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Просмотров: 4916 стр.Einstein quoted the postulate of ‘constancy of speed of light’ and deduction ‘relativistic varia-tion of mass with velocity’ in his un-reviewed and unreferenced June 1905 paper. Thomson, Searle-Abraham, Lorentz , Bucherer-Langevin etc. had contributed to phenomena of relativistic variation of mass. Lorentz put forth equation for relativistic mass Mrest / ɛ , and as-sumed value of ɛ=1 as unity thus equation is used. The equation of exponential variation of mass Mm = Mrest e has been put forth. Both Lorentz’s equation as exponential equation give same results when velocity is less than 0.1c (relativistic region). The main difference is expo-nential equation does not predict infinite mass when v=c, which Lorentz’s equation (ɛ=1 or dif-ferent) predicts when v=c. Even a body of mass 10-10000 kg or less becomes infinite if it moves with speed of light. In first three year run of the LHC operated at 7-8 TeV and speed of protons was found equal to 299 789 760 m/s (99.9999991% the speed of light) which implies its relativistic mass must be 235.2 times rest mass of proton. The relativistic mass must be taken in calculations. In second run energy of protons has been increased to 13-14TeV but speed of protons had yet not been declared as in previous case. If at these high energies the speed is quantitatively measured then relativistic mass can be assessed. It is clearly stated in paper while explaining the results of ICARUS experiment in LAr-TPC events that the result δt=0.3±4.9(stat.)±9.0(syst.) ns is compatible with the simultaneous arrival of all events with speed equal to that of light. The presented data in the paper implies that the average value of δt for seven individual events (– 6, 0, –5, –19 , +7,+ 3, +18 ) is +0.3ns or 0.29ns . The speed of neutrinos must be measure d for each event individually, as results have been drawn for average value.

Jun 13, 2015

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Einstein quoted the postulate of ‘constancy of speed of light’ and deduction ‘relativistic varia-tion of mass with velocity’ in his un-reviewed and unreferenced June 1905 paper. Thomson, Searle-Abraham, Lorentz , Bucherer-Langevin etc. had contributed to phenomena of relativistic variation of mass. Lorentz put forth equation for relativistic mass Mrest / ɛ , and as-sumed value of ɛ=1 as unity thus equation is used. The equation of exponential variation of mass Mm = Mrest e has been put forth. Both Lorentz’s equation as exponential equation give same results when velocity is less than 0.1c (relativistic region). The main difference is expo-nential equation does not predict infinite mass when v=c, which Lorentz’s equation (ɛ=1 or dif-ferent) predicts when v=c. Even a body of mass 10-10000 kg or less becomes infinite if it moves with speed of light. In first three year run of the LHC operated at 7-8 TeV and speed of protons was found equal to 299 789 760 m/s (99.9999991% the speed of light) which implies its relativistic mass must be 235.2 times rest mass of proton. The relativistic mass must be taken in calculations. In second run energy of protons has been increased to 13-14TeV but speed of protons had yet not been declared as in previous case. If at these high energies the speed is quantitatively measured then relativistic mass can be assessed. It is clearly stated in paper while explaining the results of ICARUS experiment in LAr-TPC events that the result δt=0.3±4.9(stat.)±9.0(syst.) ns is compatible with the simultaneous arrival of all events with speed equal to that of light. The presented data in the paper implies that the average value of δt for seven individual events (– 6, 0, –5, –19 , +7,+ 3, +18 ) is +0.3ns or 0.29ns . The speed of neutrinos must be measure d for each event individually, as results have been drawn for average value.

