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1.

Design Calculations for the Trolley

1.1.Calculations for the Beams


There are four pairs of trolleys in all

One pair attached to Beam A at the free end


Two pairs attached to Beam B at both the free ends, and
One pair attached to the Beam C at the inner end of the beam.

Since it is obvious from the structure that the trollies attached on Beam A have
to carry the maximum load among all the trollies, we shall consider these
trollies for design and use similar trollies for other beams. Using the same

trolley shall overdesign the other trollies slightly, but this will compensate for
the design cost and manufacturing cost.

1.1.1. Normal Stress in the beam due to weight of other


components,
=

F
A
Where,

F Force acting in the vertically downward direction

A Cross sectional area of the trolley frame

a) Normal on pair of trolleys attached to Beam A = Weight of Beam B +


Weight of Beam C + Weight of the hoist + Payload
Therefore,
F = Wb + Wc + Wh + P
F = 125.5 + 116.7 + 981 + 4905

F = 6128.26 N

b) Bending Moment at Trolleys attached to Beam A


M b = Wc x 1500 + Wb x 500 + P x 2000 + Wh x 2000
= 116.7 x 1500 + 125.5 x 500 + (4905 +981) x 2000
6
= 12 x 10 N-mm

210
F

The bending moment generated at the middle of the trolleys due to the
eccentric loading has to be counter balanced by a force-couple of reactions in the
trolleys.
Since the center of gravities of the two trolleys is a distance of 210mm from
each other, the reaction force in each trolley is given by,
Fx

d
2

= Mb

Fx

210
2

6
= 12 x 10 N-mm

F = 114.28 KN
This is the total load acting on a pair of trolleys, therefore load acting on a
single trolley is half of the total load, i.e. 57140 N
Considering a factor of safety (Fs) of 3,
F = Fs x F
F = 3 x 57142
F = 171420 N
c) Cross Sectional Area of the trolley frame A,
A = 100 x 8
2
A = 800 mm

d) Normal Stress due to bending moment ,

1.2.

= 214.27

171420
800

N /mm2

Material for the trolley frame


S355 structural steel is a high-strength low-alloy European standard structural
steel covering four of the six parts within the EN 10025 2004 standard.

a) Characteristics
With minimum yield of 355 N/ mm2, it meets requirements in chemistry and
physical properties similar to ASTM A572. Careful attention should always be
placed on the specific variation of S355 required if considering substitute
material.
S355 is used in almost every facet of structural fabrication.
b) Applications

Structural steel works: bridge components, components for


offshore structures

Power plants

Mining and earth-moving equipment

Load-handling equipment

Wind tower components

c) Chemical Properties
Carbon, Max %

0.23

Manganese, %

1.60

Phosphorus, Max %

0.05

Silicon, Max %

0.05

d) Mechanical Properties
Minimum Yield Strength

355 N/ mm2

S355- Tensile

470 - 630 N/ mm2

Since the Maximum Yield Strength of the material (355 N /mm


greater than the Normal load (214.27 N /mm

) is much

), the design is safe.

2. Design of the Base and Vacuum Mechanism


The base of the jib which is a cylindrical hollow section, acts as a supporting
member as well as a vacuum chamber which is similar to a suction pad of a large
diameter.

Because it is generally more economical to increase the lifting or holding force


by increasing the contact area between the workpiece and vacuum cup (in this
case the floor and the vacuum chamber) than it is to pull a higher vacuum and use
a small contact area, we shall use 1000mm diameter for the drum.
To lower the center of gravity of the drum, which reduces the risk of toppling,
the height of the drum will be 300mm. This also reduces the volume of the drum
and thus the needed vacuum pump capacity.

1.1.1. Normal Stress in the base due to weight of other


components,
=

F
A
Where,

F Force acting in the vertically downward direction

A Cross sectional area of the trolley frame

a) Total axial load on the drum = Weight of the Pillar + Weight of Beam A +
Weight of Beam B + Weight of Beam C + Weight of the hoist + Payload +
Additional 10% (other fixtures)
Therefore,
F = 1.1 x (Wp + Wa + Wb + Wc + Wh + P)
F = 1.1 x (930 + 245.45+125.5 + 116.7 + 981 + 4905)
F = 11334.08 N

Considering a factor of safety of 3,


F = Fs x F
F = 3 x 11334.08

F = 34002.24 N
b) Cross Sectional Area of the base,
(d o2 d i2)
A=
4
984
2
1000
[ 2]
A=
4
2

A = 24914.04 mm

Normal Stress ,

1.3.

= 1.364

34002.24
24914.04
2

N / mm

Material for the base


S355 structural steel is a high-strength low-alloy European standard structural
steel covering four of the six "Parts" within the EN 10025 2004 standard.

e) Characteristics
With minimum yield of 355 N/ mm2, it meets requirements in chemistry and
physical properties similar to ASTM A572. Careful attention should always be
placed on the specific variation of S355 required if considering substitute
material.
S355 is used in almost every facet of structural fabrication.
f) Applications

Structural steel works: bridge components, components for


offshore structures

Power plants

Mining and earth-moving equipment

Load-handling equipment

Wind tower components

g) Chemical Properties
Carbon, Max %

0.23

Manganese, %

1.60

Phosphorus, Max %

0.05

Silicon, Max %

0.05

h) Mechanical Properties
N /mm

Minimum Yield Strength

355

S355- Tensile

470 - 630

N /mm2

Since the Maximum Yield Strength of the material (355 N /mm


greater than the Normal stress (1.364 N /mm

1.1.2. Stress due to Bending,


=
Where,

Mc
I

), the design is safe.

) is much

M Moment due to bending

C Distance from the axis of symmetry

I Moment of Inertia

Moment due to bending at the base is same as that at the top of the pillar, since
there are no other forces acting which are not considered in the calculation of the
moment at the top of the pillar.
Therefore,
M = 18737100 N-mm

a)

Moment of Inertia

Moment of Inertia

of a circular ring section

is given by,
do
4
( 4d i )

I x=
64

Where,

d 0 = cylinder outside diameter

di = cylinder inside diameter

1000
( 49844 )

I x=
64
I x = 30.65 x 108 mm4

Therefore,
=

18737100 x 1000
30.65 x 108

2
= 6.122 N/ mm

2
Since the Maximum Yield Strength of the material (355 N /mm ) is much
2
greater than the Bending stress (6.122 N /mm ), the design is safe.