UNSW 2009, Design of steel members to AS4100

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AS4100 UNSW Design of Steel members

UNSW 2009, Design of steel members to AS4100

© All Rights Reserved

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Introduction

by

Zora Vrcelj

LectureOutline

Introduction Housekeepingrules

Structuralsteel

p p

properties,fabrication

,

LimitstatesdesigntoAS4100

g

4

Strength,serviceability

Loads

Dead,live,wind,earthquake

,

,

,

q

SStructurall

Steel - Properties

Thisiswhatyouendupwith

y

p

ifyoudontbuildwithsteel!

Badchoiceofmaterialcan

causeprematurefailure

Steelisbyfarthemostuseful

materialforbuildingstructureswith

g ofapproximatelytentimes

pp

y

strength

thatofconcrete,steelistheideal

materialformodernconstruction.

Steelisalsoaveryecofriendly

materialandsteelstructurescan

b il di

beeasilydismantledandsoldas

tl d d ld

scrap.

Duetoitslargestrengthtoweight

ratio,steelstructurestendtobemore

economicalthanconcretestructures

fortallbuildingsandlargespan

buildingsandbridges.

Togetthemostbenefitoutofsteel,steel

structuresshouldbedesignedand

t t

h ldb d i

d d

protectedtoresistcorrosionandfire.

Steelstructuresareductileandrobust

andcanwithstandsevereloadingssuch

asearthquakes.

The effectsoftemperatureshouldbe

consideredindesign.Specialsteelsand

protectivemeasuresforcorrosionandfire

i

f

i dfi

areavailableandthedesignershouldbe

familiarwiththeoptionsavailable.

Topreventdevelopmentofcracksunder

fatigueandearthquakeloadsthe

p

connectionsandinparticularthewelds

shouldbedesignedanddetailedproperly.

Theyshouldbedesignedanddetailedfor

easyfabricationanderection.Good

qualitycontrolisessentialtoensure

lit

t li

ti lt

properfittingofthevariousstructural

elements.

Thusthelifecyclecostofsteelstructures,

whichincludesthecostofconstruction,

maintenance,repairanddismantling,canbe

lessthanthatforconcretestructures.Since

steelisproducedinthefactoryunderbetter

qualitycontrol,steelstructureshavehigher

li

l

l

h

hi h

reliabilityandsafety.

Steelstructurescanbeconstructedveryfast

andthisenablesthestructuretobeusedearly

y

g

y

therebyleadingtooveralleconomy.Steel

structurescanbeeasilyrepairedand

retrofittedtocarryhigherloads.

StructuralSteel MildSteel

E

Economic,Ductile

i D til

Hotrolledintostandardshapes

Box sections

Easilyfabricatedbywelding

Standard sections

TypicalSteelFabricationShop

f bi i

fabricationworkshop

k h

h lli

hotrolling

Ductility

Themostimportantmaterialcharacteristicofmildsteel isits

ductility.

Ductility allowsverylargestrainstodevelopwithlittleincreasein

stress,priortofailure.

Theadvantagesofductilityare:

Itcangivepriorwarningofimpendingfailure

Itallowsenergyabsorptionindynamicloadingorinresistingbrittlefracture

Itallowsforredistributionofactions,whichisusuallybenign

,

y

g

p

, in achieving

g a ductile stress-strain curve it requires

q

y

N.B At present,

the yield

stress

fy to be less than 450 MPa. The yield stress is also called the Grade of the mild

steel, i.e. Grade 350 steel has fy = 350 MPa.

Propertiesofmildsteel

p

St

Stress

Not to scale

fu

fy

Plastic

Tensile rapture

El ti E

Elastic

st

Strain

Idealisedstressstrainrelationshipforstructuralsteel

N.B.

N B Thesamestressstraincurveisassumedincompression,butweshallseethat

Th

t

t i

i

di

i b t h ll th t

bucklingofmembersandelementsincompressionusuallypreventshighstrainsfrom

beingrealised

IdealisedStressStrain() Diagram

MildStrengthSteel 450 MPa

MildStrengthSteel,

HighStrengthSteel,

Yieldingunderbiaxialstresses

Mises YieldCriterion

MohrCircleConstruction

Uniaxial

tension

-1.0

P i i l stress

Principal

Uniaxial

compression

shear stress

Princcipal stress

ratio f2/fy

Pure

shear

1.0

1.0

ratio

i f1/fy

-1.0

Maximumdistortionenergy

criterion:

f12-f1f2+f2 2+ 32= fy3

Introductionto

Structural

SteelDesign

DesignProcess

Problem!

functional and structural requirements

Definition of problem

(Design brief)

Information search

Includes: design data

data,

information from other

consultants, loads

Structural systems

(C

(Conceptual

t l design)

d i )

Includes: type of system,

spacing of major members,

fixity of connections

construction techniques

Detailed design

Drawings and specifications

Advice on construction

Solution

(completed job)

Whentheneedforanewstructurearises,anindividualoragency

hastoarrangethefundsrequiredforitsconstruction.

Theindividualoragencyhenceforthreferredtoastheownerthen

approachesanarchitect.

Thearchitectplansthelayoutsoastosatisfythefunctionalrequirementsandalso

ensuresthatthestructureisaestheticallypleasingandeconomicallyfeasible.

Inthisprocess,thearchitectoftendecidesthematerialandtypeofconstructionaswell.

Theplanisthengiventoastructuralengineerwhoisexpectedtolocatethestructuralelements

soastocauseleastinterferencetothefunctionandaestheticsofthestructure.

Hethenmakesthestrengthcalculationstoensure

safetyandserviceabilityofthestructure.

Thisprocessisknownasstructuraldesign.

Finally,thestructuralelementsarefabricatedanderectedbythe

contractor Ifallthepeopleworkasateamthenasafe useful

contractor.Ifallthepeopleworkasateamthenasafe,useful,

aestheticandeconomicalstructureisconceived.

Howeverinpractice,manystructuresfulfiltherequirements

onlypartiallybecauseofinadequatecoordinationbetweenthe

l ti ll b

fi d

t

di ti b t

th

peopleinvolvedandtheirlackofknowledgeofthecapabilities

andlimitationsoftheirownandthatofothers.

Sinceastructuralengineeriscentraltothisteam,itisnecessaryforhim

tohaveadequateknowledgeofthearchitectsandcontractorswork

tohaveadequateknowledgeofthearchitectsandcontractorswork.

Itishisresponsibilitytoadviseboththearchitectandthecontractor

aboutthepossibilitiesofachievinggoodstructureswitheconomy.

Eversincesteelbegantobeusedintheconstructionof

structures,ithasmadepossiblesomeofthegrandest

t t

ith d

ibl

fth

d t

structuresbothinthepastandalsointhepresentday.

SuccessfulStructures

Functionalrequirements setbyclient

SAFETY buildinglifeincludingconstructionperiod

SAFETY

b ildi lif i l di

t ti i d

STRUCTURALENGINEERS

Aestheticsatisfaction setbyarchitects

Economy Capitalcost isnotjustthestructuralcomponent

butalsofinancingandconstructionspeed

maintenancecosts caneffectlongtermlifecyclecosting

SteelStructuresCode

Section

9

Section

5

to

8

Section

5

4

Section

6,7243& 8

Section

Section

AS 4100

Connections

Engineered

g

Capacity

p1

y

Design

Member

Section

Properties

Method

ofof

Timber

of

subjected

Connections

to- Design

Capacity

Introduction

Timber

Structural

nails,

screws

Products

- Bolting

bending

g

pProperties

scope,

of

Members

eng.

eng.

Australian

Standard

Analysis

bolts,

b

coach

h screws

b ltplywood

l

d

Welding

definitions,

strength

(f

)

tension

Steel

Structures

shear

connectors,

Elastic

poles

stiffness

(E)

Section

capacity

notation,

compression

split

rings

Plastic

Modifn

Modif

n factors

Member

units

itd

(N,

(N

Member

buckling

combined

bicapacity

d di

bending

bglulam

kFrame

modifies

strength

LVL

buckling

mm,

MPa)

actions

Standards Australia

LimitsStatesDesigntoAS4100

g

4

Forrest Centre,

Perth WA

Firstt M

Fi

Melbourne

lb

building

b ildi

to use concrete filled

tubular steel columns

Central

C

t l concrete

t core

with steel beams and

metal formwork

to the central core

Casseldon Place,

Melbourne

filled composite steel

box columns

DesignapproachofAS4100

g pp

4

Basedonlimitstatedesign

Principallimitstates

Strength(ultimatelimitstate),concernedwith

collapse:

yyielding

g

buckling

overturning

Serviceabilitylimitstate,concernedwith

i bili li i

d h

function:

deflection

d

fl i

vibration

LimitStatesDesign

Aim Satisfactoryperformanceunderavarietyofdifferentuses

orloadscenarios

Strength Rarescenarios:

wantsafetyforoccupants

nofailure

Serviceability

y Commonscenarios:

wantsatisfactoryperformanceinserviceundercommonloadings

nocracking,nobouncing,

satisfactoryappearanceandfunction

Strengthlimitstatedesignprinciples

Definerelevantlimitstates

Determineappropriateactions

Analyseusingappropriatemethodsand

g

y

accountingforvariabilitytodetermine:

Designeffects{S*},and

Designresistance{ R}

Ensurenolimitstateisexceeded

S R

Strengthlimitstatedesignprinciples

EffectofFactoredLoadsFactoredResistance

S R

For load combinations, the effect of factored loads (S*) is the

structural effect due to the specified loads multiplied by load

factors.

Variabilityofactions

a ab ty o act o s

Precisionofmodellingactionsvaries:

deadloadsrelatedtomaterialdensityand

thickness

imposedloadsbasedontypeofoccupancy

windandsnowloadsbasedonmeteorological

data

Probabilityofloadcombinationsvaries

y

ACTIONS

DEADLOADS

Weightsofthevariousstructuralmembersandtheweightsofany

objectsthatarepermanentlyattachedtothestructure(i e selfweight

objectsthatarepermanentlyattachedtothestructure(i.e.selfweight

ofthestructure+superimposeddeadload)

LIVELOADS

Buildingloads

Bridgeloads

B id l d

Windloads

Snowloads

Earthquakeloads

HydrostaticandSoilPressure

OtherNaturalLoads(theeffectofblast,temperaturechanges,different

settlementofthefoundation)

DESIGNLOADS GENERAL

Forthedesignofstructuralsteelworkthefollowingloadsandinfluencesshallbe

considered:

G Deadloads,includingtheweightofsteelworkandallpermanentmaterialsof

construction partitions stationaryequipment andadditionalweightof

construction,partitions,stationaryequipment,andadditionalweightof

concreteandfinishesresultingfromdeflectionsofsupportingmembers,andthe

forcesduetoprestressing;

Q Liveloads,includingloadduetointendeduseandoccupancyofstructures;

movableequipment,snow,rain,soil,orhydrostaticpressure;impact;andany

ot e e oad st pu ated by t e egu ato y aut o ty;

otherliveloadstipulatedbytheregulatoryauthority;

T Influencesresultingfromtemperaturechanges,shrinkage,orcreepof

p

,

;

componentmaterials,orfromdifferentsettlements;

W Liveloadduetowind;

E Liveloadduetoearthquake

G DeadLoad

Loadsactinverticaldirection.

Thespecifieddeadloadforastructuralmemberconsistsof:

theweightofthememberitself,

theweightofallmaterialsofconstructionincorporatedinto

thebuildingtobesupportedpermanentlybythemember,

theweightofpartitions,

theweightofpermanentequipment,and

theverticalloadduetoearth,plantsandtrees.

,p

DeadLoad,G

,

Services(ventilation,electricityducts,etc.)

Load

path?!

Variabilityofmaterialandsection

y

properties

Resistance{R}isrelatedprincipallytomaterial

andsectiongeometry

Yieldstrengthofsteelisguaranteed

e d st e gt o stee s gua a teed

Otherproperties,notablyYoungsmodulus(E),

aremuchlessvariable

Strength(Ultimate)LimitState

Thefollowingconditionsshouldbeconsidered:

Stability:overturning(equilibrium)

Strength:includinglocalandoverallbucklingeffectswhere

appropriate

Itmayalsobenecessarytoconsider:

Secondordereffects

Rupture(duetofatigue)

StrengthLimitState

i e GRAVITYLOADS:1.2G

i.e.

GRAVITYLOADS:1 2G +1.5Q

+1 5Q fR

or

S R

*

R =resistancecapacity(atfailure)

Lefthandsideisfactoredstrengthloadeffect,S*

=capacityreductionfactor

CapacityFactor

Givesconsistentreliabilitytowholestructure

=0.9

0 9(forsteelmembers,M

(f t l

b

Mu,V

Vu,N

Nu)

=0.8(connectorsandconnections)

StrengthLimitState

g

Strength avoidfailureinthelifetimeofthestructure

i.e.liveloadcombination

1.2G

1 2G + 1

1.5Q

5Q

0.8G + 1.25Q

1.2G

1 2G + Wu

i.e.windloadcombination

0.8G

0 8G + Wu

(1)and(3) combinationsareusediftheloadsactinthesamedirection

(2) and(4) areusediftheloadsactinoppositedirections.

