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Data is the raw fact representing the events occurring in an organization before it has been
arranged into a form one can understand.
Information is data that has already been arranged to a form that makes sense and is useful.
Information system is a system that has interrelated components working together to collect,
process, store and process information to support decision making in an organization.
Input is the raw data that is going to be used to process
Processing is where by the raw data is converted into a more meaningful form.
CPU is the area of the computer system that manipulates symbols, numbers, and letters. It is the
brain of the computer and carries out all the processing.
2. Reasons for changing from manual to computerized systems
a) To detect problem with existing system, users normally examine the output. In case a system
is not working a better system could be put in place to make it more efficient.
b) To develop a new system because of the new technology that is there.
c) Due to increasing competition in the market it is important for organizations to develop new
systems or modify the existing ones in order to have a competitive edge.
d) Most organizations have grown since the time they began and the management may decide to
develop new systems e.g. computerized pay roll.
e) The market is always the determinant as far as business systems survival is concerned hence if
an organization manufacturers product it must be able to change its method depending on
market changes.
3. Components of an information system
An information system has 5 components:
1. Hardware-this is the machine itself which includes the computer itself, which is referred
to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support equipments.
2. Software- This refers to computer programs which are machine-readable instructions that
direct the circuitry within the hardware parts to function in ways that produce useful
3. Data- are facts that are used by programs to produce useful information. Like programs,
data are generally stored in machine-readable form on disk or tape until the computer
needs them.
4. Procedures- are the policies that govern the operation of a computer system.
5. People-They influence the success or failure of information systems.

4. Computer input and output devices

Computer input are the devices through which data is entered. They are classified into
Direct data- They always capture the data at source hence errors are minimal. They include
document readers (OMR, OCR, MICR and bar code readers) digitizers.
Light pen- It is a pen like device which is light sensitive. It can be used in conjunction
with a graphic visual display unit (VDU) which must be able to sense the light shining on
the screen.
Touch sensitive screen- The finger is used to select the options instead of a light pen. It
requires no typing.
Touch screen- Allows the users to enter limited amounts of data by touching the surface
of a sensitized video display monitor with a finger or a pointer
Digitizer- It converts graphical drawings on paper into digital signals and conveys them
to go as computer input. They are used in banks for signature verification.
Indirect data- They dont capture the data at source hence they are prone to errors. They include
keyboard, mouse, and joystick.
Computer output devices give processed data to the user in either soft copy or hard copy.
a) Printer they are of two types
Impact printers print the characters by striking them on the ribbon which is then pressed on the
Non-impact printers print the characters without using ribbon. These printers print a complete
page at a time so they are also called as page printers.
b) Monitor- Also called Visual Display Unit (VDU), are the main output device of a
computer. It forms images from tiny dots, called pixels that are arranged in a rectangular form.
The sharpness of the image depends upon the number of pixels. There are two kinds cathode ray
tube and flat panel display.
c) Speakers This device gives the output via speech so one needs to listen.
5. Precautions to consider when handling magnetic disks

Write on labels before you fix them on the disks


Do not touch exposed areas such as the read/write heads


Do not bend or use paper clips on disks


Keep disks away from magnets


Do not remove a floppy diskette from the floppy drive when the drives light is on


Do not expose disks to dust

6Tasks an effective OS should accomplish

i. Resource Management: operating systems control the machine devices notably the
CPU, memory resources, secondary storage devices, telecommunications
processors, and the peripherals.
ii. System start up. The operating system that allows for the management of initial tasks
such as loading of programs and file access.

File Management : operating systems maintain directories of information about the

location and characteristics of files stored on a computer systems secondary storage
devices. It controls the storage, creation, deletion, and access of files of data and


Provision of user interface platform: Operating systems reduce the amount of

human intervention required during processing. The major types of user interfaces
are the command-driven, menu-driven, and graphical user interfaces.

v. Task Management: Operating systems manage memory and disc space with other
programs to actualize the accomplishment of computing tasks.

Provide for long term storage of user information in the form of files, and permit
system resources to be shared among users.

7 .Factors to consider when selecting hardware

a) User requirement-this depends on what output one needs.
b) Flexibility to meet new users requirement.
c) Cost of the hardware it should be cost effective in terms of initial cost and maintance.
d) Processing speed it should be able to process data fast
e) It should be compatible with software and other hardware within the system.
f) It should have networking capability so that it can be interfaced with other systems in the
8. Data processing cycle

Data processing Cycle

Organization of data
Organisation of data

Input of data

Storage of data

Processing of data

Output of information

9 Factors that influence selection of data processing

Speed-It will have effect on how much data can be processed in a given time. How
efficient will the organization meet data requirement e.g. meeting deadlines, fair service
to clients .Speed will influence the cost and the type of equipment to be adopted.
Accuracy- The level of errors made during data processing determines the reliability of
data obtained.
Volume of data- If the organization has a lot of data to be processed, then it will be
uneconomical to use a simple manual processing which will end up affecting the
organization activities.

Networks- They facilitate sharing of processing activities as well as easier transfer of data
to different location Time consumed during movement of data is also reduced.
10. Factors to consider in file design

Purpose This determines the appropriate file organization method and access method to
the file. For instance, a file used for online enquiry needs direct access and random file


The updating methods


The frequency of file access/activity/hit rate.

This is measured by the number of records that can be accessed at a given
For example, if 200 transactions are processed per day by a computer system in an
accounting depart with 800 records the hit rate is calculated by: 800 / 200 = 4
If the hit rate was high say 30, then this is suitable for batch processing/updating of a
sequential file. 30 will be a group of records that can be processed economically using
batch method.


Volatility is the rate of amending, deleting, adding or of multiplying of files.


Response time this is the time taken from when data starts to be processed to when the
output can be obtained. For example, The response time for Random processing should
be short to facilitate immediate access.


Expected file size. File size is measured in terms of the length and size of record in the
files. There are two major Record formats. They include;Fixed length format
Variable length format.


Cost Direct access storage media are usually more expensive than sequential access.