current

is

out of phase with the E.

M. F.

the current

may

which

phase with the E. M. F. and the other 90

is

in

be resolved into two currents, one of

degrees out of phase with the E.


current

is

known

M. F. This

as a wattless current

and

latter

greater,

is

the greater the inductance or capacity in the circuit.

If in a circuit containing inductance or capacity

where the current

is

out of phase with the E.

M.

F.,

we would measure the power in watts, using a voltmeter and ammeter,


C. E., we would get an
apparent amount of power which would be greatly
in excess of that actually consumed.
The number of
watts actually consumed could be measured by a
wattmeter. The ratio of the number of watts actually
consumed to the apparent watts is known as the power
factor, or Power factor^Actual watts divided by

W=

apparent watts.

As an example: suppose

the volt-

meter and ammeter showed 115 volts and 10 amperes

which would be equal to 1150 watts and the watt-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

232

Then 920/1150=80/100
power factor. The actual current

meter shows 920 watts.


or .80 which

is

the

doing work would amount to 8 amperes but as shown

by the ammeter 10 amperes is flowing and the wire


and fuses on such a circuit would have to be of sufficient size to

carry 10 amperes.

CHAPTER

XVI.

AEMATUEES.
Figure 170
ture.

a diagram of a

is

This style

ing machines.

It

Gramme

ring arma-

often used with series arc light-

is

is

well suited for

high voltages

but not for heavy currents.

FIGURE

FIGURE

170.

171.

The winding shown in Figure 171 is that of an ordinary cylinder or drum armature. The wire wound
on

this

armature as well as that of the preceding

ways forms one continuous

coil

al-

This can

or loop.

be seen by tracing the wire beginning at commutator

bar

1, thence to section a,

and then

*o

around back of core to

commutator bar

2.

From

this

bar to

a'
6,

then to b' and commutator bar 3,

etc.

is

one

of the simplest windings used, but

many makers

are

233

This

WIRING DIAGRAMS

234

using modifications of

it;

the principle of

all,

how-

being the same.

ever,

Figure 172 shows a diagram of Thomson-Houston


ring armature used for

series

arc lighting.

This

armature consists of three sections which terminate

commutator segments from which current

at three

taken

The

off.

other terminals of

all

is

three sections

terminate in a copper ring which joins

all

of them

together.

FIGURE

'

172.

FIGURE

173.

diagram of the Brush armature, also for series


The figure
arc lighting, is shown in Figure 173.
shows only two
tice

many more

some of the

sets

of

coils,

are used.

coils are

always on open circuit and

will be seen that there is

tween the different


tor segments

is

coils

it

no connection whatever be-

except through the commuta-

and the brushes resting upon them.

Figure 174
such as

although in actual prac-

In this style of armature

illustrates the

winding of an armature

used in single-phase alternating current

ARMATURES
machines.

The number of

coils

235

on the armature must

always be equal to the number of poles

in the fields.

With dynamos of this kind quite often


made to revolve and the current to the

the fields are

flows

from the stationary

FIGURE

coils

outside lines

on the frame.

174.

In Figure 175 a diagram of a three-phase, fourpole, star connected

armature

ing for each separate phase


single-phase armature.

is

is

shown.

The wind-

similar to that of the

One end of each

coil termi-

nates in a collector ring; the other ends of


coils

meeting in one common connection.

all

the

It will be

noticed that there are three coils (one for each phase)

for every pole piece, making twelve

coils in all.

CHAPTER XVII.
SWITCHBOARDS

GROUND DETECTORS.

Figure 176 shows the wiring and connections of


the Western Electric Co.'s series arc switchboard.

At

the top of the board are mounted six ammeters, one

being connected in the circuit of each machine.

FIGURE

On

176.

the lower part of the board are a number of holes,

under which, on the back of the board, are mounted


spring

jacks

to

which

terminals are connected.

the

circuit

and

machine

For making connections


236

be-

SWITCHBOARDS
tween dynamos and
nating at each end

commonly

a plug, are used; these are

The board shown has

"jumpers."

called

termi-

cables

flexible

circuits,

in

237

a capacity of six machines and nine circuits, and with


the connections as

shown machine

rent to circuit 1, machine 2


circuits

2 and

3,

to circuits 4, 5

dynamos and

is

and machine 4
and

is

furnishing cur-

furnishing current to

furnishing current

is

In connecting together arc

7.

circuits the positive of the

that terminal from which the current

is

machine (or
flowing)

is

connected to the positive of the circuit (the terminal


into which the current

machine

the circuit.

Where more than one

jrated

is

connected to the negative of

from one dynamo, the

[connected to the

Likewise the neg-

flowing).

is

ative of the

circuit is to be

of

the

first

At each

of the second.

op-

circuit

is

side of

name plate (at 3, for instance) there are three


[lioles.
The large hole is used for the permanent con[the

lection, while the smaller holes are

'ing

circuits,

Imallcr cables

used for transfer-

without shutting down the dynamo.

and plugs are used for transferring,


circuit 5

from machine

[f it is

desired to cut

)lug

inserted in one of the small holes at the right

)f

[at

is

4, the other

plug being inserted

the left of 7.

lited,

Circuit 5 would

and the plug

Fferrcd to the

off*

in the

o^^

in

one of the holes

now be short cirnow be trans-

^ can

permanent connection

|and the cords running to 5 removed.


to

4,

in the

If

it is

o^ ^y

desired

cut in a circuit, say circuit 6 onto machine 2, in-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

238
sert a cord

between the

of circuit 2 and the

of 6 and

the
6 and another between the
pull the plug on the cord connecting

Now

and the

of

of 3.

of 2

+ of ^ ^^^ insert the permanent connections.

In cutting in

thej contain a great number

circuits, if

of lights, a long arc

tween 2 and 3
to shut

-|-

down

may

pulled,

is

be drawn when the plug be-

and

the machine

it is

sometimes advisable

when making a change of

this kind.

,.

dr-

f
FIGURE

Figure 177

is

177.

a diagram of the Thomson-Hous-

The

ton arc switchboard.

generators connect to hori-

zontal brass strips fastened to the back of the board,


as indicated

by the heavy black

The

lines.

circuits

connect to similar strips fastened vertically to back

of board but separated from the horizontal

These
strips

vertical

strips

and terminate

at the bottom.

constructed to

extend below

in a

Long plugs
make

the

number of plug

strips.

horizontal
holes

shown

are provided suitably

connection* between

any of the

SWITCHBOARDS
horizontal generator strips and
circuit

The

strips.

out the circuits

it

short

bottom indicate

the

and by tracing

cables

The

1.

vertical

three are in

all

positive sides of all

are usually run to one side of the board

the positive sides of

all circuits to

only through gross

that

any of the

be seen that

will

with generator

series

dynamos

at

lines

connected by

plugs

239

plugging, as to polarity,

and

the same side, so

carelessness

could

wrong

exist.

and E, Figure 178, illustrate the sucsteps necessary to change circuits 1 and 2 from

A, B, C,
cessive

dynamo 1 and 2 and connect them in series on dynamo


The solid black circles represent plugs.
S.
The first step is shown in B where the positive
poles of both dynamos are placed in parallel by inserting the two additional plugs.

The
shown

Dl

second step

A.

in

is

to

withdraw the two

first

This places the two dynamos in

plugs
series,

connecting direct to circuit 2, as shown at C.

The

voltage of

dynamo Dl may now be reduced

and two plugs with


shown at D.
This
leaves

D2

cable

connections

short-circuits

carrying the load of both

The plugs connecting Dl

inserted,

as

dynamo Dl and
circuits.

to the circuit

may now

be withdrawn, leaving the connections as at E, where

dynamo D2
In

two

supplies both circuits.


circuits are

shown as running

in series

serves to

on dynamo Dl and the insertion of plug

WIRING DIAGRAMS

240
short-circuit

J and

K
"'

_l

and extinguish

may now

circuit 2.

be withdrawn.

The plugs

I,

SWITCHBOARDS
the right

a rear view showing the connections.

is

ferring to the view at the

an ammeter with
current used.
tector switch
resistance to

PL

GD

left,

is

is

The ground

a pilot lamp.

and
de-

used to measure the insulation

ground of each

side of the system.

across the bus bars.

bus bar

is

connected directly

If the switch
is

In

179.

the position shown the voltmeter

Re-

a voltmeter and

is

scales suitable to the voltage

FIGURE

right, the

241

is

moved

to the

connected through the volt-

meter to ground, and, by means of the reading obtained, using the formula given

under the head of

testing, the insulation resistance can be determined.

Moved

to the left, the insulation resistance of the

other side of the system can be obtained.

One of the

WIRING DIAGRAMS

242

dynamo
switch

leads

M,

is

CB

circuit breaker

The

carried to one terminal of the main

while the other lead

circuit breaker

lower

is

carried through the

to the other terminal of the switch.


is

generally set to operate at a

current than the fuses on switch

rise in

M,

so

that these fuses only blow in case the circuit breaker


fails to operate.

The

necessary, but

generally installed in well designed

The

plants.

is

circuit breaker

hand wheel

small

is

not absolutely

is

connected to the

rheostat mounted on the rear of the board.


switches 1, 2, 3

and 4 operate the feeder

the rear of the board the three wires F,

The

lines.

On

and

go to the dynamo, while the line marked G is


connected to some good ground, such as a water pipe.

The
field,

rheostat

and

is

connected in series with the shunt

used to regulate the voltage.

is

shunt connected in

series

AS

is

with one of the bus bars,

the terminals of the shunt being connected to the ammeter.

This shunt

ammeter.

generally furnished with the

In case an ammeter which carries the en-

tire current

is

meter so that
the mains.

is

used, leads

it will

The

must be carried

to the

am-

be connected in series with one of

feeder lines are connected to the up-

per terminals of switches

1, 2, 3,

and

4.

The ground

and voltmeter are connected to


the bus bars through the cutout CO, standard No.
detector, pilot lamps

14 rubber covered wire being used on

these circuits.

GROUND DETECTORS

243

GEOUND DETECTORS.
In Figure 180 a ground detector switch suitable
for

mounting on a switchboard

is

Two arms

shown.

A, A', pivoted at their upper ends, are connected together with an insulating bar B.

These arms make

contact at their lower ends with two brass strips and

a contact button which are connected to the bus bars

and ground

respectively.

to the left the

-J-

When

bus bar

is

the arms are

moved

connected to ground

ti'

E)
FIGURE

FIGURE

180.

through the voltmeter V.

By

181.

means of the reading

obtained the insulation resistance to ground of the

side of the line can be calculated

formula given further on.

By moving

by using the
the

arm

to the

right the insulation resistance of the 4" side of the


line

can be obtained.

Figure 181 shows a lamp ground detector.

On a

IVO-volt system two ordinary 110-volt lamps are con-

nected in series, while the line connecting the lamps

WIRING DIAGRAMS

244

connected to ground through a snap switch S.

is

When

current

is

bum

on, the two lamps will

When

equal brilliancy at a low candle-power.


switch S

is

closed, if the

two

a ground on the

is

but

if

there

lamp 2

side of the line

will

burn brighter, the brightness depending on the


sistance of the ground.

the

lamp

will

burning at

burn at

all.

the

lines are clear the bril-

liancy of the lamps will not be affected


-|-

with

If there

is

lamp

full candle-power,

If the ground

is

re-

a dead ground

on the

1 not

side of

the line lamp 1 will burn brighter.

i
FIGURE

FIGURE

182.

183.

Figure 182 shows another method of using a


meter as a ground detector.

The arms

volt-

A' are

hinged at the upper ends and swing separately.

Arnt

moved to post 1 gives the reading on the -{- side,


and arm A' moved to post 1 gives the reading on the

side of the line.

Figure 183 shows another method, using two


gle-pole

double-throw

knife

switches.

sin-

Throwing

GROUND DETECTORS
switch 1 to lower position connects the

245

bus bar

ground, and gives the insulation resistance of the

to
-[

side of the line.

Another form In which two double-point push buttons are used

shown

is

position contact

the voltmeter

is

is

in

made

Figure 184.

to the

In normal

upper points so that

always connected across the bus bars.

Pushing button

1, the insulation resistance

side of the line

can be obtained, and pushing button

2 the

of the

-|~

side.

Cd

H
FIGURE

FIGURE

184.

185.

FIGURE

186

Three-way snap switches are used for the same


purpose in Figure 185.

When
shown

in

several machines are in operation the

Figure 186 can be used.

With

method

this arrange-

ment the voltage can be taken on any one of several


lines or machines, and also the insulation resistance
to

ground.

means of
fit

The

voltmeter connection

flexible cords

in the jacks,

which

is

made by

terminating in plugs, which


in

turn are connected to the

machine leads or to the various

circuits.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

246

The

switch shown in Figure 187

use where two

dynamos are run

pivoted at the center

is

is

designed for

in parallel.

An arm

equipped with brass strips,

which, by moving

arm A, make contact between the


and
arm moved down the voltmeter is con-

center curved piece and the contact points 1, 2, 3

With

4.

the

nected to machine No. 1, and with the


the voltmeter

slight

is

arm moved up

By

connected to machine No. 2.

movement of the arm the voltage of

either

r^
El
FIGURE

FIGURE

187.

machine can be taken.


is

This

188.

is

FIGURE

useful where a

189.

dynamo

being brought up to speed to connect on to the bus

bars.

Figure 188 shows a lamp ground detector for use


on a three-wire system where the neutral is not
grounded.
tral

is

In nearly

either

all

three-wire systems the neu-

permanently

grounded

or

becomes

grounded so that ground detectors are not used, a

ground on

either of the outsides blowing a fuse.

Figure 189 shows a method of locating grounds on

GROUND DETECTORS
a

series arc line,

247

where lamps are burning.

num-

ber of incandescent lamps are connected in series, the


last

lamp being connected to ground.

Two

wires are

carried to the double-throw switch S, one wire being

connected to each side of the

From

circuit.

the mid-

dle of the double-throw switch a flexible connection


is

carried to the first lamp,

lamps noted.

If the

and

the.

brightness of the

lamps do not burn up to

candle power, connection

is

made

at

some lamp nearer

the ground, and this continued until the lamps


at full brightness.

the

number

of

When

lamps

is

counted, and

just twice as

many

it will

bum

been reached

this point has

cr.ndescent lamps are used

^^b are

full

if

100-volt in-

be seen that there

arc lamps burning between

that side of the machine and the ground as there are

incandescents burning, for an arc lamp takes approx-

imately 50 volts.