StrengthLimitState

g

Loadsaregenerally:UDLs(orpressures=Force/Area)

g

y

p

andPointLoads

Loadeffectsare:

AxialforceN*

BendingmomentM*

ShearforceV*

Whentheseloadeffectsaredeterminedusingfactoredloads(*)theyarecalleddesignloads

Whentheloadeffectsaredeterminedwithoutusingfactoredloadstheyarecallednominalloads

G nominaldealload(giveninloadingcaseAS1170.1)

Q nominalliveload(giveninloadingcodeAS1170.1)

(g

g

7 )

Wu nominalultimatewindload(giveninloadingcodeAS1170.2)

the steel code AS4100

S*

StrengthLimitState

g

Anexampleofthedesignequationmaybeestablishingthat:

f

M M b

*

where

M* isthefactoredbendingmomentinabeam(determinedfrom

structuralanalysis)

Mb isthebendingstrengthofthebeam(thataccountsforlateral

buckling)and =0.9

StrengthLimitState

g

Anotherexamplemightbeestablishingthat

N N c

*

where

N* isthefactoredaxialcompressioninacolumn(theloadeffector

designaxialcompression)

Nc isitsstrengththataccountsfortheeffectsofcolumnbucklingif

thecolumnisslender(thenominalcompressivestrength)and

=0.9

ServiceabilityLimitState

y

Thefollowingconditionsmayneedtobeconsidered:

excessivedeflections

excessivevibrations

Bothconditionsareassociatedwithstiffnessrather

thanstrength

g

Formostbuildings,controllingdeflectionswillalsolimit

vibrations

b

Serviceabilityofbeams

y

Deflectionlimitsforbeams:

appearance(sagging)

fitnessforpurpose(machinery,pipegrades)

str ct ral(a oid nintendedloadpaths)

structural(avoidunintendedloadpaths)

ServiceabilityLimits

y

Codegivesguidanceonly

g

g

y

(i.e./L=1/250,1/500,etc.)

Mainmessageis THINKanddiscusswithclient

DesignforServiceability

g

y

howtosizeamember?

1.Agreeondeflectionlimits

A

d fl i li i lim withclient

i h li

2.Evaluateserviceabilityloadcombinationsthathavelimit lim

splitcombinationintoconstituentloadswi

estimatedurationofeachconstituentload

DesignforServiceability

g

y

3.

5 L4 w

I

384 E lim

(udl,ss)

Note:Designloadfactorsusedfor StrengthLimitStatedonotapplyto

ServiceabilityLimitState

y

((i.e.weusew notw*)

4. Se

Select

ect c

cross-section

oss sect o to g

give

e

5. Check

Ch k bending,

b di

shear,

h

axial

i l strength

t

th

Mu

Vu

Nu

ReferenceMaterial

AS4100 1998SteelStructures:

AS4100

1998SteelStructures StandardsAustralia,Sydney.

S d d A

li S d

AS1170.1&AS1170.2LoadingCodes:StandardsAssociationofAustralia,

Sydney.

NSTrahair&MABradford:TheBehaviorandDesignofSteel

g

StructurestoAS4100,3rd Australiaedition,E&FNSpon,London,1998.

MABradford,RQBridge&NSTrahair:WorkedExamplesfor

MABradford

RQBridge&NSTrahair WorkedExamplesfor

SteelStructures,3rd edition,AISC,Sydney,1997.

STWoolock,SKitipornchai&MABradford:DesignofPortal

FrameBuildings,3rd edition,AISC,Sydney,1999.

DESIGN

OFLATERALLY

RESTRAINED

BEAMS

LectureOutline

B

BeamDesign:

D i

NamegoverningLimitStates?

g

g

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

LectureOutline

Steelbeam

Modesoffailure

LocalBucklingandSectionClassification

g

Compact

Noncompact

Slender

Sectioncapacityinbending

SectionCapacity

or

DesignCapacityofFullyLaterally

RestrainedBeams

or

In PlaneCapacity

InPlaneCapacity

or

DesignCapacityofveryShortLaterally

UnrestrainedBeams

Steelbeam

Beams aremembersofstructureswhichcarryloads

transversetotheirlength.

Thesemembersresistflexure (bending)andshear,

andsometimestorsion,introducedbytransverse

loads.

Purlins,rafters,joists,spandrels,lintels,floorbeams,stringersand

othersimilarstructuralpartsareallbeams.

othersimilarstructuralpartsareallbeams

Memberssubjectedtobendingand axialcompression

simultaneouslyarebeamcolumns.

Steelbeam

Beam (UDL -

Beam

(couple)

Beam

(torsion)

(

)

Beam (UDL -

Beam-column

(axial compression

+ transverse loading)

SteelBeam wheredoweuseit?

Strengthlimitstatebending

momentcapacity

Designequationforbendingstrength

( M ) M *

Designcapacity>factoredstrengthlimitstate

D

i

it f t d t

thli it t t

moment

In planebending

Inplanebending

X (u)

Y (v)

Modesoffailure

Theusualstrengthmodes offailurefor

structuralsteelbeams are:

Plastification

Flangelocalbuckling

Lateralbuckling

Webcrippling

Weblocalbuckling undershear

Weshallconsidereachofthesestrengthlimitstatesinturn.

Plastification

AsteelbeammayfailwhenthePLASTICMOMENTMp

develops,orwhensufficientplastichingesdeveloptoforma

mechanism.

Mp = S fy

S plastic section

modulus

fy yield stress

2)

(

(MPa

= N/mm

/

S istabulatedformostrolledsectionsinhandbooks(mm3).

Ductilestressstraincurve

RecallMp isreliantonaDUCTILESTRESS

isreliantonaDUCTILESTRESSSTRAINCURVE

STRAINCURVE.

fy

E

1

Long plastic

plateau means

ductile

y = yield

i ld strain

t i = fy / E = fy / 2

2x10

105

MPa

Maximummoment

Maximummomentthatcanbeattainedisthe PLASTICMOMENTMp

equal areas

C

h

T

plastic neutral axis

NominalcapacityMmax =Ms =Mp

Ms iscalledtheSECTIONCAPACITY.

Itisthemomenttocausefailureofthecrosssection.

Here,Mp =C x h=T x h

Example1

CalculateMp forthesectionshownbelow.

500

20

200

C1

C2

h2

C1

h1

C2

10

T2

20

200

fyf =350MPa

MP

T1

Example2

CalculatethefactoredloadW* tocauseplasticcollapseofthe

beamshownbelow:

W*

410UB60

fyf = 300 MPa

MP

3000 mm

*

= 321.3 kNm

M = W L = 3W

*

*

M

321.3

*

W =

3

3

W * 107.1 kN

Designbendingcapacity

g

g p

y

M M S

*

= 0 .9

However,lateral

However

lateral andlocal

buckling usuallyresultin

l

loweringM

i Mmax belowM

b l Mp.

MS = MP

Beamsareusuallyunabletoreach Mp becauseof

theoccurrenceofpremature BUCKLING

LocalBuckling

g

and

S ti Cl ifi ti

SectionClassification

Basisofsectionclassification

Rolledorweldedsectionsmaybeconsideredasanassembly

ofindividualplateelements

Someare outstand

Outstand

Internal

flangesofIbeams

fl

f b

legsofanglesandTsections

Someareinternal

websofopenbeams

flangesofboxes

Internal

Web

Web

Flange

Rolled I-section

Flange

Hollow section

Basisofsectionclassification

Rolledorweldedsectionsmaybeconsideredasanassembly

y

y

ofindividualplateelements

Someareoutstand

Outstand

flangesofIbeams

fl

f b

legsofanglesandTsections

Web

Internal

Internal

te a

Someareinternal

websofopenbeams

flangesofboxes

Flange

Basisofsectionclassification

Astheplateelementsarerelativelythin,whenloadedincompressionthey

maybucklelocally

Thetendencyofanyplateelementwithinthecrosssectiontobucklemay

limittheaxialloadcarryingcapacity,orthebendingresistanceofthe

section,bypreventingtheattainmentofyield.

Avoidanceofprematurefailurearisingfromtheeffectsoflocalbuckling

maybeachievedbylimitingthewidthtothicknessratioforindividual

maybeachievedbylimitingthewidth

to thicknessratioforindividual

elementswithinthecrosssection.

Outstand

Internal

O t t d

Outstand

Internal

Internal

Web

Web

Flange

Rolled I-section

Web

Flange

Hollow section

I t

Internal

l

Fl

Flange

Flangelocalbuckling

g

g

Buckled flange

Compression flange

Buckled web

Web

Flange andtopcompressiveregionof

thewebDISTORT,buttheline

junctionbetweentheflangesandweb

remainsstraight.

OccursinslenderCOMPRESSIONFLANGES

Flangelocalbuckling

g

g

Ifthecompressionflangeofabeamisslender,itmaybuckleLOCALLY andpreventthe

beamfromreachingitsmaximumbendingstrengthMp(PLASTICMOMENT).

(see Trahair & Bradford Chapter 4):

ol

E t f

=k

12 (1 2 ) b f

2

Called

FLANGE OUTSTANDS

tf

where:

E = Young

Youngss modulus = 200 x 103 MPa

bf

bf

Platebuckling

A thin flat rectangular plate subjected to compressive

forces along its short edges has an elastic critical buckling

stress ((cr ) g

given byy

cr

k E t

=

2

12(1 ) b

2

support conditions,

conditions stress distribution and aspect ratio of the

plate

Platebucklingin

g compression

p

Bounded plate

in uniform

compression

For bounded

flanges kb = 4

Flangeplatebehaviourincompression

Critical buckling coefficient k therefore depends on:

Flange in Compression

Boundaryconditions

L

t

Stressdistribution

Aspectratio

(width/thickness)

(b)

(a)

Simply supported on

all four edges

Buckling coefficient k

5

b

Simply supported

longitudinal edge

Free

Exact

k = 0.425

0 425 + (b/L) 2

compression both longitudinal

edges

g are simply

p y supported

pp

and

k = 4.0.

(c)

1

0.425

Free

longitudinal edge

(d)

Example3

p 3

What must we restrict the width to thickness ratio bf/tf to in order to

ensure yielding at fyf will occur before elastic local buckling?

If buckling is to be prevented,

prevented then from:

ol

E t f

=k

12 (1 2 ) b f

2

f yf > ol

so that

bf

tf

0 .425 200 10

=

12 1 0 .3 2

2

tf

b

f

Sectionclassification

AS

AS4100definesthreetypesofcrosssection:

d fi th t

f

ti

(a)COMPACTSECTION

(b)NON COMPACTSECTION

( )

(c)SLENDERSECTION

Sectionclassification

Sectionclassificationdependson:

Sectionclassificationdependson

slenderness ofeachelement(definedby

awidthtothicknessratio)

idth t thi k

ti )

thecompressivestressdistribution

Slenderness parameter

bf

e =

tf

fy

250

fy in MPa units

Variations in ey and

ep due to residual

stress effects

Thesectionslenderness,

, e

Fromthepreviousexamplewesawthatthesectionslenderness(bf/tf)is

importantinenforcingyieldingtooccurbeforeelasticbuckling.

Itwillbeshownhowthiscanbeextendedevenfurther.

t

be s o

o t s ca be e te ded e e u t e

N.B.

The SLENDERNESS e

of a flange is defined by:

bf

e =

tf

fy

250

the significance of the f y term is

apparent from

f

Example

l 3.

The normalising with respect to 250

MPa is historical as most steels once

had fy = 250 MPa. Yield stresses are

now higher.

(b f t f ) f y 250 obviously is more

transparent than (b f t f ) f y

Sectionclassification

((a)COMPACTSECTION

)

ThesesectionsallowtheFULLPLASTICMOMENTMp andfor

thestrainhardeningregiontobeenteredbefore ELASTIC

BUCKLINGoccurs.

SectionsmustbeCOMPACT ifplasticanalysis/designistobeutilised.

Thesectionslendernessisgovernedby:

e ep

e p is constant

th when

than

h fol = fy in

i Example

E

l 3

because higher strains at fy are

needed to make local buckling occur

in the strain hardening region.

Sectionclassification

classification

Th limits

The

li it are therefore:

th f

ep =10[stressrelievedflanges]

=9[hotrolled]

[h t ll d]

=8[welded]

[

]

Thedifferenceisdueto initialgeometricoutof

straightness andto differentresidualstresses.

ResidualStresses

Hot rolled

Hotrolled

Welded

Compactsection

p

M - of a

PLASTIC SECTION

M

Moment

t

MP

MY

Inelastic local

buckling well into the

strain-hardening

range

curvature -

The design equation is then:

= 0 .9

M S = M P = fyS

Example4

p 4

530UB92.4

Sx = 2370 x 103 mm3

fyf = 300 MPa

5333

209

10.2

209

We have not considered the

compactness of the web (this

will be done latter).

Sectionclassification

(b)NONCOMPACTSECTION

ThesesectionsallowtheFIRSTYIELDMOMENTMy tobereached,

butbucklelocallybeforeMp canbeattained.

Theirmoment/curvatureresponseis:

Thedesign

equationisthen:

Moment

M * M S

M- of a NON-COMPACT SECTION

= 0 .9

MP

MY

Inelastic local buckling

before Mp is reached

andfora

NONCOMPACT

SECTION

e ey

curvature -

M S = f y Ze

Noncompactsection

For non-compact

non compact sections:

ep e ey

correspond to the coincidence of yielding and elastic local buckling,

but they are modified to include residual stresses and initial geometric

imperfections in the strength.

