You are on page 1of 12

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Log in / create account

Article Talk

Read Edit View history

Emotion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Main page

For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation).

Contents
Featured content
Current events
Random article
Donate to Wikipedia
Interaction
Help
About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact Wikipedia
Toolbox
Print/export
Languages
Aragons

()
Bosanski

Catal
esky
Corsu
Cymraeg
Dansk
Deutsch
Eesti

Espaol
Esperanto
Euskara
Fiji Hindi
Franais
Frysk

"Emotional" redirects here. For other uses, see Emotional (disambiguation).


Emotion is a complex psychophysiological experience of an
Emotions
individual's state of mind as interacting with biochemical (internal) and
environmental (external) influences. In humans, emotion
Affection
fundamentally involves "physiological arousal, expressive behaviors,
Anger
and conscious experience." [1] Emotion is associated with mood,
Angst
temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation. Motivations
Anguish
direct and energize behavior, while emotions provide the affective
Annoyance
component to motivation, positive or negative.[2]
Anxiety
Apathy
No definitive taxonomy of emotions exists, though numerous
Arousal
taxonomies have been proposed. Some categorizations
Awe
include:[citation needed]
Boldness
Boredom
"Cognitive" versus "non-cognitive" emotions
Contempt
Instinctual emotions (from the amygdala), versus cognitive
Contentment
emotions (from the prefrontal cortex).
Curiosity
A related distinction is between the emotion and the results of the
Depression
emotion, principally behaviors and emotional expressions. People
Desire
often behave in certain ways as a direct result of their emotional
Despair
state, such as crying, fighting or fleeing. If one can have the emotion
Disappointment
without a corresponding behavior, then we may consider the behavior
Disgust
[citation
needed]
Dread
not to be essential to the emotion.
Ecstasy
The JamesLange theory posits that emotional experience is largely
Embarrassment
due to the experience of bodily changes. The "functionalist" approach
Envy
to emotions (for example, Nico Frijda and Freitas-Magalhaes) holds
Euphoria
that emotions have evolved for a particular function, such as to keep
Excitement
the subject safe. [citation needed]
Fear
Fearlessness
Contents [hide]
Frustration
Gratitude
1 Etymology
Grief
2 Classification
Guilt
3 Theories
Happiness
3.1 Somatic theories
Hatred
3.2 Neurobiological theories
Hope
Horror
3.3 Cognitive theories
Hostility
3.4 Situated perspective on emotion
Hurt
4 Disciplinary approaches
Hysteria
4.1 Evolutionary psychology
Indifference
4.2 Sociology
Interest
4.3 Psychotherapy
Jealousy
Joy
4.4 Computer science
Loathing
5 Notable theorists

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Furlan
Galego

Hrvatski
Ido
Bahasa Indonesia
Interlingua
slenska

6 See also
7 References
7.1 Notes
7.2 Further reading
8 External links

Etymology

[edit]

The English word emotion is derived from the French word mouvoir.
This is based on the Latin emovere, where e- (variant of ex-) means

"without" and movere means "move."[3] The related term "motivation"


is also derived from the word movere.

Kiswahili

Classification

Italiano

[edit]

Main article: Emotion classification

Latina
Latvieu
Lietuvi
Magyar

Mirands
Nederlands

Norsk (nynorsk)
Occitan

Piemontis
Polski
Portugus
Qaraqalpaqsha

There are basic and complex categories, where some basic emotions
can be modified in some way to form complex emotions (for example,
Paul Ekman). In one model, the complex emotions could arise from
cultural conditioning or association combined with the basic emotions.
Alternatively, analogous to the way primary colors combine, primary
emotions could blend to form the full spectrum of human emotional
experience. For example interpersonal anger and disgust could blend
to form contempt.[citation needed] Further to this, relationships exist
between basic emotions, such as having positive or negative
influences, with direct opposites existing. The contrasting and
categorization of emotions describes these relationships.

Loneliness
Love
Lust
Misery
Panic
Passion
Pity
Pleasure
Pride
Rage
Regret
Remorse
Sadness
Satisfaction
Shame
Shock
Shyness
Sorrow
Suffering
Surprise
Terror
Wonder
Worry
Zeal
Zest (positive
psychology)
v

A distinction is then made between emotion episodes and


emotional dispositions. Dispositions are also comparable to
character traits, where someone may be said to be
generally disposed to experience certain emotions, though
about different objects. For example an irritable person is
generally disposed to feel irritation more easily or quickly
than others do. Finally, some theorists (for example, Klaus
Scherer, 2005) place emotions within a more general
category of "affective states" where affective states can
also include emotion-related phenomena such as pleasure
and pain, motivational states (for example, hunger or

Romn

curiosity), moods, dispositions and traits.[citation needed]

The neural correlates of hate have been investigated with


an fMRI procedure. In this experiment, people had their
Examples of basic emotions.
brains scanned while viewing pictures of people they
hated. The results showed increased activity in the medial
frontal gyrus, right putamen, bilaterally in the premotor
cortex, in the frontal pole, and bilaterally in the medial insula of the human brain. The researchers
concluded that there is a distinct pattern of brain activity that occurs when people are experiencing
hatred (Zeki and Romaya, 2008).