In the diagram suppose there

ground on the arc

circuit at

X;

nection to the incandescent lamps as

dotted

lines,

is

then, with the con-

the lamps will burn at

shown
full

in the

brightness.

Care should be taken in handling apparatus of this


kind on account of the high voltages on arc circuits

on which there are a number of lamps.


Figure 189a shows diagram of ground detector con-

A lamp is connected
and by connecting the
lamp to different points as 1 or 4 for instance, an idea
of the resistance to ground can be formed.
If the
lamp will burn brightly at point 4 it indicates that the

nections on a

two phase

circuit.

in parallel with the inductance

WIRING DIAGRAMS

248

insulation resistance of the line to ground

lower than

it

is

much

would be if it would have to be con1 to burn brightly.

nected at point

''^

similar plan for three phase circuits

is

followed

in Figure 189b.

As with other ground


is

detectors,

connected to the leg that

not burn at

all.

is

if

the ground switch

grounded the lamp

will

GROUND DETECTORS
Figure 189c shows

ground detector arranged

high potential service.

Two

249
for

voltmeters are connected

through two transformers as shown.

If the line is

two voltmeters show low readings which are


equal for both instruments. With a ground coming
on at A and the switch closed to guard the meter at the
clear the

FIGURE

189c.

lower and that on the right higher.


With a ground coming on at C the indications will be the

left will indicate

reverse, while with


will

read higher.

a ground at

both voltmeters

CHAPTER

XVIII.

STORAGE BATTERY CONNECTIONa..


Figure 190 shows a diagram of connections of a
storage battery and booster suitable for an ordinary

where

electric light installation,

it

desired to use

is

the battery at time of heavy load to assist the genera-

and to use the battery alone at time of light load.


The booster B, which is driven by the motor M, the

tor,

two forming a motor generator


series

connected in

set, is

with the battery circuit, and serves to raise the

voltage to that necessary to charge the batteries.


is

a rheostat in the

field

by which the

of the booster

E. M. F. can be regulated.

To

downward and the


end-cell switch

single-pole switch

and when

it is

stat closes the

up

The motor
speed the arm of

to

is

in parallel with the generator.

now

The

started,

the motor rheo-

To

to point 1

double-throw switch S upward.

As

thrown

closed, the

is

charging circuit at C.

throw the end-cell switch

teries alone

is

being placed on point 5 so that aP

the cells are in circuit.

cells

charge, the double-throw switch

discharge,

and throw

battery

To run

is

then

with the bat-

open switch MS.

the E.

M. F. of

are switched in

the battery falls, more end-

by moving switch
250

to points

STOEaGE BATTERY CONNECTIONS

=g

251

6-

o^
0^5

=ri.

o-o

m
MS

n
B
11

A/WW\H
3E:

t^
riQURB

180.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

252
2,

3,

4 or

5.

separate voltmeter

is

generally in-

stalled so that the readings of the voltage

may

be

taken from the end-cells separately, to prevent overcharging or exhausting them.

In power work, where variations in voltage are


greater and not of so
teries are often

much

importance, storage bat-

connected directly across the mains


ii

iitJi

i^^^^^^-j^i

II

rwmmmmm
Is^v^lZXZ^^^

FIGURE

without a booster.

190a.

In such cases the battery

current from the mains

when the load

is

will

take

light

and

the voltage correspondingly high, and give


into the line

heavy

when the

current

voltage becomes low due to

loads.

Figure 190a shows connections of a storage battery


to be charged without the use of a booster.

charging, the battery

is

For

connected with the two halves

STORAGE BATTERY CONNECTIONS

253

WIRING DIAGRAMS

254

As shown the battery

in parallel.
if

ready for charge

is

the single pole switches at the center are closed

downward, and those at the

right

their proper positions with the

As the E. M.

and

end

left

placed to

cells

in circuit.

up

sections of

F. of the battery builds

the resistance R, beginning at the right, are cut out.

An ammeter

is

provided in each leg so that the rate of

may

charge of each half of the battery

When
S

is

fully

charged the main switch

then also opened, S'

is

closed

is

be observed.

opened, switch

and the

single pole

switches at the center of the battery are closed on the

upper points.

and

fit

This places the two halves in

for connection to the line.

series

The end cells should

be adjusted so that the voltage of the battery is about


equal to that of the line before it is thrown in.
Figure 190b shows diagram of storage battery as

arranged by the Gould Co., to be charged from a high

voltage (150 volt) dynamo.


switches

both

is

may

are two

separate set of end

cell

provided for charge and discharge so that

be taking place at the same time.

There

circuit breakers, the one at the right

vided with a reverse current trip to protect the

is

pro-

dynamo

in case its voltage should fall so that the battery could

send current through

it.

In Figure 190c a large automobile charging station


is

shown.

As a battery

corresponding

switch

is

is

connected for charge the

thrown

allows current to pass through the

the rheostat

is

now

upward.

This

ammeter A, and

set so that the current flow is at

STORAGE BATTERY CONNECTIONS


the proper rate.

thrown downward,

When

this

use with the next charge.

circuit the voltage of

By
P

o-i

An end

cell

cells

ammeter

entirely opening the


in the corresponding

-o

o-

190c.

switch as sometimes used

is

shown

in

This switch avoids short circuiting the

while changing from one to the other, and also

avoids opening the circuit entirely.

The arm

the permanent connection, but while

it

A makes

is

^rom one segment to the other the other arm

is

free for

any battery can be taken.

FIGURE

Figure 190d.

done the switch

is

this leaves the

switch and inserting plug at

255

moving
carries

WIRING DIAGRAMS

256

The Cooper Hewitt Mercury


rectifying

alternating

electrodes at its

mercury

in the

purpose

the

for

of

shown diagrammatical ly
B is a glass bulb which carries two
upper extremity and a quantity of

charging storage batteries,


in Figure 190e.

adapted to

Rectifier,

currents
is

The

bottom.

globe

is

further filled

with mercury vapor which posseses the peculiarity

NMW

FIGURE
that

190d.

allows current flow from the upper electrodes

it

into the lower, but does not allow a reversal of this

current.

In the bottom of the bulb there are also two electrodes,

one in the mercury and the other a

little

above

it.

In order to start the operation

tilt

the bulb sufficiently so that the mercury bridges

the two lower electrodes.

it is

necessary to

This starts current flow

through the auxiliary wires R.


allowed to return, this circuit

is

When

the bulb

is

interrupted and the

current from whichever of the two upper electrodes

STORAGE BATTERY CONNECTIONS

257

happens to be positive at the time continues in


place.
for

an

again.

is

its

Should the current ever cease entirely, even


instant, the bulb

would require to be

tilted

In order to avoid this occurrence the reactance

provided;

this

produces a phase difference be-

tween the impulses in the supply

circuit

and those

CI

mTw^mMTmwmmw\

FIGURE

(passing

190e.

into the battery so that the currents overlap,

and the current from one electrode does not cease until
that from the other has been started. The alternating
current supply

is

connected at

Figure 190f shows a small

C.

storage

battery con-

nected to be charged from a series arc circuit.

While

WIRING DIAGRAMS

258
the switcn

remains in the position shown no current

passes through the battery.

downward part
ance

and part

AZ

If

the switch

is

pulled

of the current passes through the resist-

Js/

of

it

through the battery.

The

dif-

5#^^

FIGURE

190f.

R will
R and the

ference of potential existing at the terminals of

be equal to the product of the resistance of


current flowing.

than the E.

M.

This must always be a

little

greater

F. of the battery or the battery will

discharge through the resistance.

CHAPTER XIX.
TESTING.

Figure 191
jsting out

designed to illustrate a method of

is

rough wiring when

be considered con-

except the ends at outlets, and

jaled
lat

may

All wiring

be connected.

lights or fixtures are

nothing

is

known of how

it

the wiring

assumed

is
is

run

in.

23

FIGURE

The

may

there

step

first

is

191.

to separate all wires at outlets, so

be no wrong connections.

an ordinary

bell

and fuse up the

and battery as shown


circuit.

must be a short-circuit

If the bell

Next connect
in the figure

now

rings, there

in the wiring leading direct

from the cutout, since we have disconnected


^ires.
?ss
)ff

To

locate this

to the wiring,

it will

and

it

may

plaster or break into walls.


to

abandon a

all

other

be necessary to get acbe necessary to tear

Oftentimes

it is

circuit with such trouble as this

259

bet-

and

WIRING DIAGRAMS

260

run in a new one.


next step
ends of

If the circuit

it

found

clear, the

to temporarily bring together the bare

is

the wires found at any of the outlets until

all

a ring from the bell


tained

is

is

obtained.

When

a ring

is

ob-

will indicate that the circuit feeds direct to

from the cutout.

this outlet

outlet the

Next pick out

at this

two wires which together produce a ring.

These two wires come direct from the cutout, and

may now

be marked as such.

In the figure

it

is

intended that the light 1 shall

be controlled by the switch

S',

and the

by the

light 2

switch S''; the lights 3 and 4 are not provided with


switches, but the large chandelier
trolled by the double-pole switch

The next

is

to be con-

DS.

step will be to find the two wires leading

to switch S'.

To

accomplish

this,

close the switch

and bring any two of the wires found

at outlet 1 in

contact with those coming from the cutout

when

the proper wires have been thus connected the bell


will ring.

One of

the switch wires

may now

be con-

nected permanently to one of the circuit wires coming

from the cutout, while the other

is

to be connected

The

other wire

coming from the cutout goes to the other

side of the

to one side of the

lamp or

Lamp

fixture.

now completely connected


and under control of switch S^. The quickest way to
find the proper connections for lamp 2 and switch S"
is by bunching all the wires at 2, and then trying at
lamp or

1,

fixture.

any two wires

1 is

to those

coming from the cutout

TESTliNG
until the bell rings.

The two
lamp

ringing lead direct to

261

wires which cause this

2,

and may now be con-

nected to the wires leading from the cutout, care be-

ing taken that they are connected so as not to come

under control of switch

and

at 2,

Next, separate the wires

S'.

which when brought together

find those

cause the bell to ring ; one of these must be connected

lamp or

direct to the

fixture, while the other

nected to one of the remaining wires.

one wire, and

is

con-

This leaves

connects to the other side of the lamp

it

and completes the connection of lamp 2 and switch

The four remaining

S".

in a similar

wires at 1

may

be found

manner, care being taken that they are

connected behind the connections of switch

also

Two

of the six wires at outlet

C may now

nected direct to those coming from outlet 1.


this,

go

to switch

DS

and

find the wires

S'.

be coniVfter

coming from

and the cutout (by ringing the bell), and


connect them to the proper points on the switch. The

outlet 1

remaining wires connect to the other pole of the

The

switch and to the chandelier.

wires leading to

lamp S may be doubled up under the screws of the


cutout terminals.

For

testing of this kind the bell

convenient instrument, since


distance,

and a

circuit

through several rooms.

as

it

is

shown

described often

magneto may

with an assistant to turn the crank, or


at

the

cutout

is

is

short-circuited

the most

audible at quite a

the

extends

also be used,
if

the circuit

wireman may

WIRING DIAGRAMS

262
carry

it

with him, making connections wherever he

wishes to

may

If the cutout center

test.

is

"ahve" a lamp

be placed instead of one of the fuses, and the

wireman may carry another with him for


galvanometer or telephone receiver
in this

may

testing.

also be used

way, the battery alone being connected at the

cutout center.

Figure 192 shows the main and branch wiring of


a two-wire incandescent system,
ready for

final test

and connection.

necessary to close

it is

fuses,

and a

all

In the

place

If current

fuses.

may

then be made by

in circuit in place of one of the

will light in case there

now thrown on

is

is

any

the

lamp

serious defect in the

insulation between opposite polarities in

any part of

In case there are any two or three-way

the system.

will

first

test for short circuits or faulty insula-

placing a lamp

switches

and

complete

the switches and insert all

tion between opposite poles

main

all

controlling

lights

from

several

places,

it

be necessary to turn one of these on each circuit

after the

first test

other test

has been made and then make an-

since one cannot well be certain whether

such switches close a circuit or not unless a lamp can


be seen to

bum.

It will also be advisable to

with single and double pole switches, and

do

may

this

often

be easier than removing covers from snap switches to


see

whether they are on or

off.

Snap

switches will

often indicate by the sound of the snap whether they


are on or

off,

but this

is

not always reliable.

TESTING

263

If a more thorough test than that given

lamp

is

required,

it

may

four instruments shown.

by the

made with any one of the


The voltmeter may be con-

be

nected in place of the lamp.

If the system

is

perfect

the voltmeter will indicate nothing, while if a short-

FIGURE
circuit exists

it

192.

A tele-

will indicate the full pressure.

phone receiver may

also be used in the

properly wound, and

if the

W,

if

system contains no lead-

covered wires or iron pipe and


the Wheatstone bridge

same way,

is

not too large.

or magneto

is

If

to be

WIRING DIAGRAMS

264
used for

both main fuses must be removed

this test,

and connection made


instruments.

to both wires as

shown with these

Lead-covered wire, or wire in iron pipe,

will also interfere with testing

by a magneto, a ring

sometimes being obtained when the insulation of the

system

is

The

perfect.

figure

also

shows the voltmeter

up with battery

telephone receiver fitted

and the

to test the

insulation resistance to earth of lines having no cur-

rent; the same connections

may

be made with the

magneto or Wheatstone bridge, and both main wires


may be connected at once as shown by dotted lines.

More

detailed explanation

and formulas for testing

with the voltmeter and Wheatstone bridge will be


given further on.

When

it is

desired to ascertain the current passing

along the mains, an ammeter


place of voltmeter

as

may

shown.

be connected in

To

test

the in-

sulation resistance accurately, the system should not

be

alive,

although approximate

tests

may

be

made

with a voltmeter or ground detector lamps connected


as shown in Figure 19S.

This method of testing

circuits is practical only

on small systems, since the

live

system cannot be subdivided, and the indications are


accurate only so long as defects are confined to one
side of the line.

With

large three-wire systems

it is

quite usual to have the neutral wire grounded, and


these methods could not be used at

all.

In Figure 192 there are shown two ground de-

TESTING

235

C and D, and bj means


may be

tector lamps

switch the wire between them

ground.

As long

tact with the

as this key

ground

not brought in con-

is

wire, both

of a key or

connected to

lamps burn dimly

in

series
if no ground
exists in any part of the system, depressing the key
Should, however, a ground
will not affect the lamps.

and with equal

exist,

brilliancy,

and

say at G, closing the key will establish a path

through the ground and through lamp


posite side of the circuit.

