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The new salesperson

The reading below helps


you practice the present
perfect and see the verb
tense in action.
How many times do you
see the present perfect
in the passage?

Bob and Darren work together. They are talking about


interviews for a new sales manager position at their company.
This reading has many soft examples using the present perfect
tense.
Bob:
_We need to make a decision on whom we are going to hire for
the new salesperson position.
Darren:
_I know. There are a lot of good applicants. So far we have
interviewed 10 people and have looked at over 50 resumes.

Bob:
_Well, lets take a look at some of the best and make a decision.
Darren:
_Ok, the first person is Phil. He has worked as a salesperson for
10 years in both The United States and Canada. Also, he has
been the manager of the sales department of a large autoparts company.
Bob:
_Sounds interesting, but has he ever worked in the food sales
industry?
Darren:
_No he hasnt.
Bob:
_That might be a problem; we need someone with food
experience.
Darren:
_OK, what about Karen? She has worked in the food industry
for 6 years. She has been a manager of a major supermarket
and worked in marketing for a large meat company.
Bob:
_OK. Has she worked in international sales before?
Darren:
_No, she has never worked in international sales.
Bob:
_Well, that could be a problem. This job will require a lot of
international experience. I think we need someone who has
worked in an international environment

Darren:
_Well what about Larry? We havent met him yet but his
resume looks good. He has been a salesperson in the food
industry for 13 years. He has lived in The United States,
Canada and Mexico. In the past 4 years he has learned how to
speak Spanish and French.
Bob:
_Wow, sounds great!
Darren:
_The problem is we still havent had an interview with him.
Bob:
_Well, lets get him in here and see what he has to say!
Present Perfect Simple

Os Perfect Tenses so formados com o presente simples do verbo to have (have /


has), que, neste caso, funciona como verbo auxiliar, seguido do particpio passado do verbo
principal. O particpio passado dos verbos regulares tem a mesma forma que o passado, ou seja,
terminam em -ed e o dos verbos irregulares tem forma prpria. Sendo assim, necessrio
estud-los um a um.
Para estudar os verbos irregulares, veja a lista dos verbos irregulares.
Comearemos a estudar os Perfect Tenses a partir do Present Perfect Simple. Observe
alguns exemplos de oraes no Present Perfect:
- FORMA AFIRMATIVA:
He has broken his leg. (Ele quebrou a perna.)
We have bought new clothes. (Compramos
roupas novas.)
She has written a letter to her friend who lives in
Madrid.
(Ela escreveu uma carta para a amiga que mora em
Madrid.)

He has had a terrible headache. (Ele teve uma dor de


cabea terrvel.)
They have finished the homework. (Eles terminaram a
lio de casa.)
That rabbit has appeared on our garden.
(Aquele coelho apareceu em nosso jardim.)
AFFIRMATIVE FORM: SUJEITO + PRESENTE SIMPLES DO
VERBO TO HAVE + PARTICPIO PASSADO DO VERBO PRINCIPAL

* FORMA CONTRADA: I / You / We / You / They' ve - He / She / It' s.


Veja alguns exemplos com as formas contradas:
He's studied law. (He has studied law.)
(Ele estudou Direito.)
She's been here. (She has been here.)
(Ela esteve aqui.)
We've worked a lot. (We have worked a lot.)
(Ns trabalhamos muito.)
I've broken a glass. (I have broken a glass.)
(Eu quebrei um copo.)
She's given birth to a boy. (She has given bith to a boy.)
(Ela deu a luz a um menino.)

- FORMA INTERROGATIVA:
Na Forma Interrogativa do Present Perfect, o verbo have/has, que funciona como verbo
auxiliar, posiciona-se antes do sujeito:
Have you already talked to your boss? (Voc j falou
com o seu chefe?)
Have they lived in Amsterdam? (Eles moraram em
Amsterd?)
Has she brought the English/Portuguese dictionary?
(Ela trouxe o dicionrio de Ingls/Portugus?)
Has he found his wallet? (Ele encontrou a carteira

dele?)
Have you ever been in the United States?
(Voc ja esteve nos Estados Unidos?)
Has she solved the problem yet? (Ela j resolveu o problema?)
Have they gone out? (Eles saram?)
INTERROGATIVE FORM: PRESENTE SIMPLES DO VERBO TO HAVE +
SUJEITO + PARTICPIO PASSADO DO VERBO PRINCIPAL

- FORMA NEGATIVA:
A Forma Negativa do Present Perfect forma-se acrescentando not ao verbo
auxiliar have/has:
They have not heard what I've told. (Eles no escutaram o que eu falei.)
You have not eaten anything so far. (Voc no comeu nada at agora.)
We have not done our homework. (No fizemos nossa lio de casa.)