Shqip
Sicilianu
Simple English
Slovenina
Slovenina
/ Srpski
Srpskohrvatski /

Suomi
Svenska
Tagalog

Theories

[edit]

Theories about emotions stretch back at least as far as the stoics of ancient Greece, as well as Plato
and Aristotle. We also see sophisticated theories in the works of philosophers such as Ren
Descartes, [4] Baruch Spinoza[5] and David Hume. Later theories of emotions tend to be informed by
advances in empirical research. Often theories are not mutually exclusive and many researchers
incorporate multiple perspectives (theories) in their work.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Trke

Vahcuengh
Ting Vit
Winaray
emaitka

Somatic theories

[edit]

Somatic theories of emotion claim that bodily responses rather than judgements are essential to
emotions. The first modern version of such theories comes from William James in the 1880s. The
theory lost favor in the 20th century, but has regained popularity more recently due largely to
theorists such as John Cacioppo, Antnio Damsio, Joseph E. LeDoux and Robert Zajonc who are
able to appeal to neurological evidence.[citation needed]

JamesLange theory

[edit]

Main article: JamesLange theory


William James, in the article "What is an Emotion?", [6] argued that emotional experience is largely
due to the experience of bodily changes. The Danish psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar
theory at around the same time, so this position is known as the JamesLange theory. This theory
and its derivatives state that a changed situation leads to a changed bodily state. As James says "the
perception of bodily changes as they occur is the emotion." James further claims that "we feel sad
because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and neither we cry, strike, nor
tremble because we are sorry, angry, or fearful, as the case may be."[6]
This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state, a desired emotion
is induced. [7] Such experiments also have therapeutic implications (for example, in laughter therapy,
dance therapy). Some people may believe that emotions give rise to emotion-specific actions: e.g.
"I'm crying because I'm sad," or "I ran away because I was scared." The JamesLange theory,
conversely, asserts that first we react to a situation (running away and crying happen before the
emotion), and then we interpret our actions into an emotional response. In this way, emotions serve
to explain and organize our own actions to us.
The JamesLange theory has until 1953 been all but abandoned by most scholars. [8]
Tim Dalgleish (2004) [9] states the following:
The JamesLange theory has remained influential. Its main contribution is the
emphasis it places on the embodiment of emotions, especially the argument that
changes in the bodily concomitants of emotions can alter their experienced intensity.
Most contemporary neuroscientists would endorse a modified JamesLange view in
which bodily feedback modulates the experience of emotion." (p. 583)
The issue with the JamesLange theory is that of causation (bodily states causing emotions and
being a priori), not that of the bodily influences on emotional experience (which can be argued is still
quite prevalent today in biofeedback studies and embodiment theory).

Neurobiological theories

[edit]

Based on discoveries made through neural mapping of the limbic system, the neurobiological
explanation of human emotion is that emotion is a pleasant or unpleasant mental state organized in
the limbic system of the mammalian brain. If distinguished from reactive responses of reptiles,
emotions would then be mammalian elaborations of general vertebrate arousal patterns, in which
neurochemicals (for example, dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) step-up or step-down the
brain's activity level, as visible in body movements, gestures, and postures.
For example, the emotion of love is proposed to be the expression of paleocircuits of the mammalian
brain (specifically, modules of the cingulate gyrus) which facilitate the care, feeding, and grooming of
offspring. Paleocircuits are neural platforms for bodily expression configured before the advent of
cortical circuits for speech. They consist of pre-configured pathways or networks of nerve cells in the
forebrain, brain stem and spinal cord.
The motor centers of reptiles react to sensory cues of vision, sound, touch, chemical, gravity, and
motion with pre-set body movements and programmed postures. With the arrival of night-active
mammals, smell replaced vision as the dominant sense, and a different way of responding arose
from the olfactory sense, which is proposed to have developed into mammalian emotion and
emotional memory. The mammalian brain invested heavily in olfaction to succeed at night as reptiles
sleptone explanation for why olfactory lobes in mammalian brains are proportionally larger than in
the reptiles. These odor pathways gradually formed the neural blueprint for what was later to become

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

our limbic brain.


