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V S L

C O NS T R U C T I ON

S Y ST E M S

P O S T- T E N S I O N I N G
S T AY

C A B L E S

GROUND ANCHORS
R E TA I N E D
H E AV Y

EAR T H

LIFTING

C L I M B F O R M
B A R

S Y S T E M S

STRUCTURALBEARINGS

The Company
VSL s special construction
systems have been used
throughout the world since
1956. They are technically
proven and have earned a
well-deserved reputation for
their quality and reliability.
This has led to VSL becoming
a recognised leader in the field
of special construction
systems/methods and related
engineering.

Post-Tensioning is VSL s core


Grand Central Tower - South Africa
business. Multistrand and
monostrand systems are used in
every area of concrete construction,
where prestressing forces are
introduced into the structure once the concrete
has hardened. Complying with national and
international standards, they are approved in
every country where the use of post-tensioning
requires official certification.
The post-tensioning principle is also applicable to
stay cables, external cables, as well as ground
anchors using strand or bar systems.
VSL s understanding of prestressing has also led to
the development of the VSL Heavy Lifting system
which provides safe and cost-saving solutions for
lifting, lowering and horizontal jacking of large and
heavy loads.

Avignon Viaduct - France

Schlund Roundabout - Switzerland

This publication represents a summary of


VSL s special construction systems and includes
essential design and construction information.
Technical data and dimensions of anchorages,
cables and equipment are given in the annexe.

A4 Motorway - Poland

Further details concerning the use of the various


construction systems can also be found in a number
of technical publications available from your local
VSL representative or any VSL office.
VSL operates as a transnational group of companies.
Its subsidiaries and licensees are organised into
closely co-operating regional units.
Our customers directly benefit from the continuing
development of VSL s special construction methods
and from the exchanges of information taking
place within the VSL Network.
This means that our customers
have local access to all the
resources and expertise
provided by the VSL Group.

VSL Companies are able to execute all works using


VSL personnel and equipment.
This involvement includes appropriate technical
consultancy and support during planning and
construction phases.
VSL s services can include feasibility studies,
preliminary designs and alternative proposals,
as well as structural design assistance.
These services aim to provide fully customised
solutions adapted to customer requirements.
We offer our customers the strength and
flexibility of our world-wide network.
Our goal is to be your privileged partner and
help find the best-adapted solutions to your
particular needs.

VSL also provides a


comprehensive set of
professional services able
to meet the specific
requirements of a wide
range of special construction
engineering.

Charles de Gaulle Bridge - Paris,France

Wadi Leban Stay Cable Bridge - Saudi Arabia

Multistrand Post -Tensioning


The VSL Multistrand system is characterised by the
following features:
standardised tendon units using up to
fifty-five 13-mm (0.5) or 15-mm (0.6) diameter
strands;
wide selection of anchorage types;
TM
steel or plastic PT-PLUS ducts;
cement or other types of grouting;
tendons manufactured on-site
or in the factory;
no need to determine tendon length
in advance;
simultaneous stressing of all strands in a
tendon, with individual locking of each strand
at the anchorage point;
stressing carried out in any number of phases;
simple and reliable equipment for
installation, stressing and grouting.

VSL Multistrand System Components

VSL Anchorages
Technical data and dimensions are given in the annexe.
For reasons of clarity and simplicity, spirals are not shown in the pictures. However, they form an integral
part of the anchorage and are required to control local zone stresses. For more detailed information, see
VSL s Report Series on Detailing for Post-Tensioning.
Our SO and SK anchorages, as shown on page 13, are standard for slab post-tensioning. They are also
often used for bridges (transversal post-tensioning) and other structures.

Stressing Anchorage: VSL Type CS 2000

Grout connection

CStrumpet

This revolutionary anchorage has a composite bearing plate


(metal - high performance concrete) and is lighter,
smaller and easier to handle. It comes in 3 different
configurations: CS 2000 - STANDARD for normal
applications, CS 2000 - PLUS using VSL s PT-PLUSTM duct
system for enhanced corrosion protection or improved
fatigue resistance, and CS 2000 - SUPER able to provide
an electrically isolated tendon. Equipped with an additional
retainer plate, the CS 2000 anchorage can also be used as
dead-end anchorage.

Duct
Bearing plate
Anchor head

Protection cap

Wedges
Strands

Stressing Anchorage: VSL Type Ec


This compact and easy to handle anchorage system allows prestressing force to be transferred through
two flanges. If necessary, the spiral can be replaced by suitably laid out orthogonal reinforcements.
Equipped with an additional retainer plate, the Ec anchorage can also be used as a dead-end anchorage.

Grout connection
Anchor head

Duct
Bearing plate (casting)

Wedges
Strands

Stressing Anchorage: VSL Type E


The prestressing force is transferred to the
concrete by a bearing plate. If necessary,
the spiral can be replaced by suitably laid
out orthogonal reinforcements.

Equipped with an additional retainer plate, the


E anchorage can also be used as a dead-end
anchorage.
Grout tube

Bearing plate (steel)


Anchor head
Wedges
Strands

Duct
Sleeve

Multistrand Post-Tensioning
Grout tube

Coupler: VSL Type K

This fixed coupler is used for connections to a cable


that has already been installed and stressed.
The strands are anchored using compression fittings
positioned onto the coupling head grooves.

Bearing plate
type Ec or E

Duct

Coupling head K
Sleeve

Steel band
Compression fittings

Coupler: VSL Type V


This movable coupler is used for connecting to a
cable that has already been installed but not stressed.
The strands of the new cable are anchored using
compression fittings positioned onto the coupling
head of the previously installed cable.

Wedges
Tension ring
Coupling head V

Sleeve

Intermediate Anchorage:
VSL Type Z and ZU
Intermediate anchorages are used for those tendons
where the ends cannot be fitted using normal
stressing anchorages.
The anchorage head is loosely placed in
the blockout and moves during the
stressing operation on the tendon axis.
Z type intermediate anchorages are used:
for pressure shaft and pressure tunnel ring
tendons, avoiding the use of internal
buttresses;
for silo and reservoir circular structure ring
tendons, avoiding the use of external
buttresses;
for transversal bridge deck prestressing where,
for aesthetic reasons, external anchorage
blockouts are undesirable;
for frame, arch and shell structure tension
ties where there is no or limited access to end
anchorages.

Compression fittings
with retainer plates
Tension ring

Grout tube

Duct
Tension ring with anchors

The VSL type ZU intermediate anchorage has similar


application possibilities as type Z.
It is particularly adapted to small cable units in
structures without dynamic loading.