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Просмотров: 49

Einstein quoted the postulate of ‘constancy of speed of light’ and deduction ‘relativistic varia-tion of mass with velocity’ in his un-reviewed and unreferenced June 1905 paper. Thomson, Searle-Abraham, Lorentz , Bucherer-Langevin etc. had contributed to phenomena of relativistic variation of mass. Lorentz put forth equation for relativistic mass Mrest / ɛ , and as-sumed value of ɛ=1 as unity thus equation is used. The equation of exponential variation of mass Mm = Mrest e has been put forth. Both Lorentz’s equation as exponential equation give same results when velocity is less than 0.1c (relativistic region). The main difference is expo-nential equation does not predict infinite mass when v=c, which Lorentz’s equation (ɛ=1 or dif-ferent) predicts when v=c. Even a body of mass 10-10000 kg or less becomes infinite if it moves with speed of light. In first three year run of the LHC operated at 7-8 TeV and speed of protons was found equal to 299 789 760 m/s (99.9999991% the speed of light) which implies its relativistic mass must be 235.2 times rest mass of proton. The relativistic mass must be taken in calculations. In second run energy of protons has been increased to 13-14TeV but speed of protons had yet not been declared as in previous case. If at these high energies the speed is quantitatively measured then relativistic mass can be assessed. It is clearly stated in paper while explaining the results of ICARUS experiment in LAr-TPC events that the result δt=0.3±4.9(stat.)±9.0(syst.) ns is compatible with the simultaneous arrival of all events with speed equal to that of light. The presented data in the paper implies that the average value of δt for seven individual events (– 6, 0, –5, –19 , +7,+ 3, +18 ) is +0.3ns or 0.29ns . The speed of neutrinos must be measure d for each event individually, as results have been drawn for average value.

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Qv 2

Mm = Mrest e 2c

Ajay Sharma

Fundamental Physics Society, His Mercy Enclave, Post Box 107 GPO Shimla 171001 HP

India

Email: ajoy.plus@gmail.com

Abstract

Einstein quoted the postulate of constancy of speed of light and deduction relativistic variation of mass with velocity in his un-reviewed and unreferenced June 1905 paper. Thomson,

Searle-Abraham, Lorentz , Bucherer-Langevin etc. had contributed to phenomena of relativistic

variation of mass. Lorentz put forth equation for relativistic mass Mrest / [1

v 2 1 / 2

] , and asc2

sumed value of =1 as unity thus equation is used. The equation of exponential variation of

Qv 2

mass Mm = Mrest e 2c has been put forth. Both Lorentzs equation as exponential equation give

2

same results when velocity is less than 0.1c (relativistic region). The main difference is exponential equation does not predict infinite mass when v=c, which Lorentzs equation (=1 or different) predicts when v=c. Even a body of mass 10-10000 kg or less becomes infinite if it moves

with speed of light. In first three year run of the LHC operated at 7-8 TeV and speed of protons

was found equal to 299 789 760 m/s (99.9999991% the speed of light) which implies its relativistic mass must be 235.2 times rest mass of proton. The relativistic mass must be taken in calculations. In second run energy of protons has been increased to 13-14TeV but speed of protons

had yet not been declared as in previous case. If at these high energies the speed is quantitatively

measured then relativistic mass can be assessed. It is clearly stated in paper while explaining the

results of ICARUS experiment in LAr-TPC events that the result t=0.4.9(stat.)9.0(syst.)

ns is compatible with the simultaneous arrival of all events with speed equal to that of light. The

presented data in the paper implies that the average value of t for seven individual events ( 6,

0, 5, 19 , +7,+ 3, +18 ) is +0.3ns or 0.29ns . The speed of neutrinos must be measure d for

each event individually, as results have been drawn for average value.

1.0

Introduction

Newton (1704) concluded that different colors of light move at same speed [1]. So Henri Poincar (1898) in his paper The Measure of Time drew some important consequences on the basis of

existing processes and explained that astronomers, in determining the speed of light, simply assume that light has a constant speed and that this speed is the same in all directions [2] . In simple words it implies that speed of light is constant and same in all directions. Without

this postulate it would be impossible to infer the speed of light from astronomical observations,

as Ole Rmer (1675) did base on observations of the moons of Jupiter.

The same notion was re-quoted by Einstein in paper Electrodynamics of Moving bodies [3] as

postulate 2 (constancy of speed of light).

Any ray of light moves in the stationary system of co-ordinates with the determined velocity c,

whether the ray be emitted by a stationary or by a moving body.

Hence

Velocity = light path / time interval

(1)

It implies that speed of light is always constant or absolute, not relative its magnitude does not

increase or decrease. But the postulate does not restrict that velocity of particle or body is always less than c i.e. no particle or body can attain speed more than that of light. It simply implies that speed of light remains constant, which existed since two centuries before in scientific

literature. The speed of light had different values at different times Romer and Huygen (1675)

measured speed of light as (2.2 x108m/s ), Rosa Dorsey (1907) as ( (2.299710x108 km/s ) and

the current value of speed of light adapted in 17th CGPM (1983) (2.299792x108km/s) . These

measurements are made in vacuum. Nobody can move with speed of light it had been independent conclusion of Thomson in 1893. Further final and improved equation of relativistic variation

of mass was established by Lorentz in 1904 continuation with existing studies. Einstein applied

the same (but did not invent) in calculation of relativistic energy in 1905.