Emotions are thought to be related to certain activities in brain areas that direct our attention,
motivate our behavior, and determine the significance of what is going on around us. Pioneering work
by Broca (1878), Papez (1937), and MacLean (1952) suggested that emotion is related to a group of
structures in the center of the brain called the limbic system, which includes the hypothalamus,
cingulate cortex, hippocampi, and other structures. More recent research has shown that some of
these limbic structures are not as directly related to emotion as others are, while some non-limbic
structures have been found to be of greater emotional relevance.
In 2011, Lvheim proposed a direct relation between specific combinations of the levels of the signal
substances dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin and eight basic emotions. A model was
presented where the signal substances forms the axes of a coordinate system, and the eight basic
emotions according to Silvan Tomkins are placed in the eight corners. Anger is, according to the
model, for example produced by the combination of low serotonin, high dopamine and high
noradrenaline. [10]

Prefrontal cortex

[edit]

There is ample evidence that the left prefrontal cortex is


activated by stimuli that cause positive approach.[11] If
attractive stimuli can selectively activate a region of the
brain, then logically the converse should hold, that
selective activation of that region of the brain should cause
a stimulus to be judged more positively. This was
demonstrated for moderately attractive visual stimuli[12]
and replicated and extended to include negative stimuli. [13]

Lvheim Cube of emotion

Two neurobiological models of emotion in the prefrontal


cortex made opposing predictions. The Valence Model
predicted that anger, a negative emotion, would activate the right prefrontal cortex. The Direction
Model predicted that anger, an approach emotion, would activate the left prefrontal cortex. The
second model was supported. [14]
This still left open the question of whether the opposite of approach in the prefrontal cortex is better
described as moving away (Direction Model), as unmoving but with strength and resistance
(Movement Model), or as unmoving with passive yielding (Action Tendency Model). Support for the
Action Tendency Model (passivity related to right prefrontal activity) comes from research on
shyness[15] and research on behavioral inhibition.[16] Research that tested the competing hypotheses
generated by all four models also supported the Action Tendency Model. [17][18]

Homeostatic/primordial emotion

[edit]

Another neurological approach distinguishes two classes of emotion. "Classical" emotions including
love, anger and fear, are evoked by appraisal of scenarios fed by environmental stimuli via distance
receptors in the eyes, nose and ears.[19] "Homeostatic" [20] or "primordial" [21] emotions are feelings
such as pain, hunger, thirst and fatigue, evoked by internal body states, communicated to the central
nervous system by interoceptors, which motivate behavior aimed at maintaining the body's internal
milieu at its ideal state.[22] These demanding sensations that capture conscious attention are
coordinated from the lower or basal regions of the brain and impact diverse regions of the brain,
including the frontal lobes.[21]

Cognitive theories

[edit]

Several theories argue that cognitive activityin the form of judgments, evaluations, or thoughtsis
necessary for an emotion to occur. This, argued by Richard Lazarus, is necessary to capture the fact
that emotions are about something or have intentionality. Such cognitive activity may be conscious or
unconscious and may or may not take the form of conceptual processing.
An influential theory here is that of Lazarus: emotion is a disturbance that occurs in the following
order: 1.) Cognitive appraisalThe individual assesses the event cognitively, which cues the

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

emotion. 2.) Physiological changesThe cognitive reaction starts biological changes such as
increased heart rate or pituitary adrenal response. 3.) ActionThe individual feels the emotion and
chooses how to react. For example: Jenny sees a snake. 1.) Jenny cognitively assesses the snake in
her presence, which triggers fear. 2.) Her heart begins to race faster. Adrenaline pumps through her
blood stream. 3.) Jenny screams and runs away. Lazarus stressed that the quality and intensity of
emotions are controlled through cognitive processes. These processes underlie coping strategies that
form the emotional reaction by altering the relationship between the person and the environment.
George Mandler provided an extensive theoretical and empirical discussion of emotion as influenced
by cognition, consciousness, and the autonomic nervous system in two books (Mind and Emotion,
1975, and Mind and Body: Psychology of Emotion and Stress, 1984)
There are some theories on emotions arguing that cognitive activity in the form of judgements,
evaluations, or thoughts is necessary in order for an emotion to occur. A prominent philosophical
exponent is Robert C. Solomon (for example, The Passions, Emotions and the Meaning of Life,
1993). The theory proposed by Nico Frijda where appraisal leads to action tendencies is another
example.
It has also been suggested that emotions (affect heuristics, feelings and gut-feeling reactions) are
often used as shortcuts to process information and influence behavior. [23] The affect infusion model
(AIM) is a theoretical model developed by Joseph Forgas in the early 1990s that attempts to explain
how emotion and mood interact with one's ability to process information.