Retainer plate
Anchor head Z
Wedges

Wedges

Anchor head ZU

Dead-End Anchorage:
VSL Type P
This type of anchorage is used where the prestressing
force has to be transferred to the structure at the far
end of the tendon.
It consists of a folded plate incorporating holes for
the strands to pass through.
The strands are anchored using compression fittings
bearing onto the plate.
The compression fittings are locked into position by
a retainer plate.
Where the force can only be transferred to the
concrete using a bearing plate, polyethylene tubes
can be used to sheathe the strands between the
end of the duct and the bearing plate.

Dead-End Anchorage:
VSL Type H
This type of anchorage is the best solution when
strands need to be pushed through on site.
The prestressing force is transferred to the concrete
by bond. The spiral (for 5-7 / 6-7 and larger units)
and tension ring prevent inadmissible stresses due
to deviated forces acting on the concrete.
The rebar net at the anchorage end zone acts as a
spacer for individual strands.

Dead-End Anchorage:
VSL Type U
The transfer of the prestressing force is partially
achieved by bonding the strands to the concrete,
and partially by the U-shaped plate fixed to the
concrete. The spiral and tension ring prevent
inadmissible stresses due to deviated forces acting
on the concrete. The anchorages can be used
both vertically and horizontally.

Grout tube

Compression fittings

Duct
Tension ring
Seal
P-plate

Retainer plate

Seal
Grout tube

Duct

7
Tension ring

Spacer

Bulbs

Grout tube
Duct
Tension ring
Seal
U-plate

Multistrand Post -Tensioning


Dead-End Anchorage:
VSL Type L

Generally speaking, corrugated steel ducts with a


minimum wall thickness of 0.25 mm are used. While
workshop prefabricated cables normally use a flexible
duct, a semi-rigid type is the solution most often used
where cables are pushed or pulled through on site.

Duct B

Duct A

However, the VSL PT-PLUSTM system with its


corrugated duct and plastic coupler can provide a
number of important advantages when compared
with conventional ducts, such as:

Grout tube

Sheathing and corrosion


protection

This type of anchorage is used for tendons


installed once a structure is concreted and
where there is no access to the dead-end
anchorage. It is often used for vertical
tendons in reservoir walls, for nailing pier
head segments to piers in segmental bridge
construction, or for horizontal tendons in
slabs or foundation rafts. The strands are
installed into the duct after concreting and
simultaneously stressed using jacks at both
stressing anchorage points.

greatly enhanced tendon corrosion protection;


improved tendon fatigue resistance;
reduced sensitivity to stray electric currents;
reduced duct friction coefficient;
TM
the PT-PLUS
system, when used with
VSL CS and ECS anchorages, can be adapted to
provide electrically isolated tendons (EIT).

Dead-End Anchorage:
VSL Type AF
This type of anchorage is
used for vertical tendons
installed once a structure
is concreted, where the
prestressing force has to be
transferred to the structure
at the lowest end of the
tendon and when there is
no access to the dead-end
anchorage. The strands, with
compression fittings at their
ends, are bonded to the
load-transferring casting by a
special cement grout. Once
stressed, the cable over the
anchorage is then grouted.

The PT-PLUSTM system is suitable for all applications


but, given its specific characteristics, is best adapted to:
transverse tendons in bridge deck slabs
and wherever tendons are close to the
concrete surface;
railway bridges and other structureswith high
fatigue loadings or subject to stray electric
currents;
structures where severe corrosive environment
may be expected;
tendons that need to be electrically monitored
throughout the structures service life.

Selected design considerations


Duct spacings and covers

Tendon supports

When determining minimum spacing and concrete


cover requirements, reference should be made to
applicable standards and recommendations.

Recommended spacing:
Standard steel ducts
PT-PLUSTM plastic ducts

0.8 to 1.2 m
0.8 to 1.0 m

Minimum radius of tendon


curvatures and minimum tangent
length for internal bonded tendons
Minimum radius of
tendon curvature

Minimum tangent
length

Minimum breaking load of tendon (MN)

Tendon force losses


The effective prestressing force at a specific place
and time differs from the initial prestressing force.
There are several reasons for this.
Significant factors include:
friction losses due to the curvature of the
tendon;
concrete shrinkage and creep;
relaxation of the prestressing steel;
draw-in of the wedges during lock-off.
Friction losses along the tendon can be determined
using the following formula:
Px = Po.e -( + kx), in which:
x = distance from stressing end (in meters);
Px = prestressing force at x;
Po = prestressing force at stressing end;
= friction coefficient;
= sum of all angular deviations (in radians)
over the distance x;
k = wobble friction coefficient due to minor
unintentional tendon curvatures
(installation tolerances).
The and k friction coefficients can vary fairly widely
and depend upon several factors, including:
the nature and surface condition of the prestressing
steel; the type, diameter and surface condition of
the duct, and the installation method.

The following values may be assumed for design:


- tendon in standard steel ducts:
= 0.2
(range: 0.16 to 0.22)
k = 0.001 (range: 0.0008 to 0.0012)
- tendon in PT-PLUSTM plastic ducts:
= 0.14 (range: 0.12 to 0.15)
k = 0.001 (range: 0.0008 to 0.0012)
To calculate losses due to concrete shrinkage and
creep, reference should be made to the technical
documents and standards applicable to each project.
The relaxation of the prestressing steel depends
primarily on the type of steel (relaxation class), the
extent of the prestressing, and the temperature.
For the low relaxation strands commonly used
today, maximum loss is 2.5% after 1,000 hours
at 20C with an initial stressing at 70% of the nominal
tensile strength. Further information can be found in
the relevant prestressing steel standards and
manufacturers literature.
Independent of the jack or tendon type, a loss of
approximately 6 mm due to wedge draw-in occurs
at lock-off.
If necessary, compensation can be provided by
appropriate procedures.

Multistrand Post-Tensioning
Stressing

The unique feature of the VSL Post-Tensioning


system lies in its special wedge locking procedure.
The wedges always remain in contact with the
strands during the stressing operation.
As the pressure in the jack is released, the wedges
automatically lock in the conical holes of the
anchor head.

Placing of anchor head

Placing of anchor head and wedges

Positioning of jack

10

Positioning of jack

Stressing

Seating of wedges

Stressing,measuring,seating of wedges

Grouting
VSL grouting equipment includes a combined
mixer and pump unit. Grouting is carried
out as soon as possible after stressing.
For long cables, and in the case of electrically
isolated tendons, vacuum-aided grouting
is highly recommended.
Grouting of tendon

Bonded Slab Post-Tensioning

Placing tendons

Concreting

Stressing

Grouting

Construction Sequence
Todays building owners and designers need to
provide a high level of structural flexibility to meet
changing user requirements.
Post-tensioning provides greater spans with reduced
structural beam depths, resulting in larger column-free
areas. As a result, internal layouts are not dictated by
tight column grids. Positive deflection and crack
control and, if necessary, joint-free water-tight slabs, free
designers from the limitations of traditional reinforced
concrete structures.
VSL Post-Tensioning is more economical than other
systems, especially when fast construction cycles are
envisaged. There is less material handling on site and
a reduced labour force, minimising site congestion.
Most importantly, there is the quality and service
provided by VSL s specialised high-performance teams.