If the ground

to the opis

of very

lamp C will burn at full candle


will not burn at all.
Should the

low resistance the


power, while

ground be of high

resistance there will be but little

difference in the brilliancy of the lamps.

The

connections of the voltmeter are based on the

same principle.

The

switch S

moved one way makes

connection with the positive pole through the volt-

meter to the ground, and moved the other

way makes

connection with the negative pole through voltmeter


to ground.

In the position shown the switch

is

clear

of the ground, and connects the voltmeter to the

The

lighting mains so as to obtain full pressure.

formula for use with the voltmeter when the exact


value of the resistance

i^i

where

is

to be determined

E is the full

is

=R

voltage of the battery or

other source of current as indicated on the voltmeter,

E'

is

the reduced reading obtained through the volt-

meter and the resistance to be measured, and

the

WIRING DIAGRAMS

266

resistance of the voltmeter,

unknown

being the value of the

This formula

resistance.

is

based on the

supposition that the voltmeter and the resistance to

be measured are in

series,

and that

all

current pass-

ing through the resistance being measured also passes

through the voltmeter.


Referring to Figure 192, so long as

is

the only

defect on the system allowing current to flow, the

above formula will give us the correct resistance; as


soon, however, as G'

is

comes unreliable, since G'


meter and robs

it

introduced the formula beis

a shunt around the volt-

of current.

The

current passing

through the voltmeter no longer depends only on the


voltmeter resistance and that of G, and therefore the

readings can no longer be used as a basis of calcula-

As a matter

tions.

live

of fact, if the voltmeter test on

system as shown in the figure indicates a low

ground on one

side, as, for instance, G', it will usual-

The ground

ly show the other side very high.

de-

tector lamps are subject to the same limitations, but

although they and the voltmeter cannot be relied upon


for accurate testing, both are very useful when ar-

ranged so that

tests

can be made several times per

day, so as to give means of detecting a ground as

soon as

it

comes on.

In Figure 193
stone bridge.

is

given a diagram of the Wheat-

This instrument

is

generally

used

where accurate measurements of resistance are to be

made, and on account of

its

wide range

it is

the most

TESTING

267
It will be seen

useful instrument for this purpose.

that current from the battery entering at 1 has two

paths open to

through

one through

it,

X and the other

and

and R, to the other pole of the battery.

If the resistances

and

are equal, then an equal

quantity of current will pass through each to the


points 2 and 3 respectively.

FIGURE

no current

will

and B) they

If the resistance of

current to 2 as

and

still

galvanometer.

no current

will

made

is

away

carry

these conditions

carry to S

X, then

as

will

and

will
is

to

if

is

carry away

X takes away

no current

So long

ten times as great

carry only one-tenth as

will

ten times as high as

3,

will also

Under

will

the current from 2, while

from

much greater

be

pass through the galvanometer G.

as that of B, then

much
made

and

193.

equal quantities of current.

all

may

are ajso equal (though they

or smaller than

If the resistances

all

current

flow through the

as

is

pass through the galvanometer.

X,
Whento

WIRING DIAGRAMS

268

ever this relation

is

disturbed, some current will pass

through the galvanometer, either from 2 to 3 or 3 to

If

S.

through
to 2

while

entirely

is

the current flowing

all

to 3 will pass through the galvanometer

and, again, if

open,

and

is

of higher resistance than

are equal, some current will pass

2 through the galvanometer to

To make

X,

from

3.

the resistance of A,

and

may

brass plugs are provided which

variable,

be inserted in

the openings shown so as to form a shunt to the resistance bridged

around the opening.

the proportional arms

and

In each of

two openings are

al-

ways plugged, and the one unplugged is the resistance through which the current must pass. In R all
plugs are removed to get the total resistance, while to
get the lowest resistance

all

openings but the lowest

are plugged.

To
the

measure any resistance proceed as follows:

unknown

resistance connected at

is

If

not greater

than the total of R, or smaller than any one plug in

R,

and

B may

be plugged equal; for instance,

plugs inserted in the openings 1000 and 100 on each


arm, leaves on each side ten ohms in circuit and
leaves the greatest battery strength for the galvano-

meter.

Now

plug

and press the key;


whether
flection

it

is

so the resistance will be quite low


if this gives

any

to the right or left.

deflection note

If a decided de-

has been obtained, remove a number of plugs

until the resistance of

R is quite

high and again press

TESTING
now obtained

If the deflection

the key.

26Q
in the op^

is

posite direction of the former, the value of the resist-

ance

something between the

is

value of R, and

first

the second, and repeated trials are necessary until no


deflection

icaused

is

No

obtained.

by a weak battery.

[increasing or lessening

may

deflection

If everything

also

be

in order,

is

should cause reverse deflec-

tions.

When

mm

balance

obtained with

is

and

of the unplugged resistances in

is

balance unless

of

ralue
lin

X.

versely, if

If

^he values

will give the

greater than

is

A;

and, con-

than the smallest resistance in R,

is less

of A,

equal, the

greater than R, we cannot ob-

balance cannot be obtained unless

'henever balance

obtained,

is

and

B
is

is

to

smaller than A.

as

is

to

are known, and, since

X.

it is

well-known rule of arithmetic that in any proporbion the


le

product of the means equals the product of

we can

extremes,

.XX=BXR>
ind the value of

mplugged
If, in

the

7 =X,
X

value of

X,

since

or in other words to

we must multiply the sum of the


R by B and divide by A.

resistances in

Figure 193,

to 1000,

find

is

when balance

unplugged

is

obtained

times

R.

1000,

X will equal 1-100 part of R.

If

is

unplugged

to equal

X will

to equal

10 and

equal 100

10 and

The

total

at

range

of the resistance that can be measured by the arrange-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

\270'

ment shown

from 1 ohm

in this figure is

to

600,000

ohms.

Figure 194 shows one commercial form of the

Wheatstone bridge.

In

this

form movable arms are

The

used to adjust the resistance instead of plugs.

]l{l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l

FIGURE
resistance to be measured

posts

is

194.

connected to the binding

marked X, and when balance

sum of

is

obtained the

the resistances indicated by the lower arms

divided by

and multiplied by M.

The key

is

is

ar-

TESTING
ranged to
circuit

271

close the battery circuit before closing the

through the galvanometer.

This

is

important,

especially where inductive resistances such as the coils

of electro-magnets are to be measured, and prevents


inductance and discharge of these magnets from dis-

turbing the galvanometer reading.


N-v y^, ^A1

YA/.

OPPPPPPPP
v:'

FIGURE

195.

Figure 195 shows another form of Wheatstone


bridge, and Figure

With
lin

form the resistance to be measured

this

nected at

196 a diagram of the connections.

X, and

if it is

greater than

the center are arranged as shown in black.

balance

is

obtained

plugged resistances

by A.

With

[between
fiistances

X
in

equals the

is

con-

the two plugs

When

sum of the un-

multiplied by

and divided

the plugs arranged in the opposite holes

A X and B R, X equals the unplugged


of R multiplied by A and divided by B.

re?

WIRING DIAGRAMS

272

As

will

be seen from Figure 193 the multiplying

proportional

known.

coil

is

the one in series with the un-

In this form of bridge

it is

possible to place

either one of the coils in series with the

hence we

may

unknown and

use either one to multiply and the other

This greatly increases the range of the

to divide.

instrument with the same amount of resistance.

FIGURE

With a plug

left out, the

straight resistance box.

back contact which

when

R and X, the other


box may be used as a

inserted between

two plugs being

itself

196.

released,

The galvanometer key

closes the

has

galvanometer circuit on

and tends to stop the needle from

II

swinging.

Oftentimes these boxes are not equipped with battery,

and instead have two binding posts

battery

may

be connected.

the above were connected at


dle could be

made

to which

If the battery in either of

the galvanometer nee-

to deflect in one direction only.

CHAPTER XX.
LIGHT.

The

intensity of the

the distance from

Hght

the source.

varies as the square of

This

is

rigidly true

only at such distances where the source of light

may

be considered as a mathematical point having no


physical dimensions.
tric light is

two inches as at four

Thus

the intensity of an elec-

not four times as great at a distance of


inches.

16 candle-power lamp

is

usually allowed for ev-

ery 100 square feet in ordinary rooms, when not sus-

pended more than seven


dark colored
sired,

walls, or

feet

from the

floor.

where a very bright light

With
is

de-

more lamps should be provided.

The

efficiency

of lamps varies greatly with differ-

ent candle-powers, a fair approximation being given

below:

32 candle-power lamp requires from 100 to


"
"
"
"
50 "
16 "
"
"
"
"
30 "
8 "
a
a

^
JQ

110 watts

56
33
2^

"

"

After lamps have been used for some time the efficiency

is

reduced somewhat and the current con-

sumption increased.

273

274

WIRING DIAGRAMS

The candle-power of any incandescent lamp increases much more rapidly than the current supplied
to

it,

so that the higher efficiency

age for the lamp.

If long

be operated at low voltage.

Below

taken from the General Electric

showing the variation

demands

life is desired
is

given a table,

Company

in candle-power

full volt-

they should

and

bulletin,
efficiency

of standard 3.1 watt lamps due to variations in volt-

age:
Percent of normal

LIGHT

275

In Figure 197 the various curves show the relation


between the candle-power and voltage, current and
watts in an incandescent lamp, the curves having been
plotted from a 100-volt, 16

curve marked Volts and C. P.

70

volts the

was at 15.

c.

p.

As

was at

c.

it will

2, while at

Taking the

be seen that at

100

volts the

c.

p.

the voltage rises the candle-power in-

creases very rapidly, reaching

and 55

p. lamp.

p. at about

127

25

volts.

c.

p. at

110

votts

WIRING DIAGRAMS

276

very simple method of comparing the candle-

powers of different lamps


Set

up

is

that

known

as Bunsen's.

the lamps to be compared, and, taking a piece

of paper with a grease spot on

it,

adjust

it

between

the two lamps until the spot becomes invisible.

The

candle-powers of the two lamps are then in the same

proportion as the squares of the distances from the


paper.

The absorption of

light

by globes

is

given as fol-

lows:

Clear Glass, 10 per cent.

Holophane, 12 per

Opaline, 20 to 40 per cent.


cent.

An

cent.

Ground, 25 to 30 per

Opal, 25 to 60 per cent.


arc light gives out from one-twentieth to one-

fortieth as

much

heat as gas light of equal candle-

power.

An

incandescent light gives out from one-fifth to

one- tenth as

much

heat as a gas jet of equal candle-

power.

One 5-foot gas burner (16


air as four men.

c.

p.) vitiates as

much

CHAPTER XXI.
WIRING TABLES.

The wiring

table

No. 1

For each

ing manner:

considered there

is

arranged in the follow-

is

size

of wire and each voltage

given (under the proper voltage

and opposite the number of the wire under the heading B. & S.) the distance it will carry 1 ampere at a
loss

of 1^.

The same

wire will carry 2 amperes only

half as far at the same percentage of loss and again


will

carry 1 ampere twice as far at double the per-

centage of

From
which

is

loss.

these facts
:

we deduce the

rule of this table

Multiply the distance in feet

one leg only

by the number of amperes to be carried and divide the


Take
result by the percentage of loss to be allowed.
the number so obtained and under the proper voltage
find the number nearest equal to it.
Opposite this
number under the heading B. & S. will be found the
size

of wire required.

To

illustrate:

We

have 22

amperes to carry a distance of 135 feet and the


to be allowed

is

3 per cent, at 110

loss

volts.

2Q70

22X135=^^^=990
3

We take the number 990, turn to column for 110 volts,


and

find

841, which

is

not

sufficient.

277

The

next above

it

WIRING DIAGRAMS

278
IS

1060, which corresponds to No. 7 wire.

With

this

wire our loss will be slightly less than 3^, while with

No. 8

For

it

would be somewhat in excess of 3^.

three- wire systems using

the column marked

220

110

volts

on each

volts should be used.

side,

The

WIRING TABLES
column marked 440

volts

is

279

provided for three-wire

The

systems using 220 volts on each

side.

termined will be correct for

three wires in both

all

sizes de-

cases.

The columns
ranged

in the

at the right, marked motors, are ar-

same way, the only difference being

H.
For this reason we
multiply the distance in feet by the number of horsepower to be transmitted and divide by the percentage
that, for greater convenience, they are figured in

P. feet instead of ampere feet.

of

all

loss,

under

other operations remaining the same as

lights.

When any

considerable current

is

to be carried

only a short distance the wire indicated by the desired


loss will

ity;

it

very likely not have sufficient carrying capac-

is,

therefore, always necessary to consult the

table of carrying capacities.

WIRING i:>IAGRAMS

280

Csico

!;SS;^

2.

0>i

iSgJg

88888

t^ IN IC
I

Tt

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t^t^I^rHrH

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rHi-((N(NeO

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ci-^Oii-iM"

ccecc--icc^

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rj< T<

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it^osoooo

i/5ici>oto

00

T<

r-(rHr-l?i

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r-(i-lrHC^(N

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Tj<

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Pt-^'r!'^
e^icpA
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tc oj eo
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oQ

WIRING TABLES
For

lights, find the

ampere

vide by the per cent, of

age

find the

number equal

feet (one leg)

Under

loss.

281

and

di-

the proper volt-

to this or the next larger;

opposite this number in the column marked B.

&

S.,

will be found the size of wire required.

For Motors, proceed


ampere

feet instead of

may

It

in the

same way, using H. P.

feet.

often be desired to find the loss in an es-

tablished circuit carrying a certain load.


readily be determined

the following rule:

from

may

This

by observing

this table

Find the number of ampere

feet

and, selecting the column headed by the proper voltage, divide by the

number opposite the

size

of wire

For example, we have a No. 10 wire carrying

used.

24 amperes a distance of 90 feet at 110 volts, 24 X


Opposite No. 10 in the column marked

90=2160.
B.

&

=4

S.

volts

we

and a very small fraction, which

age of
It

gauge and under 110

is

loss

occurring on this

find 529,

is

2160
~

the percent-

line.

often necessary to reinforce mains which have

become overloaded.

It

is

quite usual

though often

very incorrect, to choose by the table of carrying


capacities a wire of such size that the rated capacity

of

it

and the wire

the load.

to be re-enforced shall be equal to

Small wires have proportionately a much

greater radiating surface than larger ones and therefore their carrying capacity

is

proportionally great-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

282
er.

In order that a wire connected in parallel with

another wire shall carry a certain current,


mils,

C.

must be equal

M.Xa

where C.

its

circular

M.

stands

for the cross-section of the larger wire in circular


mils
is

and

for the current to be carried

the current to be carried

No. 2

is

calculated

from

by the extra

this rule

by

it,

while a

wire.