Perceptual theory

[edit]

A recent hybrid of the somatic and cognitive theories of emotion is the perceptual theory. This theory
is neo-Jamesian in arguing that bodily responses are central to emotions, yet it emphasizes the
meaningfulness of emotions or the idea that emotions are about something, as is recognized by
cognitive theories. The novel claim of this theory is that conceptually-based cognition is unnecessary
for such meaning. Rather the bodily changes themselves perceive the meaningful content of the
emotion because of being causally triggered by certain situations. In this respect, emotions are held
to be analogous to faculties such as vision or touch, which provide information about the relation
between the subject and the world in various ways. A sophisticated defense of this view is found in
philosopher Jesse Prinz's book Gut Reactions and psychologist James Laird's book Feelings.

Affective events theory

[edit]

This is a communication-based theory developed by Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano


(1996), that looks at the causes, structures, and consequences of emotional experience (especially in
work contexts). This theory suggests that emotions are influenced and caused by events which in
turn influence attitudes and behaviors. This theoretical frame also emphasizes time in that human
beings experience what they call emotion episodesa "series of emotional states extended over time
and organized around an underlying theme." This theory has been utilized by numerous researchers
to better understand emotion from a communicative lens, and was reviewed further by Howard M.
Weiss and Daniel J. Beal in their article, "Reflections on Affective Events Theory" published in
Research on Emotion in Organizations in 2005.

CannonBard theory

[edit]

In the CannonBard theory, Walter Bradford Cannon argued against the dominance of the James
Lange theory regarding the physiological aspects of emotions in the second edition of Bodily
Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage. Where James argued that emotional behavior often
precedes or defines the emotion, Cannon and Bard argued that the emotion arises first and then
stimulates typical behavior.

Two-factor theory

[edit]

Another cognitive theory is the SingerSchachter theory. This is based on experiments purportedly
showing that subjects can have different emotional reactions despite being placed into the same
physiological state with an injection of adrenaline. Subjects were observed to express either anger or
amusement depending on whether another person in the situation displayed that emotion. Hence, the
combination of the appraisal of the situation (cognitive) and the participants' reception of adrenaline or
a placebo together determined the response. This experiment has been criticized in Jesse Prinz's
(2004) Gut Reactions.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Component process model

[edit]

A recent version of the cognitive theory regards emotions more broadly as the synchronization of
many different bodily and cognitive components. Emotions are identified with the overall process
whereby low-level cognitive appraisals, in particular the processing of relevance, trigger bodily
reactions, behaviors, feelings, and actions.

Situated perspective on emotion

[edit]

A situated perspective on emotion, developed by Paul E. Griffiths and Andrea Scarantino ,


emphasizes the importance of external factors in the development and communication of emotion,
drawing upon the situationism approach in psychology.[24] This theory is markedly different from both
cognitivist and neo-Jamesian theories of emotion, both of which see emotion as a purely internal
process, with the environment only acting as a stimulus to the emotion. In contrast, a situationist
perspective on emotion views emotion as the product of an organism investigating its environment,
and observing the responses of other organisms. Emotion stimulates the evolution of social
relationships, acting as a signal to mediate the behavior of other organisms. In some contexts, the
expression of emotion (both voluntary and involuntary) could be seen as strategic moves in the
transactions between different organisms. The situated perspective on emotion states that conceptual
thought is not an inherent part of emotion, since emotion is an action-oriented form of skillful
engagement with the world. Griffiths and Scarantino suggested that this perspective on emotion could
be helpful in understanding phobias, as well as the emotions of infants and animals.

Disciplinary approaches

[edit]