The speed of light must be measured from various sources of light e.g. firefly (

biological source) , candle (chemical source) laser (technological sources) moon (reflected

light) , sun ( light due to fusion). Initially Poincare meant the constancy of speed of light for

heavenly bodies i.e. stars etc. Whereas Einstein used it in general sense i.e. Any ray of light

moves, which is true for all sources of light.

1.1

George Stokes (1843) concluded while studying phenomena in hydrodynamics showed that inertia of moving body in an incompressible perfect fluid increases.[2]) [4]. The inertia is measure of

mass. For first time increase in mass with velocity was experimentally observed by J J Thomson

[3] at that time eq.(2) was not discovered. It was recognized by J. J. Thomson in 1881[1] [5] that

a charged sphere moving in a space filled with a medium of a specific inductive capacity (the

electromagnetic aether of James Clerk Maxwell), is harder to set in motion than an uncharged

body. This idea was worked out in more detail by Oliver Heaviside (1889),[3] [6], Thomson

(1893),[4] [7] (1897),[5] [8] , Searle, (1897), Max Abraham (1902),[6] [9], Hendrik Lorentz (1892, 1904),[7][8] [10-11] and was directly applied to the electron by using the Abraham

Lorentz force. Now it is also applied for neutral particles for various velocities.

Thomson (1893) put forth that electromagnetic momentum and energy of charged bodies and

therefore their masses depend on the speed of the bodies as well. He wrote:[4] [7,12]

When in the limit v = c, the increase in mass is infinite, thus a charged sphere moving with the

velocity of light behaves as if its mass were infinite, its velocity therefore will remain constant,

in other words it is impossible to increase the velocity of a charged body moving through the dielectric beyond that of light.

From Searle's formula, Walter Kaufmann(1901) and Abraham (1902) derived the

formula for the longitudinal and transverse masses of moving bodies:[6] [13] . On the other

hand, already in 1899 Lorentz assumed that the electrons undergo length contraction in the line

of motion, which leads to results for the acceleration of moving electrons that differ from those

given by Abraham. Lorentz obtained factors of k3 parallel to the direction of motion and k

v2

perpendicular to the direction of motion, where k = 1 2

c

tor.[11] [14]. In general , is indeterminate coefficient differing from unity by a quantity of the order v2/c2 [8]. Lorentz expanded his 1899 ideas in his famous 1904 paper, where he set the factor

to unity, thus:[8] [15 ].

mT =

mrest

(2)

, mL=

v

1 2

c

mrest

v

1 2

c

2

3

2

(3)

If the value of is different from unity ( in general is indeterminate coefficient differing from

unity by a quantity of order v2/c2 ) then coefficient will appear in the denominator the magnitudes of longitudinal and transverse masses will vary.

mT =

mrest

2

(2a)

v

1 2

c

mL=

mrest

v

1 2

c

2

3

2

(3a)

So the eqs.(2,3) are based upon assumption =1, but not determined experimentally and theoretically. If general values of are taken then magnitude of eq.(2) varies. In the existing literature

value of other than unity is not considered and in all significant results e.g. derivation of rest

mass energy Erest = Mrest c2 ,transverse mass is considered not longitudinal . If longitudinal mass

is considered then equation for rest mass energy would be different. Mathematically values of

other than unity and both masses are equally feasible. For wider understanding and analysis all

possibilities (, other than unity and longitudinal mass) values of must be considered. So, eventually Lorentz arrived at the same conclusion as Thomson in 1893: no body can reach the speed of

light because the mass becomes infinitely large at this velocity.

Einstein wrote to Lincoln Barnett [17] , that it is not good to introduce the concept of

the mass of a moving body for which no clear definition can be given. It is better to introduce no

other mass concept than the rest mass Mrest . Instead of introducing M it is better to mention the

expression for the momentum and energy of a body in motion. However Einstein [3] had used

eq.(2) in calculation of rest mass energy Erme=Mrestc2 .