11

The VSL Post-Tensioning Slab system has been used in


many prestigious buildings and structures.
The system uses up to five strands contained in
flat-shaped ducting, and anchorages.
Strands are individually stressed and gripped by
wedge action. After stressing, the duct is filled with a
cement grout that fully bonds the strands to the
surrounding concrete.

AL Faisaliah Building - Riyadh,Saudi Arabia

Dah Chong Hong Building - Hong Kong

Bonded Slab Post -Tensioning


Selected design considerations

12

Spacing of tendon supports:

0.75 to 1.2 m (conventional steel ducts)


0.75 to 1.0 m (PT-PLUS TM plastic ducts)

Minimum curvature radius:

2.5 m (vertical profile)


6.0 m (horizontal profile)

Min. straight length at anchorage:

0.75 m

A wedge draw-in of approximately 6 mm occurs at lock-off

Friction losses can vary fairly widely from one tendon to another and from one structure to another.
This depends on factors such as surface condition of strands, duct types and surface condition,
material properties, installation methods and on-site workmanship. Generally speaking,
the following friction parameters can be used.

Tendons in standard steel ducts:

= 0.20 (-)
k = 0.001 (m -1)

(range: 0.16 to 0.22)


(range: 0.0008 to 0.0012)

Tendons in plastic ducts:

= 0.14 (-)
k = 0.001 (m -1)

(range: 0.12 to 0.15)


(range: 0.0008 to 0.0012)

Traditional Design

PT Slab Design
Height saving

Free height
Free height

Free height
Free height

The PT slab method allows designers to reduce building heights or to increase free heights between floors.

Stressing Anchorage
VSL Type SO
Grout tube

Flat duct

Wedges
Strands

Trumpet
Anchorage body

Dead-End Anchorage
VSL Type H

Recess former

Grout tube

Flat duct

Tension ring

Seal
Spacer

Coupler
VSL Type SK
Grout tube

Bulb
Flat duct

13

Sleeve

Compression fittings
Coupling head SK
Trumpet
Bearing plate

Dead-End Anchorage
VSL Type P

Steel band
Strands

Wedges

Tension ring

Flat duct

Seal
P-plate

Compression fittings

Retainer plate

Monostrand Post -Tensioning

14

CTC Building - Santiago, Chile

Monostrand stucture
Monostrands specifications:
15-mm (0.6'') diameter strand in accordance
with the concerned prestressing steel standards.
External diameter of the plastic sheath:
approximately 18 mm.
Permanent corrosion-preventing grease and plastic
sheath in accordance with FIP or PTI recommendations.

The VSL Monostrand system has advantages


similar to those of the VSL Bonded Slab
Post-Tensioning system.
The VSL Monostrand system uses 15 mm (0.6'')
diameter strands. The strands are given
a coating of permanent corrosion-preventing
grease and are enclosed in an extruded
plastic sheath. The grease and plastic provide
double corrosion protection, as well as
preventing any bonding between the
strands and the surrounding concrete.
The plastic sheath is usually in polyethylene
or polypropylene with approximately
1 mm wall thickness.
The monostrands are installed either singly or
in bundles of two, three or four. Each strand is
individually anchored, stressed and locked-off.
To ensure continuous corrosion protection,
special sleeves are used to join the sheaths
to the anchorages and the anchorages are
provided with a protective cap.
Monostrands feature factory-applied corrosion
protection, very low friction losses, and permit
the structural depth to be fully utilised.
These light, flexible monostrands can be
easily and rapidly installed, and because
there is no grouting, they usually lead
to economical solutions.
In design, the different post-cracking behaviour
of unbonded versus bonded systems should
be considered. Detailed information is given
in VSL s "Post-Tensioned Slabs" publication.
With certain adaptations, the VSL Monostrand
system can also be used for post-tensioning
masonry walls.

Recommended design values


Spacing of tendon supports: 0.6 to 1.5 m
Minimum curvature radius:
2.5 m
The following friction cfficients may be assumed:
= 0.06 ( _)
k = 0.5 10 -3 (m-1)

Stressing Anchorage:
VSL Type S-6
Wedges

Monostrand

Installation piece

Sleeve

Anchorage body (casting)

For standard building slabs, this results in a tendon


force loss of approximately 2.5% per 10 m length
of monostrand.

Reinforcement of the
anchorage zone
In addition to the slab reinforcement required
by the design, additional reinforcement is
necessary in the force distribution zone behind
each anchorage. Details should be established
by the project engineer. The sketch shows an
arrangement which has proved itself in practice.

Recess former

Installation nut

Dead-End Anchorage:
VSL Type SF-6
Monostrand
Closure cap

15
Sleeve

Anchorage boby (casting)

Stressing Jacks

Coupler:
VSL Type SK-6
Sleeve

Monostrand 1

Twin ram jack DKP-6


Sleeve
Coupling body
Coupling head and
threaded coupling
Monostrand 2

Centre hole jack ZPE-23FJ

External Post-Tensioning

Boulonnais Viaducts - France

16

External post-tensioning is well adapted to bridges


due to the resulting savings in construction costs and
the high degree of corrosion resistance provided by
the system. External tendons are easy to inspect and,
if necessary, replace. They are ideal for strengthening
existing structures and, apart from their uses in
bridges, can be used for a wide range of other
applications, including buildings, silos and reservoirs.

VSL External Tendons


comprise:
Bois de Rosset Viaduct - Switzerland

strand bundle;
polyethylene ducts;
standard multistrand anchorages, and special
anchorages permitting easy tendon replacement;
grouting compound.

VSL External Post-Tensioning System Components

Stressing anchorage

Strand bundle and sheathing

Stressing anchorage

Saddles at points of deviation


A saddle at a point of deviation consists of:
a structural element capable of carrying the loads exerted by the tendon in the deviation zone;
a part ensuring the geometry of the deviation.
Globally, a saddle at a point of deviation must satisfy the following requirements:
withstand both the longitudinal and transversal forces that the tendon applies to it and transmit these
forces to the structure;
ensure, without unacceptable angular breaking, the connection between two straight tendon sections;
unless otherwise stipulated in the contract, enable removal of the tendon without traumatic effect on
the structural elements;
withstand movements of external tendon during stressing without compromising the tendon's
corrosion protection system.
When designing saddles it is important to consider the following:
Various solutions have been used in practice, as shown on the sketch. In most cases, saddles consist
of a pre-bent steel tube cast into the surrounding concrete or attached to a steel structure by stiffening
plates. The connection between the free tendon length and the saddle must be carefully detailed
in order not to damage the prestressing steel by sharp angular deviations during stressing and in service.
It is also important that the protective sheathing be properly joined.
If tendon replacement is a design requirement, the saddle arrangement must be chosen accordingly,
i. e. double sheathing as shown on alternative (3) of the sketch.