N.B. We saw in Example 3 that first yield [MY ] and elastic local buckling

coincided when (b f t f ) f y = 277 , or

(b

t f ) f y 250 = e = 277

250 = 17.5

Noncompactsection

p

Ze istheeffectivesectionmodulus.

ofcourse,

f

Ze =S

S ifMS =MP

Ze =Z ifMS =MY

[Z =elasticsectionmodulus,

MY =fyZ]

Noncompactsection

p

R l behavior

Real

b h i

Moment

MP

MS

MY

IInelastic

l ti local

l l

buckling

Linear

approximation

curvature -

MY and MP, based on the value of e.

Noncompactsection

p

Linear

approximation

Moment

MP

MS

MY

ey e

Ze = Z +

(S Z )

ey ep

ep

Section strength of

section with e

ey

Check:

e = ep

Ze = Z + 1(S-Z)

1(S Z) = S

[plastic]

e = ey

Ze = Z + 0(S-Z) = Z

[non-compact]

Sectionclassification

((b)SLENDERSECTION

)

Thesesectionsbucklelocallyevenbeforetheyieldstress(andMy)arereached.

Themoment/curvatureresponseis:

h

i

Forslender

sections:

Moment

M- of a SLENDER SECTION

e > ey

= 0 .9

MP

MY

andfora

SLENDER

SECTION:

curvature -

M S = f y Ze

Slendersection

Theeffectivesectionmodulusmaybecalculatedbytwomethods:

Method1:

Aneffectivewidthapproachomitsfromeachflangethewidthinexcessofthat

whichcorrespondstoey.

be

be

tf

compressionflange(partiallyeffective,2be)

ineffective(ignore)

(g

)

tensionflange(fullyeffective,b)

Slendersection

Theeffectivewidthbe isdefinedsuchthat:

be

tf

fy

250

= ey

or

ey

be

=

b

e

Althoughaccurate,themethodmaybecumbersomeforbeamcrosssectionsasthe

effectivesectionbecomesMONOSYMMETRIC,i.e.

Needtocalculatenewcentroid andI:

Centroidof

originalsection

Centroid of

d f ti ti

defectivesection

yC

yT

ZC = I

yC

Z e = min[Z C , Z T ]

ZT = I

and since

Ze = I

yC

yT

yT < yC

Slendersection

Method2:

Method2

Aneasierandsimplermethodtouse:

Ze

ey

=

e

whereZ istheelasticmoduluscalculatedforthefullsection.

Sectionclassificationbasedonweb

slenderness

l d

Sofarwehaveconsideredthecompressionflangewhichmay

f

f

bucklelocallyunderUNIFORMSTRESS.

Thewebissubjectedtobendingstress (compressionalongoneedge,

tensionalongtheotheredge)andmayalsobucklelocally.

tensionalongtheotheredge)andmayalsobucklelocally

web

T

Underbending,thecoefficientkinwebisapproximately23.9.

Weblocalbuckling

g

Stocky flange

Slender

web

Buckled web

Stocky flange

occursinslenderwebs

withlargebending and/or

shearstress

h t

Webcrippling

Occursduetolocalisedyieldingofthe

g

webnearconcentratedloads.

Behaviorisdominatedbygrossyielding

overasmallwebregion.

web

b

Sectionclassificationbasedonweb

slenderness

Webscanbeclassifiedsimilarlytoflangesas

Webscanbeclassifiedsimilarlytoflangesas:

COMPACT:

e < ep

NONCOMPACT:

NON

COMPACT:

SLENDER:

ep e < e y

e e y

Thelimitsare:

fy

dw

e =

tw

250

ep = 82

ey = 115

tw

dw

Sectionclassificationbasedonweb

slenderness

l d

ForaSECTION tobeCOMPACT:

boththeFLANGESandWEBmustbecompact.

ForaSECTION tobeNONCOMPACT:

EITHERtheFLANGEorWEBorBOTHarenoncompact.

ForaSECTION TOBESLENDER:

EITHERtheFLANGEorWEBorBOTHareslender.

Compactflange

Slenderweb

ii.e.thisSECTIONis

hi

i

classifiedas

SLENDER

Example5

p 5

Calculatethedesignbending(section)capacityfor

thecrosssectionshown.

240

4

8

10

240

fy =250MPathroughout

Example5

p 5

ThecrosssectionisthereforeNONCOMPACT.

f

Example5

p 5

Boxcrosssections

Forthecompressionflange,k

p

g , =4.0

Forthewebinbending,k =23.9

bf

compression

i

flange

b

bf

tf

Weldedboxcolumnin

bending

Rectangular(orsquare)hollowsection

[RHSorSHS]

Boxcrosssections

Forthecompressionflange,k =4.0

Theclassificationsarethesameasforflangeoutstands,butwith:

ep = 30

ey = 45

COMPACT if

again

= 40

= 35

3

e = (b f t f ) f y 250 < ep

NON COMPACT if

NONCOMPACT

SLENDER if

[ hot-rolled]

hot rolled]

[ lightly welded]

[ hheavily

il welded]

ld d]

ep e < ey

e ey

ThewebsofboxcrosssectionsareclearlythesameasthoseofIsections.

DESIGN

OF

LATERALLY

UNRESTRAINED

BEAMS

Lecture Outline

Lateral torsional buckling

Elastic lateral buckling

Twisting moment

warping

Slenderness reduction factor, s

Idealised end conditions

full, lateral, partial and unrestrained

In-plane bending

X (u)

Y (v)

Out-of-plane buckling

X (u)

or LateralTorsional Buckling

Y (v)

or

Flexural-Torsional Buckling

or

Member Capacity

or

Lateral-Torsional buckling

or

Out-of-Plane buckling

Lateral buckling

or

u

Buckled web

Buckled configuration

Original

configuration

u lateral displacement

twist

Introduction

Clamp at

root

Slender structural elements

loaded in a stiff plane tend to

fail by buckling in a more

flexible plane.

In the case of a beam bent

about its major axis, failure

may occur by a form of

buckling which involves both

lateral deflection and twisting.

Lateral-torsional

Lateralbuckling

Buckled

position

Dead weight

load applied

vertically

Unloaded

position

Consider an I-beam ..

straight, loaded by equal

and opposite end moments

about its major axis.

M

L

Section

Elevation

Plan

End Supports

deflection (u)

prevented.

Free to rotate both in the

plane of the web and on

plan.

x

u

capacity

state moment

Lateral buckling

Lateral buckling is the most influential strength limit

state in the design of steel beams.

Lateral buckling is also called flexural-torsional buckling

(or member buckling) and involves the lateral or sideways

instability of long slender beams.

Beams with FULL LATERAL RESTRAINT do not buckle

laterally and their strength is the

CROSS-SECTION STRENGTH defined by:

M * M S

M S = Ze f y

= 0 .9

Lateral buckling

Most commonly beams do not have full lateral restraint and the

nominal strength Ms must be reduced to the MEMBER

BENDING STRENGTH Mb.

represents a STRENGTH LIMIT STATE.

M M b

= 0 .9

Lateral buckling

or

Beam deflects laterally ( = sideways) by u and twist

snap into an OUT-OF-PLANE buckled position rather than continuing to bend

IN-PLANE.

buckling moment or point of bifurcation

u,

Lateral buckling

lateral buckling of the beam.

ELASTIC BUCKLING ANALYSIS.

The elastic buckling resistance depends on the

following cross-section properties:

Minor axis bending stiffness EIy

Torsion resistance GJ

Warping resistance EIw

Iy = minor axis second moment of area (mm4)

J = torsional constant (mm4)

Iw = warping constant (mm6)

G = Shear modulus

80,000 MPa

= 0.3

E

for G =

2(1 + )

steel

Iy, J, Iw are all tabulated in the One Steel Handbook.

Alternatively for the doubly-symmetric I-section:

3

bf

tw

tf

Iy =

dw

bf t f

1 n

1 3

3

J = bi ti = 2t f b f + t w3 d w

3 i =1

3

I w = I y h 2 4 (doubly symmetric )

Consider a built-in cantilever subjected to a

twisting moment ( torque)

Mt

move in

ELEVATION

move in

move out

PLAN

Mt

Warping

An interpretation of warping:

plane during torsion.

This occurs with lateral buckling and its effect is

reflected in the warping constant Iw.

Torsion

The equation of torsion is:

3

d

d

M t = GJ

EI w 3

dz

dz

uniform torsion

resistance

warping torsion

resistance

= angle of twist

Lateral buckling

Basic model for lateral buckling is a simply supported I-beam

subjected to a uniform bending moment M.

means lateral deflection and twist are prevented at

the beam ends (u = 0, = 0), but the flanges are

free to rotate in their planes when the beam buckles

laterally.

M

buckling, but u = = 0

L

ELEVATION

BMD

PLAN

M

buckled

top flange

The ELASTIC BUCKLING MOMENT is:

Mo =

EI y

2

GJ +

EI w

2

(N.B. This is stated without proof. See Chapter 6 of Trahair & Bradford.)

Elastic buckling

Recall for the elastic buckling of a pin-ended column:

N oc =

EI y

2

pin-ended

column

deformed

shape

(elastic critical buckling load pin-ended column)

Example 1

Calculate the elastic lateral buckling moment for a simply supported

460UB82.1 beam of length L = 3m subjected to uniform bending.

460

191

16

I y = 18.6 106 mm 4

J = 701 103 mm 4

9.9

16

191

460UB82.1

N.B. this is the ELASTIC BUCKLING MOMENT and not the actual

BUCKLING STRENGTH Mb which also depends on the yield stress fy.

Mb will be determined later.

Of course beams in reality are rarely loaded in uniform bending,

nor are they pin-ended (or simply supported) so the formula for

Mo needs some modification.

This is very conservative as the elastic buckling moment

(Mo) is increased by unequal moments, transverse loads etc.

Table 5.6.1 of AS4100.

M

single curvature

L

M

L

+ = compression

double curvature

M

BMD

- = tension

+

BUCKLED

SHAPE

moment is highest

in this region

M

moment is

very small in

this region

The effect of the moment gradient is reflected in the m values given in

Table 5.6.1 of AS4100 (see attachment).

Alternatively, the BMD is often given using analysis software (Microstran,

Spacegas, Multiframe etc.). Therefore

M*m = maximum

m =

*

1.7M m

2.5

*2

*2

* 2

M 2 + M3 + M 4

( ) ( ) ( )

M*m

x

M*3

M*4

M*2

S/4

S/4

S/4

S/4

segment

where

moments at quarter

points of a segment

at the mid-length of a

segment

The SLENDERNESS REDUCTION FACTOR s converts the ELASTIC

REFERENCE BUCKLING MOMENT Mo into a DESIGN STRENGTH.

1/ 2

where

M

M s

+ 3 s

S = 0.6

Mo

Mo

from Le (effective length)

Mo =

Ms) and elastic

buckling (at Mo)

2 EI y

2

e

GJ +

2 EI w

L2e

capacity depending on

whether the cross-section is

compact, non-compact or

slender =

Ze fy

s

Section strength at Ms

1.0

Elastic buckling at Mo

s

0

Le

Short beam does not buckle

laterally and s = 1

by yielding as its bucking

moment is very small

There are four types:

PARTIAL RESTRAINT (P)

LATERAL RESTRAINT (L)

UNRESTRAINED (U)

FULL RESTRAINT (F)

Lateral deflection and twist are effectively prevented, i.e.

brace

stiffeners

compression

flange

seat support

shear

connector

concrete

slab

PARTIAL RESTRAINT (P)

Lateral deflection prevented at some point other than at the

compression flange, and partial twist thus occurs during bucking.

compression

flange

buckled

configuration

tension

flange

Seat support restrains tension (T) flange fully at ends.

LATERAL RESTRAINT (L)

Compression flange is restrained against translation during

buckling, but the cross-section is free to twist during buckling.

screws

brace

thin roof sheeting

quite stiff in-plane but

flexible in bending

during buckling

UNRESTRAINED (U)

Free to both displace and twist during buckling,

i.e. cantilever tip.

W*

cantilever tip

For these idealised end conditions, AS4100 specifies a

RESTRAINTS

FF

end 1

FP

PP

FL

end 2

PL

kt

LL FU

1

PU

1.0

d w t f

1+

L 2t w

d w t f

1 + 2

L 2t w

Load applied above the shear centre ( centroid for doubly

symmetric I-section) causes an increased destabilising

torque that lowers the buckling load.

W

W

To account for the height of application of the load, AS4100 specifies a

For load WITHIN THE BEAM SEGMENT

RESTRAINTS

FF

PP

FP

PL

FU

PU

FL

LL

AT SHEAR CENTRE

AT TOP FLANGE

1.0

1.4

1.0

2.0

RESTRAINTS

FF

PP

FP

PL

FU

PU

FL

LL

AT SHEAR CENTRE

AT TOP FLANGE

1.0

1.0

1.0

2.0

conservatively

kr = 1

Effective length Le

The reference buckling moment Mo is written in terms of the

2

Mo =

EI y

2

e

GJ +

2 EI w

L2e

sub-segment between full and/or

partial restraints

kl = load height factor

Le = kt kl L

N.B. AS4100 also has a rotational

restraint factor kr that is difficult to

quantify and which we shall take

equal to unity (conservatively):

Le = kt kl kr L = kt xkl x 1.0 x L

L e = kt kl L

Bending capacity, Mb

Finally, the design equation for bending within a segment is:

M M b

M b = m s M s M s = 0 . 9

m reflects the effect of the distribution of the bending

moment along the beam.

Mo) and

yielding (Ms). It accounts for load height and restraint (via Le).

Bending capacity, Mb

Clearly if ms < 1.0, the full SECTION STRENGTH in bending is

not attained (Ms), and the beam will buckle laterally at Mb. This

is very often the case.

the SECTION STRENGTH.

reasonably difficult to control as the loading is fixed.