The various existing equations ( empirical in nature) for increase in mass as function of velocity

are given by

Searle-Abraham [ 1897]

Lorentz [1904 ] if

Lorentz [1904 ]

=1

( ) =

1 2 1

1]

lg

[

1

4 2 2

3

(4)

( ) = (1- 2 ) 1 / 2

(5)

( ) = (1- 2 ) 1 / 2

(6)

Bucherer-Langevin [1905]

where

( ) = (1- 2 ) 1 / 3

(7)

v

c

v 2 1 / 2

involves in equations in one form or other since beginning of the

]

c2

perception which implies that denominator becomes zero when v=c. Under this condition mass

becomes infinity, hence body cannot move with speed more than that of light. However till date

no particle or body has been observed to move with speed equal to or more than that of light.

Thus the variation of mass with velocity is different concept established before postulate

of constancy of speed of light. The postulate of constancy of speed of light does not restrict

body to move with speed equal or more than c. It simply states that speed of light remains constant. This restriction is (i.e. no body can move with speed more than that of light) laid down by

Thomson (1893), Searle, Kauffman Abraham and Lorentz (1904) much before Einstein. Einstein simply quoted the equations of Lorentz of longitudinal and transverse mass from existing

literature [15]. Now the relativistic equation for variation of mass with velocity (suggested by

Lorentz improving previous perceptions) is given by eq.(2).

The eq.(2) is improved form of various equations illustrating variations of mass and velocity. In

various experiments eq.(2) is confirmed within accuracy of 1% [16]. Till date experimentally

and theoretically it is regarded as absolute and it sets upper limit for velocity equal to c, as no

particle or body is confirmed to move with speed more than that of light.

Ideally an equation should be such that this situation does not arise. In this case mass becomes infinity i.e. M = . If v>c, then mass becomes imaginary. This equation provides a new

perception of creation of mass of universe. It is explicit prediction from eq.(2), that only one

particle will obtain speed equal to that of light and expand to infinitely large universe. If v>c,

then mass becomes imaginary. Thus to obey the mathematical predictions or deductions, constraints are set on speed of light that it does not exceed c.

Although division by zero is not allowed yet denominator in eq.(2) becomes zero when

body starts moving with speed of light. Einstein had to abandon theory of static universe due to

reason that denominator involves division by zero, theoretically similar situation in eq.(2) when

v=c. According to eq.(1) a body of mass, even 10-100000 kg or less can never attain speed equal

Only one particle can attain v=c, this prediction means if a body of mass 10-100000 kg

or less attains velocity equal to that of light then its mass becomes infinite which will be accommodated in the infinite space. It is all together different from existing perception of origin of creation of universe.

1.2

Successively more and more refined experiments have been conducted to confirm eq.(2), but

equation for longitudinal mass i.e. eq.(3) is not confirmed. The eq.(3) also follows from Lorentzs same deduction. In this regard the most established experiment had been reported by

Rogers et al. [16]. It is concluded by scientists that his experiment is seen as being sufficiently

precise to distinguish between the theories. Further such experiments are mentioned.

Regarding experimental confirmation of eq.(2) an important observations have been reported by

Roger [ 16] . In the paper just three points are reported for velocities 0.5c, 0.7c and 0.75c and

concluded that it is confirmed within accuracy of 1%. Moreover to confirm such an equation

large number of observations are needed with velocities tending to c. But no such detailed information is available. These observations at highest velocity 0.75c may not be regarded as scientifically sufficient. After this, many additional experiments concerning the relativistic mass-energymomentum relation have been conducted, including measurements of the deflection of electrons,

all of them confirming special relativity to high precision. It is indicated that special theory of

relativity (which has many aspects) has been justified, but here we need specific experiments for

measuring mass of particles at various velocities ay 0.1c, 0.4c, 0.8c,0.9c , 0.9999c etc. It is unscientific to conclude that if phenomena of time dilation is obeyed at v=0.99c (say) then eq.(2) is

also obeyed simultaneously or regarded as obeyed. Further eq.(2) is written under the condition

that when indeterminate coefficient is assumed to be unity i.e. =1. Thus more specific experiments regarding relativistic variations are required to be conducted over wide range of parameters. It is concluded by scientists in the recent publication [17] that this experiment is seen

as being sufficiently precise to distinguish between the theories. [17]. And no other experiments

are mentioned. It implies that scientists find these observations sufficient which is apparently not

so. Also in modern particle accelerators, the predictions of special relativity are routinely confirmed [18]. However specifically we are discussing precise experimental confirmation of

eq.(2). Further Rogers experiment [16 ] which was conducted in 1940 is regarded as final confirmation because no significant developments are reported afterwards. This experiment is regarded as final basis. Thus specific experiments for more precise confirmation of eq.(2) are

needed.