NEGATIVE FORM: PRESENTE SIMPLES DO VERBO TO


HAVE + NOT + PARTICPIO PASSADO DO VERBO PRINCIPAL

* FORMA CONTRADA: haven't / hasn't


I haven't gone to the beach, I've gone to the countryside. (No fui para a praia, fui para o
inteior.)
She hasn't told to her parents where she's been all day.
(Ela no disse aos pais onde esteve durante todo o dia.)
We haven't seen this movie yet. (Ainda no vimos este filme.)
Susan hasn't bought a car. (Susan no comprou um carro.)
They haven't believed her. (Eles no acreditaram nela.)

USOS:

O Present Perfect usado para:


1. Referir-se a aes que ocorrerram num tempo indefinido no PASSADO (No
confunda o nome com o tempo, o tempo chama-se Present Perfect, mas expressa uma ao
ocorrida no passado):
Someone has left the door open. (Algum deixou a
porta aberta.)
She has cut herself. (Ela se cortou.)
You have forgotten to call me. (Voc esqueceu de
me ligar.)
I have found a wallet on the street. (Encontrei uma
carteira na rua.)
The researcher has sent the information to the newspaper.
(O pesquisador mandou as informaes para o jornal.)
She has fallen down the stairs. (Ela caiu das escadas.)
They have studied French. (Eles estudaram Francs.)
2. O Present Perfect usado com os seguintes advrbios:
a) just - para indicar que as aes que ocorreram num passado bem recente:
We have just known each other. (Acabamos de nos conhecer.)
I have just seen your sister. (Acabei de ver sua irm.)
They have just arrived from Belfast. (Eles acabaram de chegar de Belfast.)

b) already (j) - para indicar que a ao j ocorreu. usado apenas em


frases afirmativas einterrogativas e posicionado sempre antes do verbo principal:
She has already arrived home. (Eles j chegaram em casa.)
They have already gone to the birthday's party. (Eles j foram para a festa de aniversrio.)
I have already seen this movie. (Eu j vi este filme.)
Have you already read this book? (Voc j leu este livro?)

c) yet (j; ainda) - Usado em frases interrogativas significa j, e em frases negativas

usado com sentido de ainda. Posiciona-se sempre no final da frase, nas oraes negativas
ele empregado para dizer que a ao ainda no ocorreu:
We have not decided our topic yet. (Ainda no decidimos o nosso tpico.)
Have you talked to your teacher yet? (Voc j falou com a sua professora?)
She has not came from lunch yet. (Ela ainda no voltou do almoo.)

d) never (nunca) - usado para indicar que algo no aconteceu:


He has never forgotten you. (Ele nunca esqueceu voc.)
They have never been here. (Eles nunca estiveram aqui.)
I have never seen this movie. (Eu nunca vi este filme.)

e) ever (j; alguma vez) - usado para saber se aquela ao j aconteceu alguma vez.
Geralmente usado em perguntas:
Have you ever travelled abroad? (Voc j viajou para o exterior?)
Has she ever been in Salvador? (Ela j esteve em Salvador alguma vez?)
Have you ever flown Air France? (Voc j viajou com a empresa Air France?)

* Ever tambm usado com o superlativo para indicar que algo o maior, o melhor, o mais
interessante que algum j viu, leu, fez, trabalhou, etc.:
He is the busiest man I have ever known. (Ele o homem mais ocupado que j conheci.)

f) lately (ultimamente) e recently (recentemente) - esses advrbios so posicionados no


final da orao:
Have you visited your relatives in North Carolina lately?
(Voc tem visitado seus parentes na Carolina do Norte ultimamente?)
I haven't gone to the movies lately. (No tenho ido ao cinema ultimamente.)
Have they come here recently? (Eles vieram aqui recentemente?)
She has moved recently. (Ela se mudou recentemente.)
Saiba mais sobre os advrbios de tempo

3. Expressar aes que comearam no passado e se prolongam at o presente. Nestes


casos, muito comum aparecer since e for:
I have been here since 8 o'clock a.m. (Estou aqui desde as oito da manh.)
They have lived here since 1998. (Eles moram aqui desde 1998.)
We have lived here for 12 years. (Moramos aqui h doze anos.)
She has worked here for 5 years. (Ela trabalha aqui h cinco anos.)
Many things have changed since last summer. (Muitas coisas mudaram desde o vero
passado.)

NO CONFUNDA
Present Perfect x Simple Past
O Simple Past refere-se apenas a aes passadas que acabaram
em um tempo definido no passado:
I went to the park last weekend. (Simple Past)

O Present Perfect pode expressar aes passadas que acabaram


em um tempo no definido no passado ou aes que ainda no
terminaram:
I have worked hard. (Present Perfect)
They have been here since midday. (Present Perfect)