(larger Iy, Iw, J) or by bracing the beam to decrease Le.

Example 2

Determine the maximum design moment M* of a 200UC52.2 .

The effective length Le = 3.5m and the end moments are as shown.

M*

206

204

12.5

8.0

12.5

204

200UC52.2

fyf = 300 MPa

J = 325 103 mm4

I w = 166 109 mm6

0.4M*

Example 2

1. Determine SECTION CAPACITY Ms

Example 2

2. Determine MEMBER CAPACITY Mb

Example 2

Example 2

In this case the SECTION STRENGTH

than the MEMBER STRENGTH

lateral buckling.

Ms governed rather

Mb that is determined by

the low value of

Le

am that produced a

very high elastic buckling moment Mo . m.

Mb < Ms.

Example 3

The loads are applied on the top flange.

Determine the maximum design value of W*.

4W*

B

W*

200UC52.2

Grade 300

P

L

3m

3m

206

204

3m

12.5

I y = 17.7 106 mm4

J = 325 103 mm4

8.0

12.5

204

Example 3

In-plane analysis

*

*

*

M

=

0

=

6

R

3

4

W

+

3

W

C

A

R A* = 1.5W *

M B* = 1.5W * 3 = 4.5W *

*

C

M = W 3 = 3W

BMD

3W*

+

4.5W*

Example 3

Segment ABC moment gradient

3 m FL

16

Example 3

Segment ABC effective length

Example 3

Segment ABC elastic buckling capacity

Example 3

Segment ABC slenderness reduction factor, s

Example 3

Segment CD elastic buckling capacity

Example 3

Segment CD slenderness reduction factor, s

Example 4

A simply supported beam with a span of 15m has a nominal central concentrated

live load of 100 kN acting on the top flange. The beam is restrained against

lateral displacement and twist only at the ends, and is free to rotate in plan.

Design a suitable WB in accordance with AS4100 of Grade 300 steel.

150kN

15m

Example 4

Assume fyf = 300 MPa, compact section

m = 1.35

Guess s = 0.25

M sx 562.5 10 6 / (0.9 1.35 0.25) = 1851.9 kNm

Sx 1851.9 10 6 / 300 = 6172.8 103 kNm

Try a 800WB192

b f = 300 mm

A g = 24400 mm 2

t f = 28 mm

S x = 8060 10 3 mm 3

d = 816 mm

I y = 126 10 6 mm 4

t w = 10 mm

J = 4420 10 3 mm 4

9

I w = 19600 10 mm

Example 4

Example 4

DESIGN

SHEAR

CAPACITY

Lecture Outline

Strength

g limit state

Local buckling

Intermediate transverse stiffeners

YIELD limit

li it state

t t

BUCKLING limit state

L d bearing

Load

b i stiffeners

tiff

YIELD limit state

BUCKLING limit state

shear capacity

Design equation for shear

strength

t

th

( Vv ) V *

D i

Design

capacity

it factored

f t

d strength

t

th limit

li it

state shear

The WEB off a steel

Th

t l member

b resists

i t th

the

SHEAR STRESSES.

Local buckling in shear may restrict the

SHEAR CAPACITY of a BEAM.

The design equation is:

V Vv

*

= 0.9

Vv = nominal

shear

h

capacity

it

Consider firstly

y when the shear stress in

the web is APPROXIMATELY UNIFORM.

shear

stress

Parabolic

P

b li but

b

approximately

uniform

d dw tw

V

=

(d w t w )

(u uniform)

Equation

ol

E

= k

12 (1

2

tw

dw

with shear stresses.

Example

p 1

Unsitffened web yielding in shear before buckling locally.

If the web is to yield before buckling locally then:

fy

y =

ol

For a long web, k = 5.35 and using E = 200 x 103 MPa, = 0.3

produces

2

f yw

3

5.35

200 10 t w

dw

which rearranges to

tw

12 1 0.3

f yw

250

81.9

dw

Example

p 1

The yield capacity is then

Hence in AS4100 if

Aw

f yw

dw

<

tw

82

f yw 250

where

Vw = 0.6 Aw f yw

For welded sections Aw = dwtw

0.58 Aw f yw

Vu = Vw

Example

p 1

when

d w t w > 82 /

dw

and so when

tw

ol Aw

82

f yw / 250

th webb buckles

the

b kl before

b f

it yields

i ld andd Vu = vVw

where Vw = 0.6 Aw f yyw and

82

=

f yw

dw

t

250

w

Example

p 1

N.B.

g

, it is common to add

When bucklingg governs,

vertical stiffeners as Vu drops off rapidly as 1 (d w t w )2

The provision of these vertical stiffeners will not

i

increase

the

th capacity

it when

h yielding

i ldi governs, i.e.

i

when

82

d w tw <

f yw 250

If a web has vertical stiffeners,, its strength

g is increased markedlyy because:

a benign tension field action develops similar to a truss action

stiffener

Vu < Vw

flange

web

dw

stiffener

Vu = v d V w V w

82

=

fy

dw

t

250

w

2

(

)

0

.

75

d

/

s

+1

when

82

=

fy

dw

t

250

w

s dw

[(d

/ s ) + 0 . 75

2

when

s < dw

d =

1v

1 .15 v 1 + (s / d w )

+1

k = 5 .35 + 4 (d w s )

s dw

k = 5 .35 (d w s ) + 4

s < dw

d reflects the TENSION FIELD contribution.

M

stiffener

stiffener

web

flange

The stiffened web p

panel acts like a truss,, but the compression

p

region

g

of the

thin web plate is very slender and unable to resist much compressive stress.

(d w / s )

so

82

v =

d w f yw

t w 250

Hence

82

Vu =

d w f yw

t

w 250

1 v

1

d

+1 1

1.15v

1 Vw

an unstiffened web.

Example

p 2

Calculate the design shear capacity for a 200x2 web plate if

stiffeners are placed at 400 mm intervals.

Example

p 2

Example

p 3

What stiffener spacing in the 200x2 web plate is needed

to resist a design shear V* = 56kN?

Example

p 3

This design

Thi

d i equation

ti agrees with

ith the

th previous

i

design

d i check

h k and

d illustrates

ill t t

the bilinear interpolation in the (v d) table.

The shear may be nonuniform in a monosymmetric beam:

parabola

2Vu

Vu =

f vm

0.9 +

f va

The

h strength

h Vu is defined

d f d as earlier

l for

f uniform

f

shear

h

stress

fva = average shear stress

For design:

V Vv = 0.9

*

vm = fvm = maximum shear stress

V Qmax

=

It w

area A

at this location Q = A y

va = f va

V*

=

d wt w

f vm Qmax

For this case:

=

dw

I

f va

Intermediate transverse stiffeners are used to PREVENT BUCKLING OF

THE WEB IN SHEAR when subjected to a design shear force V*.

Recall the design check is:

Vu = v d V w V w

V w = 0 .6 Aw f yw

local buckling, as well as STRONG ENOUGH to carry

the tension field component without failing.

They must therefore be designed for STRENGTH and STIFFNESS.

MININUM AREA: A minimum area is required for the stiffeners to carry

the vertical force in the tension field action utilised in the use of v.

2

s

(

s / dw )

As 0 .5Aw (1 v )

2

d

w

(

)

1+ s / dw

=1

1.8

8 for a single stiffener comprising of an angle section

= 2.4 for a single plate stiffener

MININUM STIFFNESS:

Stiffeners must be stiff enough to enforce a node

at the web/stiffener junction at local buckling

I s 0 .75 d w t w3

3 3

w w

2

1 .5 d t

s / dw <

s / dw

web

2

stiffener

web centreline.

Buckling

g capacity

p

y

When intermediate stiffeners are used,

used the capacity of the web is

Vb = vdVw.

Hence:

V ( Rsb + Vb )

*

= 0 .9

load bearing stiffener

Vw = 0.6Awfy as earlier

dw

v = f

tw

s

,

250 d w

f yw

End p

panel

At the end of the beam the tension field must be anchored

anchored .

sep

action cannot be mobilised

This can be achieved by choosing s in the design equation:

V * ( v d )V w

with

d = 1 .0

< 4tw

< 4tw

t w2

0.008 f ys [kN / mm]

bs

tw = web thickness in mm

bs = stiffener outstand in mm

Stiffener outstand

As for a load bearing stiffener local buckling

of stiffener must not occur prior to attainment of

the yield stress, i.e.

bs

ts

f ys

250

15

local b

buckling

ckling of the web

eb in shear

yes

YIELD LIMIT

STATE

V * Vu

Vw = 0.6fyAw

v 1

Vu = vV w

yes

yes

END

no

proportion

INTERMEDIATE

(TRANSVERSE)

stiffeners

V b = v d V w

(spacing)

V Vb

no

yes

decrease s

no

N.B vd

includes s

BUCKLING

LIMIT STATE

no

V * Vw

END

increase Aw

END

Sometimes Vv has to be reduced where high shear forces V* and high moments M*

coincide.

(for example, in a continuous beam where V* and M* are high at an internal support)

BMD

SFD

g

Design capacity:

Vvm = Vv

V Vv m

*

= 0.9

M 0.75(M s )

*

when

1.6M

Vvm = Vv 2.2

M s

when

M

0.75

1.0

M s

1.0

Vvm/Vv

0.75

1.0

M*/Ms

Proportioning method

an alternative procedure

If the flanges

g have enough

g capacity

p

y to resist the bending

g moment,,

the web may resist all of the shear force. Thus,

M M f = 0.9

*

Af = area of flange

df = distance

di t

b

between

t

flange centroids

DESIGN THE WEB

ONLY FOR SHEAR

V Vv

*

then

C = Af fyf

df

T = Af fyf

Mf

Occurs due to localised yielding of

the web near concentrated loads.

Behavior is dominated by gross

yielding over a small web region.

web

b

Crippling

Crippling is caused by YIELDING of the web due to concentrated

loads (point loads and reactions).

CRIPPLING IS PREVENTED BY LOAD BEARING STIFFENERS

PLACED IN PAIRS ON EACH SIDE OF THE WEB AND WELDED TO

THE FLANGE.

We have to design

g for two

limit states:

Stiffener p

plates

welded to web

and flanges

YIELD and

BUCKLING

web

CONCENTRATED

CONCENTRATED LOADS

LOADS are only an abstraction

(structural idealisation) used in structural analysis

In reality,

y, the loads are applied

pp

to the flange

g byy a STIFF BEARING PLATE

P*

Stiff bearing

plate

flange

ELEVATION

web

Web crippling

pp g limit state

We will consider firstlyy the case when NO STIFFENERS are p

present.

If either the YIELD or BUCKLING limit state fails for the unstiffened web

then stiffeners must be design for

for.

The bearing stress is assumed to disperse through the flange at 1:2.5

bearing

plate

R*

bbf

flange

R*

1

2.5

2.5

ELEVATION

web

b

END ELEVATION

Web crippling

pp g YIELD limit state

For the YIELD LIMIT STATE:

R Rby

*

= 0.9

Rby = 1.25bbf t w f y

yielding

bearing

for the benign

g triaxial

stress state at the

flange/web interface

where

h

the

th restraining

t i i

actions allow large stresses

to be resisted so that the

strength is taken as

((1.25fy)

For the BUCKLING

LIMIT STATE,

S

the

h

stress is dispersed as

below to obtain bb:

bb

dw/2

1

SUPPORT REACTION

CASE

2.5

R*

POINT LOAD

CASE

dw/2

effective

column as below:

effective column

R*

N

tw

1

2.5

1

1

bb

2.5

dw/2

Le

bb

dw/2

N

The BUCKLING LIMIT STATE is then:

R Rbb

*

= 0.9

slenderness ratio Le/r = 3.5 (dw/tw)

buckling

bearing

radius

di off gyration

ti

I/A

The BUCKLING capacity Rbb of the column

column can be obtained from the

following recipe:

1. Calculate the MODIFIED SLENDERNESS: n =

Le

r

fy

dw

= 3.5

250

tw

fy

250

3. The column capacity is then:

Rbb = c (t wbb ) f y

R Rb = 0.9

*

Web crippling

If either the YIELD or BUCKILNG limit states fail for an unstiffened web

then PAIRS OF LOAD BEARING STIFFENERS will be required.

tw

bs

bs

ts

A-A

web

satisfy YIELD and BUCKLING limit states.

Web crippling

N.B.

load

l d bearing

b

i

stiffeners

iff

resist

i concentrated

d lloads

d

intermediate transverse stiffeners (which were considered

earlier) resist local buckling of the web in shear.

R Rsy

*

Rsy = Rby + As f ys

yield

stiffened

Rby

b - capacity of unstiffened web (as earlier)

As - area of stiffener (2bsts)

fys - yield stress of stiffener

= 0.9

Example 4

Check the adequacy of a pair of load bearing stiffeners 100 x 16 plates with

fys = 350 MPa for the girder shown with a design load of 1600 kN applied

through a stiff bearing of length 300 mm. Check YIELD only.

1500

300

25

10

Rby

b = 1.25bbf t w f y

25

300

Rsy = Rby + As f ys

Web crippling

pp g BUCKLING limit state

The BUCKLING LIMIT STATE is:

= 0.9

R Rsb

*

stiffened

buckling

effective cross-section:

cross section:

tw

web

ts

ls

bs

ls

Eff ti cross-section

Effective

ti

bs

17.5t w

or s / 2

f y / 250

s = spacing

between

stiffeners

(whichever is less)

Web crippling

pp g BUCKLING limit state

The column buckling capacity Rsb can be obtained from the following recipe:

Le

r

Le = 0.7dw if the flanges are restrained by other structural members against twist

rotation, i.e.

