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Market research report on Paddy & Market Garden Products -2009

Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Table of Contents
Page Numbers

Table of Contents 1
About IHDO 2
Preface 3

1 Background 4

2 Research Objectives 7

3 Methodology 8

4 Findings 9
4.1 Paddy Production 9
4.1.1 The varieties of seed paddy 10
4.1.2 Labours for Cultivation 10
4.1.3 Seed paddy 10
4.1.4 New Agricultural techniques 11
4.1.4.1 Organic farming 11
4.1.4.2 Post harvest techniques 11
4.1.4.3 Value added techniques 12
4.1.5 Paddy Production & Gender 12
4.1.6 Market Analysis 13
4.1.6.1 Market Segmentation 13
4.1.6.2 The Needs of the Market 14
4.1.6.3 Market Trends 14
4.1.6.4 Competitors 15
4.1.6.5 Selling Patterns 15
4.1.7 SWOT Analysis 16
4.1.8 Cost – Benefit Analysis 17
4.1.8 Value Chin Analysis 19
4.2 Production of Market Gardening 22
4.2.1 Other Field Crops Produced in Market Gardening 23

Table of Contents
Market research report on Paddy & Market Garden Products -2009
Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

4.2.1.1 Vegetables 23
4.2.1.2 Corn, Nuts & Grains 23
4.2.1.3 Fruits 23
4.2.1.4 Garden Labour 24
4.2.1.5 Seed Materials 24
4.2.2 New Agricultural techniques 25
4.2.2.1 Organic farming 25
4.2.2.2 Post harvest techniques 25
4.1.4.3 Value added techniques 25
4.2.3 Market Gardening & Gender 26
4.2.4 Market Analysis 26
4.2.4.1 Market Segmentation 26
4.2.4.2 The Needs of the Market 27
4.2.4.3 Market Trends 27
4.2.4.4 Competitors 29
4.2.4.5 Transport and Supply 29
4.2.4.6 Price Fixing Power 30
4.2.4.7 Advertisement and Motivation 31
4.2.5 SWOT Analysis 31
4.2.6 Cost – Benefit Analysis 32
4.2.7 Value Chin Analysis 34
4.3 Livelihoods activities during the off seasons 36
4.4 Field Guidance 36

5 Conclusions and Recommendation 37


5.1 Management of SARC 37
5.2 General Activities of SARC 38
5.3 General Activities of Oxfam 42

6 Annexes
Annex 1: Questionnaires 43

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Market research report on Paddy & Market Garden Products -2009
Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

About IHDO…….

The Independent Human Development Organization was formed in the


year1998. Its objective is to provide training in community development,
monitoring and Impact assessment to the Government, Non Government,
and private organizations. This Organization is specifically centred in the
capacity building of the employees of the institutions and school children.
The international Organization such as GTZ, Mercy Corps, USAID and
the local NGOs TWA, SEDOT have funded for the implementation of
these assignments. Having a vast experience in this field for the last ten
years this Organization agreed to undertake the market research on
paddy and market gardening products in the Ampara District. The
planning and preparation of inputs for the research was done in 7 days.
Nine members of the IHDO forming three groups interviewed the farmers
in all 09 SARC. These groups also interviewed mill owners, wholesalers,
middlemen and consumers. The special discussions also were made with
the Oxfam management and the SARC consultants whenever their
assistance was needed. The research was completed in four weeks of
time successfully. In this junctures we would like extend our sincere
thanks to the consultants of the SARC who rendered their immense
support in completing the field study within the stipulated time. We
present this report with pleasure.

Team of IHDO

11.01.2010

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ii About IHDO
Market research report on Paddy & Market Garden Products -2009
Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Preface

iii Preface
Market research report on Paddy & Market Garden Products -2009
Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

1. Background

Sri Lanka was one of the countries hardest hit by the tsunami. The
tsunami has devastated an estimated 70% of the coastal areas of the
island nation. The natural disaster has further aggravated the poverty and
unemployment among the people who were already living in impoverished
condition. An estimated 5% of the population were affected, including over
35000 casualties.

Oxfam GB, a member of Oxfam International, a Confederation of a 13


member Oxfam Organisation has intensified its work in Ampara District
through its dedicated office in Ampara. Oxfam has been directing its
resources to the population affected in both tsunami and conflict in
Kalmunai, Navithanveli, Sammanthurai, Irakkamam, Akkaraipattu,
Thirukkovil, Pottuvil, Lahugala, Uhana and Maha Oya Divisions. Women
in the target families are targeted with particular emphasis to assure that
the gender differentials in the impact of tsunami and conflict are effectively
responded to.

The sectoral emergency response interventions of Oxfam included


permanent shelters and public health and water and sanitation. Hundreds
of sanitary latrines were constructed. Hundreds of existing wells had
been renovated, new tube wells; common wells and agro wells had been
established. Individual dwelling houses have been constructed.

Oxfam has been supporting the target communities living in impoverished


conditions in improving their access to information, knowledge,
technology and techniques, financial resources and markets for their
goods and services. Under the livelihood promotion interventions, Oxfam
targeted the resource poor paddy and market gardening farmers worst
affected in the tsunami and conflict. The problem analysis of the paddy
and market garden indicated that the farming is no more viable
especially for small and marginal farmers. Ever decreasing yield and
exploitative credit market and market for their finished products. Further
attention in the sector, Oxfam has employed the strategic intervention of
promoting diversified alternative agriculture technology, successfully
tested in parts of South Asia. Organising community for collective and
promoting collective strength to improve their access to financial Services

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

from mainstream financial institutions and fair price markets is an over-


arching programme strategy.

Evident from the fact, Oxfam promote importance of community


ownership of development process through enabling and empowering
programme methodologies and interventions. With intense motivation and
training sessions for strategic rights based approaches to sustainable
development rather than provisioning based un-ending short-lived
interventions.

Accordingly, the interventions focused on organization of target


community around issues affecting their lives; empowerment of
community with information on their rights and responsibilities and skills to
self-manage group/organizational process; capacitating the community
groups to identify and analyse and prioritise their issues and to map
resources with Government and other organizations and effectively
represent with Government and other civil society organizations on their
issues and plan and self-manage their development processes and
access necessary knowledge, information, technology, financial resources
and fair trade markets and Government implemented social safety-net
programmes, livelihood related services and basic social services.

To sustain the community action on the above component and resultant


socio-economic impact, the 165 village-based Self Help Groups have
been federated under 9 SARC (Sustainable Agriculture resource Centre)
which legally registered as independent organization for the purpose of
serving its member. SARC has significant potentials to grow as self-
sustaining business organization to benefits its own members through
renting out agricultural machineries and equipments at an affordable cost
that contribute to reduction in the cost of production. Oxfam GB and its
Partner organization providing a handholding and empowerment support
through its Confederation federated by 9 SARC. This confederation would
work strategically positioning SARC and itself access to fair trade market,
technology and value addition, link financial institution and govt’s
programme.