Minimum tendon radii:


Minimum tendon radii as recommended in Table 1 must be respected in order to avoid damage
to the prestressing steel and the plastic sheathings, as well as to the outer tubing. It is well-established
that friction problems may occur if tendon radii are too small.
Tendon size (VSL tendon unit)
up to 5-19 or 6-12
up to 5-31 or 6-19
up to 5-55 or 6-37

Minimum radius (m)


2.50
3.00
4.00

Table 1: recommended minimum tendon radii

Various saddle arrangements

17

Stay Cables

Transition pipe
with individual
strand protection

Dead-end anchorage

Individual VSL monostrand and stay pipe

Centering elastomeric device


Guide pipe

Anchorage head and ring nut

VSL Stay Cable System


SSI 2000

The system features are as


follows:

Bundle of monostrands

200 MPa high fatigue resistance at 45% of


tendon capacity over 2,000,000 load cycles;
high degree of corrosion resistance using
multi-layer corrosion protection;
an extruded coating providing excellent strand
corrosion protection during construction;
individual strand encapsulation and sealing
in anchorages;
easy installation of the strands into the erected
stay pipe (single strand installation);
all strands are parallel with no risk of twisting;
single strand stressing;
no requirement for on-site cable grouting;
easy tendon force monitoring and adjustment
throughout the cable's service life;
ability to remove and replace individual
strands without dismantling the installed
anchorages, or the entire cable at any time;
system adapted for the future installation
of an anti-vibration damper.

18

HDPE stay pipe

Grease or wax

PE sheath

Strand

VSL Stay Cable System


The VSL Stay Cable system was developed to meet
the stringent design, construction and maintenance
requirements of cable-stayed bridges.

The VSL Stay Cable System


comprises:
a tendon formed from multiple and parallel
15-mm (0.6) dia. high tensile 7-wire steel
strands;
a greased or waxed extruded plastic coating
to each strand;
an outer thick-walled plastic stay pipe;
factory prefabricated anchorages.

Huerfanos Footbridge - Chile

Uddevalla Stay Cable Bridge - Sweden

Compactness

Durability

The reduced size of the anchorage components


allows for easy installation and savings in the cost
of structural works.

A high degree of corrosion protection:


each strand is individually protected not only
in the stay pipe, but also in the transition
part of the anchorage;
individual anchorage sealing joints protect
each strand not only in service, but also
during bridge erection;
VSL s Stay Cable system has the unique feature
of providing complete encapsulation for each
individual monostrand along the free length
and into the anchorage. Unlike systems used
by competitors which compromise the
encapsulation near the anchorage point and
result in exposure of the entire cable, VSL s Stay
Cable system reduces the potential exposure to
a single strand.

Aesthetics
using coloured co-extruded stay pipes,
different colours can be obtained;
vibration damping devices can be placed
inside guide pipes or stay pipes.

Dynamic stability of the cables


stay pipes can be equipped with external
helical ribs to suppress rain-wind induced
vibrations;
the stay cable system is adapted for the
future installation of anti-vibration dampers.

Reduced maintenance costs


easy corrosion control of anchorage
components;
good access to vibration damping systems.

Stay cable installation

Val de Rennes - France

system optimised for strand-by-strand


installation, with easily handled, lightweight
equipment and reduced construction loads
on the bridge during construction.

19

Ground Anchors
VSL Anchors can be divided into two main categories strand and bar anchors.
The type of anchors used depends on whether it is for rock or soil, for temporary
or permanent use, whether or not it is to be tensioned, and whether or not
permanent corrosion protection is required.
VSL offers all of these alternatives and can support a full anchor material
supply service (anchors and accessories) with back-up including design
services, advice, consultancy, testing, installation, tensioning and
site supervision. VSL has obtained ISO 9002 Quality Approval
for its technology.

20

The construction of the VSL Strand Anchor


depends on the type of application (rock
or soil), the design, the corrosiveness
of the environment, the presence
of stray electrical currents and
the intended service life.
While temporary ground
anchors require limited
or no corrosion protection,
permanent ground anchors
(with a service life exceeding
bare strand
two or three years) need to have
a comprehensive permanent
corrosion protection system.
The anchor construction can be
adapted to a wide range of
specific requirements.
Anchorages can be
designed to allow the
anchor force to be adjustable,
releasable or be used as a
monitoring anchor. VSL s range
of anchors extends from
permanent anchors that allow
electrical resistance measurements
to be taken to check the integrity of
the encapsulation during the entire service life,
to temporary anchors that can be easily extracted
after use. VSL also offers load cells that allow
the anchor performance to be monitored.

spreader

spacer

corrugated polyethylene
sheath in bond length
tightly sealed,
strong protective cap

The anchor shown on this page represents a typical permanent strand anchor with a thick walled
polyethylene encapsulation acting as a protective barrier against corrosion.
Temporary anchors are similarly constructed except that, being designed for a shorter service life, corrosion
protection requirements are usually less demanding. The anchor is not normally encapsulated and can take
the form of a bundle of bare strands in contact with grout over the bond length of the anchor.
Both types of anchor systems comprise the anchor with a bearing plate, anchor head and wedges.

Type EF

Alternative anchorages

(basic anchorage)

generally used for service anchors;


force cannot subsequently be adjusted;
minimal strand projection allows load checks using
a lift-off jacking system.

Type ER

(adjustable anchorage)

/ EA

smooth polyethylene
sheath in free length
identical to type EF, but with threaded anchor
head and ring nut;
depending on the height of the ring nut, the
anchorage permits anchor force adjustments;
minimal strand projection for load
checks / force adjustments;
complete detensioning possible with slightly
different features (type EA).

protective cap

Type EG

(control anchorage)

grout inlet

21

polyethylene coated and greased


strand with tensile / yield strength acc. to
local requirements
used for periodical load checks with
removable or permanent load cell;
load checks using a lift-off jacking system.

transition from free length (smooth polyethylene sheath)


to bond length (corrugated polyethylene sheath)

Type EF

(electrically isolated)

same features as basic EF type but allows


monitoring of integrity by measuring electrical
resistance;
electrical isolation features can be applied to
all other anchorage types as well.

