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a) Development refers to the increase of functional capacity in perfect form resulting from
production of specialized tissues from unspecialized ones. It involves a progressive series
of changes that are coherent and orderly.
b) Growth is the increase in the size of the various parts and organs of the body by
multiplication of cells and intercellular components during the period commencing from
fertilization to physical maturity.
c) Maturation refers to the development process encompassing the acquisition of body
system function and structural form of an adult. Also, it is the gradual unfolding of
hereditary traits and potentials.
2. What are the different stages of human development? Provide a brief description for each
a) Prenatal stages consist of three stages prior to birth. First, the period of ovum or germinal
stage starts from fertilization to two weeks. Then, from the second week to eighth week is
the period of embryo. Lastly, the period of fetus that covers the eighth week to birth.
b) Post natal stages are divided into infancy and babyhood. Infancy period is further
subdivided into: partunate, as it covers the first 15 to 20 minutes after birth, once the
umbilical cord has been cut; and neonate, as it covers the rest of the infancy period.
While, babyhood covers the second week up to the second year of life.
c) Childhood stage starts from two years to the onset of puberty and it is divided into two
parts: early childhood stage and late childhood stage. Early childhood stage that extends
from two years to six years. While, late childhood stage extends from six years up up the
onset of puberty, sometimes between eleven to twelve years of age.
d) Puberty, comes from the word pubertas, means age of manhood. This is divided into
pre-pubescence and post-pubescence. The primary sexual characteristics, the changes in
the reproductive apparatus, occur during the pre-pubescence. While, the completion in
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the primary sexual characteristics and secondary characteristics, changes in traits that
makes a male and a female typically adults in looks, happens in post-pubescence stage.
e) Adolescence, comes from the word adolescere, means to grow to maturity. It is
subdivided into two parts: teenager and youth. Teenager or the young adolescent stage is
where most pubertal changes occur. Thus, it extends from 13 to 17 years of age.
Subsequently, youth or older adolescent extends from 18 to 24 years of age.
f) Adulthood stage is from the word adultus, meaning grown to full size or strength. It is
divided into three parts: early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. Early
adulthood extends from 21 to 40 years of age. Middle adulthood extends from 40 to 60
years of age. Late adulthood extends from 60 onwards.
3. What are the factors that could influence/affect one's development?
We attribute the differences among individuals as to abilities and personalities to two
factors of development: nature or heredity and nurture or environment. Heredity is defined as a
process whereby traits of parents are handed down to their offspring via the genes. Environment
refers to all the forces that affect man, like physical forces, natural forces, and social forces.
Generally, heredity serves as the raw materials of an individual, setting a limit at the same time
as it also possess hidden potentials, while, the environment determines the manner by which the
raw materials are to be shaped. For example, a kid have inherited a family trait of having a low
level of IQ, attaining an average level of IQ is quite impossible for the kid, but with good
instruction materials combined with good nutrition, the kid could attain the average level of IQ
than he/she would have been if he/she was exposed to poor instruction materials and poor or
little nutrition.

Legaspi, Daniel John C.

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