Many different disciplines have produced work on the emotions. Human sciences study the role of
emotions in mental processes, disorders, and neural mechanisms. In psychiatry, emotions are
examined as part of the discipline's study and treatment of mental disorders in humans. Nursing
studies emotions as part of its approach to the provision of holistic health care to humans.
Psychology examines emotions from a scientific perspective by treating them as mental processes
and behavior and they explore the underlying physiological and neurological processes. In
neuroscience sub-fields such as social neuroscience and affective neuroscience, scientists study the
neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of
personality, emotion, and mood. In linguistics, the expression of emotion may change to the meaning
of sounds. In education, the role of emotions in relation to learning are examined.
Social sciences often examine emotion for the role that it plays in human culture and social
interactions. In sociology, emotions are examined for the role they play in human society, social
patterns and interactions, and culture. In anthropology, the study of humanity, scholars use
ethnography to undertake contextual analyses and cross-cultural comparisons of a range of human
activities; some anthropology studies examine the role of emotions in human activities. In the field of
communication sciences, critical organizational scholars have examined the role of emotions in
organizations, from the perspectives of managers, employees, and even customers. A focus on
emotions in organizations can be credited to Arlie Russell Hochschild's concept of emotional labor.
The University of Queensland hosts EmoNet, [25] an e-mail distribution list representing a network of
academics that facilitates scholarly discussion of all matters relating to the study of emotion in
organizational settings. The list was established in January 1997 and has over 700 members from
across the globe.
In economics, the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods
and services, emotions are analyzed in some sub-fields of microeconomics, in order to assess the
role of emotions on purchase decision-making and risk perception. In criminology, a social science
approach to the study of crime, scholars often draw on behavioral sciences, sociology, and
psychology; emotions are examined in criminology issues such as anomie theory and studies of
"toughness," aggressive behavior, and hooliganism. In law, which underpins civil obedience, politics,
economics and society, evidence about people's emotions is often raised in tort law claims for
compensation and in criminal law prosecutions against alleged lawbreakers (as evidence of the
defendant's state of mind during trials, sentencing, and parole hearings). In political science,
emotions are examined in a number of sub-fields, such as the analysis of voter decision-making.
In philosophy, emotions are studied in sub-fields such as ethics, the philosophy of art (for example,
sensoryemotional values, and matters of taste and sentimentality), and the philosophy of music (see

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

also Music and emotion). In history, scholars examine documents and other sources to interpret and
analyze past activities; speculation on the emotional state of the authors of historical documents is
one of the tools of interpretation. In literature and film-making, the expression of emotion is the
cornerstone of genres such as drama, melodrama, and romance. In communication studies, scholars
study the role that emotion plays in the dissemination of ideas and messages. Emotion is also
studied in non-human animals in ethology, a branch of zoology which focuses on the scientific study
of animal behavior. Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with strong ties to
ecology and evolution. Ethologists often study one type of behavior (for example, aggression) in a
number of unrelated animals.

Evolutionary psychology

[edit]

Main article: Evolution of emotion


Perspectives on emotions from evolutionary theory were
initiated in the late 19th century with Charles Darwin's
book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and
Animals. [26] Darwin's original thesis was that emotions
evolved via natural selection and therefore have crossculturally universal counterparts. Furthermore, animals
undergo emotions comparable to our own (see emotion in
animals). In the early 1970s, Paul Ekman and colleagues
began a line of research that suggests that many
emotions are universal.[2] He found evidence that humans
share at least five basic emotions: fear, sadness,
happiness, anger, and disgust.[2] Other research in this
area focuses on physical displays of emotion including
body language of animals and humans (see affect
display). The increased potential in neuroimaging has also
allowed investigation into evolutionarily ancient parts of the
brain. Important neurological advances were derived from
these perspectives in the 1990s by, for example, Joseph
E. LeDoux and Antnio Damsio.

Illustration from Charles Darwin's The


Expression of the Emotions in Man and
Animals.

Social emotions evidently evolved to motivate social


behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment. [2] For example, spite seems to work
against the individual but it can establish an individual's reputation as someone to be feared. [2]
Shame and pride can motivate behaviors that help one maintain one's standing in a community, and
self-esteem is one's estimate of one's status. [2][27]

Sociology

[edit]

Main article: Sociology of emotions


We try to regulate our emotions to fit in with the norms of the situation, based on manysometimes
conflictingdemands upon us which originate from various entities studied by sociology on a micro
levelsuch as social roles and "feeling rules" the everyday social interactions and situations are
shaped byand, on a macro level, by social institutions, discourses, ideologies, etc. For example,
(post-)modern marriage is, on one hand, based on the emotion of love and on the other hand the
very emotion is to be worked on and regulated by it. The sociology of emotions also focuses on
general attitude changes in a population. Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising,
health campaigns and political messages. Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns
and political campaign advertising emphasizing the fear of terrorism.

Psychotherapy

[edit]

Depending on the particular school's general emphasis either on cognitive components of emotion,
physical energy discharging, or on symbolic movement and facial expression components of
emotion,[28] different schools of psychotherapy approach human emotions differently. Cognitively
oriented schools approach them via their cognitive components, such as rational emotive behavior
therapy. Yet others approach emotions via symbolic movement and facial expression components
[29]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(like in contemporary Gestalt therapy).