Le = 1.0 dw

otherwise

members

prevent

twist

Web crippling

pp g BUCKLING limit state

r

I/A

I (2 b s + t w ) t s / 12

3

A = 2 b s t s + 2 17 . 5 t w /

f y / 250 t w

or

A = 2 b s t s + 2 (s / 2 )t w

whichever is less

Web crippling

pp g BUCKLING limit state

2. Calculate the modified slenderness ratio:

Le

n =

r

fy

250

4. The BUCKLING STRENGTH is then:

Rsb = c Af y

N.B. The load bearing stiffener must YIELD before it buckles locally

it lf Th

itself.

Therefore,

f

outstand of stiffener

bs

ts

ys

250

15

yield stress of

stiffener

Example

p 5

Check the BUCKLING LIMIT STATE in Example 4.

4

1500

300

25

10

16

100

10

100

25

300

ls

ls

EFFECTIVE

STIFFENER/WEB

CROSS SECTION

CROSS-SECTION

Example 5

(Flanges unrestrained

i

against

i

twist)

i

Example

p 5

PROCESS requiring design checks.

Web crippling

load bearing stiffeners resist concentrated loads

INCLUDE

STIFFENERS

WITHOUT

STIFFENERS

YIELD LIMIT

STATE

BUCKLING

LIMIT STATE

YIELD LIMIT

STATE

BUCKLING

LIMIT STATE

Rsy = Rby + As f ys

Rsb = c Af y

Rbb = c (t wbb ) f y

Rby = 1 .25bbf t w f y

R* Rb

Rb = min[Rbb, Rby]

yes

END

no

R Rs

*

Rs = min[Rsy, Rsb]

yes

END

no

increase As

Steel Beam-Columns

Strength

Limit

State

Reference

e e e ce Material

ate a

9AS4100 1998 Steel Structures: Standards Australia, Sydney

9AS1170 1 & AS1170

9AS1170.1

AS1170.2

2L

Loading

di C

Codes:

d Standards Association

of Australia, Sydney, 1998.

Structures to AS4100, 3rd Australia edition, E&FN Spon, London, 1998.

9MA Bradford, RQ Bridge & NS Trahair: Worked Examples for

Steel Structures, 3rd edition, AISC, Sydney, 1997.

9ST Woolock, S Kitipornchai & MA Bradford: Design of Portal

Frame Buildings

Buildings, 3rd edition,

edition AISC,

AISC Sydney,

Sydney 1999.

1999

Lecture

ectu e Out

Outline

e

9

Steel Beam-column

9

Types of failure:

in-plane failure

9 lateral-torsional

l t l t i l buckling

b kli

biaxial failure

BMD, Mx

Frames

a es

x - direction

2-D frame

BMD, My

x

w

3 D frame

3-D

y

x

y - direction

w,UDLappliedinboth

xandydirection

In-plane

p a e be

behavior

a o

STEEL BEAM COLUMNS are subjected to

COMBINED BENDING and COMPRESSION

N

M1

This is typical of a

column in a rigid

frame:

A

M2

N

Steel beam

Beam (UDL -

Beam

(couple)

Beam

(torsion)

Column

(axial compression)

Beam-column

(axial compression

+ transverse loading)

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

There are three STRENGTH LIMIT STATES that may have to be considered:

(i) IN

IN-PLANE

PLANE FAILURE

when the member is loaded about its major axis with full lateral support so that lateral

beam buckling cannot occur (or column buckling cannot occur around the minor axis)

or when the column is bent about its minor axis

when the member is bent about its major

j axis and there is insufficient lateral support

pp

when the member is loaded about both principal axes

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

X (u)

Y (v)

Out--ofOut

of-plane

p

buckling

g

X (u)

or LateralTorsional Buckling

or FlexuralTorsional Buckling

Y (v)

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

mM

M

N

N

Lateral restraints

1 m 1

application of an axial force N at mid-height

mid height is:

N o

1 N NE

[P- effect (second order effects)]

N E = EI / L

2

In--plane behavior

In

R ll

Recall,

e0

P- effect

N

M

M

L

M [1-(1+) z/L]

M

N

eL

results in double curvature bending

N

SECOND ORDER EFFECTS

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

N

being caused by the moments M and mM at the ends

mM

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

Thee deflected

de ected sshape

ape of

o the

t e beam-column

bea co u

iss ggiven

ve by ((Trahair andd Bradford,

d o d, 1998

998

Chapter 7):

v=

M

[cos z ( m cos ecL + cot L )sin z 1 + (1 + m ) z L]

N

where

when

N 2 N

=

= 2

EI L N E

2

N

< cos

N E the maximum moment is:

N

N

+ cot

M m = M 1 + m cos ec

NE

N E

and when

cos

N

NE

(i.e. at the end of the member)

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

These equations are clearly cumbersome

cumbersome, and the maximum

moment is approximated by:

M max

cm

=M

M

1 N NE

where

h

cm = 0.6-0.4

0 6 0 4m

max

N M max

= +

A

Z

Axial stresses

Bending stresses

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

If the beam

beam-column

column reaches its maximum strength when max = fy then:

max

N M max

= fy = +

A

Z

cm

N

M

+

1=

NY M Y 1 N N E

/fy

from

N M max

1=

+

Af y

Zf y

M max

or

cm

=M

M

1 N NE

where

In AS4100:

NY is replaced by the strength

Ns (=kf Ag fy)

MY = Zfy is the first yield moment

Ms = Ze fy

Effective modulus

so

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

D i equation:

Design

ti

The DESIGN MOMENT M* is usually obtained from a secondorder elastic frame program (i.e. Microstran or Spacegass)

cm

which has the amplification

p

factor

build into it.

1 N NE

Alt

Alternatively,

ti l the

th maximum

i

momentt M*max can be

b obtained

bt i d ffrom a fi

firstt

order (linear) analysis and then amplified to produce M*.

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

AS4100 thus requires the design actions N* and M* to satisfy:

N

*

M M S 1

NS

to axial force.

N S

N*

No N *

M S

strength

p

envelope

M*

strength

envelope

M*

M o

Example

a pe1

Determine

D

t

i the

th d

design

i major

j axis

i section

ti momentt capacity

it

Mrx of a 200UC52.2 of Grade 300 steel which has a design

axial compressive force of N* = 143.9 kN

204

f y = 300 MPa

12.5

2206

8.0

A = 6660mm2

S x = 570 103 mm3

12.5

Example

a pe1

For compression:

F bending:

For

b di

Example

a pe1

For combined actions:

Plastic

ast c capac

capacity

ty

The equation:

M M S 1 N N S

*

If the cross

cross-section

section is

COMPACT (i.e. local

buckling is not a problem

and e < ep) then the stress

distribution at failure is:

f il

failure,

i.e.

i

PLASTIC

BEHAVIOUR

fy

Stress reaches

first yyield fy

M*

N*

ELASTIC

BEHAVIOUR

M*

N*

fy

Example

a pe2

Pl ti analysis

Plastic

l i off a rectangular

t

l cross-section

ti

f y = 300MPa

M*

N*

N

Geometric

centroid

fy

C

d

dn > d / 2

T

fy

Plastic

neutral axis

C = bxdnxfy

T = bx((d-dn)xfy

Example

a pe2

N = C T = bd n f y bdf y + bd n f y = N S + 2d nbf y

d

d dn

M = C +T

2

2 2

N S = bdf y

bd 2

MS =

fy

4

produces at plastic failure

N

NS

M

+

=1

MS

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

N

M

+

M S N S

*

1.0

N*

N S

= 1

M*

N*

+

=1

M S N S

M * M S

1.0

The linear interaction may therefore often be too conservative. In AS4100, if the crosssection is COMPACT and EFFECTIVE (kf = 1) and doubly symmetric then

rx

= M

N*

1 . 18 1

N S

= 0 .9

Example

a pe3

The 200UC52

Th

200UC52.2

2 considered

id d earlier

li iis d

doubly-symmetric

bl

t i

compact (e < ep for bending) and effective (e < ey for

compression). Hence

M rx = 1.18 153.9(1 143.9 1798) = 167.1kNm

204

N

M * M rx = M S 1.181

N S

12.5

12.5

2206

8.0

M S

The section is thus unaffected by axial

compression and fails plastically at

M S = 153.9kNm

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

The equation:

M M rx

*

and

d compression

i (N*)

If th

the b

beam-column

l

is

i too

t slender

l d (i.e.

(i Le/r

/ is

i too

t great)

t) it may fail

f il

by column buckling at NC rather than yield at NS.

N.B. We have considered it to be laterally restrained, so it cannot

buckle laterally at Mb < MS. We will check this later.

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

M x M ix

*

Hence in AS4100:

N*

M ix = M sx 1

N C

In-plane

p

strength

N C = ( C k f Af y )

is the column strength

b

beam-column

l

fails

f il in-plane

i l

by

b

column buckling about the xaxis. It cannot fail by buckling

about the y-axis because it is

laterally restrained.

NC must be determined therefore from nx

Effective length

g factor

For column design or checking we generally use the effective length

Le (although the above example has shown how n can be determined

from the elastic bucklingg load determined byy a computer

p

program

p g

or

from charts in text books).

Le = ke L

L is the column length;

ke is

i the

h EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR

Some standard cases for isolated columns are given below

(Trahair & Bradford, 1998):

Effective length

g factor

l =L

l = L/ 2

l = 0.7L

NE

NE

l = L/ 2

l = 2L

NE

NE

NE

l

L

L

L

l

NE =

Theoretical

ke

AS4100

ke

2EI

2 2EI

NE = 2

L

L2

4 2EI

NE = 2

L

1.0

0.5

0.7

0.5

2.0

1.0

0.5

0.85

0.7

2.2

4 2EI

NE = 2

L

NE =

2EI

4L2

Example

a pe4

Check

Ch

k th

the 200UC52

200UC52.2

2 considered

id d earlier

li if it iis subjected

bj t d tto

design moment of 121.5 kNm and 124.7 kNm as well as an

axial compression of 143.9 kN. The effective length Le about

the x-axis is 7.0 m.

f y = 300MPa

204

rx = 89.1mm

12 5

12.5

12.5

206

8.0

124.7 kNm

143.9 kN

121.5 kNm

143.9 kN

Example

a pe4

N*

M ix = M sx 1

N C

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

The linear interaction equation is essentially based on first yield

at fy and may in some cases be too conservative. Thus for

compact doubly symmetric sections (with kf = 1), AS4100 uses:

3

*

+

N

*

m

M M ix = M sx 1

1

2 N C

1+ m

+ 1.18

2

M rx

N*

1

N C

Example

a pe5

For the 200UC52.2 in the previous example

204

f y = 300MPa

12.5

rx = 89.1mm

206

80

8.0

124.7 kNm

121.5 kNm

12 5

12.5

143.9 kN

143.9 kN

Example

a pe5

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

If the cross-section is bent

M M ryy = 0.9

*

y

N

M ry = M sy 1

N S

Section capacity about y-axis

In--plane

In

p a e be

behavior

a o

Further if the cross-section is doubly symmetric and compact,

the less conservative equation below may be used:

M M ry

*

y

= 0.9

N

M ryy = 1.19M syy 1

N S

*

M syy

Example

a pe6

Determine

D

t

i the

th d

design

i minor

i

axis

i section

ti momentt capacity

it

Mry of a 200UC52.2 of Grade 300 steel which has a design

axial compressive force of N* = 143.9 kN

S y = 264 103 mm3

204

12.5

b

206

80

8.0

S = bd 4 Z = bd / 6

2

12 5

12.5

Z e 1.5Z

Example

a pe6

Out--o

Out

of--p

of

plane

a e be

behavior

a o

A beam

beam-column

column bent about its principal (x) axis may buckle laterally and twist,

if there is insufficient lateral support, at a load which is significantly less than

the maximum load predicted by an in-plane analysis.

This flexural-torsional buckling may occur while the member is still elastic, or

after some yielding due to in-plane

in plane bending and compression has occurred

occurred.