Bajikrachen Rock - Switzerland

Ground Anchors
Electrically Isolated Anchors

These anchors use tight PE encapsulation combined


with an electrically non-conductive anchorage isolation.
The integrity of the anchor can be checked throughout
its service life using electrical resistance measurements.

Force measurements

22

VSL is able to provide specially developed load cells


for temporary and permanent control anchors, as
well as for permanent surveillance anchors.
The following three types are available:
type G hydraulic load cell, permanently
installed for control anchors;
type GW hydraulic load cell, used as a
removable load cell allowing several
permanent anchors to be measured from time
to time by moving the cell from one anchor
head to the other;
type D electrical load cell, providing
supervision of permanent and temporary
anchors and allowing continuous load
measuring using either a direct or remote
reading system.
All load cell types are fully compatible with
the VSL Anchor system.
Our scope of services includes consultancy, supply
and installation of load cells, as well as control
anchor readings.

Strengthening of a gravity dam

Anchor load checks


VSL performs periodic anchor load checks using suitable
equipment and competent personnel. This is carried
out by lift-off checks using VSL jacks or the required
type GW load cells. These standard load checks can
be carried out on type EG, ER and EA anchorages.
With our specially developed APP jacks, we are in
the unique position to carry out lift-off checks on

anchors with type EF anchorages where the anchor


head has no thread and where projecting strands
were cut after installation. The jack has a mechanism
to grip standard size anchor heads with up to
twelve 0.5-dia. strands or seven 0.6-dia. strands.
This allows clients to carry out load checks in
situations that, in the past, had been particularly difficult.

Anchor extraction
It is often undesirable to leave temporary anchors in
the ground, particularly in urban areas where they
normally extend into adjacent property. The method
developed by VSL for extracting the free anchor
length is based on a specially designed mechanism
located at the point where the strand is disconnected.
VSL has a long tradition in this special technique, with
thousands of anchors successfully extracted.
Securing a slope

VSoL: VSL Retained Earth System


Complete services
VSL advises customers and their consulting engineers
during the feasibility stages of projects, and prepares
preliminary design and cost estimates, as well as
detailed designs, drawings and specifications.
The company also assists contractors with the pricing
of tenders, and provides quotations during tender
stages. Execution of the on-site project can be tailored
to suit the customers' requirements, from a supply
only arrangement to a full sub-contract agreement.

Complete flexibility
F5 Freeway - Australia

The VSoL Retained Earth system is a composite soil


reinforcing system that uses welded wire mesh
or polymeric strips to resist the horizontal forces
generated within an earth backfill. A retained earth
structure is a stable, unified gravity mass that can
be designed for use in a wide range of civil
engineering applications. The VSoL system is widely
used and accepted as a major construction method
in projects ranging from retaining walls to highway
bridge abutments. The basic retained earth principle
involves transferring stresses from the soil to the
reinforcing elements. In the case of welded wire
mesh soil reinforcement, this is achieved by the
development of passive resistance on the projected
area of the mesh crossbars, which in turn transfers
load into the longitudinal bars. In the case of
polymeric strip reinforcement, load transfer from
the backfill is achieved by the frictional interaction of
the soil particles with the polymeric reinforcing strip.

VSoL system concrete facing panels are available


in a wide range of shapes, textures and colours.
Because local materials are used in the production
of these precast panels, the visible exposed surface
can easily be coloured to match the natural
surroundings. Raised relief, sandblasted finish,
exposed aggregate, and conventional smooth face
concrete represent just a few of the available standard
retained earth panel finishes. Other facing systems,
such as modular blocks, and mesh are also available
for both permanent and temporary structures.

Architectural Panels

In addition to its high performance level,


the VSoL system ensures economical design and
construction. The system requires only three
components: reinforcing elements, precast facing
panels and backfill material. This simplicity results
in easy and rapid construction. Cost savings of
up to 50% below those of traditional retaining
wall systems are regularly achieved.

Fast, easy and economical


The construction of a VSoL structure is particularly
straightforward. A five-man crew using standard
construction equipment can place an average
of 75 m 2 - and as much as 140 m2 - of wall per shift.
Eje Prat Road Walls - Chile

23

Heavy Lifting
Custom engineered
solutions for tough jobs

Vereina Tunnel - Klosters,Switzerland

Soccer Stadium - Torino, Italy

24

Safety

For economic or technical reasons, todays civil


engineering structures and industrial plants are often
assembled from large, heavy, prefabricated
components. VSL Heavy Lifting will often provide
the most effective solution for projects where cranes
or other conventional handling equipment cannot
be used.

The safety of your personnel and works is VSL s


first priority. Our specialised hydraulic lifting
equipment is designed to provide the highest level
of reliability, and VSL field services are based on a
total commitment to safety.

Individual solutions

Flexibility

VSL can plan lifting, horizontal jacking, or lowering


operations and design the necessary temporary
structures needed to meet your requirements.

Our equipment includes a large number of hydraulic


strand units, jacks, pumps, control units, monitoring
devices and modular lifting / jacking frames, giving
us the capacity to perform virtually any project
requiring lifting, lowering or horizontal jacking.

The VSL Service Package


Our approach is flexible, and the range of our
services is tailored to the specific project
requirements. They include:
feasibility studies and preliminary consultation;
project design and planning;
design, manufacture, and supply of special
equipment;
leasing of VSL equipment and execution of work.

Malaysia / Singapore Second Crossing

Proven equipment for


handling heavy loads
The VSL Strand system
The main components of the VSL Strand system are
the motive unit, the tensile member with the
anchorage for the load, and the pump with its controls.

Motive unit
The motive unit consists of a hydraulic centre hole
jack with upper and lower anchorages. During
lifting the jack is extended, causing the individual
strands of the tensile member to be gripped by the
upper anchorage and thus to be moved upwards.
At the start of the pistons downward movement, the
strands are immediately gripped by the lower
anchorage. In this way, the load is raised using a
step-by-step process.
For lowering operations, VSL s motive units are
equipped with an auxiliary device which
automatically controls the opening and closing
of the anchorages.

Burj Al Arab Hotel - Dubai

Tensile member
The tensile member consists of 7-wire prestressing
steel strands with a 15-mm nominal diameter.
The tensile member is anchored to the load by a
specially designed end anchorage.

Hydraulic pumps
VSL electro-hydraulic pumps can be manually
controlled or operated in groups from a central
control board.
VSL has a wide range of pumps with either single or
multiple outlets. The characteristics of these pumps
ensure the synchronised movement of the jacks.
Pressure control devices allow forces to be monitored
at all times. The movement speed varies according
to the project and, if required, can be in excess
of 20 m / hour.

