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Introduction to Robotics

Robotics can be described as the current pinnacle of technical development.

Robotics is a confluence science using the continuing advancements of
mechanical engineering, material science, sensor fabrication, manufacturing
techniques, and advanced algorithms. The study and practice of robotics will
expose a dabbler or professional to hundreds of different avenues of study. For
some, the romanticism of robotics brings forth an almost magical curiosity of the
world leading to creation of amazing machines. A journey of a lifetime awaits in
Robotics can be defined as the science or study of the technology primarily
associated with the design, fabrication, theory, and application of robots. While
other fields contribute the mathematics, the techniques, and the components,
robotics creates the magical end product. The practical applications of robots
drive development of robotics and drive advancements in other sciences in turn.
Crafters and researchers in robotics study more than just robotics.
The promise of robotics is easy to describe but hard for the mind to grasp.
Robots hold the promise of moving and transforming materials with the same
ease as a computer program transforms data. Today, robots mine minerals,
assemble semi-processed materials into automobile components, and assemble
those components into automobiles. On the immediate horizon are self-driving
cars, robotics to handle household chores, and assemble specialized machines
on demand. It is not unreasonable to imagine robots that are given some task,
such as reclaim desert into photovoltaic cells and arable land, and left to make
their own way. Then the promise of robotics exceeds the minds grasp.
In summary, robotics is the field related to science and technology primarily
related to robotics. It stands tall by standing the accomplishments of many other
fields of study.

1) Going to far away planets
2) Spying on people in ways people can't move and from views humans can't
3) Going far down into the unknown waters where humans would be crushed
4) Giving us information that humans can't get
5) Working at places 24/7 without any salary and food. Plus they don't get bored
6) They can perform tasks faster than humans and much more consistently and

7) They can capture moments just too fast for the human eye to get, for
example the Atlas detector in the LHC project can capture ~ 600000 frames per
second while we can see at about 60
8) Most of them are automatic so they can go around by themselves without any
human interference
9) They can entertain us and help us in certain tasks

1) People can lose jobs in factories
2) It needs a supply of power
3) It needs maintenance to keep it running
4) It costs money to make or buy a robot

Outer Space - Manipulative arms that are controlled by a human are used to
unload the docking bay of space shuttles to launch satellites or to construct a
space station

The Intelligent Home - Automated systems can now monitor home security,
environmental conditions and energy usage. Door and windows can be opened
automatically and appliances such as lighting and air conditioning can be pre
programmed to activate. This assists occupants irrespective of their state of

Exploration - Robots can visit environments that are harmful to humans. An

example is monitoring the environment inside a volcano or exploring our deepest
oceans. NASA has used robotic probes for planetary exploration since the early

Military Robots - Airborne robot drones are used for surveillance in today's
modern army. In the future automated aircraft and vehicles could be used to
carry fuel and ammunition or clear minefields

Farms - Automated harvesters can cut and gather crops. Robotic dairies are
available allowing operators to feed and milk their cows remotely.

The Car Industry

- Robotic arms that are able to perform multiple tasks

are used in the car manufacturing process. They perform tasks such as welding,
cutting, lifting, sorting and bending. Similar applications but on a smaller scale
are now being planned for the food processing industry in particular the
trimming, cutting and processing of various meats such as fish, lamb, beef.

Hospitals - Under development is a robotic suit that will enable nurses to lift
patients without damaging their backs. Scientists in Japan have developed a
power-assisted suit which will give nurses the extra muscle they need to lift their
patients - and avoid back injuries.

Disaster Areas

- Surveillance robots fitted with advanced sensing and

imaging equipment can operate in hazardous environments such as urban
setting damaged by earthquakes by scanning walls, floors and ceilings for
structural integrity.

Entertainment - Interactive robots that exhibit behaviours and learning

ability. SONY has one such robot which moves freely, plays with a ball and can
respond to verbal instructions.

Block diagram

The Arduino programming basics

the basic syntax is :
Initialize any Global variables if required
void setup()
// put your setup code here, to run once:
void loop()

// put your main code here, to run repeatedly:

The code we are using to run BLDC
#include <Servo.h>
String speed;
Servo myservo;
int n=0;
int servoPin = 9; //ESC on pin 9

void setup()
Serial.begin(9600); //data rate bits per second (speed) .. communication with computer
void loop()
while (Serial.available() > 0 ) //If any bytes are available
char c = Serial.read(); //Make a analogue reading. This is from 0-180
if(speed.length() > 0 )
n = speed.toInt(); //converts a valid String to an integer. The input string should start
with an integral number
myservo.write(n); //Send servo position - Motor speed to ESC.
speed = "";
The Code we are using to run 2 dc motors ( wheels )

int motor_forward = 7;
int motor_reverse = 6;
// the setup routine runs once when you press reset:
void setup() {
// initialize the digital pin as an output.
pinMode(motor_forward, OUTPUT);
pinMode(motor_reverse, OUTPUT);
// the loop routine runs over and over again forever:
void loop() {
digitalWrite(motor_forward,1); //terminal D1 will be HIGH
digitalWrite(motor_reverse,0); //terminal D2 will be LOW
delay(5000); //creates a 5 seconds delay
//Motor will rotate in forward direction for 5 seconds
digitalWrite(motor_forward,0); //terminal D1 will be LOW
digitalWrite(motor_reverse,1); //terminal D2 will be HIGH
delay(5000); //creates a 5 seconds delay
//Motor will rotate in reverse direction for 5 seconds

digitalWrite(motor_forward,0); //terminal D1 will be LOW

digitalWrite(motor_reverse,0); //terminal D2 will be LOW
delay(5000); //creates a 5 seconds delay
//Motor will stop rotating for 5 seconds
//again the loop() will run from the begining until the board is turned OFF