Table

and shows the

size

of wire necessary to re-enforce another overloaded to

a certain per

cent, as indicated in the

top row.

For

instance, a 0000 wire overloaded 40^ requires re-en-

forcement by a No. 1; a No. 3 wire overloaded 20^


requires a No. 10 wire.

enforced in this

way by

Where

large wires are re-

smaller ones great care must

be taken that the larger wire cannot be accidentally

broken or disconnected, since in such a case the whole


load would be forced over the smaller wire and would
likely result in a

fire.

ly soldered together.

The two

wires should be secure-

WIRING TABLES
No.

Numbers
B.&S.
Gauge.

3.

283

284

WIRING DIAGRAMS
No.

4.

Table Showing the Currents Which will Fuse


Wires op Different Substances.
B. & S.
'JauKe.

CHAPTER

XXII.

FLASHERS.

EI.ECTEIC SIGNS.

DISPLAY LIGHTING.

Figure 198 gives a diagrammatic view of the

Reynolds Flasher for


flasher here
circuits,

shown

electric signs

is

and displays. The

capable of controlling twelve

each circuit with a single-pole switch.

FIGURE

Only

198.

one wire of each circuit passes through the flasher and


single-pole fuses are usually installed as near as possible to the flasher.

the circuits

ever

may

convenient.

The

fuses for the other sides of

be installed within signs or wher-

The diagram shows


285

flasher

ar-

WIRING DIAGRAMS

286

ranged for three-wire

installation only one of the

and the two

In case of a two-wire

circuits.

mains

is

led to the flasher

sections of the flasher are connected to-

gether.

Figures 199 to 204 show the circuits of a flasher


for

&
to

electric signs and displays


made by Rawson
Evans of Chicago. This machine is designed
change connections from one circuit to another

without ever entirely opening the

FIGURE

circuit.

From two

199.

to four groups of lamps are wired in series

and the

movable arms, A, B, C, Figure 199, short-circuit


those groups not in use. During the time of change

from one group to another


series

the groups are in

all

and most of the current which would otherwise


itself in the form of a spark passes through

manifest

The

the lamps.

that

it

is

time of open circuit

is

so very short

impossible to hold an arc for any appre-

ciable time.

The breaking of

the circuit in

many

places at the same time also lessens the destructive


qualities of the arc

which occurs.

ELECTRIC SIGNS
Figure 199

is

287

a diagram of the flasher as connect-

ed to three-color signs; the white lights being ar-

ranged to follow after the red and also after the


green. Referring to Figure 199, A, B, C, are metal

arms insulated from one another but firmly fastened


together so as to form one movable piece. As these
arms are moved from point to point they connect
the diametrically opposite terminals, 1, 1'; 2, 2';

and

3, 3';

4, 4'.

In Figure 199 the current passes

along wire 5 through the red lights connected to cut-

%\ arm B to point 2, thence


to point 4', arm A, points 4 and 3 to arm C, back to
So long as the arms rethe other pole of dynamo.
main in this position the red lights burn and all the
out

X,

to wire 6, point

others are short-circuited.

machine brings arm


1'; current

arm
arm

now

The

next position of the

in contact with points 1

A to point 1', wire 6 and the white lights at Y;


A now forming a short circuit around the red

lights.

The

current passing through the white lights

returns over wire 7 to point 3 and


also

and

passes direct from point 1 through

arm

moved) to the other pole of dynamo.

lights

now

bum

and

all

The next movement


points 2 and 2' and

nection between 3 and

through arm

C from

The

white

others are short-circuited.

brings arm

(which has

to 1 and
3'.

The

1',

in contact

with

leaving no con-

current

now passes

point 1 to 1'; thence to point

arm A, point 2, 4' arm B to point 4 through the


green lights and back to point 3' and to the other

9f

WIRING DIAGRAMS

288

pole of the dynamo.

The green

lights

now burn

while the others are short-circuited.

The fourth position of the arms leaves the space


between 4 and 4' open and the current again passes
through one of the arms from point
white lights, wire 7

mo.

An

shown

in

to points 3, 3'

1 to 1', wire 6,

and back

to

dyna-

elementary diagram of those connections

Three of the points,

Figure 200.

is

1, 2, 3, 4,

are always short-circuited.

FIGURE

-G

200.

Figure 01 shows the same machine with one of the


arms removed connected to control a double-face sign,
one side to

bum

at a time.

The

current in this case

passes from the positive pole of the switch to the

upper group of cutouts which represent one


the sign.

The

side of

current passing through these lamps

continues to point

2',

arm A, point
of the switch. The

thence to point 1,

arm B and negative pole


next movement brings arm B in contact with point 4'
and current passes along it to 4, thence to 2, arm
A to 2', the lower group of cutouts representing the
1'

and

3,

ELECTRIC SIGNS

289

other side of sign and back to the negative side of

the switch.

uUh

fftm
FIGURE

201.

Figure 202 shows connections for four groups of


colors, one at a time being illuminated.
In Figures 203 and 204 connections for single and
double-pole break are shown.

~~TVi/

FIGURE

For large

202.

installations, in connection with three-

wire systems, double-disc machines are used

the posi-

tive

and neutral wire connecting to one and the nega-

tive

and neutral

to the other.

WIRING DIAGRAMS

290

This machine and the combination of circuits are


protected by letters patent.

<V

li_f
FIGURE

203.

Figure 205
several of the

lamps

will serve to illustrate the principle

monogram

signs.

The

of

incandescent

are each set within a metal shield which pre-

L
FIGURE

205.

vents the spread of light to


sign.

One common

any other part of the

feed wire leads to

all

of the

lamps, and from each lamp a switch wire leads to the


serving to make the proper connections.
Each monogram has the lights within it so distributed that by lighting the proper lamps any letter in
the alphabet can be made and a sign, consisting, say,

machine

ELECTRIC SIGNS

291

of 10 monograms, can, therefore, be made to spell


out any word or combination of words which does not
exceed ten

letters.

6
C^ast

At

w??sn^w^Q)

The mechanism used


set

;c?

A A A-A.

FIGURE

of a

/^^ 6

206.

for spelling out words consists

of discs for each

monogram and

these carry

brass bars, as shown at B, which serve to energize

DONT FOLD THIS CARD

WATCH FOR

o
oo o

EkdricNo.

600

-^^

til

COS zO
OlV(

DriTen' Ctieck

Q.

ThW CtUCK To UMiroMlIO ATTINCMHT Ot-T.


.

Tki

QwtrK cvTtafi ciu6i.'ni;^r;:r'

the wires leading to the lamps.

These bars are cut

out as shown and only those sections remaining full

make contact with the switch wires.


Figure 206 is a representation of a monogram used

WIRING DIAGRAMS

292

as a carriage call, principally for theatres.


case only nine wires are used for each
in case the sign

is

In this

monogram and

illuminated on both sides each of

the nine wires supplies two monograms, one on each

One wire

side.

is

common

feed for

and the other eight wires serve


small group of lamps in the
groups of lamps are so arranged
tion of them almost any number

all

of the lamps

each to connect a

monogram. These
that by a combinafrom
to 9 can be
made. To accomplish this a perforated card shown
The card shown is
at bottom of this cut is used.
arranged for a sign consisting of three monograms.

As

will

be seen the yoke

each of which

is

gizing the wire connected to


pressed
it.

8 contact points

carries

capable of making contact and ener-

down upon

it

when the yoke

is

the current carrying bar beneath

In order to allow none but the proper points to

be connected the card

is

inserted between the current

Thus the figure 6 is


made by allowing only the points 1, 2, 5 and 7 on
the yoke to make connection with the bar below. The
is formed by making connection with points 1, 4,
carrying bar and the yoke.

In this figure all of the lamps denoted by


number
are on one circuit. The lamps marked
the same
^, if lighted, will form the figure 1 the lamps 1, 4,
6 and 7 form the figure 6, while is formed by 1, 4,
6 and 8.
A somewhat similar monogram is made by wiring
the necessary number of properly distributed lamps

5 and

7.

ELECTRIC
on one or more circuits

SIGxNS

in the usual

293

manner and then

inserting lamps only where required to outline the


letter or

number wanted, the other openings being cov-

ered.

All of these devices are covered

The information

herein given

enable wiremen to intelligently

them should occasion

require.

is

by

letters patent.

intended merely to

go about connecting

PART

II

ELECTRICAL WIRING
AND

CONSTRUCTION TABLES

EWSL

ELECTRICAL WIRING AND CONSTRUCTION TABLES


CHAPTER

I.

DIRECT CURRENT WIRING TABLES.


The wiring

tables here given consist of four different tables

of amperes; one each for the voltages most in use in direct

110, 220, 440 and 550 volts.


determine the number of amperes necessary with a

current work, viz:

To
certain
it

is

number

of H. P., K. W., or 55 watt incandescent lights,

necessary to refer to the table pertaining to the voltage

under consideration.

given the

number

Under

the

column marked H.

of horse-power equivalent to the

of amperes, K. W., and lights in the

P. are

number

same horizontal

line;

no matter how the problem is presented, the number of


amperes equivalent to it at 100% efficiency, can be at once

thus,

read

off.

At the

of the column marked "Amperes" will be


column marked "Efficiency Numbers." These
numbers indicate what must be added to the amperes, given
for 100% efficiency, in order to compensate for the losses due

noticed

left

the

to a lower efficiency.

In order to determine this

we

refer

hand corner, and select


the nearest efficiency to the one imposed by the case in consideration.
Directly under this efficiency will be found another number. We multiply the efficiency number next to

to the small table in the upper right

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

the amperes in question by this


to the amperes; the

with that

For

sum

TABLES.

number and add the

total will

result

be the amperes required

efficiency.

efficiencies

not given in the table, such as

proportional intermediate numbers

be accurate enough for

Example:

all

may

.95, .90, etc.,

be used.

These

will

practical purposes.

How many

amperes are required to transmit


and an efficiency of Hll Following
down the line headed by K. W. until we come to 24, we see
Noting
that at 100% efficiency, 224 amperes are required.
the small table at the right we find under ^11 the number 4
and consequently we are to add 4 times 16, or 64, to the
number given in the table. The amperes required are therefore 64 plus 224, which equals 288.
All of thje tables are worked in the same way. The figures
have all been carefully checked and are believed to be per-

W.

24 K.

at 110 volts

fectly correct, at least sufficiently so for all practical purposes.

Nernst lamps
rent,

are, of course, not often

used with direct cur-

but are given in these tables because the direct current

tables can be carried

more

into detail than those for alternat-

The same method can be used


amperes required with low power-factors and
alternating currents that was used with direct currents for
low efficiencies.
ing currents that follow after.
to

find

the

The four

charts

presented

opposite

the

four tables

of

amperes are all alike with exception of the small tables in


upper right hand corner. One is given with each voltage
simply for the convenience of the user; to save the turning of
a page, and lessen the possibility of confusion. These charts
express in curves the actual loss in volts occurring on the
different wires for 100 feet distance, with the amperes given
at the top of the chart.

Each curve begins


the wire, to which

it

to

rise

pertains,

on the horizontal
and from this line

under
must be

line
it

DIRECT CURRENT WIRING TABLES.

measured.

The

spaces

between the heavy horizontal

lines,

each represent one volt; the fine lined spaces, each represent
1/5 of one volt. Thus, the curve pertaining to No. 12 wire

shows that

this

wire at 12 amperes, 100 feet distance (200

would lose about 4 volts. The curve beginning


wire shows that this wire would lose with 12
at No.
amperes only .25 volts, etc. To economize space, a number
feet

wire)

of the curves pertaining to the smaller wires have been started


from one base in upper left hand corner. Gauge numbers of
these wires are printed in the body of the chart.

The num-

bers given in parentheses give the value of each vertical fine


lined space in amperes, the rate of increase changing at differ-

This enables us to give a very fine gradation


likely to come up in practice.
To use these charts for the purpose of determining the
proper size of wire for a certain loss, we proceed in the following way: First find the actual number of volts to be lost;
divide these by the number of 100 feet to which the power
ent places.

and thus reach any case

is to

The

be transmitted.

result will be the loss in volts

we

Next determine the number of

desire to have per 100 feet.

amperes we have to transmit. Now, select the vertical line


headed at the top by the required number of amperes and
follow it until the wire which most nearly gives this loss
per 100 feet
it

is

To facilitate finding the proper wire


a ruler and place it parallel with the
and count the spaces between the base of the
found.

will be well to take

horizontal lines

curves and the point where

it

crosses the line headed by

the required amperes.

Wherever any curve


followed to the

proper wire.

left

to

indicates the desired loss, that curve


its

starting point, will point out the

In some cases where a small current

is

to be

transmitted a great distance and at a small loss, the loss per


100 feet will be so small that it can with difficulty be read
correctly on the chart.

In such a case accurate results can be

10

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

obtained by multiplying both the amperes to be transmitted

and the

by some convenient number as

volts to be lost

2,

or

same number the


same wire will be indicated as though the actual values were
used, but care must be taken not to get beyond the range of
any wire.
Example: A motor at a distance of 400 feet from the
10,

or

If both

50.

generator

is

are multiplied by the

required to deliver 30 K.

efficiency of the

motor

is

.87

and the

W.

at 110 volte.

The

loss in the line is not

5%. What size of wire is required? To get the


amperes we refer to the table for 110 volts. This table does
not give 30 K. W. direct, so we may take either 31 K. W.
or, if we are very particular, we may find the amperes for
29 also and take the average of the two. Taking 31 K. W.
we have from the table 279-r(2X20)=319 amperes. A 5% loss
This 5^ divided by
is equal to an actual loss of Sy^ volts.
4 (the number of 100 feet) equals 1.4 approximately. Bearing
this number (1.4) in mind we follow the line under 318 amperes
downward until at the bottom of the chart, we see that none
of the wires in this chart can give us so small a loss by referto be over

ence to the special chart for the large wires

we

see that a 500,-

000 C. M. wire will give us the desired loss.


To facilitate the calculations the small tables in the upper

hand corner of the different charts have been provided.


row represent distances in feet, those
in the vertical column at the left represent the percentages of
Wherever the horizontal line pertaining to the desired
loss.
loss crosses the vertical column headed by the distance will be
found the number expressing the desired loss per 100 feet,
right

The

figures in the top

number of volts to be lost by the wire giving the


For distances shorter or longer than those given
table select a number ten times shorter or longer and

this is the

proper
in the

move
tance,

loss.

the decimal point one place to the

and one place

to

left

for the longer dis-

the right for the shorter distance.

