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CVEN3302 Structural Design

Semester 2,, 2009

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW

Introduction
by

Zora Vrcelj

LectureOutline
Introduction Housekeepingrules
Structuralsteel
p p
properties,fabrication
,

LimitstatesdesigntoAS4100
g
4
Strength,serviceability

Loads
Dead,live,wind,earthquake
,
,
,
q

SStructurall
Steel - Properties

Thisiswhatyouendupwith
y
p
ifyoudontbuildwithsteel!

Badchoiceofmaterialcan
causeprematurefailure

Steelisbyfarthemostuseful
materialforbuildingstructureswith
g ofapproximatelytentimes
pp
y
strength
thatofconcrete,steelistheideal
materialformodernconstruction.

Steelisalsoaveryecofriendly
materialandsteelstructurescan
b il di
beeasilydismantledandsoldas
tl d d ld
scrap.

Duetoitslargestrengthtoweight
ratio,steelstructurestendtobemore
economicalthanconcretestructures
fortallbuildingsandlargespan
buildingsandbridges.

Togetthemostbenefitoutofsteel,steel
structuresshouldbedesignedand
t t
h ldb d i
d d
protectedtoresistcorrosionandfire.
Steelstructuresareductileandrobust
andcanwithstandsevereloadingssuch
asearthquakes.
The effectsoftemperatureshouldbe
consideredindesign.Specialsteelsand
protectivemeasuresforcorrosionandfire
i
f
i dfi
areavailableandthedesignershouldbe
familiarwiththeoptionsavailable.
Topreventdevelopmentofcracksunder
fatigueandearthquakeloadsthe
p
connectionsandinparticularthewelds
shouldbedesignedanddetailedproperly.
Theyshouldbedesignedanddetailedfor
easyfabricationanderection.Good
qualitycontrolisessentialtoensure
lit
t li
ti lt

properfittingofthevariousstructural
elements.

Thusthelifecyclecostofsteelstructures,
whichincludesthecostofconstruction,
maintenance,repairanddismantling,canbe
lessthanthatforconcretestructures.Since
steelisproducedinthefactoryunderbetter
qualitycontrol,steelstructureshavehigher
li
l
l
h
hi h
reliabilityandsafety.

Steelstructurescanbeconstructedveryfast
andthisenablesthestructuretobeusedearly
y
g
y
therebyleadingtooveralleconomy.Steel
structurescanbeeasilyrepairedand
retrofittedtocarryhigherloads.

StructuralSteel MildSteel
E
Economic,Ductile
i D til
Hotrolledintostandardshapes

Box sections

Easilyfabricatedbywelding

Standard sections

Cell Form Beams

TypicalSteelFabricationShop

f bi i
fabricationworkshop
k h

h lli
hotrolling

Ductility
Themostimportantmaterialcharacteristicofmildsteel isits
ductility.
Ductility allowsverylargestrainstodevelopwithlittleincreasein
stress,priortofailure.
Theadvantagesofductilityare:
Itcangivepriorwarningofimpendingfailure
Itallowsenergyabsorptionindynamicloadingorinresistingbrittlefracture
Itallowsforredistributionofactions,whichisusuallybenign
,
y
g
p
, in achieving
g a ductile stress-strain curve it requires
q
y
N.B At present,
the yield
stress
fy to be less than 450 MPa. The yield stress is also called the Grade of the mild
steel, i.e. Grade 350 steel has fy = 350 MPa.