Therefore, the research need to identify potential for Market Garden,


paddy and paddy based products.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

SARC’s Name, DS Division & Villages

No Villages DS Division SARC’s Name


1 Town Division – 5 Akkaraipattu SARC
Irrakkamam -2 Irakkamam Irrakkamam
2 Thandiyadi Thirukkovil SARC
Vinayagapuram – 3 Vinayagapuram
R.M.Nagar Pottuvil
3 Iddapola Maha Oya SARC Maha
Nuwaragalathenia Oya
Samagipura
Pansalagoda Lahugala SARC Lahugala
Devalayagoda
Parani Lahugala
Vinayagapuram – 4 Thirukkovil SARC
Thambiluvil – 2 Thirukkovil
Siyambalaweva Uhana SARC Uhana
Vijayapura SARC
Veheragama Confederation
4 Periyaneelavanai Kalmunai - SARC
Pandiruppu Tamil Kalmunai
Kalmunai
Natpittimunai
Maruthamunai Kalmunai -
Muslim
Savalakadai Navithanveli SARC
Annamalai Navithanveli
4th Colony
Sorikalmunai
Veeramunai Sammanthurai
5 Senaikudiyiruppu Kalmunai SARC
Thampattai Thirukkovil Thampattai
Gayathrigramam
Kannakipuram Alayadivembu

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

2. Research Objectives

• Identify market trends and characteristics [demand size, (types of)


consumers, prices, certification/quality requirements, seasonality,
demand patterns] for Paddy and market gardening-based products.
Especially on Organic / Nature farming product

• Identify the potential crops on Market garden. Especially on


Organic / Nature farming product

• Analyze consumer demand for paddy and market gardening-based


products (Especially on Organic / Nature farming product) based
on different variables such as convenience, quality requirements,
affordability and satisfaction.

• Map the market structure (value chain from suppliers to


consumers) for paddy and market gardening-based products
(Especially on Organic / Nature farming product) (one graph for
each product). This should include analysis of enabling
environment and availability of support business services.

• Identify post harvest loss reduction potential. Especially on Organic


/ Nature farming product.

• Agriculture based labour and its potential.

• Based on the above, identify market opportunities across the


different value chain and make recommendations to SARC on how
to effectively market their existing products and enter into new
production areas.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

3. Methodology

The report prepared with the following steps,

• The management of Oxfam GB were met, in order to get the


overall view of Ampara programmes and also to collect the general
Information about SARC activities.

• The secondary data in respect of the Ampara Agricultural products


were collected and analyzed.

• Discussed with the relevant programme officers of the Oxfam GB


and SARC consultants in order to identify the past activities and
got list of areas to be visited for market research.

• Defined the semi structured questions and documentation tools.

• Interviewed the farmers, mill owners and gathered the required


information.

• Interviewed the wholesalers, middlemen, retailers and consumers


at markets and collected required information.

• Conducted interviews and the discussion with the relevant


government authorities to collect information on “Oxfam GB ways
of working”.

• Collected information was analyzed and documented adopting the


triangulation process.

• The report was finalized.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

4. Findings
4.1 Paddy Production
Ampara District is one of the major paddy cultivating Districts in Sri Lanka.
Although the 09 Sustainable Agricultural Resource Centre (SARC)
includes around 50% of the DS Divisions of the District, some DS
divisions are excluded from its activities. The average acreage of Paddy
cultivation done by the farmers attached to these 09 SARC is around 4 to
5 acres per farmer.

The DS divisions included in the The DS divisions excluded from


SARC the SARC
Irrakamam Ampara

Navithanveli Damana

Kalmunai TD Dehiyathakandiya

Mahaoya Kalmunai MD

Lahugala Karaithivu

Uhana Ninthavur

Akkaraipattu Padiyathalawa

Thirukovil Sainthamaruthu

Pottvil Sammanthurai

Alaiyadivempu Addalaichenai

Around 4500 farmers who are attached to these 09 SARC are cultivating
paddy in both seasons in 30 villages. Around 4500 and 2800 farmers
involve in the paddy cultivation in Maha and Yala season respectively.
5,762 and 25,672 acres of paddy lands are being cultivated in Yala and
Maha season respectively in these villages. The framers who do
cultivation in Yala season receive water from channel and tanks.

Name of SARC Number of Paddy Cultivators

Maha Yala
Irrakamam 90 90

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Navithanveli 1950 1400


Kalmunai TD 25 20
Mahaoya 100 60
Lahugala 950 275
Uhana 875 750
Alaiyadivempu 60 60
Thirukovil 40 40
Vinayagapuram 30 25

4.1.1 The varieties of seed paddy

In the Ampara District BG 94 -1, BG 300 and AT 362 varieties of seed


paddy have been used for cultivation for the last several decades. The
continuous use of these varieties of seed paddy is maintained for the
following reasons of the farmers.

• The particular varieties of seed paddy are appropriate for these


soils.
• No special knowledge needed in respect of the seed paddy as the
same are used from ancestry
• Reasonable yield
• High demand
• These are recommended varieties of seeds by the Department of
Agriculture

4.1.2 Labours for Cultivation

Most of the farmers attached to these 9 SARC are engaging their family
members at fulltime basis for cultivation. However the labour is deployed
only for certain works such as weeding, applying of fertilizer and spraying
of chemicals etc. The adequate labour is available in the same village as
well as in the neighbouring villages.

4.1.3 Seed Paddy

Out of the total need of the seed paddy for a season, 40% of seed paddy
is obtainable from the reserved seasonal seeds of the farmers while the

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

rest of the 35% and 25% of seed paddy is received from the Agrarian
Service Centres and the business firms respectively.

25%
40%

Reserved seasanal seeds

From Agrarian Service Centres


35%

From Shops

Source of Seed paddy

According to the farmers it appears that the particular varieties of seed


paddy produces an out put of 80%.

4.1.4 New Agricultural Techniques

4.1.4.1 Organic Farming

“By adopting the organic system of paddy cultivation it can be harvested


chemical free paddy at a low cost. This is a statement of a farmer.
However it seems that only a few farmers have been adopting the organic
system of paddy cultivation. Most of the farmers utilize the organic
fertilizer only before the cultivation especially at the time of preparing the
filed. But they utilize chemical fertilizer for the next follow-up activities.

Likewise the organic fertilizer; the usage of organic pesticide also seems
to be very rare. From the farmer’s point of view it appears that the usages
of organic pesticide at the major paddy cultivation does not give the
expected yield and producing such large quantity of organic pesticide is a
time taking affair. However they consider that if there are good marketing
facilities and demands for the paddy produced by adopting the organic
system they could produce such paddy which would be a very healthy
product.

4.1.4.2 Post Harvest Techniques

The Oxfam has given some training to the farmers related to new
agricultural technology including organic system and issued new
machines and equipments such as harvesters, four and two wheeled
tractors etc. through 9 SARC. Many farmers as much as 95% use the

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

harvester for harvesting their paddy. The problems such as their time
consuming, wondering and finding more labours for harvesting is
eradicated by the use of harvester. Since the harvesters are provided by
the SARC at a low rental rate the farmers would be able to reduce their
expenses in harvesting their products. However 70% of the farmers are of
the opinion that harvesting the paddy by using the harvester does not
produce a quality paddy and instead it produces the paddy with a kind of
weed known as cono weed

Many farmers much as 90% of the 9 SARC sell their paddy to the
wholesalers and middlemen in the paddy field immediately after the
harvest and sorting. Therefore some part of work such as packing and
labelling is carried out by the wholesalers and middlemen. Since the
investment for the cultivation made by the farmers mentioned above is
very poor and most of them invest on a credit basis, they are in a position
to sell their produce immediately after the harvest. However the rest of the
10% of the farmers who invest their own money for cultivation are able to
carryout the whole post harvest techniques such as sorting, preserving,
packing and transporting, etc.

4.1.4.3 Value added Techniques

It is clear that except for a few farmers most of them do not sell their
paddy converting the same as a value added product such as rice, flour,
rice cereal etc. According to the farmers it appears that due to the
continuous involvement in the paddy field, lack of time and difficulty in
finding money for investment they are unable to involve in producing
value added product. Marketing such value added product also seems to
be a problem for certain farmers.