Computer science

[edit]

Main article: Affective computing


In the 2000s, research in computer science, engineering, psychology and neuroscience has been
aimed at developing devices that recognize human affect display and model emotions. [30] In
computer science, affective computing is a branch of the study and development of artificial
intelligence that deals with the design of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, and
process human emotions. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer sciences, psychology, and
cognitive science. [31] While the origins of the field may be traced as far back as to early
philosophical enquiries into emotion,[6] the more modern branch of computer science originated with
Rosalind Picard's 1995 paper [32] on affective computing. [33][34] Detecting emotional information
begins with passive sensors which capture data about the user's physical state or behavior without
interpreting the input. The data gathered is analogous to the cues humans use to perceive emotions
in others. Another area within affective computing is the design of computational devices proposed to
exhibit either innate emotional capabilities or that are capable of convincingly simulating emotions.
Emotional speech processing recognizes the user's emotional state by analyzing speech patterns.
The detection and processing of facial expression or body gestures is achieved through detectors and
sensors.

Notable theorists

[edit]

In the late 19th century, the most influential theorists were William James (18421910) and Carl
Lange (18341900). James was an American psychologist and philosopher who wrote about
educational psychology, psychology of religious experience/mysticism, and the philosophy of
pragmatism. Lange was a Danish physician and psychologist. Working independently, they developed
the JamesLange theory , a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions. The theory states that
within human beings, as a response to experiences in the world, the autonomic nervous system
creates physiological events such as muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness
of the mouth. Emotions, then, are feelings which come about as a result of these physiological
changes, rather than being their cause.
Some of the most influential theorists on emotion from the 20th century have died in the last decade.
They include Magda B. Arnold (19032002), an American psychologist who developed the appraisal
theory of emotions; Richard Lazarus (19222002), an American psychologist who specialized in
emotion and stress, especially in relation to cognition; Herbert Simon (19162001), who included
emotions into decision making and artificial intelligence; Robert Plutchik (19282006), an American
psychologist who developed a psychoevolutionary theory of emotion; Robert Zajonc (19232008) a
PolishAmerican social psychologist who specialized in social and cognitive processes such as social
facilitation. In addition, an American philosopher, Robert C. Solomon (19422007), contributed to the
theories on the philosophy of emotions with books such as What Is An Emotion?: Classic and
Contemporary Readings (Oxford, 2003).
Influential theorists who are still active include psychologists, neurologists, and philosophers including:
Lisa Feldman Barrett Social philosopher and psychologist specializing in affective science and
human emotion.
John Cacioppo from the University of Chicago, founding father with Gary Berntson of social
neuroscience.
Antnio Damsio (born 1944) Portuguese behavioral neurologist and neuroscientist who works
in the US
Richard Davidson (born 1951) American psychologist and neuroscientist; pioneer in affective
neuroscience.
Paul Ekman (born 1934) Psychologist specializing in study of emotions and their relation to
facial expressions
Barbara Fredrickson Social psychologist who specializes in emotions and positive psychology.
Nico Frijda (born 1927) Dutch psychologist who specializes in human emotions, especially facial

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

expressions
Peter Goldie British philosopher who specializes in ethics, aesthetics, emotion, mood and
character
Arlie Russell Hochschild (born 1940) American sociologist whose central contribution was in
forging a link between the subcutaneous flow of emotion in social life and the larger trends set
loose by modern capitalism within organizations.
Joseph E. LeDoux (born 1949) American neuroscientist who studies the biological
underpinnings of memory and emotion, especially the mechanisms of fear
George Mandler (born 1924) - American psychologist who wrote influential books on cognition and
emotion
Jaak Panksepp (born 1943) Estonian-born American psychologist, psychobiologist and
neuroscientist; pioneer in affective neuroscience.
Jesse Prinz American philosopher who specializes in emotion, moral psychology, aesthetics and
consciousness
Klaus Scherer (born 1943) Swiss psychologist and director of the Swiss Center for Affective
Sciences in Geneva; he specializes in the psychology of emotion
Ronald de Sousa (born 1940) EnglishCanadian philosopher who specializes in the philosophy
of emotions, philosophy of mind and philosophy of biology.

See also
Affect
measures
Affective
Computing
Affective
forecasting
Affective
neuroscience
Affective
science
CyberEmotions
Emotion

[edit]
classification
Emotion in
animals
Emotions and
culture
Emotion and
memory
Emotional
expression
Feeling
Fuzzy-trace
theory

Sex and
emotion

Wikiversity has learning


materials about Emotion

Sociology of
emotions
Social
neuroscience
Somatic
markers
hypothesis
Affective
science#Measu
Emotions

References

[edit]

Notes

[edit]

1. ^ Myers, David G. (2004) "Theories of


Emotion." Psychology: Seventh Edition, New
York, NY: Worth Publishers, p. 500.
2. ^ a b c d e f Gaulin, Steven J. C. and Donald H.
McBurney. Evolutionary Psychology. Prentice
Hall. 2003. ISBN 13: 9780131115293, Chapter
6, p 121-142.
3. ^ Emotional Competency discussion of
emotion
4. ^ See Philip Fisher (1999) Wonder, The
Rainbow and the Aesthetics of Rare
Experiences for an introduction
5. ^ See for instance Antonio Damasio (2005)
Looking for Spinoza.
6. ^ a b c James, William. 1884. "What Is an

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

consciousness. Oxford University Press. p.10.