Out-of-plane

behaviour

In-plane

behaviour

Flexural-torsional bucking of beam-columns

Out--ofOut

of-plane

p

buckling

g

X (u)

or LateralTorsional Buckling

or FlexuralTorsional Buckling

Y (v)

Out--o

Out

of--p

of

plane

a e be

behavior

a o

Consider an elastic beam-column in uniform bending:

Moc

Moc

Noc

Noc

L

SIMPLY SUPPORTED

Out--o

Out

of--p

of

plane

a e be

behavior

a o

The combination of moment Moc and compression Noc to cause lateral

buckling (i.e. buckling out of the plane of loading) is derived in

Chapter 7 of Trahair and Bradford (1998) as

M oc

Mo

N oc

= 1

Ny

1 N oc

Nz

EI y

GJ + EI w

2

L2

L

where

GJ

Nz = 2

ro

Mo =

2 EI w

1 +

2

GJL

Ny =

2 EI y

L2

the member by twisting about its longitudinal axis,

axis

and ro2 =

Ix + Iy

A

Out--o

Out

of--p

of

plane

a e be

behavior

a o

Equation

M oc

Mo

N oc

= 1

Ny

1 N oc

Nz

does not account for the amplification of Mc due to Ncx, where is the mid1

span deflection. We have seen that the amplification is

1 N N X

where

N x = 2 EI x L2

Hence equation

M oc

Mo

M oc

Mo

N

= 1 oc

Ny

N

= 1 oc

Nx

1 N oc

Nz

1 N oc

Ny

1 N oc

Nz

Out--o

Out

of--p

of

plane

a e be

behavior

a o

For most hot-rolled sections Noc<<Nx, and Ny<<Nx so that:

(1 N

Equation

M oc

Mo

= 1 oc

Ny

N z ) > (1 N N y )(1 N N x )

1 N oc

Nz

N oc

M oc

1

+

=1

(1 N c N x ) M o

Ny

This equation is the basis of the AS4100 design rule.

rule

Out--o

Out

of--p

of

plane

a e be

behavior

a o

Since

M oc

1 N oc N x

corresponds to the amplified moment

(that is, the second order M* from a stiffness package),

this equation becomes:

or

M M ox

*

x

out of plane

N*

M*

+

1

N c M b

M ox = M b (1 N N c )

*

Example

a pe7

Check the out

out-of-plane

of plane member capacity of the 200UC52.2

200UC52 2 beambeam

column of Grade 300 steel considered previously with end moments of

121.5 kNm and 124.7 kNm that bend it into reverse curvature if the

effective

ff ti lengths

l

th for

f column

l

and

d beam

b

lateral

l t l buckling

b kli are both

b th

Le = 7000 mm.

ry = 51.5mm J = 325 103 mm 4 I w = 166 109 mm 6

204

12.5

12.5

206

8.0

Example

a pe7

Example

a pe7

Example

a pe7

Biaxial

a a be

bending

d g

More

o e generally

ge e y a beam-column

be

co u

iss bent

be about

bou BOTH

O

major

jo axes

es by M*x and

d M*y ,

as well as being subjected to a compressive force N*.

Thi situation

This

it ti is

i complex

l to

t model

d l accurately.

t l AS4100 requires

i

a CROSS

CROSSSECTION CHECK to be made according to:

or for compact doubly-symmetric I-sections

*

x

*

y

M

N

+

+

1

N S M Sx M Sy

M

prx

*

x

M

+

M

pry

*

y

prx

where:

*

N

2..0

s = 1. 4 +

N s

M pry

N*

= 1 . 18 M sx 1

N S

M sx

N*

= 1.19 M sy 1

N S

M

sy

Biaxial

a a be

bending

d g

AS4100 also requires a MEMBER CHECK to be made according to:

M brx

*

x

M

+

M

bry

M brx = min[M ix , M ox ]

*

y

M bry = M iy

m = 1 .4

Example

a pe8

Determine the maximum design value M* of a 200UC52

200UC52.22 beam-column

beam column

of Grade 300 steel which has a design axial compressive force of N*=

143.9kN, major axis (x-axis) end moments of M* and 0.974M* causing

reverse curvature

t

b

bending,

di

and

d minor

i

axis

i (y-axis)

(

i ) end

d moments

t off 0.4

04

M* and 0.4M* causing single curvature bending. Le = 7m for column

and beam buckling.

204

12.5

Mx

x

206

8.0

I x = 52.8 10 6 mm 4

ry = 51.5mm

I y = 17.7 106 mm 4

J = 325 10 mm

3

12.5

A = 6660mm 2

My

I w = 166 109 mm 6

Example

a pe8

Example

a pe8

Frames

Lecture

ectu e Out

Outline

e

9

9

C l

Column:

9

Frames:

with simple joints

9 with semi-rigid joints

9 with rigid joints

9

Types:

Analysis Method:

(braced and sway frames)

Effective length

g factor isolated column

For column design or checking we generally use

the effective length Le

Le = ke L

L is the column length;

ke is

i the

h EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR

Some standard cases are given below (Trahair & Bradford, 1998):

Frame Idealisation

STRUCTURAL FRAMES are composed

p

of one dimensional members

connected together in skeletal arrangements which transfer the applied loads to the

supports.

TWO DIMENSIONAL FRAMES a number of independent

two-dimensional frames with in-plane loading.

influenced by the behaviour of the member joints, which are usually

considered to be either SIMPLE, SEMI

SEMI-RIGID

RIGID or RIGID,

according to their ability to transmit moment.

Member joints

Force &

Moment connection

Force connection

Moment connection

Frames

a es

While most FRAMES are three-dimensional, they may often be

considered as a series of parallel two-dimensional

two dimensional frames,

frames

or as two perpendicular series of two-dimensional frames.

arrangement and loading, and on the type of

connections used.

Frames

ThemembersusuallyhavesubstantialBENDINGACTIONS

ThemembersusuallyhavesubstantialBENDINGACTIONS,

andiftheyalsohavesignificantaxialforces,thentheymustbe

designedasbeamties orbeamcolumns.

I f

InframeswithSIMPLECONNECTIONS,themoments

ithSIMPLECONNECTIONS th

t transmitted

t

itt d

bytheconnectionsaresmall,andoftencanbeneglected,and

thememberscanbetreatedasisolatedbeams,

oreccentricallyloadedbeamties orbeamcolumns.

However,whentheconnectionsareSEMIRIGIDorRIGID,

thereareimportantmomentinteractions betweenthemembers.

No moment is transmitted through a SIMPLE

JOINT,, the members connected to the jjoint mayy

rotate.

If there are sufficient number of pin-joints to make the structure statically

determinate then each member will act independently of the others,

determinate,

others and may be

designed as:

an isolated tension member, compression member, beam

or

beam-column.

(if the

th pin-jointed

i j i t d structure

t t

i indeterminate,

is

i d t

i t then

th some partt off it may actt as a

rigid-jointed frame)

One of the most common methods of designing frames with

vertical (column) and horizontal (beam) members under the action

of vertical loads only.

Th columns

The

l

i suchh a frame

in

f

are assumedd to

t actt as if eccentrically

t i ll

loaded.

(it should be noted that such a pin-jointed frame is usually incapable of resisting

transverse forces, and must therefore be provided with an independent bracing

or shear

h

wall

ll system)

t )

semi-rigid

rigid joints

SEMI-RIGID JOINTS are those which have

d

dependable

d bl momentt capacities

iti andd which

hi h partially

ti ll

restrain the relative rotations of the members at the joints.

maximum moments in the beams,

beams and so the semi-rigid design

method offers potential economies over the simple design method.

Behaviour:

RIGID JOINT a joint

j i which

hi h has

h sufficient

ffi i rigidity

i idi to virtually

i

ll

prevent relative rotation between the members connected.

Properly arranged welded and high-strength friction grip bolted

joints are usually assumed to be rigid.

There are important interactions between the members of frames with rigid

joints, which are generally stiffer and stronger than frames with simple or semirigid joints.

Therefore rigid frames offer significant economies.

Behaviour:

Although a RIGID

while its service loads are not exceeded, especially when the axial forces are small,

it becomes non-linear near its in-plane ultimate load because of yielding and

buckling effects.

When the axial compression forces are small, failure occurs when a sufficient

number of plastic hinges have developed to cause the frame to form a collapse

mechanism, in which case the load capacity of the frame can be determined by

Frameswithrigidjoints

g j

MethodsofAnalysis:

9 First

Firstorderelasticanalysis

orderelasticanalysis

9 Secondorderelasticanalysis

9 Advancedanalysis

Stressresultants(M,N&V)

( ,

)

anddeflections

Equilibrium

Stressstrain

Stress

strain

Compatibility

9 First

Firstorderplasticanalysis

orderplasticanalysis

CollapseLoad(Equilibrium,Mechanism)

Stability

Bucklingloads

Effectivelengths

9 Elasticbucklingofbracedframes

9 Elasticbucklingofunbraced(sway)frames

First-order

First

order elastic analysis

Assumptions:

9

The frame behaves linearly (no frame instability effects such as those

caused by the moments of the vertical forces and the horizontal frame

deflections P-

deflections,

i.e. Flexibility

y method of analysis,

y , Stiffness method of analysis

y

(commercial computer packages)

Second-order

Second

order elastic analysis

Second order effects in elastic frames include additional moments

moments.

The second-order

second order moments arising from the member deflections from the

straight line joining the member ends are often called the P-

effects.

The second-order moments arising from the joint displacements are often

called

ll d the

h P-

P

9

effects

ff t .

In

th joint

j i t displacement

di l

t are small,

ll

9

I unbraced

In

b

d

fframes, the

th PP effects

ff t are iimportant,

t t

y

P

P

ISOLATED COLUMN

P-

P-

FRAME

braced

sway

Second-order

Second

order elastic analysis

IndependentBehaviour

InteractiveBehaviour

PLASTIC ANALYSIS tends to be used less commonly,

y,

even if a steel structure satisfies the more stringent conditions

that must be imposed for rational plastic analysis.

All instability effects are ignored.

The collapse

p strength

g of the frame is determined by

y using

g the rigid-plastic

g p

assumption and finding the plastic hinge locations which first convert the frame

to a collapse mechanism.

All members must be ductile so that the plastic moment capacity can be

maintained at each hinge over a range of hinge rotations sufficient to allow the

plastic collapse mechanism to develop

develop.

lectures, but it is worth noting that the plastic analysis is

dependent on the elastic buckling load factor (c) of the frame.

Advanced analysis

Ideally, the member stress resultants (M,

Ideally

(M V,

V N) should be

determined by a method of frame analysis which accounts for

both second

second-order

order effects (P

(P- and P

P-)

), inelastic

behaviour, residual stresses and geometrical imperfections,

and any

y local or out-of-plane

p

buckling

g effects.

Analysis:

The results of an elastic buckling analysis may be used to approximate any second-order effects.

The set of member forces Nom which causes buckling depends on the distribution of

th axial

the

i l forces

f

in

i the

th frame,

f

and

d iis often

ft expressedd in

i terms

t

off a load

l d factor

f t c by

b

which the initial set of axial forces Nim must be multiplied to obtain the member

forces Nom at the frame buckling,

buckling so that Nom = c Nim.

Alternatively, it may be expressed by a set of effective length factors km which

define the member forces at frame buckling by Nom = 2EIm/(kmLm)2

The determination of the frame buckling load factor c may be carried out using a suitable

computer program (i.e. buckling analysis option in Microstan)

A l i

Analysis:

Alternatively, the

The direct application of this chart is limited to the vertical columns of regular

rectangular frames with regular loading patterns in which each horizontal beam

has zero axial force, and all the columns buckle simultaneously in the same

mode.

Effective length

g factor frame column

More generally a column may be in a braced frame or a sway frame.

Elastic spring

restraints against

rotation and

translation

Elastic spring

p g

restraints against

rotation

B is restrained by column B-6 and beams B-5 and B-4

If the frame is BRACED AGAINST SWAY, and is of regular rectangular geometry

with negligible axial force in the beams, ke is the solution of (Trahair & Bradford,

1998)

A B

A + B

tan ke

+

=1

1 cot +

4 ke 2 ke

ke

ke

where at end A

(I L )

=

(I L )

columns

modifying factor

beams

(I L )

=

(I L )

columns

beams

ke is then obtained from Fig. 4.6.3.3 of AS4100. The values of e are given below.

Sway Frame

M

e = 1.0

far end rigid

g

e = 1.5

far end pinned

e = 2.0

4EI/L

M

3EI/L

e = 0.5

3EI/L

e = 0.67

M

6EI/L

e = 1.0

2EI/L

M

4EI/L

FIXED BASE

PINNED BASE

column

column

beam

beam

A = 0.6

A = 10

Buckling

g load factor braced frame

For a BRACED FRAME ((i.e. one that is not free to sway)

y)

the procedure to calculate the effective length is:

STEP 1.

1 Calculate

C l l t A and

d B for

f each

h off the

th columns.

l

STEP 2.

2 Use

U th

the chart

h t to

t determine

d t

i ke for

f each

h off th

the columns.

l

STEP 3. Calculate

N om =

2 EI

(k e L )

f each

for

h off the

h columns,

l

where

h N* is

i the

h axial

i l

compression in the column.

N om

=

N*

STEP 5.

5 Estimate the FRAME BUCKLING LOAD FACTOR from

cr = min of the m values

STEP 6. Recalculate Nom = crN* for each of the columns

STEP 7. By using

N om =

2 EI

(L e )2

= cr N *

Le =

EI

2

N om

Example

a pe1

16 kN

40 kN

E

24 kN 60 kN 56 kN 100 kN

D

5m

100UC14

1890

3.18x106

B, E

250UB25

3270

35.4x106

C, D

150UC23

2980

12.6x106

250UB37

4750

55.7x106

B

C

6m

Member

5m

Find the effective length for each of

the columns.

8m

A first order matrix stiffness analysis produces the following axial forces in this

braced frame:

Member

N* (kN)

A

-39.5

-0.8

-197.4

-31.9

E

-7.6

F

+4.7

Example

a pe1

A

Example

a pe1

Elastic

s c buc

bucklingg loads:

o ds:

A

C

D

Example

a pe1

Recalculate

ec cu e buc

bucklingg loads

o ds in each

e c member:

e be :

A

C

D

Effective lengths

A

Analysis:

The determination of the frame bucking load factor c of a rigid-jointed

rigid jointed

unbraced frame may also be carried out using a suitable computer program.

analysis

l i may also

l be

b made

d from

f

first

fi principles.

i i l

obtained by using estimates of the relative end stiffnesses 1, 2 in a chart such as

that of

AS3600.