DIRECT CURRENT WIRING TABLES.

11

Thus, suppose we wish to lose 3% at 220 voUs, 40 feet


number found in the table under 400 feet is 1.6;
by moving the decimal point one place to the right, it becomes
16; were the distance instead 4000 feet it would be .16.
distance, the

It will

be noticed that the curves giving the losses end where

the carrying capacity of the wires end, so that the error of

(selecting a wire which would be overheated by the current to


Wherever the heavy solid
l>e used cannot be easily made.
line of any curve ends will be found (at the top) the number
pf amperes that wire, provided with rubber insulation, can
tarry.
r

The

capacity

dotted extensions of these lines represent the carrying


of wires

provided with

other

insulations.

Both

carrying capacities are those allowed by the "National Electrical

Code."

Other tables for alternating currents are provided, but these


tables can be used in connection with such currents for indoor
work where wires are close together. To get the correct number of amperes to work with, it is, however, often necessary
to refer to ampere tables for alternating currents especially
for two and three phase systems, and for single phase systems
when efficiency and power factors are to be considered.

12

AND CONSTRUCTION

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ELECTRICAL WIRING

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20

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

SPECIAL CHART FOR LARGE WIRES.

TABLES.

CHAPTER

II.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING TABLES.


These tables consist of two parts; a series of tables from
which the actual number of amperes needed in problems of
transmission may be readily obtained and a series of charts,
giving graphically the actual losses occurring in alternating

current crcuits with such wires, systems of distributon, frequencies

and distances apart as are considered

In the four columns at the

H.

left

in the tables.

are given the

number of

K. W., Nernst glowers and 55 watt incandescent lamps


mutually equivalent to the number of amperes given in the fifth
P,.

no matter how the problem may


may be at once approximately determined. The values given are for efficiencies and
power-factors of 100%. The small auxiliary table at the top
and at the right furnishes a ready means of determining the
amperes with lower efficiencies and power-factor values. In
this table figures in the second vertical column signify different
efficiencies.
The other columns pertaining to the different

column from the

left; so that

be presented the number of amperes

AND CONSTRUCTION

ELECTRICAL WIRING

22

power-factors,

i.

e., .95,

.85

and

.75

TABLES.

give the combined values of

the efficiencies with these power-factors.

If

the

number of

amperes given in the table for 100% efficiency, be divided by


any of these numbers we shall obtain the actual current required with the corresponding efficiency and power-factor.
Instead of making this division we can also obtain the
amperes required in another way. At the right of each column
of amperes is given another column containing what are termed
"Efficiency Numbers." These numbers represent the necessary
addition that must be made to the amperes given for 100%
efficiency with every drop in efficiency as given in the small
table at the top of the page.

To

use these numbers

we

refer to the small table in the

upper right hand corner of the page. Find the approximate


efficiency in column headed "Efficiency," then follow to the
right until the column headed by the proper power-factor is
reached. At this place will be found a number which represents the combined efficiency. Refer this number back to the
column headed "Efficiency" and find a number nearest equal to
Directly to the left of this number will be found another
it.
Multiply the proper "Efficiency Number" in the
number.
large table by this and add the result to the amperes given in
the table to obtain total amperes for the given efficiency and

power-factor.

The

values given may, of course, be but approximations to

the actual values imposed by the problem, but

it is

believed that

values can in most cases be so selected that the results will be


accurate enough for

We

all

practical purposes.

W. to transmit at 440 volts;


80% efficiency, 85% power-factor; single-phase system: How
many amperes will be required? The nearest number to 85
K. W. given in the table is 84 this requires at 100% efficiency
Example:

have 85 K.

190 amperes.

Referring to the small table

bined value of efficiency

.82

we

comand power-

find the

(the nearest to .80)

23

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING TABLES.


factor .85 to be
"Efficiencies,"

.70.

we

Referring this to the column headed by

find .69 as the nearest; opposite this at the

number 6 and the efficiency number given next


amperes must therefore be multiplied by 6, 6 X 14
Great
274, which is the actual current required.
84; 84 + 190
accuracy in these calculations is seldom necessary, as both
power-factor and efficiency are variable and must be approxileft

we

find the

to the 190

mately assumed.

The

charts opposite the different tables of amperes are de-

signed to facilitate the calculation of losses in alternating curIn continuous current circuits the loss in voltage

rent circuits.

always proportional to the current and the cross-section of


the wire employed. In alternating current circuits there are,
however, many other circumstances to be taken into account.
is

In the

first

place, the losses are

no longer proportional

to the

cross-section of the wire, even though other things be equal,


so that

we cannot judge by

the circular millage at

all.

They

vary also with the frequency of the alternations, the distance


apart of the conducting wires, the surrounding or enclosing

material of the wires and the nature of the load, or the translating devices

in

the circuit.

Some

dealt with in the table of amperes,

of these influences are

and others are negligible

because in the construction of lines they are reduced to a mini-

mum.

Therefore these charts show only the effect of the


most important of the influences affecting alternating currents,
but will, nevertheless, be found as accurate as necessary for
all

ordinary work.

The general plan

of the charts for alternating currents

is

Wires larger than


has not been deemed neces-

similar to that used with direct currents.

No. 0000 are not often used, and


sary to consider

them

here.

it

Whenever

the carrying capacity of

a No. 0000

is

great,

far better to use several smaller wires in parallel

it

is

not sufficient or the losses caused by

than one larger wire.

it

are too

AND CONSTRUCTION

ELECTRICAL WIRING

24

TABLES.

To convince one's self of this fact it will be well to figure


out a number of cases assuming the use of one large wire and
the same cases assuming the use of several small wires in
parallel, sufficient to

The

make up

the

same

circular millage.

emanating from any one of the wires


at the left represent the losses due to different distances apart
of that wire. The lowest line stands for a distance between
centers of J/2", the second 3", the third 6", the fourth for
12'', the fifth for 24" and the sixth for 36".
With the smaller
wires the ohmic resistance becomes relatively more important
so that the effect of the inductance which alone is increased by
greater distance apart is not so marked, hence only the extremes
different lines

are given.

To
is

we proceed

use these charts

First, find the actual

number

as

of volts

it is

for direct currents.

desired to lose

this

done by multiplying the voltage of the system by the per-

centage

of

loss

Next we divide
which we

= about

.7.

loss.

If

as

.03X1000

30.

by the number of hundreds of feet, to


wish to transmit power, as 4200/100
42; 30/42
Bearing the number so obtained in mind select the

by the right number of amperes


and follow it downwards until one of
ascending from one of the wires indicates the desired
no wire exactly corresponds to the desired loss, select

column headed
(taken from the
the lines

expressed in decimals;
this

at the top

tables),

the nearest one, allowing either a slightly greater or a lesser


loss, as the

case

may seem

If the distance to

great and the loss

is

to warrant.

which power

is

to be transmitted

to be very small, the

is

the loss per 100 feet will be but a very small fraction and
cult to estimate correctly

on the

chart.

very

number expressing
diffi-

In such a case proceed

as outlined for direct currents, multiply the amperes and the

some convenient number, as 2 or 10; the final result


must be exercised not to get beyond
the range of any wire. Such a case can, of course, come up
distance by

will be the same, but care

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING TABLES.

25

only with currents very small relative to the wire to be used.

For three-wire systems

figure as

though

it

were a two-wire

system, using the voltage of the outside and use a neutral wire

of the same size as the other wires.

In connection
indicate a loss

with

three-phase systems the charts will

somewhat greater than

it

actually

is.

Where

accuracy is required the volts to be lost should be


divided by .86 and a wire giving a loss corresponding to this
great

selected.

26

ELECTRICAL WIRING AND CONSTRUCTION TABLES.

1000 Volt Table of Amperes

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

27

Find actual volts to be lost. Divide these by number of 100 feet In


alstance. Select line headed by desired amperes and folow downward
until wire Klviii^ loss equal to this is found. For 3 nliase work, if jrreat
accuracy Is required, divide actual volts lost by .86 before proceeding

with the

rest.

28

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

Volt Table of Amperes. Alternating

Current.

TABLES.

Efficiency.

Power
.95

Factors.

85

.75

.93
.87
.82
.77
.73
.69
.66
.63
.60
.57
.55
.53

rt

a>

^-3

C3-S

Q C5g o n

QTS

Table of Carrying
Capacity of Wires.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

29

Find actual volts to be lost. Divide these by number of 100 feet In


distance. Select line headed by desired amperes and follow downward
until wire giving loss equal to tliis Is found. For 3 phase worl<, if great
accuracy is required, divide actual volts lost by .80 before proceeding
\rith tne rest.

30

ELECTRICAL WIRING

220 Volt Table of Ampekes

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

31

Find actual volts to be lost. Divide these by number of 100 feet In


distance. Select line headed by desired amperes and follow downward
until wire Riving loss equal to this is found. For 3 pliase work. If ^rreat
accuracy is required, divide actual volta lost by .86 before procoedinK
With the

rest.

32

10

ELECTRICAL WIRING

Volt Table of Amperes

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

33

^m
OQg
m^

Find actual volts to be lost. Divide these by number of 100 feet in


aistance. Select line headed by desired amperes and follow downward
until wire sivinj? loss equal to tnis Is found. ForSpiiase worli, If jfreat
accuracy is required, divide actual volts lost by .86 before proceeding
with the

rest.

34

ELECTRICAL WIRING

1000 Volt Table of AMPEREfi

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

35
'

II

16 11

II

Find actual volts to be lost. Divide these by number of 100 feet in


distance. Select line headed by desired amperes and follow downward
until wire giving loss equal to this is found. For 3 nhase work, if great
accuracy is required, divide actual volts lost by .86 before proceeding
with the

rest.

36

ELECTRICAL WIRING

440 Volt Table of Amperes.

AND CONSTRUCTION

Alternating Current.

TABLES.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

37

Find actual volts to be lost. Divide tliosc by number of 100 feet In


distance. SoliM't line lieadod by (U-sirt'd anipL-ri's and follow downward
until wire givhi}^ loss eciual to tins is found. For3 uhasework.if great
accuracy is required, divide actual volts lost by .8b before proceeding
with the rest.

38

ELECTRICAL WIRING

220 Volt Table of AMPEREa

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

39

Find actual volts to be lost. Divide these by number of T (^^ fdistance, Select line headed by desired amperes and follow
until wire giving loss equal to this Is found. For 3 plmse W(
accuracy is required, divide actual volts lost by .86 before yrucwcumg
with the rest.

40

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

110 Volt Table of Amperes. Alternating Current.

TABLES.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

41

era

6WrMd'
4?t5i:i?,

^fc

AMPERES

the

imiiiiiiLi

^ach mall division repretenta


In par<nthe.

amperes shown

lllLUL iiJi
i

m?.

i--'

Find actual volts to be lost. Divide these by number of 100 feet In


distance. Select line headed by desired amperes and follow downward
until wire giving loss equal to this is found. For 3 phase worlc, if great
accuracy is required, divide actual volts lost by .86 before proceeding
with the rest.

42

ELECTRICAL WIRING

1000 Volt Table of Amperes

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

43

Find actual volts to be lost. Divide these by numl)er of 100 feet in


distance. Select line headed by desired amperes and follow downward
until wire giving 1oj:3 equal to this is found. For 3 nhase work, if great
accuracy is required, divide actual volts lost by .86 before proceeding
with the rest.

4.4

ELECTRICAL WIRING

440 Volt Table of Amperes

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

45

^^^S^lMO^^N
Oh^
IPERES
.

the

Each small division represents,


amperes shown in parentheses.

mE&E
'.F

y\i--

Flnd actual volts to be lost. Divide these by numberof 100 feet in


Istance. Select line headed by desired amperes and follow downward
until wire giving loss equal to this is found. For 3 phase work, if great
accuracy is required, divide actual volts lost by .86 before proceeding
with the

rest.

46

ELECTRICAL WIRING

220 Volt Table of Amperes.

AND CONSTRUCTION

Alternating Current.

TABLES.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

47

Find actual volts to be lost. Divide these by number of 100 feet in


distance. Select line headed by desired amperes and follow downward
until wire giving loss equal to this is found, For 3 phase work, if great
accuracy is required, divide actual volts lost by .86 before proceeding
with the

rest.

48

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

110 Volt Table of Amperes. Alternating Current.

TABLES.

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING CHART.

49

Find actual volts to be lost. Divide these by number of 100 feet in


Select line headed by desired amperes and follow downward
Ontil wire giving loss equal to this Is found. For 3 phase worlc, if great
accuracy is required, divide actual volts lost by .86 before proceeding
with the rest.
distance.

CHAPTER

III.

ECONOMY OF CONDUCTORS.
Any

system of

electrical

conductors

may

be designed with

reference to any of the following conditions


1.

The conductors may be designed

for

minimum

fiist

waste or quality of service.


The conductors may be designed for best possible service

cost, regardless of
2.

regardless of cost.
3.

The conductors may be designed

for

minimum

cost of

generating plant.
4.
The conductors may be designed for maximum general
economy of operation and installation; i. e., to yield the most

profitable results in the long run.


5.

The conductors may

be designed for a

minimum

first

and conductors.
The first condition is fulfilled by selecting the smallest wire
allowed, either by the heating limitations or mechanical considerations. The second condition is fulfilled by selecting very
large wires, thus reducing the loss to any desired minimum.
cost of generating plant

The third condition is also fulfilled by selecting such large


wires that the generator will not be called upon to supply much
unnecessary power. The fourth condition, to be fully realized,
requires

some very

careful

and elaborate

calculations, but ap-

ECONOMY OF CONDUCTORS.

51

proximate calculations can easily be made by the use of tables


prepared for

this purpose.

moreover, a subject that has been very much neglected; especially in connection with short runs, such as are
used inside of buildings. The general practice has been to

This

is,

on a loss from 2% to 5%, or to disregard all questions


economy of operation and work from the standpoint of

figure

of

minimum
That

first

cost entirely.

has been productive of large and utterly inexcus-

this

able losses will appear

from the following

tables, if they are

carefully studied.