Propertiesofmildsteel
p
St
Stress

Not to scale

Upper yield stress

fu

Strain hardening Est

fy

Plastic

Tensile rapture

El ti E
Elastic

st

Strain

Idealisedstressstrainrelationshipforstructuralsteel
N.B.
N B Thesamestressstraincurveisassumedincompression,butweshallseethat
Th
t
t i
i
di
i b t h ll th t
bucklingofmembersandelementsincompressionusuallypreventshighstrainsfrom
beingrealised

IdealisedStressStrain() Diagram
MildStrengthSteel 450 MPa
MildStrengthSteel,

HighStrengthSteel 450 MPa


HighStrengthSteel,

Yieldingunderbiaxialstresses
Mises YieldCriterion
MohrCircleConstruction

Uniaxial
tension

-1.0
P i i l stress
Principal

Uniaxial
compression

f1, f2 normal stresses


shear stress

Princcipal stress

ratio f2/fy

Pure
shear

1.0

1.0
ratio
i f1/fy

-1.0

Maximumdistortionenergy
criterion:
f12-f1f2+f2 2+ 32= fy3

Introductionto
Structural
SteelDesign

DesignProcess
Problem!

Includes: setting criteria, constraints


functional and structural requirements

Definition of problem
(Design brief)

Information search
Includes: design data
data,
information from other
consultants, loads

Preliminary designs and selection


Structural systems
(C
(Conceptual
t l design)
d i )
Includes: type of system,
spacing of major members,
fixity of connections
construction techniques

Detailed design
Drawings and specifications
Advice on construction

Solution
(completed job)

Whentheneedforanewstructurearises,anindividualoragency
hastoarrangethefundsrequiredforitsconstruction.
Theindividualoragencyhenceforthreferredtoastheownerthen
approachesanarchitect.

Thearchitectplansthelayoutsoastosatisfythefunctionalrequirementsandalso
ensuresthatthestructureisaestheticallypleasingandeconomicallyfeasible.
Inthisprocess,thearchitectoftendecidesthematerialandtypeofconstructionaswell.

Theplanisthengiventoastructuralengineerwhoisexpectedtolocatethestructuralelements
soastocauseleastinterferencetothefunctionandaestheticsofthestructure.
Hethenmakesthestrengthcalculationstoensure
safetyandserviceabilityofthestructure.

Thisprocessisknownasstructuraldesign.

Finally,thestructuralelementsarefabricatedanderectedbythe
contractor Ifallthepeopleworkasateamthenasafe useful
contractor.Ifallthepeopleworkasateamthenasafe,useful,
aestheticandeconomicalstructureisconceived.

Howeverinpractice,manystructuresfulfiltherequirements
onlypartiallybecauseofinadequatecoordinationbetweenthe
l ti ll b
fi d
t
di ti b t
th
peopleinvolvedandtheirlackofknowledgeofthecapabilities
andlimitationsoftheirownandthatofothers.
Sinceastructuralengineeriscentraltothisteam,itisnecessaryforhim
tohaveadequateknowledgeofthearchitectsandcontractorswork
tohaveadequateknowledgeofthearchitectsandcontractorswork.
Itishisresponsibilitytoadviseboththearchitectandthecontractor
aboutthepossibilitiesofachievinggoodstructureswitheconomy.

Eversincesteelbegantobeusedintheconstructionof
structures,ithasmadepossiblesomeofthegrandest
t t
ith d
ibl
fth
d t
structuresbothinthepastandalsointhepresentday.

SuccessfulStructures
Functionalrequirements setbyclient
SAFETY buildinglifeincludingconstructionperiod
SAFETY
b ildi lif i l di
t ti i d
STRUCTURALENGINEERS
Aestheticsatisfaction setbyarchitects
Economy Capitalcost isnotjustthestructuralcomponent
butalsofinancingandconstructionspeed
maintenancecosts caneffectlongtermlifecyclecosting

SteelStructuresCode
Section
9
Section
5
to
8
Section
5
4
Section
6,7243& 8
Section
Section
AS 4100
Connections
Engineered
g
Capacity
p1
y
Design
Member
Section
Properties
Method
ofof
Timber
of
subjected
Connections
to- Design
Capacity
Introduction
Timber
Structural
nails,
screws
Products
- Bolting
bending
g
pProperties
scope,
of
Members
eng.
eng.
Australian
Standard
Analysis
bolts,
b
coach
h screws
b ltplywood
l
d
Welding
definitions,
strength
(f
)
tension
Steel
Structures
shear
connectors,
Elastic
poles
stiffness
(E)
Section
capacity
notation,
compression
split
rings
Plastic
Modifn
Modif
n factors
Member
units
itd
(N,
(N
Member
buckling
combined
bicapacity
d di
bending
bglulam
kFrame
modifies
strength
LVL
buckling
mm,
MPa)
actions