Control and monitoring systems


The lifting of hangar roofs or of similar statically
overdetermined structures usually requires that lifting
movements be precisely co-ordinated.
This is achieved by specially designed, computerbased multi-point monitoring systems, which allow
the operation to be centrally controlled and
monitored up to the final, precise height.

Special hydraulic equipment


Our range of equipment also includes a large
number of different hydraulic jacks.
VSL can also design and supply custom-built
hydraulic systems for special applications.

Normandie Bridge - France

25

Autofonage and Autoripage Methods


Autofonage and Autoripage

are methods allowing roads and railways to be


crossed rapidly with minimum traffic disruption.

The Autoripage system is used when the road or


track to be crossed can have its traffic interrupted for
a period not exceeding 24-72 hours. This period
depends on the extent of the associated works.
The actual slide duration is typically about 6 hours.
The Autofonage system consists of passing a
precast concrete underpass through an embankment,
generally bearing a railway or a motorway, without
interrupting the traffic. This can be accomplished
either by using two half structures pulled together
beneath a road or a railway, or as a single box
structure jacked into position from one side only.

26
A26 - Yvetot,France

Troyes West Diversion - France

The first Autofonage operation was carried out


near Paris in 1984 and since then the system has
been used successfully in a number of European
countries. VSL has worked closely on projects with
SNCF (French Railways), SNCB (Belgian Railways),
Railtrack (British Rail) and Portuguese Railways.
The sliding operation uses motive units of the VSL
strand system. The equipment is operated by VSL
and provides a continuous, rapid, accurate and
reliable pulling operation. The displacement of
the concrete structure displays information about
the structure position on monitoring screens
placed alongside the system operators.
This system can be used for structures weighing
in excess of 5,000 t., and the accuracy of the
final positioning is approximately one centimetre
in all three axes.

Considerable improvements have been made to the


system over the last decade and owners, engineers
and contractors can now benefit from these
developments that have led to work being carried
out rapidly, efficiently and economically.

Francilienne Highway Underpass - Louvres,France

Climbform
VSL has been active in climbforms for
over 15 years, first in Australia, then
Asia and, more recently, Europe. The
system has consistently proven itself
over this period. Constant developments
and improvements made following
suggestions from contractors have led
to VSL Climbform achieving the high
level of standards needed to meet
todays requirements. The system is
particularly adapted to the construction
of high-rise building cores.
Coeur Dfense - Paris,France

VSL Climbform
system
The 6-m high VSL Climbform has three platform
levels, and the formwork panels hanging from the
external frame and internal platforms permit pours
over a height of 4.2 m.
The external frame is assembled from standardised
steel components and others components which are
specific to each project and designed by our
Technical Centres. The internal steel platforms,
incorporating the formpanel hooks and rollers, are
specifically designed and manufactured for each
project - guaranteeing accurate and economic
assembly operations. The climbform is raised using
a number of hydraulic jack systems, including
telescopic jacks, climbrams, long stroke jacks, and
rod jacks. It takes approximately one hour to raise
the climbform system up to the next level.
The external frame construction cycle depends on
several factors but generally takes around
3 to 4 days per level.

VSL Package
The VSL service package generally includes:
feasibility studies and preliminary consultation
and pricing;
tender design and planning;
design, manufacture and supply of
equipment;
leasing of VSL equipment, training of site-staff,
supervision of the works for the first few levels,
followed by dismantling operations.

Advantages
VSL Climbform permits an excellent production rate.
It permits the accurate placing of door frames,
openings, blockouts and cast-in components.
VSL Climbform also offers the direct placing of
prefabricated reinforcement cages.
Another advantage lies in the safety of the
climbform. This is achieved through the use of
wide platforms and the methods used to provide
the best possible access to the different framework
components.
Central Plaza - Hong Kong

27

Bar Systems
Lainzer Tunnel - Austria

Bar technology

VSL has been manufacturing and designing bars for


the Construction Industry since 1971.
VSL has now decided to widen its range of bar
products by adding an extensive list of hot-rolled
high performance products to the original
VSL cold-rolled bars.
Product
reference

28

VSL s new product line complies with most


international standards, including DIN, BS, ASTM, etc.
VSL Bar systems are specifically designed to suit all
geotechnical applications as well as civil works and
building applications.

Y1030H26.5R-R
Y1030H32R-R
Y1030H36R-R

Diameter
(int. / ext.)
d/da
(mm)/(mm)
26.5/30
32/36
36/40

Y1030H26.5R-R(*)
Y1030H32R-R(*)
Y1030H36R-R(*)
Y1030H40R-R(*)

26.5/30
32/36
36/40
40/44

551
804
1,020
1,257

900/1,030
900/1,030
900/1,030
900/1,030

496
724
916
1,131

568
828
1,049
1,295

4.48
6.53
8.27
10.2

Y1050H18R-R(*)(**)
Y1050H26R-R(*)
Y1050H32R-R(*)
Y1050H36R-R(*)
Y1050H40R-R(*)(**)

18/21
26/29
32/36
36/40
40/44

254
531
804
1,020
1,257

950/1,050
950/1,050
950/1,050
950/1,050
950/1,050

240
500
760
960
1,190

270
560
850
1,070
1,320

2.06
4.31
6.53
8.27
10.2

Y1230H26.5R-R
Y1230H32R-R
Y1230H36R-R

26.5/30
32/36
36/40

551
804
1,020

1,080/1,230
1,080/1,230
1,080/1,230

595
868
1,099

678
989
1,252

4.48
6.53
8.27

Yield load

Tensile load

Weight

F0.2k
(kN)
160
245
310
405
630
980
1,760

Ftk
(kN)
175
270
340
440
690
1,080
2,215

G
(kg/m)
2.47
3.85
4.83
6.31
9.87
15.4
24.85

160
240
320
400
480
640
980
1,760
2,150

185
280
370
460
560
750
1,130
2,200
2,600

1.96
2.98
3.85
4.83
5.65
7.55
11.51
20.38
24.86

(*)
(**)

Cross
Strength
section area Yield/tensile
A
f0.1k /ftk
(MPa)/(MPa)
(mm2)
551
835/1,030
804
835/1,030
1,020
835/1,030

Yield load

Tensile load

Weight

F 0.1k
(kN)
460
671
850

Ftk
(kN)
568
828
1,049

G
(kg/m)
4.48
6.53
8.27

Water cooled fabrication process


Availability upon request

Product
reference

Diameter

B500H20R-L
B500H25R-L
B500H28R-L
B500H32R-L
B500H40R-L
B500H50R-L
S555H63.5R-L

d/da
(mm)/(mm)
20/23
25/28
28/32
32/36
40/45
50/55
63/68

S670H18R-R
S670H22R-R
S670H25R-R
S670H28R-R
S670H30R-R
S670H35R-R
S670H43R-R
S680H57.5R-R
S680H63.5R-R

18/20
22/25
25/28
28/31
30/33
35/38
43/47
57.5/61
63.5/68

Cross
Strength
section area Yield/tensile
A
f0.2k /ftk
(MPa)/(MPa)
(mm2)
314
500/550
491
500/550
616
500/550
804
500/550
1,260
500/550
1,960
500/550
3,167
555/700
250
380
491
616
720
962
1,466
2,597
3,167