1.3 Results of ICARUS

In ICARUS experiment the time of flight difference between the speed of light and the arriving

neutrino LAr-TPC events has been analysed. Ideally time of flight between arriving neutrinos

must be less than speed of light, only then speed of neutrinos would be less than speed of light.

Now in this regard various terms are understood as

tofc : time of flight based in speed of light.

tof : time of flight based on speed of neutrino.

The difference t = tof c tof between the expected time of flight based on speed of light (tof c

= 2 439 098 1.7 ns) and the actual arrival time of neutrino in the ICARUS detector is shown in

the last row [19].

Antonello et al. [19] had measured that the t (tofc tofv ) =0.34.9(stat.)9.0(syst.) ns and

stated that it is compatible with the simultaneous arrival of all events with estimated speed equal

to that of light. The exact quotation is . The result t = 0. 4.9(stat.) 9.0(syst.) ns is compatible with the simultaneous arrival of all events with speed equal to that of light.

This aspect is being investigated here in view of the experimental data provided.

The time of flight based on the speed of light ( tofc =24390981.7ns) and neutrino time of flight

(tofv ) have different values measured experimentally i.e. 2439104 ns, 2439098ns , 2439103ns ,

2439117ns , 2439091 ns , 2439095 ns and 2439080ns . The presented data [19] in the paper implies that the average value of t for seven individual events ( 6, 0, 5, 19 , +7,+ 3, +18 ) is

+0.3ns or 0.29ns . The time difference ( t = tofc tofv) in various seven individual neutrino

events are shown as in last row in Table I [19]. It implies in the second event the neutrinos (nonzero mass) move with speed equal to that of light, according to eq.(1) the mass must become infinite.

It means that for various individual events value of t is negative ( 6,

5, 19 ), positive (+7,+ 3, +18 ) or zero (0), hence tofv also varies. The value of net t is 2,

and average value (of seven events) is 0.2857 or 0.3 ns , as interpreted above. For three individu-

al events time difference ( t ) is negative, for three events time difference is positive and for one

event is zero. The individual events (difference in times) have not been discussed in this regard

by Antonello et al. [19], the average of seven events is taken. Eq.(2) is meant for every individual particle and has to be confirmed for all. There is no logical scientifically prevailing reason

that average of seven events has to be taken. The value of t for first, second and seven events

we get

tofc = - 6+ tofv

(8)

tofc = tofv

(9)

tofc = 7 + tofv

(10)

Eq.(8 ) implies that time of flight based upon speed of flight is more than neutrino time of flight.

It is correct result. However eq. (9) implies that the time of flight based upon speed of light is

equal to time based upon neutrino time of flight. It implies that speed of neutrino in this particular event is equal to that of light. Neutrino has definite but subtle mass, thus under the condition,

v=c , the mass of neutrino must become infinity. Also eq.(10) implies that speed of neutrino

exceeds speed of light, thus its mass must be imaginary.

Antonello et al. [19] had discussed average value of t for seven events , the average

value of t

is positive (0.3 ns) , hence speed of light is more than speed of neutrino collec-

tively, it is similar to eq.(10). Had all values of time for seven individual events been positive

the results would have been justified? The values of t such as 6, 0, 5, 19 for individual

events are not consistent as in such cases i.e. tofv > tofc .This issue is not discussed by

Antonello et al. [19]. It is true for average value of t only not for individual values.

Further more precise experiments of speed of neutrinos the MINOS+ experiments are being

conducted . The experiment will aim to measure the time a neutrino needs to travel from Fermi

Lab to Soudane mine with precision of about 1 nanosecond. The results from this experiment

would be decisive in this regard [20].