4.1.5 Paddy Production and Gender

Women being 5% of the cultivators involved in farming. They are


cultivating paddy with the assistance and support of their relations or
friends. Generally in every paddy field 95% of women are deployed for
transplanting of seedlings and weeding. In addition to that a 98% of the
women are contributing their service in preparing meals to those who
work in the paddy field.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

During preparing the meals for workers

During harvesting

During transplantation of seeding

During weeding

During the paddy cultivation

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Men Women

4.1.6 Market Analysis

4.1.6.1 Market Segmentation

Out of the total produce of the paddy in the whole of 9 SARC a 10% of
paddy is reserved by the farmers for their consumption and for the next
cultivation. The rest of the 5%, 25% and 60% of the paddy are purchased
by the retailers, wholesalers and the middlemen of the Ampara &
Batticaloa districts respectively and marketed as rice within and out of
these two districts.
5% 10%

25%
Consumption

Purchased by the wholesalers

Purchased by the middlemen


60% Purchased by the retailers

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

4.1.6.2 The Needs of the Market

There is a high demand for the BG 94 -1, BG 300 and AT 362 varieties of
paddy (Rice) in the Island which is being produced in the Ampara district.
Most of the people in Ampara and Batticaloa districts prefer these
varieties of rice for their daily meals. Therefore the out put of these
varieties of paddy become insufficient during the off season hence it fulfils
only 50% of the need.

There is also a high demand for the samba variety of paddy in the
Ampara and Batticaloa districts. Since the produce of samba variety of
paddy in these two districts is very low, a 90% of the need of the same is
fulfilled by bringing from other districts. Lack of knowledge among farmers
in cultivating the samba variety of paddy is the main reason for the low
quantity of produce of samba in these districts.

4.1.6.3 Market Trends

Even though the demands for the BG 94-1, BG 300 and AT-362 varieties
of paddy have increased for the last 05 years, the trend to produce such
verities of paddy seem to have decreased even now. The natural
disasters such as Tsunami and frequent floods and the unnatural
disasters like wars that prevailed for the last three decades were the
remarkable reasons for the tremendous fall in the products.

The following chart indicates the trend of selling price existing for the last
3 years.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Trends of prices for paddy varaeties

3300
3200
3100
3000
2900
2800
2700
2600
Rupees

2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800
1700
1600
1500
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2
Months

BG 94-1 BG 300 AT 362


Linear (BG 94-1) Linear (BG 300) Linear (AT 362)

4.1.6.4 Competitors

The farmers of Ninthavur, Karaithivu, Addapallam, Eravur, Poththuvil who


cultivate in a large scale like 25 to 50 acres and who are not attached to
these 9 SARC are the competitors to the framers who are attached to the
SARC. Since the farmers of Ninthavur, Karaithivu, Addapallam, Eravur,
Poththuvil cultivate a large acreage competing with them seems to be a
challenge to the farmers attached to the SARC. However since there is a
high demand for the paddy produced in the Ampara district the product of
the farmers attached to SARC also contribute to the demand in a small
scale.

4.1.6.5 Selling Patterns

Generally the farmers who do not have enough savings get money on
credit for the investments for paddy cultivation from the wholesalers and
the middlemen on condition of settling the dues immediately after the

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harvest. In addition to the money the farmers receive seed materials,


chemicals and fertilizers from them on credit basis. Since the particular
farmers have to settle their dues within the stipulated time, they are
compelled to sell their products to the particular wholesalers and the
middlemen immediately after the harvest at the rate determined by them
(wholesalers and the middlemen).

Even though the expenses incurred in connection with packing and


transporting is not met by the farmers, determining the selling price is
controlled by the wholesalers and the middlemen. It is the concealed fact
to be noticed.

Only a low percentage of farmers who are not depended on others in


investing on paddy cultivation keep the harvested paddy in their stores
until a good marketing opportunity comes and experience a good profit.

4.1.7 SWOT Analysis

Considering the strength and weakness of the farmers attached to the


SARC, it appears that the weakness is far above the strength hence it
becomes a threat.

• The Strength of the Farmers

1. Most of the farmers have their own Paddy Land


2. Has enough knowledge in the cultivation.
3. Demands are only for a certain verities of seed paddy
4. Contribution of family members.
5. The guidance, advices and other assistance of the
organizations (Example - Oxfam)

• Weakness of the Farmers

1. No permanent investments – Have to get money on credit.


2. Cultivating in a small scale.
3. Insufficient water during the Yala season.
4. The selling price is determined by the creditors.
5. New techniques are not adhered

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

4.1.8 Cost - Benefit Analysis

When analyzing the expenses and the profits in respect of the paddy
cultivation among the farmers who are attached to the SARC it is
confirmed that the expenses were same as of every farmer, even though
the soil, the yield etc differ from place to place. The chart given below
indicates the details.

Production ( ton )
Name of SARC
Maha Yala
Irrakamam 850 790
Navithanveli 8 7
Kalmunai TD 5 5
Mahaoya 861 172
Lahugala 60 45
Uhana 1112 970
Alaiyadivempu 10 8
Thirukovil 38 30
Thampaddai 25 30

The following case study is made assuming that a farmer cultivates 4


acres of paddy for Maha and Yaya seasons and the usual income and
expenses in respect of the cultivation.

In the Maha Season

• Case: 01 - Paddy Land owned by the farmer

S.No Activities Cost


01 Tilling 22,500/-
02 Fertilizer 10,000/-
03 pesticide 25,000/-
04 Seed paddy 20,000/-
05 Harvester 25,000/-
06 Labour 10,000/-
Total cost 107,500/-

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

The average harvest is 30 bags per acre

The average prize for a 65.Kg bag is Rs. 1,800/-

The total income: 30 x 1800 x 5 = 270,000/-

The average total number of man days of the employment during


the season: 50 (100 days x 4 hours)

(Assuming that only one person in the family is engaged right


through the season)

Labour wages per day: 700/-

Total labour cost: 35,000/-

Net profit: 270,000.00 – (107,500.00 + 35,000.00) = 127,500/-

Case: 02 If it is a leased Paddy Land

Rental for 5 acres of paddy land per season : 75,000/-

Net income: 270,000.00 – (107,500.00 + 35,000.00 + 75,000.00) =


52,500/-

In Yala season

If it is in the Yala season the cost of expenses is increased by 10%


(According to farmers)

Case 03: If it is an own paddy Land

Total cost: (107,500.00 + 10,750.00) = 118,250/-

The average harvest per a acre: 25 Bags

The average prize for a 65Kg bag: 2,000/-

Income from the produce : 25 x 2,000/- x 5 =250,000/-

Net profit: 250,000.00 – (118,250.00 + 35,000.00) = 96,750/-

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Case 04: If it is a leased Paddy Land

Total Cost : (107,500.00 + 10,750.00 + 75,000.00) = 193,250/-

Net profit: 250,000.00 – (193,250 + 35,000)= 21,750/-

4.1.9 Value Chain Analysis

The value chain for the paddy cultivation has been analyzed under the
following 05 levels.

1. Marketing and supplying


2. Rice and rice based products
3. Collection and Transport
4. Paddy production
5. Inputs for the paddy products.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Processor
Paddy chain in Ampara

Inputs Supplier

Local collector

Wholesalers

Consumer
Retailers
Farmer

Miller
Farming Paddy Rice & Rice
Collection &
Inputs Production Transport Based Marketing & Distribution
Production

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Agricultural Inputs

Farmers receive the required agricultural inputs such as seed paddy,


fertilizer, pesticides and weedicide from the shops situated in the towns
namely Akkaraipattu. Amparai, Kalmunai Poththuvil. Thirukkovil,
Ninthavur and Sammanthurai. They also receive these inputs from the
Agrarian Service centres of their areas as subsidies in full or part of
their needs. Sometimes farmers face difficulties in receiving quality
seed paddy. They receive Tractor, sprayers and harvesters from their
villages and neighbouring villages. They also receive these
machineries and equipments from SARC at low rental.