670/780
670/780
670/780
670/780
670/780
670/780
670/780
680/850
680/850

Rock Bolts
stabilising galleries during excavations
stabilising unstable rock/soil
flexible attachment thanks to the high level of steel elongation/ductility
a range of different anchoring systems
grouted, resin anchors, expansion shells
a large number of special accessories

Soil Nails
slope stabilisation
retaining wall strengthening
flexible attachment thanks to the high level of steel elongation/ductility,
permitting soil movement
permanent and temporary use

Micropiles
foundations (compressive load)
tensile piles (tensile load)
ideal for alternating tensile and compressive loadings
securing of building foundation walls, embankments, compacted soil
areas, high-rise buildings, structures in seismic areas

Ground Anchors
tie-backs
retaining walls
stabilising deep excavations, anchoring tower cranes
permanent and temporary use

Tie Rods
tie-backs
retaining walls
sea walls
permanent and temporary use

29

Reinforcements
DIN 488 accreditation for B500 steel quality
convenient for coupling through the use of continuous threading
efficient coupling solution in areas where there are too many steel components
alternative to shear studs

Stress Bars
high performance for forces
ranging from 270 to 1,320 kN
prestressed/post-tensioned
concrete structures
strengthening of buildings
temporary prestressing
and bracing

Form Ties

same production quality level


as high grade stress bars
additional steel qualities, e.g.
St 1,000/1,100 (weldable,
high ductility, suitable for low
temperatures), S850/900 steel
with cold-rolled thread
accessories to suit all assembly
situations

Westbound Off-Ramp to Western Arterial Road - Australia

Structural Bearings
Generally, structural bearings
are required to connect different
parts of a given structure, such as a
bridge deck to piers and abutments.
The most widely used structural
bearings are plain or reinforced
elastomeric bearings, and pot
bearings. They are capable of
transmitting forces while absorbing
the structures deformations
and rotations.
The strength of reinforced
elastomeric bearings is limited by
the shear properties of the
elastomeric block, especially
when compression, shear and
bending occur at the same time.
Pot bearings maximise the shear
strength of the bearings elastomer
by encasing it in a steel cylinder.

TOP PLATE
Quality steel St37 or St52according
to DIN 17.100

Stainless steel according to AISI 304

LUBRICANT
Silicone grease type 300
P.T.F.E.
P.T.F.E.pad with dimples accordingto ASTM
D1457-91a Type 1Grade 2 BS 3784 Grade A
GUIDE
Quality steel St37 or St52 according to DIN 17.100
DU-metal
EXTERNAL SEALING RING
Spongy neoprene
PISTON
Quality steel St37 or St52 according to DIN 17.100

INTERNAL SEALING RING


Double gasket brass ring
ELASTOMER PAD
Natural rubber accordingto AASHTO 50Sh5

POT (STEEL RING + BASE PLATE)


Quality steel St37 or St52 according
to DIN 17.100

ANCHOR SOCKETS
Galvanized bolts
Steel CK35 according to DIN 17.200

30

Pot bearing
Type PU

Pot bearing for incrementally


launched bridges

Pot bearings for incrementally launched bridges


Pot bearings for incrementally launched bridges have a
dual function. First, they provide low friction sliding surfaces
over piers as the deck is pushed during construction.
Thereafter, they become permanent bearings for the
completed bridge. A pot bearing serving both functions
is shown in the picture above. During construction,
a fixing device avoids relative movement between the
sliding plate and the pot cylinder.

The sliding plate is equipped with an upper stainless


steel panel.
This is followed by the insertion of neoprene-teflon pads
between the deck and structural bearings which allows
the launching operation to be carried out. The pads,
upper stainless steel panel and fixing device are removed
after launching. Finally, the sliding plate is connected to
a previously embedded steel plate in the deck.

The Company

Multistrand
Post-Tensioning

Bonded Slab
Post-Tensioning

11

Monostrand
Post-Tensioning

14

External
Post-Tensioning

16

Stay Cables

18

Ground Anchors

20

VSoL: VSL Retained


Earth system

23

Heavy Lifting

24

Autofonage and
Autoripage methods

26

Climbform

27

Bar Systems

28

Structural Bearings

30

PHOTO CREDIT:
Desair-Foto,
Photo Gasser,
Y. Chanoit,
Bouygues photo bank
Saudi Archirodon,
Dar-Al-Handasah,
X.

Your solution network


HEADQUARTERS
VSL International Ltd.
Bernstrasse 9 - LYSSACH - CH 3421 - Switzerland
Phone : 41 - 34 - 447 99 11 - Fax : 41 - 34 - 445 43 22
http:\\www.vsl-intl.com

Australia /
Pacific territories

South East
Asia

North East
Asia

Central East
Europe and Middle
East

Western Europe,
Africa and
Latin America

REGIONAL OFFICE
VSL Prestressing (Aust.) Pty. Ltd.
6 Pioneer Avenue
THORNLEIGH, NSW 2120
AUSTRALIA
Phone: +61 - 2 - 9484 59 44
Fax:
+61 - 2 - 9875 38 94

REGIONAL OFFICE
VSL Singapore Pte. Ltd.
75 Bukit Timah Road
04-08 Boon Siew Building
Singapore 229833
SINGAPORE
Phone: +65 336 29 23
Fax:
+65 337 64 61

REGIONAL OFFICE
VSL North East Asia
3/F Stelux House
698 Prince Edward Road East
San Po Kong / Kowloon
HONG KONG
Phone: +852 - 2590 22 22
Fax:
+852 - 2590 95 93

REGIONAL OFFICE
VSL (Switzerland) Ltd
Bernstrasse 9
Lyssach - CH 3421
SWITZERLAND
Phone: +41 - 34- 447 99 11
Fax:
+41 - 34- 447 99 65

REGIONAL OFFICE
LOdysse - Bt. A
2-12 Chemin des Femmes
91886 MASSY Cedex
FRANCE
Phone: +33 - 1 - 69 19 43 00
Fax:
+33 - 1 - 69 19 43 01

AUSTRIA
Universale GSB
VIENNA
Phone: +43 - 1 - 878 170
Fax:
+43 - 1 - 878 17 782

ARGENTINA
VSL Sistemas Especiales de
Construccin Argentina SA
BUENOS AIRES
Phone: +54 - 11 - 4326 - 06 09
Fax:
+54 - 11 - 4326 - 26 50