ISBN9780199203147.
20. ^ Craig , A.D. (Bud) (2003). "Interoception:
The sense of the physiological condition of the
body"
. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 13
(4): 500505. doi:10.1016/S09594388(03)00090-4 . PMID12965300 .
21. ^ a b Derek A. Denton (8 June 2006). The
primordial emotions: the dawning of
consciousness. Oxford University Press. p.7.
ISBN9780199203147.
22. ^ Craig , A.D. (Bud) (2008). "Interoception
and emotion: A neuroanatomical
perspective" . In Lewis, M.; Haviland-Jones,
J.M.; Feldman Barrett, L.. Handbook of Emotion

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Emotion?"

Mind. 9, no. 34: 188-205.

7. ^ Laird, James, Feelings: the Perception of


Self, Oxford University Press
8. ^ jstor.com
9.
10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

, Cornelius L. Golightly, The


JamesLange Theory: A Logical Post-Mortem.
^ Dalgleish, T. (2004). The emotional brain.
Nature: Perspectives, 5, 58289.
^ Lvheim H. A new three-dimensional model
for emotions and monoamine
neurotransmitters. Med Hypotheses (2011),
Epub ahead of print.
doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2011.11.016 PMID
22153577
^ Kringelbach, M.L.; O'Doherty, J.O.; Rolls,
E.T.; & Andrews, C. (2003). Activation of the
human orbitofrontal cortex to a liquid food
stimulus is correlated with its subjective
pleasantness. Cerebral Cortex, 13, 10641071.
^ Drake, R.A. (1987). Effects of gaze
manipulation on aesthetic judgments:
Hemisphere priming of affect. Acta
Psychologica, 65, 9199.
^ Merckelbach, H.; & van Oppen, P. (1989).
Effects of gaze manipulation on subjective
evaluation of neutral and phobia-relevant
stimuli: A comment on Drake's (1987) 'Effects
of gaze manipulation on aesthetic judgments:
Hemisphere priming of affect.' Acta
Psychologica, 70, 147151.
^ Harmon-Jones, E.; Vaughn-Scott, K.; Mohr,
S.; Sigelman, J.; & Harmon-Jones, C. (2004).
The effect of manipulated sympathy and anger
on left and right frontal cortical activity.
Emotion, 4, 95101.
^ Schmidt, L.A. (1999). Frontal brain electrical
activity in shyness and sociability.
Psychological Science, 10, 316320.
^ Garavan, H.; Ross, T.J.; & Stein, E.A. (1999).
Right hemispheric dominance of inhibitory
control: An event-related functional MRI study.
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences, 96, 83018306.
^ Drake, R.A.; & Myers, L.R. (2006). Visual
attention, emotion, and action tendency:
Feeling active or passive. Cognition and
Emotion, 20, 608622.
^ Wacker, J.; Chavanon, M.-L.; Leue, A.; &
Stemmler, G. (2008). Is running away right?
The behavioral activationbehavioral inhibition
model of anterior asymmetry. Emotion, 8, 232
249.

19. ^ Derek A. Denton (8 June 2006). The


primordial emotions: the dawning of

Further reading
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

(3 ed.). New York: The Guildford Press.


pp.272288. ISBN978-1-59385-650-2.
Retrieved 6 September 2009.
23. ^ see the HeuristicSystematic Model, or HSM,
(Chaiken, Liberman, & Eagly, 1989) under
attitude change. Also see the index entry for
"Emotion" in "Beyond Rationality: The Search
for Wisdom in a Troubled Time" by Kenneth R.
Hammond and in "Fooled by Randomness: The
Hidden Role of Chance in Life and in the
Markets" by Nassim Nicholas Taleb.
24. ^ Griffiths, Paul Edmund and Scarantino,
Andrea (2005) Emotions in the wild: The
situated perspective on emotion.
25. ^ EmoNet
26. ^ Darwin, Charles (1872). The Expression of
Emotions in Man and Animals. Note: This book
was originally published in 1872, but has been
reprinted many times thereafter by different
publishers
27. ^ Wright, Robert. Moral animal.
28. ^ Freitas-Magalhes, A., & Castro, E. (2009).
Facial Expression: The effect of the smile in the
Treatment of Depression. Empirical Study with
Portuguese Subjects. In A. Freitas-Magalhes
(Ed.), Emotional Expression: The Brain and
The Face (pp. 127140). Porto: University
Fernando Pessoa Press. ISBN 978-989-643034-4
29. ^ On Emotion an article from Manchester
Gestalt Centre website
30. ^ Fellous, Armony & LeDoux, 2002
31. ^ Tao, Jianhua; Tieniu Tan (2005). "LNCS".
Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction.
3784. Springer. pp.981995.
doi:10.1007/11573548 .
32. ^ "Affective Computing"
MIT Technical
Report #321 (Abstract ), 1995
33. ^ Kleine-Cosack, Christian (October 2006).
"Recognition and Simulation of Emotions"
on May 28,
(PDF). Archived from the original
2008. Retrieved May 13, 2008. "The
introduction of emotion to computer science
was done by Pickard (sic) who created the field
of affective computing."
34. ^ Diamond, David (December 2003). "The Love
Machine; Building computers that care." .
Wired. Retrieved May 13, 2008. "Rosalind
Picard, a genial MIT professor, is the field's
godmother; her 1997 book, Affective
Computing, triggered an explosion of interest in
the emotional side of computers and their
users."