Collection and Transport

The wholesalers and middlemen of the Ampara district collect the


harvested paddy directly and transport them to the rice mills.

Rice and rice based products

The most of the paddy produced in Ampara district are converted into
rice at the mills in Ampara and Batticaloa districts and thereafter put for
sale. In the Ampara district 150 bags of paddy per day are converted
into rice in a rice mill. Considering the rice based products, rice flour,
rice cereal and other rice based items are produced and sold by some
marginal producers.

Marketing and supply

The rice produced in the rice mills at Ampara district of which 40% is
purchased by the wholesalers and retail dealers to be sold within
Ampara and Batticaloa districts. The rest of 60% is taken out of these
districts by the wholesalers and middle men.

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4.2 Products of Market Gardening


Around 2000 farmers attached to the 09 SARC are involved in market
gardening in 25 villages. Most of the farmers are doing market
gardening only in the Maha seasons. A few farmers out of them who
have access to water from rivers, agro wells, channels and tanks do
market gardening even in the Yala seasons. Since most of the farmers
are not accessible to water from the above sources in the Yala
seasons they do not attempt to do market gardening in the Yala
seasons. The following chart indicates the involvement of farmers
involved in market gardening in both Maha and Yala seasons.

Name of Total
S.N SARC Villages farmers Maha Yala
1 Kalminai Periyanelavanai 150 50 50
Maruthamunai
Pandiriuppu
Kalmunai
Natpittimunai
Total 150 50 50

2 Thirukkovil Vinnayagapuram 80 80 80
Munaiyoor, Thambiluvil 250 70 35
Total 330 150 115

3 Irakkamam Akkaraipattu
Illukkuchchenai 15 15 4
11th Colony 5 5
Safa Nagar 10 10
Total 30 30 4

4 Thampatai Kayaththiri Nagar


Kannakipuram 40 40 20
Shenaikudy
Thampatttai
Total 40 40 20

5 Navithanveli Savalaikadai 20 20 5
Veeramunai 30 30 20
Sorikkalmunai 50 50 10
4th Colony 250 150 250
Annamalai 200 250 150
Total 550 500 435

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6 Uhana Vijayapura 17 17 17
Siyambalawa
lerakala
Total 17 17 17

7 MahaOya Nugarakalathennai 100 100


Total 100 100 0

8 Lagugala Parani-Lagugala 800 300 500


Total 800 300 500

Grand Total 2017 1187 1141

Data: By the farmers of respective area.

4.2.1 Other Field Crops Produces in Market Gardening

4. 2.1.1 Vegetables

The vegetables such as brinjal, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, potato,


winged bean, leafy vegetables, chilli, snake gourd, mea and okra are
cultivated by the farmers of the 09 SARC. As much as 5 of the SARC
out of 9 are involved in the major cultivation in Laguhala, Uhana,
Navithanveli, Thampatai, Irakkamam DS divisions. However, some
vegetables such as Potato, Okra manico are cultivated only in a small
scale in these SARC.

4. 2.1.2 Corn, Nuts & Grains

The Corn, Nuts & Grains such as maize, groundnut, cowpea, green
gram, and black gram are cultivated by the farmers. Maize and
groundnut are cultivated in a large scale by these SARC farmers.

4. 2.1.3 Fruits

The farmers do not engage themselves very much in the production of


fruits. Only two SARC farmers out of the 9 are involved in the
production of fruits like plantain, papaw and few other varieties in a

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

small scale. However most of the farmers engage themselves in the


production of fruits such as plantain, papaw and mango only for their
family consumption.

According to the farmer’s view it appears that the following are the
reasons for farming the above other field cops in the market gardens.

• Good marketing opportunity

• Less attack of blight

• High yield

• Easy marketing

• High demand

• Farming in ancestry

Most of the farmers hesitate in farming crops such as potato,


capsicum, onion as they are not aware of the farming techniques and
the Knowledge about these crops. These crops are in need of a large
area to produce high yield, heavy attack by blight and the fluctuation in
price in the market. Therefore the farmers are reluctant in cultivating
this kind of vegetables.

4. 2.1.4 Garden Labour

There is no obstacle incurred in finding labours required for market


gardening. The labours are available adequately in the villages as well
as in the neighbouring villages. The outside labours become necessary
only during the time of harvesting. Generally the family members
involve in farming and labour is hired only during the harvest.

4. 2.1.5 Seed Materials

Most of the framers use the local seed materials for farming. Even
though the germinating ability of the local seed is comparatively low,
the farmers do not use the imported varieties of seeds as they are
unable to produce seeds from the imported varieties for the next
seasons and the cost of the same is very expensive.

In addition to their seasonal seed materials some farmers use the seed
materials from Agrarian Service Centres and shops. The SARC also
provides seed materials for the farmers when ever needed.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

4.2.2 New Agricultural technique

4.2.2.1 Organic Farming

Even though the farmers are aware of the benefits in the use of organic
farming such as high yield, increase in the fertility of the land, produce
crops to withstand the attack of blight and avoid environmental
pollution, only a few of them are using organic fertilizer and pesticides
in the market gardening. They also adopt the organic farming in a small
space as an experiment.

According to the farmer’s view it appears that preparation of organic


fertilizer and organic pesticides is a time consuming affair and it needs
vast equipments and utensils. Comparing to the effectiveness of
organic pesticides the effectiveness of chemical pesticides is very
high. Hence most of the farmers use chemical fertilizer and
pesticides.

Further more, the consumers of market garden product are unaware of


the organic farming. This main cause is the fall of the demand of the
organic farming products and made the farmers to be reluctant to
cultivate in this mode.

4.2.2.2 New Irrigation & Post Harvest Techniques

According to the farmers it appears that most of them are well aware of
the new irrigation systems such as sprinkler irrigation and drip
irrigation. Since the investment for the procurement of such related
equipments is high, most of the farmers attached to the SARC are
unable to use these new techniques. Most of the farmers are unaware
of the new techniques regarding storing and transporting of the
products.

4.2.2.3 Value added Techniques

It is understood that most of the producers in the SARC are not


interested in selling their products as a partly or fully value added
products. They neglect these techniques even though they know the
high demand for the value added products and the income derived
from it.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

4.2.3 Market Gardening & Gender

Women involved in market gardening make 50% of the farmers.


Preparing garden plots, and seed beds, watering, and weeding are
done by 70% of women. During the time of harvesting 50% of the
women are engaged. Women too are involved in the selling part of the
market gardening products

Involved in selling

Harvesting

Involved in market
gardeing

Preparing garden
plots,seed
beds,watering
&weeding

Men 0%Women20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

4.2.4 Market Analysis

4.2.4.1 Market Segmentation

10% of the product from the market gardening is used for the own
consumption of the farmers and for the sales to the villagers. The rest
of 70% and 20% of the product is sold to wholesalers and middlemen
respectively.
10%

20%
Consumption

Purchased by whole sellers

70% Purchased by middlemen

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

4.2.4.2 Market Need

The market garden product such as Vegitables, fruits, corn, nuts and
Grains produced in the Ampara district fulfil only 75% of the need of the
people of this district. In order to compensate the 25% of deficiency,
some market garden products are brought in from the villages in the
Batticaloa and Monaragale districts. Since the products brought from
these districts are comparatively good and has a high demand and are
cultivated in a major level, these products are marketed in the Ampara
district for a long time.