AUSTRALIA - Queensland
VSL Prestressing (Aust.) Pty. Ltd.
GEEBUNG
Phone: +61 - 7 - 326 564 00
Fax:
+61 - 7 - 326 575 34
AUSTRALIA - New South Wales
VSL Prestressing (Aust.) Pty. Ltd.
THORNLEIGH
Phone: +61 - 2 - 948 459 44
Fax:
+61 - 2 - 987 538 94
AUSTRALIA - Southern Division
VSL Prestressing (Aust.) Pty. Ltd.
NOBLE PARK
Phone: +61 - 3 - 979 503 66
Fax:
+61 - 3 - 979 505 47
GUAM
Structural Technologies Inc.
TUMON
Phone: +67 - 1 - 646 80 10
Fax:
+67 - 1 - 646 80 60

North America
LBFosterCy.
SAN DIEGO, CA
Phone: +1 - 619 - 688 - 2400
Fax:
+1 - 619 - 688 - 2499
VStructural Llc.
Regional Office
BALTIMORE, MD
Phone: +1 - 410 - 850 - 7000
Fax:
+1 - 410 - 850 - 4111
DALLAS, TX
VStructural Llc.
Phone: +1 - 972 - 647 - 0200
Fax:
+1 - 972 - 641 - 1192
DENVER, CO
VStructural Llc.
Phone: +1 - 303 - 456 - 9887
Fax:
+1 - 303 - 456 - 9796
WASHINGTON, DC
VStructural Llc.
Phone: +1 - 703 - 451 - 4300
Fax:
+1 - 703 - 451 - 0862

France
VSL France S.A.
EGLY
Phone: +33 - 1 - 69 26 14 00
Fax:
+33 - 1 - 60 83 89 95

BRUNEI
VSL Systems (B) Sdn. Bhd.
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM
Phone: +673 - 2 - 380 153
- 381 827
Fax:
+673 - 2 - 381 954
INDIA
VSLIndia Representative Office
CHENNAI
Phone: +91-44 859 2538 / 39
Fax:
+91-44 859 2537
INDONESIA
PT VSL Indonesia
JAKARTA
Phone: +62 - 21 - 570 07 86
Fax:
+62 - 21 - 573 12 17
MALAYSIA
VSL Engineers (M) Sdn. Bhd.
KUALA LUMPUR
Phone: +603 - 242 47 42
Fax:
+603 - 242 93 97
SINGAPORE
VSL Singapore Pte. Ltd.
SINGAPORE
Phone: +65 - 336 29 23
Fax:
+65 - 337 64 61
THAILAND
VSL (Thailand) Co. Ltd.
BANGKOK
Phone: +66 - 2 - 237 32 88/89/90
Fax:
+66 - 2 - 238 24 48

HONG KONG
VSL Hong Kong Ltd.
San Po Kong / Kowloon
Phone: +852 - 2590 22 88
Fax:
+852 - 2590 02 90
JAPAN
VSL Japan Corporation
TOKYO
Phone: +81 - 3 - 3346 - 8913
Fax:
+81 - 3 - 3345 - 9153
KOREA
VSL Korea Co. Ltd.
SEOUL
Phone: +82 - 2 - 553 8200
Fax:
+82 - 2 - 553 8255
MAINLAND CHINA
Heifei VSL Engineering Corp. Ltd.
ANHUI PROVINCE
Phone: +86 - 551 - 557 6008
Fax:
+86 - 551 - 557 6018
PHILIPPINES
VSL Philippines Inc.
MANDALUAYONGCITY
Phone: +632 638 76 86 / 87
Fax:
+632 638 76 91
TAIWAN
VSL Taiwan Limited
TAIPEI
Phone: +886 - 2 - 2759 6819
Fax:
+886 - 2 - 2759 6821
VIETNAM
VSL Representative Office
HANOI
Phone: +84 - 4 - 8245 488
Fax:
+84 - 4 - 8245 717

CZECH REPUBLIC
VSL Systemy (CZ) s. r. o.
PRAGUE
Phone: +420 - 2 - 67 07 24 20
Fax:
+420 - 2 - 67 07 24 06
GERMANY
VSL Systems GmbH
BERLIN
Phone: +49 30 53 006 0
Fax:
+49 30 53 546 37
POLAND
VSL Polska Sp. z o.o.
WARSAW
Phone: +48-22 817 84 22
Fax:
+48-22 817 83 59
SWITZERLAND
VSL (Switzerland) Ltd.
LYSSACH
Phone: +41 - 34 - 447 99 11
Fax:
+41 - 34 - 445 43 22
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
VSL Middle East Office
DUBAI
Phone: +971 - 4 - 28 20 803
Fax:
+971 - 4 - 28 29 441

BELGIUM
NV Procedes VSL SA
BERCHEM
Phone: +32 3 230 36 34
Fax:
+32 3 230 89 65
CHILE
VSL Sistemas Especiales de
Construccin SA
SANTIAGO
Phone: +56 - 2 - 233 10 81
Fax:
+56 - 2 - 233 67 39
GREAT BRITAIN
VSL Systems (UK) Ltd
BUCKS
Phone: +44 - 1 - 480 860 990
Fax:
+44 - 1 - 480 861 092
GREECE
VSL Systems A/E
ATHENS
Phone: +30 - 1 - 363 84 53
Fax:
+30 - 1 - 360 95 43
MEXICO
VSL Corporation Mexico S.A de C.V
MEXICO
Phone: +52 - 5 - 341 25 87/31 86
Fax:
+52 - 5 - 396 84 88
NETHERLANDS
VSL Benelux B.V
AT LEIDEN
Phone: +31 - 71 - 576 89 00
Fax:
+31 - 71 - 572 08 86
NORWAY
VSL Norge A/S
STAVANGER
Phone: +46 - 87 - 53 02 50
Fax:
+46 - 87 - 53 49 73
PORTUGAL
VSL Sistemas Portugal SA.
S. DOMINGO DERANA
Phone: +351 - 21 - 445 83 10
Fax:
+351 - 21 - 444 63 77
SOUTH AFRICA
VSL Systems South Africa (Pty) Ltd.
KYA SAND
Phone: +27 - 11 - 708 21 00
Fax:
+27 - 11 - 708 21 20
SPAIN
CTT Stronghold
BARCELONA
Phone: +34 - 93 - 200 87 11
Fax:
+34 - 93 - 209 85 90
SWEDEN
Internordisk Spnnarmering AB
STOCKHOLM
Phone: +46 - 8 - 753 02 50
Fax:
+46 - 8 - 753 49 73