The
in

chart

and the tables B and C are designed to assist


most economical conductors. It must be

calculating the

understood that a certain loss in electrical transmission is


unavoidable, and that the nearer we approach to an efficiency
of 100%, the

more copper, proportionately, is required to save


For instance, if we have a certain wire,

the remaining loss.

which is causing a loss of 10%, by adding another wire of the


same size, we reduce our loss to 5% by adding two more wires,
we only reduce the loss by 2^%, and by adding four more
wires, we gain only lJ4%- In other words, one wire was
;

capable of transmitting

and 8 wires 98^%.


spend more

90%;

2 wires,

95%; 4

wires, 97j/^%,

That under such conditions

in trying to save the

energy than

it

it

is

is

easy to

worth

is

evident.

has been shown by Sir

Wm. Thomson

and by Mr. Giswhich the


value of the annual waste of energy equals the interest charge
on the cost of line construction necessary to save it. In these
calculations, we have nothing to do with the total cost of the
line we are concerned only with the difference in cost between
installing the smallest wire permissible and wires of larger
cross-section.
This makes a direct formula impracticable and
cumbersome, because it implies at first hand a knowledge of
It

Kapp

bert

that the

most economical

loss

is

that at

ELECTRICAL WIRING

52

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

the cost of installing the required extra copper, whereas this

cannot well be

known

determined upon.

and

it

is

to

make

until

the particular wires have been

Trial calculations are therefore necessary,


these as easy as possible that these tables

are provided.

Chart

shows the

loss occurring

on any wire by any of

the currents given at the top of the page per 200 feet, each

of the spaces between the heavy horizontal lines representing

one volt and the fine divisions one-fourth volt. The curve
starting from any of the wires indicates this loss wherever it
crosses a line representing amperes and a line representing
volts.
For instance: The line ascending from No. 14 wire
up to 12 amperes, indicates that a No. 14 wire carrying 12

amperes would

lose 6.3 volts per 200 feet.

carrying 6 amperes would lose only 3.16 volts.

No. 14 wire

To

find the loss

with any wire and any load we simply follow the curve starting from the proper wire, to where it crosses the line headed

by the right number of amperes, and count the number of


it crosses within those limits.
This table
also shows the carrying capacity of the different wires.
Directly above the end of the heavy line of the curve will be found
the carrying capacity for concealed work and rubber covered
wires, of the wire to which the curve pertains, and at the end of
the dotted line will be found the number of amperes allowed
for weather-proof wire and open work.
At the right of Chart A are further given "curves" which
horizontal spaces

express the relative conductivity of the different wires.

Wher-

ever the curve leading from any wire crosses any vertical
line

will

number

be found

(in

a number.

the vertical line)

indicates that the wire given at the left of

the

This
hori-

line at which the vertical line intersects the curve


(where the three lines meet) has a conductivity that much

zontal

greater

than

the

first

wire

considered.

For

tracing the curve from No. 6 wire to where

it

instance,

by

intersects the

ECONOMY OF CONDUCTORS.

53

and following the horizontal line from this


we see that a No. 00 wire has 5 times the
conductivity of a No. 6.
Table B shows the annual waste of energy due to such losses
in voltage as are considered in the table. This table is figured
vertical

line

point to the

left

direct for 110 volts; to use

given in

it

vided by 110.
table.

it

for other voltages the values

must be divided by the voltage

Some

Wherever

in question, di-

of these values are given at the top of the

the horizontal line pertaining to any loss in

volts, crosses the vertical line pertaining to

any

price, will

be

found a number expressing in dollars and cents the value of


the energy lost annually (3000 working hours) by one H. P.*
Table C shows the annual interest charge on different costs
of line construction. The cost on which the calculations are
based should always be the cost of running 200 feet of wire.
This may be as low as 25 cents, it may be simply the difference
in cost between No. 14 and No. 12 wire, since the labor and
material would not be affected by such a substitution, or again
The wide range of interest given is
it may be considerable.
to cover temporary work as well as permanent. If the line
For
is to be used one year or less, the rate should be 106%.

two years the

rate should be

57%

for three years,

40%,

etc.,

arranged on a 6% basis.
To use these tables we first determine the number of amperes to be transmitted. This can best be done by referring
to the tables of amperes given in other sections of this book.
Next, determine from Chart A, the smallest wire permissiFrom Table B determine
ble and note the loss caused by it.
the annual waste of energy due to this loss per H. P.
and divide by the number pertaining to the voltage under
as given in the table, which

is

consideration.

Next, select at random, a wire that will divide this loss by


as 4, or 6, or 10, and estimate the

some convenient number,

ELECTRICAL WIRING

54

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

cost of installing this wire in place of the former.

Also divide

the total loss by this number.

Compare

the

amount saved by the larger wire with the


by it (given in Table C) when the two

interest charge caused

are equal the proper wire

Example

is

found.

We

have 3 H. P. to transmit at 220 volts (the


motor efficiency .85. The price per
H. P. hour is 2 cents and the line is to be used one year only.
Current is to be used the full 3000 hours for which the table

distance

is

is

immaterial)

figured.

From

amperes we see that 3 H. P. at 220 volts


Referring to Chart A we see that
the smallest wire permissible is a No. 14, and this wire, carrying 12 amperes will lose about 6.3 volts per 200 feet. A loss
of 6 volts per 200 feet at 2 cents per H. P. hour we find
from Table B equals $3.26 for 110 volts; as our voltage is
220
we divide by 2 which gives us $1.63 and
H.
P.,
number
of
multiply
this
the
by
3,
Having ascertained
which gives us a total of $4.89.
the value of the loss due to the smallest wire permissible, we
can now see whether it will be economical to save part of it
To this end we again consult Chart A and make a few trial
calculations.
By following the curve of No. 14 downward to
where it intersects the line 4 and tracing the horizontal line
to the left, we see that a No. 8 wire in place of the No. 14
would reduce the loss to one-fourth of its original value, leaving it at $1.22. The cost of substituting an 8 for the 14 we
will assume to be about $2.50 per 200 feet and the interest
charge is therefore $2.65, as the line is to be used for one
year only. The annual value of the wasted energy should
table of

require about 12 amperes.

equal the interest charge

and our
the

line cost is

original

leave

it

in this case

little

too high.

it is

$1.22 against $.265

No. 10

in place of

14 would divide the original loss by

at $1.96.

This wire

we assume would

2^

and

cost extra

ECONOMY OF CONDUCTORS.

55

about $1.30 per 200 feet and give us an interest charge of


In this case the line cost

about $1.38.

is

little

too low,

showing that the exact size of wire would be between the


two and that this is as near balancing the values as we can
come in this particular case. The total loss for the No. 10
would be $1.96+$1.38=;$3.34, for the No. 8 it would be
$2.65+$1.22=$3.87 and with the No. 14 it would be $4.89.
If the line is not used the full 3000 hours assumed in the
table a proportionate reduction in the value of wasted energy
must, of course, be made.
The question of minimum first cost of line and generator
depends upon the distance to which power is to be transmitted.
It revolves entirely around the question as to whether it will
cost

more

to provide a generator of a certain excess capacity

to supply the wasted energy, or whether

provide the line capacity to save part of


of most

it

will be cheaper to

this.

In the problem

we have

nothing to do with the


distance, but in this case, the distance is the most important

economical

part of the problem.

loss,

The same

tables

and the same method

used to determine the most economical cross-section of conductors can be used in this problem. Only we must take into
consideration the full length of the

line.

Beginning with the

smallest wire permissible, determine the loss this

wire will

cause and the cost of providing the extra generator capacity.

Next estimate

the cost of installing the next larger size of wire,

and divide the excess capacity of generator by the proportional number of the wire considered and again determine cost
of excess capacity of generator.
in cost of

larger wire
the

When

generator equals the outlay


that combination of line

most economical.

the

amount thus saved

made necessary by
and generator

will

the

be

56

ELEClRiCAL WIRII.G

AND CONSTRUCTION
CHART

TABLES.

A.

wmm

ill:i;i;nsmU:;lllf:lii|HKSB

ECONOMY OF CONDUCTORS.
r

S!

58

ELECTRICAL WIRING

Table C

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

Showing Intebest Charge.

CHAPTER

IV.

MISCELLANEOUS
ELECTRIC ILLUMINATION.
The following tables are taken from publications of the
Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company:

Nemst Lamps.
Average
Condition.

Location

Machine

shops

(high

roofs;

no

namely, electric driven machinery)

Machine shops (low

ceiling;

belts

75

lighting,

colored

goods

and

1.

to 1.25

5 to

1.

.75 to 1.25

1.25

terials

Mill lighting, plain white goods

looms
General office work
Drafting rooms

5 to

75
75

stores

Department stores handling light material


1.
and bric-a-brac
Department stores handling colored ma-

Mill

and

other obstruction)

Hardware and shoe

Variation.

belts;

1.

to 1.50

1.10

.90 to 1.30

1.30

1.10 to 1.50

high
1.50

1.25 to 1.75

1.75

1.50 to 2.50

Reception hall

.5

to

Dining room
Church and lecture

.4

to

.8

to 1.2

hall

1.

1.

.8

The above table is based on the performance of either


Nernst or multiple enclosed arc lamps.

ELECTRICAL WIRING

60

AND CONSTRUCTION

For incandescent lamps the

table

is

TABLES.

approximately true

if

the

values are multiplied by two.

The number

of lamps required for any given service equals

the factor found in the table multiplied by the area in square

and divided by the wattage of the lamp.


For Nernst lamps the following elevations are recom-

feet

mended

Vertical height above floor.

Type of lamp

Two

and three glower


Four glower
Six glower

Watt
88 Watt
55

Feet

11^
13
14

9
10

COOPER HEWITT LAMPS.

Data on Successful Liohtino by CoopebHewitt Lamps.

Chakacteb of Work.

61

62

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

Q>o^^cc^5
eocoMcoeo

OQ
T-icfe
C<

t^co

rl 1 1

t^ cc c^ r^ -^

1 tH

o c o ic

c^i

S~cTF^"eo'QF^

1-^

-l

OOOOiClOO

oooot~-t^t^

^ lO
(Mrt_i005

t^lM QOOC<0

00

"-^

OOOOt^t^t^t^

f ^^ 00 CO kO

OOC0>0fl"3

oosoooot>-

cococoioco

ifli5-*'^-><-i<

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ecooot^uo^
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t^t^co

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t^ciM(M

t^T}<a>coc<i

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*N

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cococico

^rt<Tji'i<co

coeocoe<ic<ic<i

<*<C^O00O

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Mi--^eoo
^r-i^eo'*
1-1
liNij-T

-^iccoot^
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eoeococo-*

-^ii

iCiOSkC

t^

!>

osoot^

00CO--

cCico
iMeqcq

SSQSSQSS QS'^SPS
^co-hc^i^io
(Mi5r>--Ht^
jwiww t^ot^oo
^^^(^j^ coo5iOQ>oo
cot^ooocoso
COCO-*iC'CO
*<}<

ic >o

icioiocio

ic ic o lO lO >o

oococococo

COMBINED CARRYING CAPACITIES.

63

Table Showing Combined Carhying Capacity of Different WiBEb.

1.5
1

450
500
550
600
650

600000
700000
800000
900000
1000000

600
585

730
810
890
970

1200000
1400000
1600000
1800000
2000000

547
520
500
485
472

1050

The carrying capacity per


wires,

650

578
556

730
694
667

777
754
735

525

circular mil, of small wires, is

owing to the difference

810

840

much greater than

in relative radiating surface.

970
945

1050

that of large

In the above tables

tliia

is

taken into account, and the carrying capacity of smaller wires at the current density allowed
[for the larger wires

[two wires

cross.

is

given wherever the horizontal and vertical lines pertaining to any

The number found

[larger wire, will give the

To

at this place,

added to the carrying capacity

combined carrying capacity of the two

find the proper wire to reinforce another

[horizontal line pertaining to the wire in question

of the

wires.

which has been overloaded: Select the

and follow to the

right until a number


At the top of the vertical column in
[which this number is found, will be found the gauge number of the proper wire.
The figures given are based on those allowed by the "National Electrical Code" for

[equaling the necessary

number

of

amperes

Irubber-covered wires (column R. C).


multiplied

by the

figures given in

is

found.

For weatherproof insulation, the values given

column W. P.

may

64

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

IRON WIRE.
Speoific gravity

7.7

Weight per cubic foot

480 pounds.

Physical. Propebtihjs of Ikon Wire,

pi

65

COMPARISON OF WIRES.

C^05t^

SS 8S222

r^QOoct>-t>-

t--. <

o -^ -H

iU
iCC

t^

x<00C

H5
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t^ CO

"*<

W CO

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S3

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11

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0000O0000O5
55
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t^cocD'C'H
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i^oswoO"

53 (N CO

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ccec^esj^i

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^t^eoQt-t^
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53^^^
io>c<)Q

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C0O5OS

io-^ojt^t^

^Qoooe^os

OSCD005N05

siri^^"'

c^ioib-^O'^

-^ Qo 05

(Mco'^ojoo

oe^c

r
3:5

>co-^iM-H

<

.giOMCO

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>ooooio

'^e

S^S^S

^S?S?55

5?:Sg SSS^S?

ISSe^QQu?

?iQ00!X5l<e5

loSSDt^

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SicS'*^

*oor>.
S^SS SSSJhS

ELECTR10\L yvimmo

66

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

COMPARISON OF COPPER AND ALUMINUM


WIRE.
Copper. Aluminum.
Specific gravity

2.68

8.93

Conductivity for equal area

100.

Weight for equal conductivity


Area for equal conductivity

100.

48.

100.

160,

Diameter for equal conductivity

100.

126.

It will

num

63.

be noted from the relative diameters that an alumi-

wire to be of equal conductivity as a copper wire

exactly two sizes larger by B.

The

&

is

almost

S. gauge.

aluminum wire is 63 per cent that of


aluminum wire of equivalent conductivity will

conductivity of

copper, but an

have 48 per cent of the weight and 160 per cent of the strength.

POLE LINE DATA.


For spans of about 125
10 or 12 inches in

The following table


Company of Chicago:
Temperature

Sag

feet

summer and
is

some companies allow a sag of


8 inches in winter.

given by the

Commonwealth

Electric

10

20

30

40

SO

60

70

80

90

10

10

12

12

14

14

Poles should be set at least as deep into the ground as

shown by

the following table

Depth

Length of pole

in

ground.

Feet
35 feet

5^

40 feet
45 feet
50 feet

6
,6

614

55 feet

60 feet

For good illumination arc lamps should be not more than


six times as far apart as arc

is

above surface.

PCLE LINE

Arc lamps (10 ampere), 250

DATA.

feet apart, give

streets.

20 poles per mile equal 264 foot span.


22 poles per mile equal 240 foot span.
24 poles per mile equal 220 foot span.
26 poles per mile equal 203 foot span.
28 poles per mile equal 188 foot span.
30 poles per mile equal 176 foot span.

32 poles per mile equal 165 foot span.