The vegetables so called “English vegetables” such as carrot, beetroot


leeks, cabbage, potato and onion are brought from Dambulla and
marketed in the Ampara district. When the market garden product
produced in the Ampara and Batticaloa districts are in short supply
locally, certain verities of local products are brought from Dambulla and
marketed in the Ampara district.

Kalmunai market is the main market in the Ampara district. The prices
for the local product are determined at this market. Prompt sales and
price fluctuation are the remarkable daily happenings of this market.

4.2.4.3 Market Trends

The demand for the market garden product has been increasing day by
day. However the produce of the same is inadequate to fulfil the needs.
The trend of the selling price of the product seems to be the same for
many months for the last few years.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Trends of prices for vegitables

140

120

100

80
Rupees

60

40

20

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Months

Brinjoal Snake code Better code Okra Mea

Trends of prices for chili ,manioc & ground nut

350

300

250
Rupees

200

150

100

50

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Months

Chili Manioc Groundnut

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

4.2.4.4 Competitors

Only a few farmers from the Batticaloa district are the competitors to
the famers of SARC in the Ampara District in the local products such
as Vegetables, Fruits and grains.

4.2.4.5 Transport and Supply

The farmers who involve in the market gardening transport their


products by means of bus, van, motorcycle, Three-wheeler and push
cycle. Most of the farmers take their products to the nearby markets
which are in between 02 to 35 km. They take the products to the
market daily or twice a week or once a week according to the
availability of their products and the demand in the market.

There is a high demand and the high value for the products of local
market gardening in the markets such as Kalmunai and Akkaraipattu.
However the farmers who cultivate market gardening far away from the
above markets face difficulty in finding transport facilities for their
products promptly before they start perishing. Therefore they are
unable to market their product to such big markets directly and they
take their products to the markets situated close to their villages, even
though there is high demand and high value for the products in the
markets such as Kalmunai and Akkaraipattu.

Further more these farmers do not have any basic facilities for storing
their products until a higher demand arises for their products and also
they do not have such facilities of marketing the products in a manner
of a marketable stage.

The farmers who cultivate their products close to the markets such as
Kalmunai and Akkaraipattu market their products without any
difficulties.

Whenever the demand arises for the market gardening products at the
markets in the Batticaloa Districts, such products are marketed therein
by the wholesalers and middlemen of the markets of the Kalmunai and
Akkaraipattu.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

4.2.4.6 Price Fixing Power

Some of the framers get financial assistance from wholesalers and


middlemen to invest in their farming. Most of them receive seed
materials, fertilizer, and pesticides from these wholesalers and
middlemen on credit. Therefore these farmers are compelled to sell
their products to the same wholesalers and middlemen to a price
determined by the wholesalers and middlemen in order to settle their
credits within the stipulated time.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Some of the farmers who invest on their own for market gardening and
do not face the difficulty in transporting their products take them to the
markets such as Kalmunai and Akkaraipattu in Ampara district where
there is a high demand and high value for the products of local market
gardening. During this venture the price of the product is determined by
the middlemen considering the availability of product.

4.2.4.7 Advertisement and Motivation


The farmers attached to the SARC do not take the initiative to advertise
to increase the sales of their products. They do not provide any
incentive for the purchasing of their products. However some farmers
sell their product on credit and discount and give the opportunity to the
consumers to settle the credit monthly or in instalments.

4.2.5 SWOT Analysis


Considering the strength and weakness of the farmers attached to the
SARC, it appears that the weakness is far above the strength hence it
becomes a threat.

• The Strength of the Farmers

1. Most of the farmers have their own garden


2. Since most of the gardens are situated close to the
residence of the farmers, it is easy to look after the
garden.
3. Assistance from family members.
4. Easy in acquiring the daily labours
5. The guidance, advices and other assistance of Oxfam

• Weakness of the Farmers


1. No permanent investments
2. Inadequate water supply during the Yala season.
3. No facility for storing the product until a higher demand
arises
4. No knowledge in respect of selecting the marketable
crops.
5. Lack of preservation techniques

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

4.2.6 Cost – Benefit Analysis

When a farmer was interviewed he exposed that he cultivates a few


market gardening crops such as okra (in 1/4, acre), brinjal (in 1/2,
acre), snake gourd (in 1/8, acre) and meo in (1/8 acre). Hence the total
acreage used for the cultivation of these market gardening crops by the
farmers is 01 acres. The following are the usual income and expenses
in respect of the market gardening crops product. ( 6 months )

Ploughing - 8000/= (4000 * 2)


Fertilizer - 10500/= (1500 * 7 Cwt )
Pesticide & Weedcide - 10000/=
Seed & seedlings - 3000/=

* (brinjal 1000 seedlings 1* 1000 = 1000/= , Okra ½ Kg Packet 530/= ,


Mea & snake gourd 1000/=)

Sprayer charges - 20,000/=


Harvesting charges - 6,000/=

* (1 day labour = 600 /-, 600 * 10 = 6,000/=)

Transportation - 10,000/=
Electricity - 12,000/= ( 6 months x 2,000/= )

Total cost - 79,500/=

1. Harvesting brinjal per month 4 time

/ for 4 month 16 time

Per 1/2 Acre 1 time 80 Kg

/ 16 * 80 = 1,280 Kg

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

1 Kg brinjal = 35 /=
/ 1280 Kg brinjal = 35 * 1,280 = 44,800 /=
2. Harvesting of snake gourd 5 time per month / for 4 month 20
time

1 time for 1/8 Acre.20 Kg

/ 20 * 20 = 400 Kg

1 Kg snake gourd = 35 /=

400 Kg snake gourd = 35 * 400 = 14,000 /=

3. Harvesting of mea per month 10 time

/ for 3 months 30 time

1 time for 1/8 Acre; 60 Kg

/ 30 * 60 = 1800 Kg

1 Kg Mea = 30 /=

/ 1800 Kg Mea = 30 * 1800 = 54,000 /=

4. Harvesting of okra per month 12 times / for 3 months 36 times

1 time for 1/4 Acre; 70 Kg

/ 36 * 70 = 2,520 Kg

1 Kg Okra = 30 /=

/ 2520 Kg Okra = 30 * 2520 = 75,600 /=

brinjal - 44800 /=
Snake gourd - 14000 /=
Mea - 54000 /=
Okra - 75600 /=
Total Income - 18, 8400 /=

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Average total earned man days 68 (180 days * 3 hours)


Labour charge per day 700 /-

Total Labour charge 700 /- * 68 /- = 47600 /=

Net profit; = 188400 /- – (47,600.00 + 79,500.00)


= 188,400.00 - 127100.00
= 61,300 /-

4.2.7 Value Chain Analysis

The value chain for the market garden products has been analyzed
under the following 03 levels.

1. Farming inputs
2. Production
3. Marketing & Distributions

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Market Garden Products chain in Ampara

Inputs Supplier

Consumer
Retailers
Farmer

Farming Production Wholesalers Marketing & Distribution


Inputs

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

Agricultural Inputs

The required agricultural inputs for the market gardening such as seed
materials, seedlings, fertilizer, pesticide and weedicide are received
from the shops situated in the towns namely Akkaraipattu, Amparai,
Kalmunai, Poththuvil, Thirukkovil, Ninthavur and Sammanthurai.
Farmers also use their preserved seasonal seed materials for the
cultivation.

Farmers use four-wheeled and two wheeled tractors for tilling the land.
They hire them from their villages and the neighbouring villages. Few
of the farmers receive tractors from SARC at low rental.