Standards Australia

LimitsStatesDesigntoAS4100
g
4
Forrest Centre,
Perth WA
Firstt M
Fi
Melbourne
lb
building
b ildi
to use concrete filled
tubular steel columns
Central
C
t l concrete
t core
with steel beams and
metal formwork

Steel skeleton connected


to the central core

Casseldon Place,
Melbourne

Columns were concrete


filled composite steel
box columns

DesignapproachofAS4100
g pp
4
Basedonlimitstatedesign
Principallimitstates

Strength(ultimatelimitstate),concernedwith
collapse:

yyielding
g
buckling
overturning

Serviceabilitylimitstate,concernedwith
i bili li i
d h
function:

deflection
d
fl i
vibration

LimitStatesDesign
Aim Satisfactoryperformanceunderavarietyofdifferentuses
orloadscenarios

Strength Rarescenarios:
wantsafetyforoccupants
nofailure

Serviceability
y Commonscenarios:
wantsatisfactoryperformanceinserviceundercommonloadings
nocracking,nobouncing,
satisfactoryappearanceandfunction

Strengthlimitstatedesignprinciples
Definerelevantlimitstates
Determineappropriateactions
Analyseusingappropriatemethodsand

g
y
accountingforvariabilitytodetermine:
Designeffects{S*},and
Designresistance{ R}
Ensurenolimitstateisexceeded

S R

Strengthlimitstatedesignprinciples
EffectofFactoredLoadsFactoredResistance

S R
For load combinations, the effect of factored loads (S*) is the
structural effect due to the specified loads multiplied by load
factors.

Variabilityofactions
a ab ty o act o s
Precisionofmodellingactionsvaries:

deadloadsrelatedtomaterialdensityand
thickness
imposedloadsbasedontypeofoccupancy
windandsnowloadsbasedonmeteorological
data
Probabilityofloadcombinationsvaries
y

ACTIONS
DEADLOADS
Weightsofthevariousstructuralmembersandtheweightsofany
objectsthatarepermanentlyattachedtothestructure(i e selfweight
objectsthatarepermanentlyattachedtothestructure(i.e.selfweight
ofthestructure+superimposeddeadload)

LIVELOADS
Buildingloads
Bridgeloads
B id l d
Windloads
Snowloads
Earthquakeloads
HydrostaticandSoilPressure
OtherNaturalLoads(theeffectofblast,temperaturechanges,different
settlementofthefoundation)

DESIGNLOADS GENERAL
Forthedesignofstructuralsteelworkthefollowingloadsandinfluencesshallbe
considered:
G Deadloads,includingtheweightofsteelworkandallpermanentmaterialsof
construction partitions stationaryequipment andadditionalweightof
construction,partitions,stationaryequipment,andadditionalweightof
concreteandfinishesresultingfromdeflectionsofsupportingmembers,andthe
forcesduetoprestressing;
Q Liveloads,includingloadduetointendeduseandoccupancyofstructures;
movableequipment,snow,rain,soil,orhydrostaticpressure;impact;andany
ot e e oad st pu ated by t e egu ato y aut o ty;
otherliveloadstipulatedbytheregulatoryauthority;
T Influencesresultingfromtemperaturechanges,shrinkage,orcreepof
p
,
;
componentmaterials,orfromdifferentsettlements;
W Liveloadduetowind;
E Liveloadduetoearthquake

G DeadLoad
Loadsactinverticaldirection.
Thespecifieddeadloadforastructuralmemberconsistsof:

theweightofthememberitself,

the eightofallmaterialsofconstr ctionincorporatedinto


theweightofallmaterialsofconstructionincorporatedinto

thebuildingtobesupportedpermanentlybythemember,

theweightofpartitions,

theweightofpermanentequipment,and

theverticalloadduetoearth,plantsandtrees.
,p

DeadLoad,G
,
Services(ventilation,electricityducts,etc.)