34 poles per mile equal 155 foot span.
36 poles per mile equal 147 foot span.

38 poles per mile equal 139 foot span.


40 poles per mile equal 132 foot span.
42 poles per mile equal 126 foot span.

44 poles per mile equal 120 foot span.


46 poles per mile equal 115 foot span.
48 poles per mile equal 110 foot span.
50 poles per mile equal 106 foot span.
52 poles per mile equal 101 foot span.

54 poles per mile equal

98 foot span.

67

good

results for

ELECTRICAL WIRING

68

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

MEASUREMENT OF SURFACES.
To

find the area of a paralellogram

Multiply the base by

the altitude.

To

find the area of a triangle

when base and

altitude are

Multiply the base by the altitude and take half the

given:
product.

To
them

together.

To
ter

any angular surface divide it into


Find the area of the different triangles and add

find the area of

triangles:

find the circumference of a circle

Multiply the diame-

by 3.1416.

To

find the diameter of a circle

To

when

the circumference

is

Divide the circumference by 3.1416.

given:

find the area of a circle

when

the radius

square of the radius by 3.1416.


given multiply square of diameter by .7854.

tiply the

is

given

When

Mul-

diameter

is

To find the radius of a circle when the area is given Divide the area by 3.1416 and extract the square root of the
:

quotient.

MEASUREMENT OF SOLIDS
To

find the lateral

area of a right prism:

Multiply the

perimeter of the base by the altitude.

To

find the lateral area of a right cylinder:

Multiply the

circumference of the base by the altitude.


To find the volume of a cylinder or prism:

Multiply the

area of the base by the altitude.

To

find the lateral area of a right

pyramid:

Multiply the

perimeter of the base by the slant height and take half the
product.

To find the lateral area of a cone: Multiply the circumference of the base by the slant height and take half the
product.

MEASUREMENTS OF SURFACES:

To

volume of

find the

i.

69

SOLIDS.

pyramid or cone:

Multiply the

area of the base by the altitude and take one-third of the


product.

To

find the surface of a sphere

Multiply the square of the

diameter by 3.1416.

To

find the

volume of a sphere

Multiply the cube of the

diameter by one-sixth of 3.1416 or .5236.

To

extract the square root of a

number

Point off the given number into periods of two figures


each, beginning at the right. If there are decimals and only
1.

one figure

at the right of the

decimal point add a cipher to com-

plete the period.

Find the greatest square in the first period on the left;


root on the right, like a quotient in division subtract
the square from the period, and to the remainder bring down
2.

place

its

the next period for a dividend.

Double the root found and place it on the left of the


trial divisor.
Find how many times the trial
divisor is contained in the dividend exclusive of the right hand
figure; place the quotient in the root and also on the right of
3.

dividend for a

the trial divisor.


4.

Multiply the complete divisor by the

root; subtract the product

last figure in

from the dividend and

the

to the re-

mainder bring down the next period for a new dividend.


Double the whole root found for a new trial divisor and
5.
continue the operation in the same manner until all the periods
are brought down.
EXAMPI.It
8.17.961286
4
'

417
384

48,
'
1

566

1
^

33%
3396

ELECTRICAL WIRING

70

AND CONSTRUCTION

In a right-angled triangle the

sum

TABLES.

of the squares of the base

and the perpendicular equals the square of the hypotenuse.

To
of the

To

find the length of the hypotenuse extract the square root

sum

of the squares of the base

and perpendicular.

find the base or the perpendicular;

from the square of

the hypotenuse subtract the square of the other given side and
extract the square root of the remainder.

FORMULAE
Current,

1=

IN

GENERAL

ohm's law.

E = IXR
Kesistance, R = --

Volts,

Watts

-EXI-I^XR-^

USE.

FORMULAE IN GENERAL

To
To
To

USE.

/I

convert square mils into circular mils divide by .7854.

convert circular mils into square mils multiply by .7854.

find the number of circular mils in any round wire,


multiply the diameter of the wire in mils by itself.

Direct Current Wiring Formula.


C.

M. =

XDXI

21.6

VolU

lost

XD XI

21.6

Volts lost

M.

C.

feet,

M. stands

C,

''here

(one leg), and

for

circular mils,

Alternating Current Formula.


lf[(E

X P.F.)+ (I X

'here

amperes,

in

igle of

for

lag,

R)f-\-

[(E).

I.

F. )-|-L.]2

R
I.

for

F.

line,

ohmic resistance of

for

in

=E'
P. F. for

line,

for

inductance factor or sine of

for inductive drop in line

end of line.
The difference between E and E'

lecessary to deliver

distance

Drop in Voltage.

stands for volts delivered at end of

)wer-factor of load,
irrent

for current in amperes.

and E' the volts

at

is

the drop in volts in

line.

le

Current in Conductors.

ALTERNAxiNa

W
for single phase circuit.

Exp.
I

=5 X

f.

w
for

two -phase

circuit.

E.XP. F.
I

58

for three phase circuit.


EJ

P. F.

being the current in ampere ,W the watts,


id

P. F. the

power

factor of the circuit.

the voltage

electrical wiring

72

and construction

tables.

Testing with Voltmeter.


Resistance to ground

where

^7 X R.

equals the full pressure of the

E' the reduced

line,

reading through voltmeter to ground and

the resistance of

the voltmeter.

Testing with Wheatstone Bridge.

When

B X R
balance

is

obtained

jr

the resistance indicated by the instrument,

of the proportional coil in series with

of the other proportional


Efficiency of

^.-.

and

=
B

X; R being
the resistance
the resistance

coil.

dynamo or motor

Energy given

out.

Ejnergy received.

Table of Wibb Equivalents Based on Circular Mils.

73

ELECTRICAL WIRING

74

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

Tabus of Wire Equivalents for Drop in Voltage, Alternating Current. Carrting


Capacity Given for Weather-proof Insulation. N. E. C

Table Showinq Relations Between Ditfebent

To

Wms

obtain mils drop last figure at right.,

Qauqbs.

75

ELECTRICAL WIRING

76

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

STANDARD SYMBOLS FOR WIRING PLANS


As adopted and recommended by the Natioaal, Electrical Contbactobs
Association of the United States.
Numeral in center indicates
Ceiling Outlet; electric only.
number of standard 16 c. p. incandescent lamps.

Vr

4-2 indicates 4-16

Ceiling Outlet; combination.

c.

p. ttand-

ard incandescent lamps and 2 gas burners.

Bracket Outlet; electric only. Numeral in center indicates


number of standard 16 c. p. incandescent lamps.
Bracket Outlet; combination. 4-2 indicates 4-16
ard incandescent lamps and 2 gas burners.

c. p.

stand-

Wall or Baseboard Receptacle Outlet.^ Numeral in center


indicates number of standard 16 c. p. incandescent lamps.
Floor Outlet. Numeral in center indicates
ard 16 c. p. incandescent lamps.
_

066

VR(f
jl^jf

[C55

"^

number

of stand-

Outlet for Outdoor Standard or Pedestal; electric only.


Numeral indicates number of stand. 16 c. p. incan. lamps.
Outlet for Outdoor Standard or Pedestal; combination.
6-6 indicates 6-16 c. p. stand, incan. lamps; 6 gas burners.

Drop Cord Outlet.

One Light

Outlet, for

lamp

receptacle.

(S>

Arc

Lamp

Outlet,

Special Outlet, for lighting heating

^^^^^^C^ili^e ^^" Outlet.

Q2
53
Q4

and power current, as

described in specifications.

S. P.

D.

P.

Switch Outlet.
Switch Outlet.

3-Way Switch Outlet.


4-Way Switch

Outlet.

Show as many symbols as there are


switches. Or in case of a very
large group of switches, indicate
number of switches by a Roman
numeral, thus: SI XII; meaning
12 single pole switches.

Describe type of switch in specifications, that is.


Flush or surface push button or
snap.

Copyright 1906 by the National Electrical Contractors' Association of th


United States.
Published by permission.

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL

77

CODE.

STANDARD SYMBOLS FOR WIRING PLANS


As adopted and recommended by the National Electrical Contbactobs
Association of the United States.

^^

Automatic Door Switch Outlet.

CJ E

Electrolier Switch Outlet.

Meter Outlet.
Distribution Panel.

Junction or Pull Box.

6^

Motor Outlet; numeral in center indicates horse power.


Motor Control Outlet.
Transformer.

"i"

MMM^HMiwMain

or feeder run concealed under floor.

^iHaBB Main

or feeder run concealed under floor abovp.

mm MM av MB Main

or feeder run exposed.

Branch

circuit

run concealed under

Branch

circuit

run concealed under floor above.

Branch

circuit

run exposed.

"

Pole

floor.

line.

Riser.

SuaoESTioNS IN Connection with Standard Stmbols for Wiring Plans.


Indicate on plan, or describe in specifications, the height of
located on side walls.

all

outlets

It is important that ample space be allowed for the installation of mains,


feeders, branches and distribution panels.

a key to the symbols used accompany all plans.


branches and distribution panels are shown on the
desirable that they be designated by letters or numbers.

It is desirable that
If mains, feeders,

plans,

it is

ELECTRICAL WIRING

78

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

STANDARD SYMBOLS FOR WIRING PLANS


As adopted and recommended by the National Electrical. Contbactobs
Association of the United States.
Telephone Outlet; private service.

to

M
Q

Telephone Outlet; public service.

BeU

Outlet

Buzzer Outlet.

Push Button Outlet; numeral indicates number of pushes.

,2'
|

^mmOS^

Annunciator; nimieral indicates number of points.

iMi^

Speaking Tube.

.^^

Watchman Clock

^1

Watchman

^&

Station Outlet.

Master Time Clock Outlet.

Secondary Time Clock Outlet

Door Opener.

Outlet.

Special Outlet; for signal systems, as described in specifications

R?1
1 1 1 1 1

iBattery Outlet.

(
1

Circuit for clock, telephone, bell or other service,


run unde*" floor, concealed.
Kind of service wanted ascertained by symbol to
which line connects.

{Circuit for clock, telephone, bell or other service,


floor above concealed.
of service wanted ascertained
line connects.

run under

Kind

by symbol

to

which

NOTEIf

other than standard 16

c. p.

incandescent lamps are desired,


lamp to be used.

specifications should describe capacity of

CHAPTER

V.

CALCULATION OF MATERIALS.
The

following table

is

designed to facilitate the calculation

where the

of branch wires in large spaces

lights are evenly

distributed as in department stores for instance.

The

sary data are, the distance from outlet to outlet, the

neces-

number

number of rows in both directions


a rough outline of the space to be illuminated.
The numbers given at the intersections of the vertical and

of lights per circuit, the


id

horizontal
the cut-out

lines

indicate

in the

the

lower

distance from those points to

left

hand corner,

in

terms of the

The numbers below

distance from outlet to outlet.

the lines

represent diagonal measurements and those above, measure-

ments at right angles. To convert either into


by the distance from outlet to outlet.

To

feet multiply

number of outlets roughly,


shown by dots below and locate the cut-out
outlets as shown by X for instance.

use the table lay out the

for example as
at one of the

The example given


ed into 4 parts. We

is

a complicated one and must be dividlocate all of the points above and

first

to the right of the cut-out X in the table and add all of the
numbers found at these places; these numbers are 1, 1.4, 2.3,
Next imagine the two points
3.2, 1, 2, and 3, making 13.9.
at the left located in the table and add their numbers, 1 and
Now proceed to locate the 4 below and to
1.4, making 2.4.
the right on the table; they are 1, 2, 1.4, and 2.3, making 6.7.
Lastly locate the six points to the left and below the cut-out;
these are 1.4, 2.3, 22, 2.3, 2.8, 3.6, total 15.6. Adding all of

80

20.

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

21.0 22.0 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 27.0 28.0 29.0 30.0 31.0 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0

CALCULATION OF MATERIALS.

we have 15.6+67+2.4+13.9, making

these
If the

distance between outlets

38.6X10X2=772

To

10 feet

a total of 38.6.

we

shall

require

for the horizontal runs along

feet of wire

ceiling or floor above.

is

81

must be added the wire neces-

this

sary to drop through ceiling, and in case cutouts are located

on some sidewall
per

circuit,

to

run to them.

If there are

two

outlets

the length of each circuit will be the length of

run to nearest outlet plus 1. With three outlets per circuit


will be the length of run to nearest outlet plus 2, etc. In a
complicated case as that shown in the example, confusion
it

can be avoided by turning the plan of outlets

in

conformity

with the table while calculating the different sections.


This table can be used to advantage in determining the

most economical location of cut-out centers.


In large rooms such as machine shops, offices where single
lamps are provided for each desk and where single lights
are fairly well distributed the quantity of wire between outlets

(not including runs

to

cut-outs

or along walls)

will

be found quite approximately by multiplying 2 times the


number of lights by the square root of the average surface
illuminated by each
greatly

in

different

the different parts

lamp.
sections

may

If

the density of lights varies

of such spaces calculations of

be separately made.

If free choice in the location of cut-out centers is

given

not more than about 10 per cent of additional wire will be


required under average conditions.

82

ELECTRICAL WIRING
QKiyi

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

HOV3

savHa -ZQ
saiv^

'B.'j

SONIHSag QNV

03

-a

saxog
8Aioaaa['o^

'xinaNoo *xj

saaax 'o^
suoxv^aeNI 'o^
"ONiantaoj^ 'xj

KOO'J "XJ
aHiAV. MiAvl

'-Id

am^

uj

aioMig

J^c

lag
sss

Sc<(M

O,

OJ

U O

|||

;j,

03

ej

" g
C

<S 03

I
0000

0000
-2 iS i2 i2
UO bC bO bO
oj

>

a>

a>

o a a V

6666 Sill pqnpqcq


^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^

\6

CHAPTER

VI.

CONDUITS AND WIRES.


Two

sides of the smallest rectangular enclosure that will

contain a given

number

of wires are

DX

DXbX.86.

and

being the diameter of the wire,

number of wires in longest row, and


number of rows.
The nearer square this enclosure can be made the greater
the economy of material.
The greatest number of wires that can be placed in a
a,

the

b,

the

rectangular enclosure

is

(-^

>^

XJ

( =r

iJ y\ .00 )

being the length of the enclosure,

the height, and

the diameter of the wire.

This formula
tions obtained

by
^

is

only approximate and in using

-^
D

and -

DX

it

all frac-

must be dropped.
.86

Example:

Given an enclosure 6 inches long and 2 inches


wires can it hold, the diameter of each wire
being .7? 6 divided by .7, equals 8.6. Dropping the .6 and
subtracting ^, we have 7.5 for the first factor. Next, .7 times
.86 equals .602; 2 divided by this equals 3.3; dropping the .3
we now have to multiply the 7.5 by 3, which equals 22.5 or
high,

how many

22 wires.