Marketing and supplying

The farmers who involve in market gardening in a major level and


cultivate their products close to the markets such as Kalmunai and
Akkaraipattu markets do not sell their product to the retailers. They
take these products directly to the markets in Kalmunai and
Akkaraipattu and sell it to the customer wholesalers and middlemen.
The farmers who involve in market gardening in minor level sell their
products to retailers and the villagers. During the time of harvest these
farmers market their product at nearby markets in their villages.

4.3 Livelihood activities during the off seasons


The farmers involve in poultry and cattle farming during the off seasons
and whenever they have time. Since most of them do both poultry &
cattle farming and paddy cultivation in parallel, they are able to give
their most concern in the livelihood activities during the off season.
Since their income appears to be very poor during the off seasons they
manage to run their family from their savings.

4.4 Field Guidance & Advice


SARC provides necessary guidance and advices to the farmers
through the frequent field visits in addition to the supply of Machineries
and equipments to enable them to do farming effectively. The guidance
and advices of the officials of the Department of Agriculture and the
Department of Agrarian Service are also very much expected by the
farmers

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

5 Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Management of SARC

ƒ The management of each SARC may adjoin the following


innovative ideas to promote the farming in the villages and enhance
the income of the farmers in the following manner.

o Appointing a technical person related to Agriculture at the


village level who will instruct, guide and have a regular
monitoring of the cultivations. This arrangement will result in
a good yield.

o Appointing a person expert in the marketing management


who will guide the farmers in an appropriate manner of
marketing their product.

o Maintain the existing machineries and equipments in a good


condition and ensure that they are kept ready in a working
condition whenever the need of it is required by the farmers.

o Find the possibilities of increasing the numbers of the exiting


machineries and equipments and new modernized
machineries to enable the farmers to engage in the smooth
cultivation.

o Provide transport facilities for the products.

o SARC has to make available the quality seeds, fertilizers,


pesticides and other required in puts to enable the farmers
acquire them easily at a reasonable price.

o SARC can take the necessary steps to provide the


agricultural inputs to be supplied on a credit basis under
conditions.

o The action to be taken to mobilize the farmers who have so


far not registered themselves in the Farmer’s Pension
Scheme.

o Since women are involved in farming they should be


included in the administrative structure in order to maintain
the gender balance.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

5.2 General Activities of SARC

ƒ Organize a network system: In the interest of the farmers SARC


may take step to organize a network system by which the farmers
would be able to acquire the followings benefits.

o This will help the farmers to communicate with each other


regarding their field activities. Through this system,
considering enhancement of their income the farmers could
negotiate among them and come to a conclusion to draw a
plan as to which, when and by whom the product to be
cultivated during each season, avoiding cultivating the same
product by all of them. This will ensure the continuous
availability of all verities of product and acquire the same in a
reasonable price. This will avoid sudden fluctuation of the
product as well as the price whenever unexpected loss
incurred in certain areas.

o The farmers can get the information in connection with the


day to day demand and price fluctuation on their products
and also share the data among them. This will help probably
the farmers to increase the demand of their product and
determine the price by themselves for the same and reduce
the interference of the wholesalers and middlemen in
determining the price of their product.

ƒ Marketing Arrangements: SARC may find the possibilities to


arrange marketing facilities to the farmers attached to the SARC.

o Arrange a special market in a separate places for the sales


of the product of it’s farmers or group the SARC farmers in a
separate place in the exiting markets.

o Advertise or make people aware of such a special market by


providing them programmes and leaflets.

ƒ Organic Farming: It is clear that the SARC of respective DS


divisions has provided trainings and awareness programmes in
respect of organic farming in order to motivate the farmers.
However the followings are expected to be carried out for promoting
organic farming.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

o The framers have to be induced to carry out organic farming


through the continuous instructions and demonstrations as
the current involvement of the farmers seems to be poor.

o The arrangement has to be taken to install special markets in


each SARC or direct the farmers to enable them to access
the existing markets for marketing organic product as well as
organic inputs such as fertilizer and pesticide to motivate
them for their fullest involvement in producing such a
product.

o Provide follow up trainings and awareness programmes and


make necessary arrangements to enable the farmers to
acquire loans from the respective creditors to promote the
product.

ƒ Absorption of Farmers into SARC: Considering the followings, it


has become necessary to absorb the farmers who are not members
of SARC so far.

o Develop the cooperation and good relationship among the


farmers to do their farming activities perfectly.

o Avoid imbalance among the farming societies and bring up


trust in each other and develop a helping mind.

o Competitors can be irradiated.

o Cooperation of farmers will restrict the involvement of the


wholesalers and middlemen in the activities of the farmers.

ƒ Regular Meetings: Regular meetings and discussion is inevitable


for promoting the cultivation in the each SARC. Hence conduct
regular meetings gathering of the officials from the department of
agriculture, agrarian service, mill owners and the representatives of
farmers will carryout the followings.

o There will be cooperation and coordination among them.

o Could ensure the regular attendance of the officials of the


department of agriculture and agrarian service in the field.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

o Some important information such as the actual demand for


the product and its qualities could be obtainable from the mill
owners through these meetings.

ƒ Paddy Land Development: A few of the paddy land seems to be


uneven. Such lands have to be reclaimed for a better harvest and
acquire quality paddy. The followings may be considered as a
suggestion for making such lands for a better condition.

o Farmers to be made aware of such a short comings existing


in their paddy field.

o SARC may make necessary arrangement to enable the


particular farmers to acquire some loans from the creditors or
provide its money on credit basis for the reclamation of the
lands.

ƒ Promoting the Cultivation of Samba Variety of Paddy:

Most of the farmers in the Ampara district cultivate BG 94-1 variety


of paddy for which there is a high demand and being desirable by
the consumers of the district. However a few of the farmer in this
district cultivate samba variety of paddy for which too a high
demand and high price in the district.

Ampara district contains appropriate soil for the cultivation of samba


variety of paddy. Since most of the farmers are not aware of the out
put and value of this variety, they refrain from cultivating this variety
and it creates an opportunity to transport the same from
Polannaruwa district due to the high demand for it in the local
areas.

Hence the steps have to be taken to conduct the awareness


programmes to make the local farmers be aware of the technique,
demand and value of the samba variety of paddy.

ƒ Promoting Highland Corps:

Fruits

There are enough resources for the cultivation of highland crops in


the Ampara district. Even though the soil in the certain area is
appropriate for highland crops, especially for the produce of

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

pineapple plantain and papaw, most of the lands contain with such
fertile soil are kept idle with out cultivation. Therefore the 80% of the
need of the villages have to be brought from Dambulla.

Cultivation of Onion

The soil in certain area in Ampara district such as Thampattai,


Navithanveli are in favour of cultivation of onion. According to the
farmer’s view it appears that they are in need of a large area and
more investment for cultivating onion. Since the farmers refrain from
cultivating onion, the consumers have to depend on the product
from the other districts.

Vegetables

According to the officials from the department of agriculture and


some experienced farmers it appears that fertile and suitable soil for
the cultivation of capsicum and potato in certain DS divisions in the
Ampara district. laguhala, Mahaoya and Ugana are the remarkable
places for the cultivation of these vegetables.

Hence it would be a very worthy attempt if the farmers in the area


as mentioned above in the Ampara district being motivated for
cultivating such a demand full highland crops which would enhance
their income and also fulfil the need of the consumers in the
Ampara district.

ƒ Value added Product:

Compared to the involvement of the farmers in cultivating paddy


and other field crops, the involvement in the value added product is
seem to be very low. There is a high demand for dried chilli, rice
flour and dried vegetables in the Ampara district. Since the local
product is inadequate, these products are brought from other
districts.