1.4

During its first three years, the LHC ran at collision energy of 7 to 8 TeV delivering particle

collisions to experiments [21]. Speed of protons at the collision 299 789 760 m / s (speed of

light is 299 792 458 m/s ). Then

M=

M rest

v2

1 2

c

(11)

If eq.(2a) is used

Relativistic mass of proton, M =

M rest

v2

1 2

c

(11a)

This aspect should be interpreted in the results. But in the experimental data the relativistic mass

of proton at this velocity is not mentioned in LHC data. Now in 2015 run, energy of particles will

be 13-14TeV or higher, it is just possible that in such experiments or more energetic experiments, speed of particles may approach to c (significant increase in mass ) or becomes equal to

c and exceed c (final results would be clear after experiments). Now protons have been accelerated to energies 13-14 TeV but velocities are not stated as in previous case (7 to 8 TeV) velocity had been measured equal to 299 789 760 m / s (99.9999991% the speed of light) at speed of

protons at the collision . Further energy of particles can be more than 14TeV depending upon

technological improvements and lighter particles can be subjected to experimental observations.

1.5 General experimental observations.

According to relativistic variation of mass, the mass increases with velocity and particle of mass

10-10000 kg or less becomes infinite if it moves with speed of light. Tachyons are hypothetical

particles which move with speed more than that of light [22] but not discovered yet. Cherenkov

radiations, are electromagnetic radiations are emitted when a charged particles pass through a

dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light, in that medium [23]. But in

second postulate of relativity i.e. in eq.(1) , there is no mention of phase velocity or group velocity. The phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space.

The group velocity of a wave is the velocity with which the overall shape of the waves' amplitudesknown as the modulation or envelope of the wavepropagates through space.

The variability in speed of light was expressed by Einstein [24-25]. The variation in

value of fine structure constant is observed experimentally [26] implies variation in speed of

light. The theory of variability of speed of light is developed to understand the phenomena [27].

10

Apparent natural superluminal motion (faster than light) is observed in many radio galaxies, blazars, quasars and recently also in microquasars. The red shift numbers, z=v/c (indicator of

the fact that heavenly bodies recede away or expansion of universe) of 1.4 (v=1.4c) or 8.2

(v=8.2c) or higher [28,29]. It indicates apparently speed of heavenly body must be more than

that of light. However the speed of light is regarded as less than c. The same method is used to

verify Hubbles parameters (V=HS) and its inverse gives age of universe.

This is experimental observation based upon established experimental techniques

and theoretical basis. These observations appear to indicate that the speed of heavenly bodies

must be more than c. However the speed of heavenly bodies is always regarded as less than c, so

that results are necessarily consistent with eq.(2). Are the experimental and theoretical deductions based on redshift not genuine? This observation is related with age of universe. If so then it

must be pointed out so that improvements may be done. Should experimental results be ignored

if they are not consistent with established equations? It would not be illogical if other possibilities are considered to access the experimental observations.

The Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, proposed it in 1842. Subsequently, Edwin Hubble discovered an approximate relationship between the redshifts of heavenly bodies and

the distances to them with the formulation of his eponymous Hubble's law [28,29]. These observations corroborated Alexander Friedmann's 1922 work, in which he derived the famous Friedmann equations[30].

They are today considered strong evidence for an expanding universe and the Big

Bang theory[31]. So redshift is useful in understanding many phenomena.

Qv 2

A new equation exponential in nature for variation of mass with velocity is suggested and interpretted.

Qv 2

Exponential variation

Mm = Mrest e 2c

(16)

11

then we have

Mm =

M rest

(2a)

v2

1 2

c

Lorentz equation

(12)

If eq.(2a) is used

Lorentz equation Mm = Mrest (1- 2 ) 1 / 2 =

M rest

M rest

Qv 2

Exponential equation

2

(14)

Thus both equations can give same values if proper value of Q is chosen . There are numerous

values of coefficients of proportionality in existing literature, so the perception of Q is consistent

with existing literature.

We can assess that the variation in mass with velocity is proportional to the mass M and velocity

v . Thus we can write variation in mass with velocity v as

dM

M

dv

dM

Mv

dv

dM

dv

or

dM

= Kvdv

M

(15)

the process. It has dependence like resistance (V=IR or R = L /a, resistivity, L length and a is

area of conductor) in the existence in the literature. Similarly in Hubble Law i.e. V=HS , the

Hubbles coefficient have different values. Thus age of universe is not fixed , it is understood in

form of range. The other coefficients of proportionality are coefficient of viscosity, coefficient of

thermal conductivity, coefficient of expansion etc.