For

circular enclosures

no general formula can be given

because the percentage of waste space varies greatly with


different wires.

The

first

chart

may

be used to determine

ELECTRICAL WIRING

84

AND CONSTRUCTION

smallest conduit that will

the

wires.

TABLES.

enclose a certain

number

of

how nearly different


spaces.
To use this chart

This chart shows graphically

numbers of wires

fill

out circular

number given in connection


with circle containing the requisite number of wires. This
will give the smallest diameter of tube or conduit that will
multiply diameter of wire by the

receive these wires.

How much

larger the conduit to be used

The number and nature

must be depends upon circumstances.

of bends, nature of insulation, flexibility of wire as well as

temperature and inspection requirements must be taken into


consideration.

The

charts illustrate the relative spaces occupied by the

different conduits, viz: 3",

the wires considered.

The

2H",

V^", 1%",

2'',

sizes of conduit are

various circles and each horizontal

row

1",

and

in the

pertains to one size

of wire with exception of the 4th and 5th in each

a few at the top of one of the charts.

etc.,

marked

The

row and

4th shows a neutral

wire of half the carrying capacity, and the 5th of double the
carrying capacity of the outside wires.

The

different sizes of

conduit given in each case will enable one to judge the most
appropriate size to be used under different circumstances.

The wires shown

are all double braid stranded cables.


In the tables that follow are given the number of wires
that will fill approximately 2/3 of the space in the conduit.
This is about right for average work but for long difficult runs
it is

advisable to allow

somewhat more

space.

CONDUITS AND WIRES.

85

86

ELECTRICAL WIRING

1000000

CM.

AND CONSTRUCTION

1250000

1500000

CM.

800000 CM

CM.

900000 CM.

d)
600000 CM^^-^ /^^-X

500000 CM

400000 CM

300000 C. M.

250000 CM

TABLES.

d)
700000 C

CONDUITS AND WIRES.

87

OOOB.&S.

OOB.d,S.

OB.&S

1B.&S.

2B.&S.

-*4,

^
3B.&S.

-2^4

ELECTRICAL WIRING

88

AND CONSTRUCTION

One-halp Inch Condttit.

oi
03

TABLES.

Internal Diameter. 40-64.

89

CONDUITS AND WIRES.

Three-foubths Inch CoNDxnr.

Intebnal Duubteb. 52-C4.

0000
000
00

2
3
4
5
26-49

28^2

22-41
20-37
19-35
18-33

2342
21-38
20-36
19-34

ELECTRICAL WIRING

90

One Inch Conduit.

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

Inteenal Dubjeteb, 67-64.

g
MO

1^

eg

0000
000
00

2
3
4
5
26-49

28-52

22-41
20-37
19-35
18-33

23-42
21-38
20-36
19-34

CONDUITS AND WIRES.

One and Onb-foubth Inch Conduit.

91

Internal Diameter, 88-64.

5:

g^
Q

>J

=2

0000
000
00

2
3
4
5
26-49

28-52]

22-41
20-37
19-35
18-33

23-42
21-38
20-36
19-34

92

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

One and One-half Inch Conduit.

TABLES.

Internal Dumeteb, 103-64.

es

132

CO

0000
000
00

26-49
22-41
20-37
19-35
18-33

28-52
23-42
21-38
20-36
19-34

CONDUITS AND WIRES.

Two Inch

CJondutt.

Internal Diameter. 132-64.

9^

ELECTRICAL WIRING

94

Two AND One-half Inch

c1

AND CONSTRUCTION

Conduit.

TABLES.

Internal Diameter, 157-64.

CHAPTER

VII

TABLES OF CARRYING CAPACITIES.


The following

tables are designed for use in determining

the smallest wire permissible with any particular load under


the different conditions of construction.

The

tables are cal-

culated for 55 watt incandescent lamps, Nernst glowers,

both alternating and direct current motors.

drop

is

and

question of

not taken into consideration, the tables showing only

maximum amounts

the

The

of the different kinds of apparatus

allowed on the different sizes of wire by the table of carrying


capacities of the National Electrical Code and the rules of the
city of Chicago, these latter

being the only ones

among

the

from the National Code rules.


For three-wire systems, where the load is evenly divided

irger cities that differ

on each

side of the neutral wire, the table for the voltage of

the outside wires should be used.

Example

What

size of

wire

is

required for 300 incandes-

cent lamps on a 110- 220- volt three-wire system where rubber

covered wire

is

to be

used?

National Code rules.

Referring

to the table for "Incandescent Lights and Nernst Glowers,

National Electrical Code Rules," we follow downward in the


column headed "Single phase or direct current," "55 watt
lights," "Rubber insulation" until we come to the section
marked 220 volts, where we find that a No. 3 B. & S. wire
will carry 304 lights and showing this to be the proper wire
to use.

put

As an example of another use to which


Suppose we have a set of No. 0, B. &
:

wire; 2-wire, 110-volt system feeding 200

the tables
S.

may be

rubber covered

lights.

How many

added to these mains? Following downward in


the column marked "Rubber insulation" in the section for 110
lights can be

ELECTRICAL WIRING

96
volts

we

find that a

No.

0,

AND CONSTRUCTION

&

B.

S.

TABLES.

wire will carry 254

lights,

thus giving us an additional capacity of 54 lights.

The requirements
circuits

varies

The

partments.

as to size of wire for motors

considerably

among

different

on branch

inspection

rules of the National Electrical

de-

Code and of

the City of Chicago are as follows:

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE RULE.

EDITION 1905.

" The motor leads or branch

circuits must be designed to


carry a current at least 25 per cent greater than that for
which the motor is rated, in ordei to provide for the inevitable occasional overloading of the motor, and the increased
current required in starting, without overf using the wires ;
but where the wires under this rule would be overfused, in
order to provide for the starting current, as in the case of
many of the alternating current motors, the wires must be
of such size as to be properly protected by these larger fuses."

CHICAGO RULE.

EDITION 1905.

"The leads or branch circuits for direct current motors


must be designed to carry a current at least twenty-five per
cent greater than that required by the rated capacity of the
to provide for the inevitable overloading of the motor
at times without overfusing the wires.
The leads or branch
circuits for alternating current motors must be designed to
carry a current at least fifty per cent greater than that required by the rated capacity of the motor to provide for the
inevitable overloading of the motor at times without overfusing the wires."

motor

The

for direct current motors, National Electrical


has been calculated on a basis of 90 per cent
efficiency for mains, and 90 per cent efficiency and 25 per cent

Code

table

rules,

overload for branch circuits.


It will

be seen that in the case of alternating current motors

the National Electrical Code rule gives no definite require-

ment which would enable one

to

determine the proper

size

of wire unless the characteristics of the motor and the exact

TABLES OF CARRYING CAPACITIES.


condition's

of

starting

were known.

The

97

table

given

for

alternating current motors has been calculated on a basis of

85 per cent power factor and 90 per cent efficiency with an

overload of 25 per cent for branch circuits or for mains sup-

At

plying one motor.

the right of the table for alternating

current motors will be found a small table giving multipliers

which can be used where a power factor or efficiency other


than those for which the table is calculated is given.
For

What

example:
for

7j/2

power

size

of wire

(rubber covered)

is

required

horse power, 220 volt, single-phase motor, with a

and an

factor of 75 per cent

Consulting the small table

we

efficiency of

80 per cent?

an

efficiency of

find that for

80 per cent and a power factor of 75 per cent we are to


multiply the horse power in question by 1.28. 1.28X7.5=9.6
horse power.
Following downward under column marked
"Single-phase," "Branches," "Rubber Insulation," we find in
section for 220 volts that a No. 5 B. & S. wire will be required.
It will be well to consult the inspection departments as to
what power factor and efficiency they will agree to assume
with the general run of motors.
For determining the size of mains for a mixed load, such
s lights and motors, the table for motors may be used by
changing the lights to an equivalent in horse power, allowing
15 55-watt lamps, or 9 Nernst glowers to the horse power.
Example
What size mains are required to supply a load
of 25 horse power in 220-volt motors, and 300 5S-watt UO-volt

li"

lamps on a 110-220

I^L __=20
I

volt,

three-wire system?

horse power equivalent for the

lights.

20+25=45

Direct Current
under section for
volts. "Mains," we find that a No. 000 B. & S. rubber
overed wire will carry 47.2 horse power; this being the

horse power, total load.

Motors,

120

National

In the table

Electrical

roper size wire to use.

Code

rules,

for

ELECraiCAi.

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ELECTRICAL WIRING

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Table of Cahrtinq Capacitt of Wires.

103

104

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

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106

ELECTRICAL WIRING
Motors.

AND CONSTRUCTION

Ai/tbrnating Current.

TABLES.

Chicaqo Rules.

CHICAGO RULES.
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108

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

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CHICAGO RULES.
Table of Carbtinq Capacttt op Rubbkr Covibed Wibes.

109

110

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

Parts of an Inch in Decimals and Mils.


8ths.

TABLES.

DIMENSIONS OF COPPER WIRE

k^.

111

112

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

Table giving the outside diameters of rubber covered wires for us


voltages less than 600.
Size
B. &S

Gauge

OD

TABLES.
Outside Diameters of Rubber
Covered Cables.

Capacity in

Diameter

Cir. Mils.

over Braid

1.500.000
1,250.000
1,000,000

950,000
900,000
850,000
800,000
750,000
700,000
650,000
600,000
650,000
500,000
450,000
400,000
350,000
300,000
250,000

113-64
107-64
97-64
95-64
94-64
93-64
89-64
87-64
83-64
81-64
79-64
76-64
73-64
68-64
66-64
64-64
61-64
59-64

Dimensions of Unlined Conduit.

Nominal

113

Outside Diameters of Weatherproof Wire.

114

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

115

TABLES.

DIMENSIONS OF CLEATS.

One-Wire Cleats.

DuGGAN Cleat.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

16-8 B. <fe S.
"
6-2
2-00
000-300,000 C. M.
400,000-800,000 C. M.
900,000-1,200.000 C. M.

4 holds wires
7

5
6
8
9

Brunt Cleat.
Stand.

Number Width Length Groove


328
329
331
330
332

}
1

\i

U
li

2
2}

2i

2i
2J

holds wires
"
"
"
*
"
"
"
"

16-5 B. A
8-3
3-00
4-1
0-0000

Two AND Three- Wire Cleats


Brunt.
No. 334 2-wire holds wires
"
"
No. 337 3 wire

&

16-8 B.
16-8 B.

&S

16-8 B.
6-00 B.
16-8 B.

& S.
& S.

Si

DuGGAN.
No. 3
No. 2
No. 1

2-wire holds wires


**
"
2-wire
"
"
3 wire

Pass
No.
No.
No.
No.

A-43

2-wire holds wires


"
"
2-wire
"
"
3-wire

43

3-wire

A-3
3

"

"

& S.

& Seymour.
14-12
14- 6
14-12
14- 6

B.
B.
B.

B.

fe

& S& S.
AS.

116

ELECTRICAL WIRING

AND CONSTRUCTION

DIMENSIONS OF IRON SCREWS.


Trade Number

TABLES.

APPROXIMATE.

TABLES.

RATING OF MOTORS.
Full Load CuRaENTS.
H. P.

117

ELECTRICAL WIRING

118

AND CONSTRUCTION

TABLES.

The Hewitt-Cooper Mercury Vapor lamp requires a ctirrent of about 3.5


amperes.
The Nernst lamp consumes 88 watts per glower; for a 6 glower, 110 volt
lamp, about 4.8 amperes.
Series miniature lamps, operated 8 in series, on 110 volts, require a current
of about .33 amperes for 1 candle power lamps, and 1 ampere for 3 candle
power lamps.

Tables showing the currents which will fuse wires of different substances.

B.

&S.

Gauge

INDEX

Alternating current
25 cycles, 26.
Alternating current
60 cycles, 34,
Alternating current
125 cycles, 42.
Alternating current
la,

wiring table,
wiring tables,

Losses on wires, 52.

Formula
Formula

for direct current, 71.


alternating cur-

for
rent, 71.

wiring tables,

Lamps per square


Mains, size of, 97.

wiring formu-

Materials, calculation of, 79.

Table

71.

Aluminum

wire, properties of, 65.


of materials, 79.
Carrying capacities, tables of, 95,
103, 109.
Cleats, dimensions of, 115.
Combined carrying capacities, 62.
Comparison of wires, 65.
Comparative sizes of wires, 75.
Conduits, dimensions of, 113.
Conduits, size required for wires,
83.
of,

61.

Copper wire, dimensions of, 111.


Current in conductors, alternating, 71.

Direct current wiring formula, 71.


Direct current wiring tables, 7.

Divided circuits, 70.


Drop in voltage, alternating cur-

size

of wire for,

96

Measurements of surfaces,
Of solids, 68

68.

Motors, rating of, 117.


Moulding, dimensions of, 114.
Nails, dimensions of, 116.
Nernst lamps, 59.
Size of wire for, 98.

Ohm's law,

70.

Pole line data, 66.


Reinforcing wires, 62.
Relative conductivity, 52.

Sag

of wires, 66.

Screws, dimensions of, 116.


Shunt, resistance of, 70.

Square

root,

extract,

to

69.

Symbols, wiring, 76.


Testing with voltmeter, 72.

With Wheatstone

bridge, 72.
porcelain, dimensions of,
114.
Voltmeter, testing with, 72.
Waste of energy, 53.
Watts, formula for, 70.
Wheatstone bridge, 72.
Wire, rubber covered, dimensions
of, 112.

Tubes,

rent, 71.

Economy

of conductors, 50.
Efficiency of dynamo or motor, 72.
Energy lost in wires, value of, 57.
Fusing currents. 118.
Heat generated In wires, 70.
Illumination of arc lamps, 59.

Nernst lamps, 59.


Incandescent lamps, 60.
Incandescent lamps,
rating

of, 82.
circuits,

Motor

Calculation

Cooper Hewitt lamp, wattage

54.

foot,

Weatherproof,
of,

Inches, in fractions and decimals.


110.
Interest charge on wires, 58.
Iron wire, properties of. 64.
Knobs, dimensions of, 114.

dimensions

of,

113.

Gauges, comparative
Equivalents, 74.
Per Outlet. 81.
In parallel. 62.

Wiring symbols,

76.

sizes,

75.

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..

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