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Problems on Urban Drainage

1.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
2.
a.
b.
3.
a.
b.
c.
d.

(covering part of design-exercise)

An open drain with a rectangular profile, bottom width 1.60 m, water depth 0.80 m
discharges into a river.
The design flow is 1.28 m3/s. The length of the drain is 2 km. The elevation of the
upstream water level in the drain is + 2.00 m.
Determine the slope of the drain
Determine the maximum river level for a free discharge of the storm flow
Determine the river level that allows complete emptying of the drain.
What factors determine the selected roughness factor for the determination of the
velocity of flow formulae?
How much is the influence of the wall roughness on the sewer flow with regard to
condition of sewers and other factors?
An open drain has a square profile with a roughness of 75 m1/3/s in the formula of
Strickler. The bottom width is 1.00 m and the minimum water depth is 0.20 m.
Determine the slope of the drain that will permit the transport of grit with an equivalent
diameter of 0.5 mm.
Determine the rate of flow and the velocity for a water depth of 1.0 m.
A pipe drain with a diameter of 1.60 m is laid at a gradient of 0.80 o/oo.
Determine the discharge and velocity of flow in the drain when flowing full.
Determine the water depth and velocity of flow in the drain, when running 10% and 0.5%
full. (Note: 10% is for a separate system and 0.5% for a combined sewer).
What grit size can be transported for the flow conditions in questions b? The density of
the grit is 2600 kg/m3..
Explain with results of questions b and c why combined sewers are not laid self-cleansing
for wastewater.

4.

The minimum required velocity of a 0.40 m diameter sewer is 0.90 m/s, when flowing full.
determine the minimum required grade of the sewer with a roughness value in the
formula of Strickler of 75 m1/3/s.

5.

The minimum required velocity of a 0.80 diameter sewer is 0.60 m/s when flowing 3%
full. The roughness value in the formula of Strickler is 75 m1/3/s.
Determine the minimum required slope.

6.

A sewer, diameter 0.70 m, Strickler roughness 75 m1/3/s, must cope with grit transport of
0.5 mm when flowing 5% full.
Determine the gradient of the sewer and the discharge and velocity of the flow when
running full.
Determine the discharge and velocity when running 5% full.

a.
b.
7.

An open drain has a triangular profile with side slopes of 1:3 (vertical : horizontal) and a
water depth of 0.4 m. The roughness value in the formula of Strickler is 60 m1/3/s.
Determine the discharge capacity of the drain at a slope of 3 o/oo

8.

A storm drain, 0.6 m in diameter and 600 m long discharges into a canal. The roughness
value in the formula of Strickler is 75 m1/3/s.
The ground and pipe levels are:
Upper end:
Ground level at + 18.0 m
Lower end:
Ground level at + 16.0 m
Maximum water level in river at + 15.50 m
Sewer invert at + 14.00 m
1

8.

continued
Make a sketch of the sewer line and indicate the hydraulic gradient for the maximum
flow. Determine the maximum flow of the sewer.

9.

How much is the minimum diameter of a sewer of a conventional system? Explain your
answer.

Answers

a.
b.
c.
d.
e)

Open drain, rectangular profile, w = 1.60 m, h = 0.80 m, kStr = 75 m1/3/s,


Q = 1.28 m3/s, L = 2 km, Upstream WL = + 2.00 m.
R = 0.40 m v = 1.00 m/s S = 0.60 x 10-3
h = 1.20 m
Maximum water level in river: + 0.80 m.
Maximum river water level to allow emptying of drain: 0.0 m
Roughness of the wall, turbulance caused by house connections, bends, etc
The influence is 20% in relation to the usual value of roughness used in the formula of
Strickler of kStr = 75 m1/3/s, because for sewers in a bad condition kStr = 60 m1/3/s and for
pumping mains without bends, house connections, etc. kStr = 90 m1/3/s.

2.
a.
b.

Open drain, square profile, kStr = 75 m1/3/s, w = 1.00 m, hmin = 0.20 m.


= 0.49 N/m2 if f = 0.06
R = 0.143 m, Smin = 0.35 10-3
for h = 1.0 m, v = 0.675 m/s, Q = 675 L/s

3.
a.
b.

D = 1.60 m, kStr = 75 m1/3/s, S = 0.80 o/oo.


R = 0.40 m
v = 1.152 m/s
Q = 2.315 m3/s
Q/Qfull = 0.10
h = 0.34 m
v = 0.75 m/s
Q/Qfull = 0.005
h = 0.08 m
v = 0.32 m/s
Q/Qfull = 0.10
R/D = 0.1265 R = 0.202 m = 1.59 N/m2

d = 1.7 mm

R/D = 0.0319 R = 0.051 m = 0.40 N/m

d = 0.4 mm

1.

c.

Q/Qfull = 0.005
4.

D = 0.40 m, kStr = 75 m1/3/s.


For vmin = 0.90 m/s R = 0.1 m

Smin = 3.1 10-3

5.

D = 0.80 m, minimum v = 0.60 m/s at 3% filling rate, kStr = 75 m1/3/s.


For Q/Qfull = 0.03
R = 0.0585 m
Smin = 2.82 10-3

6.
a)

D = 0.70 m, kStr = 75 m1/3/s, d = 0.5 mm when flowing 5% full.


Q/Qfull = 0.05 R = 0.06461 m
Smin = 0.766 10-3
vfull = 0.65 m/s Qfull = 250 L/s
Q/Qfull = 0.05 v/vfull = 0.54 Q = 12.5 L/s
v = 0.35 m/s

b.
7.

8.

kStr = 75 m1/3/s, S = 3.0 o/oo


P = 2.53 m, R = 0.95 m v = 0.684 m/s

Q = 164 L/s

D = 0.6 m kStr = 75 m1/3/s make a sketch of longitudinal profile


S = 4.17 o/oo Q = 387 L/s