K

1/c2 or K =Q/c2

The value of K is non-zero and definite. Now integrating within limits (mass varies from Mrest to

12

M , and velocity 0 to v ).

dM

Q

Mrest M = c 2

M

vdv

0

Further

Qv 2

or

M = Mrest e 2c

(16)

(i) Both equations predict that mass increases with velocity.

(ii) When v=0, then both equations predict M =Mrest. At lower velocities (less than 0.1c) both

equations give same results.

Dissimilarities

(i) Theoretically Eq.(16) implies that mass of body must become infinite when v=

(ii) Eq.(2) implies that speed of body cannot be equal to c . If v=c then mass becomes infinite.

(iii) Eq.(16) implies that velocity of body can become equal to or more than c, mass does not

become infinite or imaginary . The mass of body only becomes infinite only when speed of body

is also infinite.

(vi) It may be perceived that infinite amount of energy is required to impart body of non-zero

mass, infinite velocity. This infinite energy exhibits in form of infinite mass. Whereas as according to Lorentzs equation, infinite energy is needed to accelerate body of mass 10-10000000 kg or

less to velocity 3x108m/s. Thus deduction from eq.(16) appears more genuine than eq.(2).

Calculation of Q

Qv 2

M =Mrest e 2c

Kv2

ln M /Mrest

(17)

Table I. Equality of eq.(2) with =1 and eq.(16) , the value of K is shown in last column.

13

Sr

Velocity

No

M=

M rest

v2

1 2

c

Qv 2

= Mrest e

2c 2

v=0

Mrest

v=0.0001c

1.000000005 Mrest

v=0.001c

1.0000005Mrest

v=0.01c

1.000050 Mrest

v=0.1c

1.00503 Mrest

1.0034

v=0.2c

1.02062 Mrest

1.0206

v=0.5c

1.1547 Mrest

1.1507

v=0.9c

2.294 Mrest

2.0501

v=0.999991c

235.708 Mrest

10.9249

Acknowledgements

Author is highly indebted to Prof. Robert Bradley, Dr Steve Crothers and Anjana Sharma for

comments, suggestions and encouragements on the topic

References

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14

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105179,Bibcode:1902AnP...315..105A, doi:10.1002/andp.19023150105

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naturelles 25: 363552 ,

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[7,12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_mass

[13] Abraham, Max (1903), "Prinzipien der Dynamik des Elektrons", Annalen der

Physik 315 (1): 105179,Bibcode:1902AnP...315..105A, doi:10.1002/andp.19023150105 .

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427442.

[15 ] Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon (1904), "Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with

any velocity smaller than that of light",Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts

and Sciences 6: 809831

15

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in scientific communicated dated 27 August 2014.

[21]. 7-8TeV

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redaktsiej A. N. Gorbunova i E. P. erenkovoj, M.,"Nauka, 1999, s. 149-153 .

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[27] A. Albrecht, J. Magueijo

code:1999PhRvD. 59d3516A.doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.59.043516

[28] "A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae".Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 15 (3):

168-173. Bibcode:1929PNAS...15..168H.doi:10.1073/pnas.15.3.168. PMC 522427.PMID 16577160..

[29] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faster-than-light.

16

[30] Friedman, A. A. (1922). "ber die Krmmung des Raumes". Zeitschrift fur Physik 10 (1):

377386.Bibcode:1922ZPhy...10..377F.doi:10.1007/BF01332580. English translation

in Friedman, A. (1999). "On the Curvature of Space". General Relativity and Gravitation 31 (12): 19912000.Bibcode:1999GReGr..31.1991F.doi:10.1023/A:1026751225741.)

[31] Eddington, Arthur (1933). The Expanding Universe: Astronomy's 'Great Debate', 1900

1931.Cambridge University Press. (Reprint: ISBN 978-0-521-34976-5)

Table I. Equality of eq.(2) with =1 and eq.(16) , the value of K is shown in column

Sr

Velocity

No

M=

M rest

v2

1 2

c

Qv 2

= Mrest e

2c 2

v=0

Mrest

v=0.0001c

1.000000005 Mrest

v=0.001c

1.0000005Mrest

v=0.01c

1.000050 Mrest

v=0.1c

1.00503 Mrest

1.0034

v=0.2c

1.02062 Mrest

1.0206

v=0.5c

1.1547 Mrest

1.1507

v=0.9c

2.294 Mrest

2.0501

v=0.999991c

235.708 Mrest

10.9249

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