If the frame is FREE TO SWAY and is of regular rectangular geometry with

negligible axial force in the beams, ke is the solution of:

A B ( ke ) 36

= cot

6( A + B )

ke ke

2

(I L )

=

(I L )

columns

beams

and

d

(I L )

=

(I L )

columns

beams

The procedure for determining Le in a SWAY FRAME is:

STEP 1. Calculate A, B and use the chart to determine ke for each column

STEP 2. Calculate

N om =

2 EI

(k e L )

STEP 3. For each STOREY calculate its buckling load factor from

ms =

(N

(N

STEP 4.

4 Estimate frame bucking load factor from cr = min of the ms values

STEP 5. Recalculate Nom = crN* for all the columns

STEP 6. Recalculate

Le =

2 EI

N

om

om

*

L)

L

Example

a pe2

20

10

40

20 kN

C

B

50

50

80

5m

A, E

6660

52.8x106

B, D

3860

17.6x106

3270

35.4x106

5210

86.4x106

30

A

E

6m

5m

Find the effective length for each of

the columns.

6m

A first order matrix stiffness analysis produces the following axial forces in this

braced frame:

Member

N* (kN)

A

-116.2

-37.5

-22.5

-42.5

E

-143.9

F

-8.9

Example

a pe2

Elastic

s c buc

bucklingg loads:

o ds:

Upper storey columns

Example

a pe2

Elastic

s c buc

bucklingg loads:

o ds:

Lower storey columns

Example

a pe2

Buckling

uc

g load

o d factor:

co :

Upper storey columns

Example

a pe2

Recalculate

ec cu e buc

bucklingg loads:

o ds:

Upper storey columns

Design of connections I

Lecture Outline

Bolts bolt group

Bolts,

Welds,, weld ggroup

p

butt weld, fillet weld

Force connections

splices in tension and compression, truss joints, shear splices

and connections in beams

Moment connections

b

beam

momentt splice

li

seat for the beam-to-column connection, semi-rigid beam

to-column connection, the full strength beam splice

Connections

Connections are used to transfer the forces supported

pp

by

y a structural

member to other parts of the structure or to the support.

They are also used to connect braces and other members which provide

restraints to the structural member.

Connections join members using CONNECTORS

CONNECTORS, such as bolts,

bolts pins,

pins

rivets, or welds, and may include additional plates or cleats.

The arrangement off the

Th

h components iis usually

ll chosen

h

to suit

i the

h type off

action (force or moment) being transferred and the types of member

((tension or compression

p

member,, beam,, or beam-column))

A connection is designed by analysing the method of force transfer from the

member through the connection and its components to the other parts of the

structure, and by proportioning each component so that it has sufficient

capacity for the force that it is required to transmit.

Connections

The need for connections:

gap

Axial action

(longitudinal stresses )

stress/force

t

/f

transfer

t

f required

i d

M

Shear action

(shear stress )

surfaces slide past each other

Bending

g action

(longitudinal stresses)

C

T

Lack of compatibility

P

Torsion action

(shear stress)

bracket rotates

CONNECTIONS

(a) hold parts together

(b) allow transfer of internal actions

Connections

Real connections usuallyy have combinations of these actions:

T

Tension action due to H.

H

S

V.

V

T

Shear action due to V.

Connections

Splice:

p

design for

M* and V*

BMD

V

M*

SFD

V*

Bolts

Several different types of bolts may be used in structural connections

connections,

including ordinary structural bolts (i.e. commercial or precision bolts

and black bolts), and high strength bolts.

Bolts may transfer loads by shear and bearing, by friction between

plates clamped together,

together or by tension.

tension

i.e.

4.6 ultimate tensile strength fuf (f-fastener) 400 MPa

- structural or block bolts (industrial buildings)

8.8 high strength bolts fuf = 830 MPa

(yield is 0.8 of 830 664 MPa)

Pins

Pin connections

Pi

ti

used

d to

t be

b provided

id d iin some triangulated

t i

l t d frames

f

where

h

it was thought to be important to try to realize the common design

assumption

p

that these frames are p

pin-jointed.

j

required for the pin and its holes, and also because of difficulties in

assembly.

necessary to allow relative rotation to occur between the member being

connected.

t d

Rivets

In the past,

past hot

hot-driven

driven rivets were extensively used in structural

connections. They were often used in the same way as ordinary

structural bolts are used in shear and bearing and in tension

connections.

There is usually less slip in a riveted connection because of the tendency

for the rivet holes to be filled by the rivets when being hot-driven.

Shop riveting was cheaper than filed riveting, and for this reason shop

riveting was often combined with field bolting.

However,, the use of riveting

g has declined considerably,

y, and has been

largely replaced by welding or bolting.

Bolts, rivets

Bolt dimensions

4 6 commercial bolts

4.6

8.8

MP

fy

fy

nominal

diameter

D

of

fastener

proof stress fyf = 660 MPa

dc core

dia.

ds

diameter

of tension

stress area

Force &

M

Moment

connection

i

Force connection

M

Moment

connection

i

Force connection

Force &

Moment connection

Beam--to

Beam

to--column joints

Force &

Moment connection

M

Moment

t connection

ti

Force connection

Moment connection

Axial shear

Force connection

Force connection

Force connection

Force connection

Force & moment

connection

ti

Force connection

Any moment

transfer can

b neglected

be

l t d

Force connections

connection

Semi--rigid

Semi

g connection

Prying action

(instability)

bending moment

A h

Anchorages

Base plate

Bolt tightening

g

g

SNUG TIGHTS (S) achieved by full effort of a person using a

standard spanner (friction between two surfaces is not too high)

BERARING (B) design action transferred by shear in bolts and

bearing on connected parts at STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

FRICTION (F) bolts tightened to induce a minimum tension so

that damping action transfers shear at SERVICEABILITY LIMIT

STATE due to friction

TENSION ((T)) snugg tightened

g

and then tightened

g

further a

certain number of fraction of turns

Bolts

Bolts suffer only 2 actions, tension and shear.

bolts in tension

T

bolts in shear

P/2

P

P/2

Torsion

S

P

P/2

P/2

Bolt categories

g

very flexible (semi

(semi-rigid

rigid connection)

4.6/S

8 8/S

8.8/S

88.8/TB

8/TB

8.8/TF

friction capacity

capacit (serviceability

(ser iceabilit limit state)

Commercial

C

i l packages

k

(i.e.

(i Microstran,

Mi

t

Spacegas,

S

etc.)

t ) assume

moment connection (hence connections are able to resist

bending moment)

Modes of failure

B lt in

Bolts

i TENSION

Bolts in SHEAR

B lt in

Bolts

i BEARING

Desi n checks required:

Design

a. Bolt strength

g

b. Plate bearing

c. Plate tearing:

i Straight

i.

St i ht across

ii. Staggered

Force

connection

tension

ae

df

due to tension

V*v Vv

=0.7

Vv= ae t fup

fup - ultimate

lti t ttensile

il strength

t

th off

plate material

Bearing failures

top

p plate

p

V* B

beam reaction

other p

plate

V* B

per bolt

local crushing

under washer

Force

connection

Strength

g limit state

Shear

*

f

V f

Vf = nominal shear capacity of bolt

Vf = 0.62 fufkr (nnAc + nxAo)

= 0 .8

(i)

than beams

(ii) We do not want connection

to be the weakest link in

the structure

nn= number of shear planes with treads IN the shear plane whose

bolt area is Ac

nx= number of shear planes without treads EXCLUDED from

shear plane whose bolt area (shank area) is Ao

Shear distribution in a

force connection

kr= reduction factor for a lapped

pp connection of length

g Lj

If:

300 < Lj < 1300 mm kr = 1.075 Lj /4000

nx = 1

nn = 3

Ao

T*

T*

Lj

Not exactly in equilibrium

moment imbalance

nx

Shear

planes

Ac

nn

nn

nn

Tension

*

tf

N tf

= 0 .8

Ntf = design tension capacity of bolt

Ntf = As fuf

As = tensile stress area of bolt

Bolts

o s aree only

o y subjected

subjec ed too two

wo actions:

c o s: TENSION

NS ON and

dS

SHEAR,,

caused by axial forces, shear forces, bending moments and torsion,

when tension and shear occur together, the bolt strength has to

satisfy the following interaction equation:

2

N

+

N

tf

*

tf

1 .0

= 0 .8

INTERACTION CURVE

pure shear

SHE

EAR

V

f

*

f

safe

pure

tension

AXIAL

Vf , Ntf = nominal

i

capacities

i i determined

i

earlier

i

(snug tighten bolts there is no tensile force in bolts)

NO BENDING

BENDING

PV

PV

CG of

bolt

group

PH

CG of

bolt

group

e

PV /n

Line of P through CG

Shear force

from loading

Pv

M Moment

from

frame

action

BENDING

M = Pv e

M causes extra

t

tension per bolt

PH

Shear per

Sh

bolt V*vf

PH /n

Tension per

b lt V*tf

bolt

Beam--to

Beam

to--column joints

Force &

Moment connection

Moment connection

Force connection

Moment connection

BENDING

T1

T

M

S

h1 h

2

h3

dn/3

NA

y3

y

1

T23

d

dn

dn/3

Plates compressed

mp

together

g

Could calculate position of NA by trial and error until T

but usually dn

h/6.

C,

(i) Take moment about line of force C.

T2 = T1 y2/y1 , T3 = T1 y3/y1

(iii) Substitute into M equation and rearrange.

(iv) Shear per bolt = S / total number of bolts.

(v) Now apply shear and tension interaction equation.

However if there are horizontal forces, such as Phe , eccentricities etc,

include their effects and then apply interaction equation.

Ply in bearing

Bearing force on ply Vb* due to a bolt

ply

ae

V Vb

*

b

bolt

= 0 .9

df = bolt diameter

tp = thickness of ply

fup = ultimate tensile strength of ply

Example 1

Checking the capacity of a connection

lap splice connection 35 70 70 35

40

70

Splice

l

plates,

l

2x10mm

10

thick

h k

fy = 260 MPa steel, fu = 410 MPa

35 70

N*

70 35

N* N*

*

10

N*

20

70

10

40

9M24,8.8/S

ELEVATION

PLAN

fy = 250 MPa steel, fu = 410 MPa

a. Bolt strength

M24 8.8 /S in dholes= 26mm

plane, plain shank the other shear plane.

plane

Design capacity of bolts in shear = Vfn + Vfx = 133 + 186 = 319 kN [TA2.2]

b Plate bearing

b.

(spliced plate)

Since 287 < 319, plate bearing capacity governs.

Example 1

For 8.8/TF where slip at service load is to be limited

Although a serviceability limit state still uses a capacity reduction factor

Shear:

V V sf

*

sf

= 0 .9

Vsf = neiNtikn

nei = number of effective interfaces

Nt = minimum

i i

bolt

b lt pretension

t i in

i

generating a friction-type connection

= 0.85 for short slotted or oversize

holes

= 0.7 for long slotted holes

Shear + Tension

V

V

sff

*

sf

N

+

N

ti

*

tf

1 .0

= 0 .7

Ntf* = design strength shear force (bolt pre-tension)

Nti = bolt p

pretension

Minimum Nti VALUES (kN)

M16 95

M20 145

M24 210

M30 335

M36 - 490

loading

doubler plate

weld

bolt

Momentt

M

connection

column

stiffener

stiffener

to the y-axis which passes through the bolt centroid.

y

Pe

end plate

loading

Separate shear caused by P and Pe are hard to calculate and sum vectorially.

Instead we calculate position of

INSTANTANEOUS CENTRE OF ROTATION.

Force Vfi* on i-th bolt and radium ri from centre of rotation.

y

(xc, 0)

e

ri

Vfi*

x

loading

V = kri A

*

fi

I z = A x + y

2

k = constant

A = area of bolt

2

about centroids

Pe

k =

Iz

P

xc =

kn A

N.B.

(1) force in x

x-direction

direction as well its effect can be included in the same way; and

V

*

fi

= {V fi* x 2 + V

*

fi

y 2 }1 / 2

(2) if welds are used replace the bolt area with the weld size and summations by

integrals along the weld

Example

p 2

A typical web side plate connection is shown in the figure on

the next slide in which a single 10mm thick side plate is bolted

t th

to

the web

b off a b

beam and

d iis welded

ld d tto th

the fl

flange off th

the column.

l

In designing the welds, the beam reaction is assumed to act

through the centroid of the bolt group at a distance of 90mm

from the face of the column. In designing the bolts, the beam

reaction is assumed to act at the line of the weld at a distance of

90mm from the centroid of the bolt group.

Problem:

For a design beam reaction of 250 kN, determine the maximum

shear force in a bolt of the bolt group

Example

p 2

Example

p 2

Solution:

The calculations are based on the instantaneous centre of

rotation approach of Chapter C9 of the Commentary (AS4100).

By inspection, the centroid of the bolt group is at its geometric

centre.

Example

p 3

Determine the maximum shear in the bolt group in the beam

splice shown.

25

55 140 30

65

35

70

70

35

75

Member design

actions at bolt group

centroid

Shear = +160kN

Moment = +20kNm

Threads in shear plane.

2x280mm E48XX fillet welds.

Single web plate.

This problem demonstrates the in-plane elastic analysis of a bolt group.

Example

p 3

Example

p 4

Check an M20 88.8/S

8/S bolt whose treads intercept a single shear

plane for a design shear of Vf* = 43.1kN

25

55 140 30 75

65

35

70

70

35

Member design

actions at bolt group

centroid

Shear = +160kN

Moment = +20kNm

8-M20 8.8/S bolts.

Threads in shear plane.

2x280mm E48XX fillet welds.

Single web plate.