[edit]

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Dana Sugu & Amita Chaterjee "Flashback: Reshuffling Emotions"
Ideology, Vol. 3 No. 1, SpringSummer 2010.

, International Journal on Humanistic

Cornelius, R. (1996). The science of emotion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.


Freitas-Magalhes, A. (Ed.). (2009). Emotional Expression: The Brain and The Face. Porto: University
Fernando Pessoa Press. ISBN 978-989-643-034-4.
Freitas-Magalhes, A. (2007). The Psychology of Emotions: The Allure of Human Face. Oporto: University
Fernando Pessoa Press.
Ekman, P. (1999). "Basic Emotions
". In: T. Dalgleish and M. Power (Eds.). Handbook of Cognition and
Emotion. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Sussex, UK:.
Frijda, N.H. (1986). The Emotions. Maison des Sciences de l'Homme and Cambridge University Press. [1]
Hochschild, A.R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feelings. Berkeley: University of
California Press.
Hogan, Patrick Colm. (2011). What Literature Teaches Us about Emotion
University Press.

Cambridge: Cambridge

LeDoux, J.E. (1986). The neurobiology of emotion. Chap. 15 in J.E. LeDoux & W. Hirst (Eds.) Mind and
Brain: dialogues in cognitive neuroscience. New York: Cambridge.
Mandler, G. (1984). Mind and Body: Psychology of emotion and stress. New York: Norton.
Nussbaum, Martha C. (2001) Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Plutchik, R. (1980). A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.),
Emotion: Theory, research, and experience: Vol. 1. Theories of emotion (pp.333). New York: Academic.
Ridley-Duff, R.J. (2010). Emotion, Seduction and Intimacy: Alternative Perspectives on Human Behaviour
(Third Edition), Seattle: Libertary Editions. http://www.libertary.com/book/emotion-seduction-intimacy
Roberts, Robert. (2003). Emotions: An Essay in Aid of Moral Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
Scherer, K. (2005). What are emotions and how can they be measured?
44, No. 4: 695729.

Social Science Information Vol.

Solomon, R. (1993). The Passions: Emotions and the Meaning of Life. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.
Zeki, S. & Romaya, J.P. (2008), "Neural correlates of hate", PloS one, vol. 3, no. 10, pp.3556.
Wikibook Cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience
Dror Green (2011). "Emotional Training, the art of creating a sense of a safe place in a changing world".
Bulgaria: Books, Publishers and the Institute of Emotional Training.
Swirski, Peter. (2011). "It Can't Happen Here or Politics, Emotions, and Philip Roth's The Plot Against
America." American Utopia and Social Engineering in Literature, Social Thought, and Political History. New
York, Routledge.

External links

[edit]

Online Demo: Emotion recognition from speech,


University of Patras, Wire Communication Lab

Look up emotion in Wiktionary,


the free dictionary.

Facial Emotion Expression Lab


CNX.ORG: The Psychology of Emotions, Feelings and Thoughts (free online book)
Queen Mary Centre for the History of the Emotions
Humaine Emotion-Research.net: The Humaine Portal: Research on Emotions and HumanMachine Interaction
PhilosophyofMind.net: Philosophy of Emotions portal
Swiss Center for Affective Sciences
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Theories of Emotion
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Emotion
University of Arizona: Salk Institute:
v

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

Emotions (list)

[show]

Emotion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


v

Psychology

Categories: Emotion

Limbic system

Concepts

[show]

Mental processes

This page was last modified on 25 February 2012 at 06:21.


Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of
use for details.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Contact us
Privacy policy

About Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion[25/02/2012 17:45:00]

Disclaimers

Mobile view