SARC may take necessary steps to promote the value added


product by conducting the awareness programme to the identified
farmers. SARC may also promote this product by making the
vulnerable women involve in this field providing them some
fundamental assistance such as soft loans, trainings and coaching.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

5.3 General Activities of Oxfam

ƒ Oxfam may take action to complete all the infrastructures such as


seed processing centres and rice mills etc.

ƒ Ensure the usage and maintenance of the existing machineries and


equipments supplied to SARC and finding the possibilities to
increase the numbers of such machineries and equipments.

ƒ Conduct a proper monitoring and supervision on the activities of the


SARC

ƒ Wherever possible construct stores that could accommodate at


least 75%of the product of SARC.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

6. Annexes
6.1 Questionnaires

6.1.1 Questionnaire Market garden

Market Research on Production in Market Garden

Name of SARC;: ………………………………………..

Name of villages that come under SARC?

1. ………………………………………………….

2. ………………………………………………….

3. ………………………………………………….

4. ………………………………………………….

1. How many farmers are there in these villages? Out of them how many
farmers are doing Market gardening?

The farmers those who are


Villages Total Farmers doing Market Gardening
Maha Yala
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

2. How long have you been doing market garden? ………………………

3. What are the verities of highland crops being cultivated?

S.No Vegetable Yes/No S.No Vegetable Yes/No


Crop Crop
1 Brinjal 10 Vegetable
Cowpea
2 Beans 11 Chillie
3 Okra 12 Big onoin
[Bandakka]

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

4 Gourds 13 Red onion


5 Pumpkin 14 Cabbage
6 Radish 15 Capsicum
7 Tomato 16 Cucumber
8 Winged bean 17 Potato
9 Leafely 18
vegetable
S.No Cereals Yes/No S.No Legumes Yes/No
1 Maize 1 Cowpea
2 Millets 2 Green gram
3 3 Black gram
4 4 Ground nut
5 5 Soyabean
6 6
7 7

4. The reasons for selecting these crops

1. Good marketing opportunity


2. High yield
3. Easy access to marketing
4. No need for excel technical knowledge
5. compiled to less decease attack
6. Any other reasons

5. In which seasons the following of crops are cultivated and the extent of the
same

S.No Verities Extent in Season (Month)


of crops Acre
8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

6. The means of water supply to your market garden?

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

A Yala season B Maha season


1 Agro well 1 Agro well
2 Tank 2 Tank
3 Channel 3 Channel
4 Rain water

6.1 If cultivated only in Maha season, the reason for not cultivating in Yala
season

………………………………………………………………………………

7. The quantity of vegetables produced monthly from the market gardens


in SARC?

Out of the total produce what quantity of vegetables are marketed?

No. Verities of Maha Yala


Vegetable / Fruits Produce Marketed Produce Marketed
1

8. To which villages or Towns your produces are marketed and the mode of
transport of the same

8.1 To which villages / Towns and mode of transport

Villages / Towns Distance Mode of Transport

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

8.2 To whom your products are sold?

Market segment %
1 Within the village
2 To whole seller
3 To retailer
4 Through Brokers and Suppliers
5 Others

8.3 When do you market your produce?

1. Daily
2. Twice a day
3. once a week
4. others
8.4 When do the consumers prepare to purchase your goods?

ƒ Daily
ƒ Once a week
ƒ once a month
ƒ other

9. Who are the competitors in your business?


1.
2.
3.
9.1 What are the market techniques of your competitors?
1. Low in prise
2. High quality
3. Discounts
4. Money after sales
5. Better Transport facilities
6. others
9.2 The produces which were marketed by yourself and your competitors in
the year 2008 and 2009

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

By yourself

S.No Produces 2008 2009


Maha Yala Maha Yala
1

By competitors

S.No Produces 2008 2009


Maha Yala Maha Yala
1

9.3 Who determines the prise of your produces?


ƒ By competitors
ƒ By our self
ƒ By other means

9.4 If the price is fixed by you how do you determine?


1. According to the production cost
2. Proposed price
3. Marketing price (Determines comparing the other’s Prices)
4. Fixing less than the prise of competitors
5. by other means

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

10. The trend of prises of your produces in the year 2008 & 2009

Produces 2008 2009


Maha Yala Maha Yala

11. Do you advertise your products? (Yes / No)

If yes the mode advertisement

1.
2.
3.
4.
12. Have you introduced any promoting methods for increasing your
business? Yes/No

If yes, what are the promoting methods?

1.
2.
3.
4.

13. The average amount of investments needed for marketing per acre?

……………………………………………………………………….

13.1 The income received from selling an acre of produce?

………………………………………………………………………

13.2 How many man days needed for doing market garden per an acre?

………………………………………………………………………

13.3 How many hours you work at the garden per a day?

……………………………………………………………………….

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

13.4 What is the labour rate in your village?

……………………………………………………………………….

14. Where do you get the labourers for your Market Garden?

1. From family members


2. Daily paid labourers
a. From the village
b. From out of village

14.1 If daily paid labourers are occupied the availability of them

1. Adequately
2. Not adequately
3. Very rare

14.2 What is the reason for none availability of labourers in your Village?

…………………………………………………………………………………

14.2 If the labourers are brought from the out of the village what are
advantages and disadvantage?

Advantages
1.
2.
3.
4.

Disadvantages
1.
2.
3.
4.

15. Do you apply the new technology in your Market garden? Yes / No

If yes there are

1. Utilize the recommended and profitable more yielding crops

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

2. Selecting the crops in accordance with the soil


3. Utilisation of fertilizer
4. Utilisation of pesticides
5. Post harvest technique
If not, the reason for not applying the technology on irrigation?

…………………………………………………………………………………

15.1 Do you apply the Organic Technique in your Market Garden?

S.No Organic Technique Used In a small Not used


fully scale
01 Utilization of Organic
fertilizer
02 Utilization of Organic
pesticides

15.2 If used fully or in a small scale how many farmers are utilizing these
Techniques?

Quantity Number of Farmers

1. Used fully .................


2. In a small scale .................
15.3 What are the benefits acquired by applying the Organic Technique?

1.
2.
3.

15.4 If not what are the reason for not applying the Organic Technique?

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15.4 Are you aware of the post harvest techniques? Yes / No

If yes what are the techniques being practised during the time of harvesting,
transporting goods to market and storing the same?

………………………………………………………………………………

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

15.6 What is the percentage of out of 1 Kg. goods and how quantities of goods
become suitable for selling in between the time of harvesting and
marketing?

……………………………………………….

16. Are you aware of the new technology of irrigation? Yes / No

If yes how many farmers are applying the new technology on irrigation?

New technology on irrigation Number of Farmers

a. Drip irrigation system .................


b. Sprinkler irrigation system .................

If not, the reason for not applying the technology on irrigation?

• Initial investment is high


• We un aware of the new technology
• We are not interested with the new technology

17. Do you apply the value adding techniques before marketing the produce?

1. Clearing
2. Sorting
3. Packing
4. Labelling
5. Others
18. Availability of services those are required for strengthening your market
Garden?