Example

p 4

Example

p 5

Determine the maximum design tension force that can be

transmitted in conjunction with a design shear force of Vf* =

43.1kN byy an M20 8.8/TF bolt whose threads intercept

p a single

g

shear plane.

Member design

25

55 140 30 75

65

35

70

70

35

centroid

Shear = +160kN

Moment = +20kNm

8-M20 8.8/S bolts.

Threads in shear plane.

plane

2x280mm E48XX fillet welds.

Single web plate.

This problem illustrates the checking of the strength of a bolt under combined

shear and tension.

Example

p 5

Example

p 6

Determine the maximum serviceability tension force that can

be transmitted in conjunction with a serviceability shear force

of Vsf* = 30.0kN byy an M20 8.8/TF bolt in a standard hole.

This problem illustrates the checking of the serviceability of a bolt in a frictiongrip connection with a single interface.

e

PV

Pys = P/n

y

Bolt shear

due to

torsion

y

CG

T = PVe

PTx

PTy

CG of bolt group

to torsion

= torsional constant x r

For n bolts, total torque T =

Torsional constant C =

x

PT

+ yi2)

Ti = C x r2 = C (xi2 + yi2)

T / (xi2 + yi2)

Bolt g

groups

p in torsion

In bending = My/I

In torsion PT = Tr/IP

or torsional components

p

PTx = Ty/I

y P,

where IP =

PTy = Tx/IP

(xi2 + yi2)

PTy

PTy

PTy

Pmax = P

PTy

PTy

PTy

+ (PTy + PyS )

Tx

VECTORIAL SUMMATION

PTy

PTy

PTy

PTy

PTy

PTy

PTy

Design of connections II

Lecture Outline

Welds, weld group

butt weld

weld, fillet weld

M

Moment

t connections

ti

beam moment splice

seat for the beam-to-column connection, semi-rigid beam

to-column connection, the full strength beam splice

Welds

Structural connections between steel members are often made by arc

arc-welding

welding

techniques, in which molten weld metal is fused with the parent metal of the

members or joint plates being connected.

Welding is often cheaper than bolting because of the great reduction in the

preparation

p

p

required,

q

, while ggreater strength

g can be achieved,, the members or

plates no longer being weakened by bolt holes, and the strength of the weld

metal being superior to that of the material connected.

In addition, welds are more rigid than other types of load-transferring

connectors.

On the other hand, welding often produces distortion and high local residual

stresses,

t

and

d results

lt iin reduced

d dd

ductility,

tilit while

hil fi

field

ld welding

ldi may b

be diffi

difficult

lt

and costly.

Welds

Force connection

Force connection

Butt welds

Butt welds

Fillet welds

Butt welds are frequently used to splice tension members

members.

A full penetration weld enables the full strength of the member to be developed,

while

hil the

th butting

b tti together

t th off the

th members

b

avoids

id any joint

j i t eccentricity.

t i it

Butt welds often require

q

some machining

g of the elements to be jjoined.

Special welding procedures are usually needed for full strength welds between

thi k members

thick

b

to

t control

t l the

th weld

ld quality

lit and

d ductility,

d tilit while

hil special

i l inspection

i

ti

procedures may be required for critical welds to ensure their integrity.

Butt weld

Fillet welds

We will

w only

o y co

consider

s de equal

equ leg

eg fillet

e we

welds

ds here:

e e:

throat

t

throat

t

weld size

Design

g actions are calculated/unit length

g of weld on p

plane of throat:

Longitudinal shear, transverse shear, normal force all act on throat and

are summed vectorially to produce:

The forc

force p

perr un

unitt length

ngth of fillet weld in the x,, y and z

directions may be determined using the familiar expressions:

general fillet

weld group

*

*

P

M

*

x

zy

vx =

Lw

I wp

centroid of fillet

weld group

Py*

*

M

*

zx

vy =

Lw

I wp

*

z

*

x

P*

y

M*

y

*

y

M y M x

P

v =

+

Lw

I wx

I wy

*

z

P*x

M*x

M*

P*

Weld in x-y

plane, z = 0

Design equation

v v w

*

w

Strength

S

e g des

design:

g :

*

w

(v ) + (v ) + (v )

*

x

*

y

* 2

z

Design

fill t weld

ld group subject

bj t to

t a generall design

d i action

ti sett

may be obtained by evaluating the property set

Lwx, Lwy, Lwz, Iwx, Iwy, Iwp (see Table on next slide)

and substituting into the governing equation

(fillet weld group loaded in-plane

in-plane and out-of-plane)

out-of-plane ),

checking that the governing inequality is satisfied, at each of the critical points.

groups

p

Many

y fillet weld groups

g p comprise

p

lines of welds parallel

p

to the x and y axes.

For such relatively regular fillet weld groups, the identification of possible critical

points is correspondingly more straightforward.

The possible critical points for

a fillet weld g

group

p consisting

g of

lines of weld parallel to the x

and y axes only are numbered 1

to 8.

8

y

2

x

7

4

5

Possible critical p

points in

particular weld group

where:

Lw

Iwx, Iwy

Iwp

- the p

polar moment of area of the weld elements about the

centroid of the weld group (treated as a line element)

= Iwx + Iwy

(treated as a line element) about the x and y axes respectively;

sightly modified in order to allow

them to reflect realistic

distributions of the design force

set ((P*x, P*y, P*z) between

components of the total length of

the weld group, as follows:

Px* M z* y

v =

Lwx I wp

*

x

v =

*

y

Py*

Lwy

M z* x

I wp

*

Pz* M x* y M y x

+

v =

Lwz

I wx

I wy

*

z

where:

the lengths of the weld

assumed to receive the

component forces along

the individual x, y and z

axes respectively

i -plane

inin

l

design action set of forces (P*x, P*y) and design moment (M*x):

*

*

P

M

*

x

zy

vx =

Lwx I wp

v =

*

y

v*z = 0

Py*

L wy

Py*

Pz*

*

z

M x

+

I wp

M z*

out--of

out

of--plane

Fillet weld group loaded out-of-plane by a common

design

g action set of forces (F*y, F*z) and design

g moment (M*x)):

v*x = 0

v *y =

Py*

L wy

*

*

M

P

*

xy

z

vz =

+

Lwz

I wx

Py*

Pz*

Mx*

out

out--of

out

of--plane

plane

P

Line welds

unit thickness

e

Mx

Py

Lw1

yt

1

Lw2

yc

Centroid of

weld group

Lw1

Lw = total weld length = 2Lw1 + 2Lw2

v *z = M *xyc/Iwx = normal force per unit weld in x-direction at point A

Iwx = second moment of area of unit weld about centroid (mm3)

of-plane loading

vn vz

throat

vy

(perpendicular)

vt

force per unit length

vz = p

produces normal component

p

p

vz / 2 and transverse component

on throat.

{ (

vw = v + vz

2

y

Therefore at A (say)

) + (v

)}

2 1/ 2

v y2 + v z2

n

A y 2

Py

V

=

y

and

n

etc.

vz / 2

Design

g equation

q

Strength

S

e g des

design:

g :

v v w

*

w

vw = nominal

i l capacity

it off fillet

fill t weld

ld per unit

it llength

th

vw = 0.6fuwttkr

= 0 .6 GP

SP special

p

ppurpose

p

= 1.0 (Lw < 1.7)

= 1.10

1 10 0.06L

0 06Lw (1.7

(1 7 < Lw < 8.0)

8 0)

= 0.62 (Lw > 8.0)

tt = throat

th t thi

thickness

k

= 0 .8 SP

=t/ 2

g of weld

= 480 MPa for E48XX electrodes (most common)

= 410 MPa for E41XX electrodes

GP general purpose

(low degree of inspection)

j

Weld symbols

Weld symbols

Example 1

Determine the maximum shear per unit length in the uniform

thickens weld group caused by a design shear force of 160kN

through

g the centroid of the bolt ggroup

p and a moment of 20kNm

N

about the centroid of the bolt group.

25

55 140 30 75

65

35

70

70

35

Member design

actions at bolt group

centroid

Shear = +160kN

Moment = +20kNm

Th d iin shear

Threads

h

plane.

l

2x280mm E48XX fillet welds.

Single web plate.

This problem demonstrates the in-plane elastic analysis of a fillet weld

group under combined shear and bending.

Example 1

The centroid of the weld group is (70 + 30 + 25 + 37.5) = 162.5 mm from

the centre of the bolt group.

= 4 . 446 10 6 mm 3

A / t = 2 280 = 560 mm

x c = V * (I x + I y ) / M * A

= 27 .6 mm

rmax =

(75 / 2 + 27 .6 )

= 154 .4 mm

+ 140

yc = 0

vw* = M *rmax t / (I x + I y )

= 46.0 10 6 154.4 / 4.446 10 6

= 1.597 kN/mm

Example 2

Determine the weld leg size required for the equal leg fillet weld

group, if the weld category is SP and the electrode is E48XX.

25

55 140 30 75

65

35

70

70

35

Member design

actions at bolt group

centroid

Shear = +160kN

Moment = +20kNm

8-M20 8.8/S bolts.

Threads in shear p

plane.

2x280mm E48XX fillet welds.

Single web plate.

Example 2

f uw = 480 MPa

k r = 1.0

= 0.8

vw* = 1.597 kN / mm

1.597 103 0.8 0.6 480 tt 1.0

tt 6.93mm

t 6.93 2 = 9.8mm

were increased

increased. This would require the reanalysis of the weld

group.

Example 3

An 8mmx8mm SP fillet weld from E48XX electrodes has a

longitudinal design shear per unit length of vwL* = 1.0kN/mm and

transverse design shears per unit length of vwx* = 0.6kN/mm

0 6kN/mm and

vwy* = 0.4 kN/mm. Check the adequacy of the weld.

This problem illustrates the checking of a fillet weld under combined loadings.

loadings

vw* =

(1.0

f uw = 480 MPa

tt = 8 / 2 = 5.66mm

k r = 1.0 = 0.8

vw = 0.8 0.6 480 5.66 1.0 = 1.303kN / mm > 1.233kN / mm = vw*

Therefore OK.

Example 4

Box section fillet welded to end plate

(Fillet loaded out-of plane)

y

1

2

3

305

450 kN

weld

group

cetroid

90 kNm

4

7

5

203

Design actions:

Px* = 0 , Py* = 450 kN , Pz* = 0

M

*

x

= 90 kNm

kN , M

*

y

= 0, M

*

z

=0

Weld g

group

p properties:

p p

Example 4

If it is

i assumedd that

th t the

th vertical

ti l shear

h is

i primarily

i

il taken

t k by

b the

th webs

b

of the box section, then this vertical shear must be assumed to be

transferred through the vertical fillet weld only.

Hence,

L w = 2 305 = 610 mm

d = 305 mm

b = 203 mm

I wx = d

6 + bd / 2 = 14 . 2 10 mm

2

y = 152.5 mm

4, 5, 6, 7

y = 152 . 5 mm

Example 4

Global set of design actions per unit length

v*x = 0

v*y = - 450/610

= + 0.967 at points1, 2, 3, 8 ( y = + 152.5)

= - 0.738 at points 3, 4, 7, 8

=0

at points1, 2, 5, 6

= - 0.967 at points4, 5, 6, 7 (y = -152.5)

R l

Resultant

force

f

per unit

i length:

l

h

v w* =

( 0 . 738 )2

+ ( 0 . 967

)2

= 1 . 22 kN/mm

Weld capacity:

t w = 8 tt = 8 2 = 5.66

kr = 1

Example 5

Fillet welded bracket loaded In-Plane

y

175

275

180 kN

d = 300 mm

b = 275 mm

3 2

1

Weld group

centroid

300

x

4 5

weld centroid

x

b2

x =

= 89 . 0 mm

2b + d

design actions

Px* = 0 Py* = 180 kN Pz* = 0

critical points

*

x

=0 M

*

z

*

y

=0

= 64980 kNmm

Example 5

Weld group properties:

Lw = 2 275+ 300= 850mm

I wp = I wx + I wy

3002 (6 275+ 300) 2753 (275+ 2 300)

I wp =

+

12

3(2 275+ 300)

= 21.8106 mm3

at points 1, 6 :

y = 300/ 2 = 150

at points 2, 3, 4, 5 :

x = 89.0 y = 150

Example 5

Global design actions per unit length:

*

M

64980150

zy

v*x =

=

I wp

21.8106

= 0.447

44 at points

i

4, 5, 6 ( y = 150

1 0)

*

M

x 180 64980186

v*y =

+ z =

+

Lwy I wp

850

21.8106

Fy*

180 64980 ( 89.0)

=

+

850

21.8106

= +0.054 at points 2, 3, 4, 5 (not critical)

Resultant

R

lt t fforce per unit

it length:

l

th

points 1, 6

vw* =

( 0.447)2 + ( 0.767)2

= 0.888 kN/mm

6 mm E48XX fillet weld

v w = 0.6 f uw t t k r

= 0 . 978 kN/mm > v w*

OK

t w = 6 t t = 6 2 = 4.24

kr = 1

Reference material

NS Trahair & MA Bradford: The Behaviour and Design of Steel

Structures to AS4100, 3rd Australian edition, E&FN Spon,

London, 1998.

ST Woolcock, S Kitipornchai & MA Bradford: Design of Portal

F

Frame

Buildings,

B ildi

3rd edition,

diti AISC,

AISC S

Sydney,

d

1999

1999.

TJ Hogan & IR Thomas: Design of structural connections, 4th

edition, AISC, Sydney, 1994.

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