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Introduction

Siemens

Introduction

Contents
1
1.1
1.2

Overview GPRS Signaling Protocols


GPRS Signaling Planes
GPRS Transmission Plane

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Siemens

Introduction

TM3110EU01TM_0002

Introduction

Siemens

Overview GPRS Signaling Protocols

TM3110EU01TM_0002

Siemens

Introduction

The final objective of this course is to enable the participant to understand the
signaling protocols of the GPRS network for the detection of signaling errors and
inconsistencies by means of protocol tester (e.g. K1205) and GPRS tracer. For that
reason, we are going to study various GPRS relevant protocols.
The following external signaling protocols and interfaces have been defined by GSM
for the GPRS Switching Subsystem (GSS):
l

the Um-interface (air interface) between BSS and MS. For this interface only the
higher layers, terminating in the SGSN are part of the course

the Gb-interface between BSS and SGSN

the Gc-interface between GGSN and HLR

the Gd-interface between SGSN and SMS GMSC

the Gf-interface between SGSN and EIR

the Gi-interface between GGSN and Packet Data Network (PDN)

the Gn-interface between SGSN and GGSN or SGSN and another SGSN (the so
called GPRS Backbone network)

the Gp-interface between SGSN and other PLMNs

the Gr-interface between SGSN and HLR

and finally, the Gs-interface between SGSN and MSC/VLR.

Additionally, the already existing GSM-interfaces still exist: e.g. Um-, A-, C-, D-, E-, F, G-interfaces of the SSS exist. These interfaces are not part of this course and will
be handled in great detail in the GSM Signaling Protocol course TM3101.
In the first version for GPRS (GR1.0) not all interfaces are used. Therefore our closer
examination will concentrate on the interfaces and signaling procedures used for the
moment. These are the interfaces Gb, Gi, Gr. The interfaces Gs, Gd and Gn are as
well interesting from functional point of view. For that reason procedures running on
that interfaces are included even they are not realized with the first version.

TM3110EU01TM_0002

Siemens

Introduction

SMS GMSC
s

MSC/VLR

HLR/GR

C
s

D
Gd

Gr
Gc

Gs
A

Um

Gn

Gb
BSS

GPRS
backbone
(IP network)

Gn

Gf

Gp

EIR

PDN

GGSN

SGSN

MS

Gi

Gn

Other
PLMN
SGSN

Fig. 1 GPRS interfaces

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1.1

Introduction

GPRS Signaling Planes

First of all, there is the signaling plane between mobile station and the GPRS support
nodes. The signaling protocol running on the interfaces Um, Gb and Gn is called
GPRS Mobility Management and Session Management (GMM/SM).
These protocols support mobility management functionality such as GPRS attach,
GPRS detach, routing area update, etc. and session management functionality such
as PDP context activation or PDP context deactivation.

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Siemens

Introduction

xGSN
BSS

GMM/SM

GMM/SM

SM

GTP

GTP

UDP

UDP

LLC

LLC
Relay
RLC

RLC

BSSGP

BSSGP

IP

IP

MAC

MAC

Network
Service

Network
Service

RFC
1490

RFC
1490

GSM RF

GSM RF

Frame
Relay

MS

Um

BSS

Frame
Relay

Frame Relay

Gb

SGSN

Gn

GGSN

Fig. 2 GPRS signaling plane (part 1)

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Introduction

The signaling to the existing standard GSM PLMN (public land mobile network) is
based on the common channel signaling system no. 7 (CCS7). On the interfaces Gr,
Gf, Gc and Gd the Mobile Application Part (MAP) with enhancements for GPRS is
used. The layers MTP, SCCP and TCAP are the same protocols for the MAP support
as in the non-GPRS GSM PLMNs.

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Introduction

MAP

MAP

TCAP

TCAP

SCCP

SCCP

MTP L3

MTP L3

MTP L2

MTP L2

L1

L1

SGSN
SGSN
SGSN
GGSN

Gr
Gf
Gd
Gc

HLR
EIR
SMS MSC
HLR

Fig. 3 GPRS signaling plane (part 2)

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Introduction

On the interface Gs, between SGSN and MSC/VLR of the non GPRS PLMN is
realized by the Base Station System Application Part+ (BSSAP+). A subset of the
procedures of BSSAP support the signaling between SGSN and MSC/VLR. These
procedures belong to the mobility management functionality.

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Introduction

BSSAP

BSSAP

SCCP

SCCP

MTP L3

MTP L3

MTP L2

MTP L2

L1

L1

SGSN

Gs

MSC/VLR

Fig. 4 GPRS signaling plane (part 3)

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1.2

Introduction

GPRS Transmission Plane

The transmission plane has a layered protocol structure for the transfer of user
information. It includes the control procedures associated with the information
transfer, e.g. flow control, fault detection adn fault clearance.

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Introduction

xGSN
SIEMENS
NIXD
O
RF

BSS

Application
IP

IP

Relay

SNDCP

LLC

Relay

SNDCP

GTP

GTP

LLC

UDP/
TCP

UDP/
TCP

RLC

RLC

BSSGP

BSSGP

IP

IP

MAC

MAC

Network
Service

Network
Service

RFC
1490

RFC
1490

GSM RF

GSM RF

Frame
Relay

MS

Application

Relay

Um

BSS

Frame Relay

Gb

SGSN

IP

IP

RFC
1490

RFC
1490
Frame
Relay

Frame Relay

Gn

GGSN

Gi

ISP

Fig. 5 GPRS transmission plane

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Introduction

The figure on the right shows the flow of a user data packet mobile originated. On the
various interfaces the identifiers to distinguish different mobile stations and contexts
respectively are presented.

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Introduction

Gb

Um

Gn

Gi

GPRS
backbone

PDN
SIX
EM
S
E
N
N
DO
F
R

BSC
MS
User data

SGSN

BTS

GGSN

IP-Header
(IP-addr.)
RLC
(TFI)

IP-Header
(IP-addr.)

User data

User data

IP-Header
(IP-addr.)

User data

BSSGP
(TLLI)

IP-Header
(IP-addr.)

GTP
(TID)

IP-Header
(IP-addr.)

User data

IP-Header
(IP-addr.)

Store and Forward

Fig. 6 Mobile originated user packet flow

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Introduction

The figure on the right shows the flow of a user data packet mobile terminated. On
the various interfaces the identifiers to distinguish different mobile stations and
contexts respectively are presented.

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Introduction

Gb

Um

Gn

Gi

GPRS
backbone

PDN
SIE M
EN
S
NIX O
DR
F

BSC
MS

SGSN

BTS

GGSN

IP-Header GTP
(IP-addr.) (TID)
BSSGP IP-Header
(TLLI)
(IP-addr.)
RLC IP-Header
(TFI) (IP-addr.)

IP-Header
(IP-addr.)

IP-Header
(IP-addr.)

User data

IP-Header
(IP-addr.)

User data

User data

User data

User data

Store and Forward

Fig. 7 Mobile terminated user packet flow

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Siemens

18

Introduction

TM3110EU01TM_0002