18.1 Availability of Tractor facilities for ploughing Garden and other purpose.

1. Adequately
2. Inadequately
3. Very rare

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

18.2. From where do you receive the seeds that are needed for your market
Garden?

1. Using our own seedlings


2. From a shop in our village
3. From Agrarian Service Centre
4. From a shops out of our village
18.3 The seeds/seedling you prefer

1. Local
2. Out of Country
18.4 What is your opinion in respect of the yielding capacity of the seeds that
you use?

…………………………………………………………………………………

Advices /Guidance/Facilities /Technology Transfer

18.5 Department of Agriculture

• Inspecting the garden and giving necessary instructions


• Introducing new technology
• Conduct Tanning class/Arraigning the Exposure visit
• Presenting immediately whenever urgent and providing advice
• Maintaining the social relationship

18.6 Department of Agrarian Service

• Providing inputs
o Fertilizer
o Seeds materials
o Agro Chemicals
• Attending to the land disputes
• Irrigating water from the minor tanks and maintenance of the tanks
• Organizing meetings before and after cultivation

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

18.7 Agricultural Insurance board

• Introducing the pension scheme for farmers and promoting the same
• Getting the crops insured
• Paying compensation in case of any losses

18,8 Department of Irrigation

• Maintenance of channels
• Confirming the continuous water supply/ Handling the shortcomings
• Repairing the tanks /Maintaining the same
• Organizing meetings before and after cultivation

18.9 Is an electricity facility available in your garden?

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

6.1.2 Questionnaire Market garden

Market Research on Paddy Production

Name of SARC;: ………………………………………..

Name of villages that come under SARC?

5. ………………………………………………….

6. ………………………………………………….

7. ………………………………………………….

8. ………………………………………………….

5. How many farmers are there in these villages? Out of them how many
farmers are doing Paddy cultivation?

The farmers those who are doing


Total
Villages Paddy cultivation
Farmers
Maha Yala
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

6. How long have you been doing Paddy cultivation?


………………………

7. What are the verities of paddy being cultivated?

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8. The reasons for selecting these verities

8. Good marketing opportunity

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

9. High yield
10. Easy access to marketing
11. No need for excel technical knowledge
12. compiled to less decease attack
13. Any other reasons
5. In which season paddy cultivations are carried out and the extent of the
same

S.No Village
Extent in Acer

Maha Yala

6. The means of water supply to your paddy cultivation?

A Maha season B Yala season


1 Rain water 1 Agro well
2 Channel 2 Tank
3 Channel

14. What quantity of paddy is harvested? Out of it what quantity of paddy


is marketed?

No. Village Maha Yala


Harvest Marketed Harvest Marketed
1

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

7.1 The means of harvest

ƒ Machineries
ƒ Labourers

7.2. The demand of harvested paddy

ƒ Paddy harvested by using Machineries


ƒ Paddy harvested by using Labourers

7.3. How do you sell the paddy?

ƒ Immediately after the harvest


ƒ After storing
7.4 Where do you get the labourers for your paddy cultivation?

3. From family members


4. Daily paid labourers
a. From the village
b. From out of village

7.5 If daily paid labourers are occupied the availability of them

4. Adequately
5. inadequately
6. Very rare

7.6 What is the reason for the none availability of labourers in your Village?

…………………………………………………………………………………

7.6 If the labourers are brought from the out of the village what are
advantages and disadvantage?

Advantages

1.
2.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

3.
4.

Disadvantages

1.
2.
3.
4.

8. To which villages or Towns your produces are marketed and the mode of
transport of the same

8.1. To which villages / Towns and mode of transport

Villages / Towns Distance Mode of Transport

8.2 To whom your products are sold?

Market segment %
1 Within the village
2 To whole seller
3 To retailer
4 Through Brokers and Suppliers
5 Others

10. Who are the competitors in your business?

4.
5.
6.
7.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

10.1 What are the market techniques of your competitors?

7. Low in prise
8. High quality
9. Discounts
10. Money after sales
11. Better Transport facilities
12. others

10.2 The produces which were marketed by yourself and your competitors
in the year 2008 and 2009

By yourself

S.No Produces 2008 2009


Maha Yala Maha Yala
1

By competitors

S.No Produces 2008 2009


Maha Yala Maha Yala
1

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

10.3 Who determines the prise of your produces?


ƒ By competitors
ƒ By our self
ƒ By other means
10.4 If the price is fixed by you how do you determine?
6. According to the production cost
7. Proposed price
8. Marketing price (Determines comparing the other’s Prices)
9. Fixing less than the prise of competitors
10. by other means

10. The trend of prises of your produces in the year 2008 & 2009

Verities of Paddy 2008 2009


Maha Yala Maha Yala

16. Do you advertise your products? (Yes / No)

If yes the mode advertisement

1.
2.
3.

17. Have you introduced any promoting methods for increasing your
business? Yes/No

If yes, what are the promoting methods?

1.
2.

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

3.
4.
18. The average amount of investments needed for paddy cultivation per
acre?

……………………………………………………………………….

18.1 The income received from selling an acre of produce?

………………………………………………………………………

18.2 How many Man days needed for doing paddy cultivation per an
acre?
………………………………………………………………………

18.3 How many hours you work at the paddy field per a day?

……………………………………………………………………….

18.4 What is the labour rate in your village?

……………………………………………………………………….

19. Do you apply the new technology in your paddy cultivation? Yes / No

If yes there are

1. Utilize the recommended and profitable more yielding paddy


2. Selecting the paddy in accordance with the soil
3. Utilisation of fertilizer
4. Utilisation of pesticides
5. Post harvest technique
14.1. Do you apply the Organic Technique in your paddy cultivation?

S.No Organic Technique Used In a small Not used


fully scale
01 Utilization of Organic
fertilizer
02 Utilization of Organic
pesticides

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

14.2. If used fully or in a small scale how many farmers are utilizing these
Techniques?

Quantity Number of Farmers

1. Used fully .................


2. In a small scale .................
14.3 What are the benefits acquired by applying the Organic Technique?

1.
2.
3.

14.4 If not what are the reason for not applying the Organic Technique?

ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ

14.5. Are you aware of the post harvest techniques? Yes / No

If yes what are the techniques being practised during the time of harvesting,
transporting goods to market and storing the same?

………………………………………………………………………………

14.6. What is the percentage out of 1 Kg. goods and what quantities of goods
become suitable for selling in between the time of harvesting and marketing?

15. Do you apply the value adding techniques before marketing the produce?

1. Clearing
2. Sorting
3. Packing
4. Labelling
5. Others

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

16. Availability of services those are required for strengthening your paddy
cultivation?

16.1 Availability of Tractor facilities for ploughing paddy field and other
purpose.

1. Adequately
2. Inadequately
3. Very rare
16.2. From where do you receive the seeds that are needed for your paddy
cultivation?

1. Using our own seeds


2. From a shop in our village
3. From Agrarian Service Centre
4. From a shops out of our village
16.3 What is your opinion in respect of the yielding capacity of the seeds that
you use?

…………………………………………………………………………………

Advices /Guidance/Facilities /Technology Transfer

16.4. Department of Agriculture

• Inspecting the paddy cultivation and giving necessary instructions


• Introducing new technology
• Conduct Tanning class/Arraigning the Exposure visit
• Presenting immediately whenever urgent and providing advice
• Maintaining the social relationship

16.5 Department of Agrarian Service

• Providing inputs
o Fertilizer
o Seeds materials
o Agro Chemicals

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Market Research Report for Paddy & Market Garden Products

• Attending to the land disputes


• Irrigating water from the minor tanks and maintenance of the tanks
• Organizing meetings before and after cultivation

16.6. Agricultural Insurance board

• Introducing the pension scheme for farmers and promoting the same
• Getting the paddy field insured
• Paying compensation in case of any losses
16.7. Department of Irrigation

• Maintenance of channels
• Confirming the continuous water supply/ Handling the shortcomings
• Repairing the tanks /Maintaining the same
• Organizing meetings before and after cultivation

16.8 Is an electricity facility available in your garden?

64