Superimposed dead load

Load
path?!

Variabilityofmaterialandsection
y
properties
Resistance{R}isrelatedprincipallytomaterial

andsectiongeometry
Yieldstrengthofsteelisguaranteed
e d st e gt o stee s gua a teed
Otherproperties,notablyYoungsmodulus(E),

aremuchlessvariable

Strength(Ultimate)LimitState
Thefollowingconditionsshouldbeconsidered:

Stability:overturning(equilibrium)
Strength:includinglocalandoverallbucklingeffectswhere
appropriate

Itmayalsobenecessarytoconsider:

Secondordereffects
Rupture(duetofatigue)

StrengthLimitState
i e GRAVITYLOADS:1.2G
i.e.
GRAVITYLOADS:1 2G +1.5Q
+1 5Q fR
or

S R
*

R =resistancecapacity(atfailure)
Lefthandsideisfactoredstrengthloadeffect,S*
=capacityreductionfactor

CapacityFactor
Givesconsistentreliabilitytowholestructure
=0.9
0 9(forsteelmembers,M
(f t l
b
Mu,V
Vu,N
Nu)
=0.8(connectorsandconnections)

StrengthLimitState
g
Strength avoidfailureinthelifetimeofthestructure

i.e.liveloadcombination

1.2G
1 2G + 1
1.5Q
5Q
0.8G + 1.25Q
1.2G
1 2G + Wu

i.e.windloadcombination

0.8G
0 8G + Wu

(1)and(3) combinationsareusediftheloadsactinthesamedirection
(2) and(4) areusediftheloadsactinoppositedirections.

StrengthLimitState
g
Loadsaregenerally:UDLs(orpressures=Force/Area)
g
y
p
andPointLoads
Loadeffectsare:
AxialforceN*
BendingmomentM*
ShearforceV*
Whentheseloadeffectsaredeterminedusingfactoredloads(*)theyarecalleddesignloads
Whentheloadeffectsaredeterminedwithoutusingfactoredloadstheyarecallednominalloads

G nominaldealload(giveninloadingcaseAS1170.1)
Q nominalliveload(giveninloadingcodeAS1170.1)
(g
g
7 )
Wu nominalultimatewindload(giveninloadingcodeAS1170.2)

Mu, Nu, Vu the strengths are determined from


the steel code AS4100

S*

StrengthLimitState
g
Anexampleofthedesignequationmaybeestablishingthat:
f

M M b
*

where
M* isthefactoredbendingmomentinabeam(determinedfrom
structuralanalysis)
Mb isthebendingstrengthofthebeam(thataccountsforlateral
buckling)and =0.9

StrengthLimitState
g
Anotherexamplemightbeestablishingthat

N N c
*

where
N* isthefactoredaxialcompressioninacolumn(theloadeffector
designaxialcompression)
Nc isitsstrengththataccountsfortheeffectsofcolumnbucklingif
thecolumnisslender(thenominalcompressivestrength)and
=0.9

ServiceabilityLimitState
y
Thefollowingconditionsmayneedtobeconsidered:

excessivedeflections

excessivevibrations

Bothconditionsareassociatedwithstiffnessrather

thanstrength
g
Formostbuildings,controllingdeflectionswillalsolimit

vibrations
b

Serviceabilityofbeams
y
Deflectionlimitsforbeams:
appearance(sagging)
fitnessforpurpose(machinery,pipegrades)
str ct ral(a oid nintendedloadpaths)
structural(avoidunintendedloadpaths)

ServiceabilityLimits
y
Codegivesguidanceonly
g
g
y
(i.e./L=1/250,1/500,etc.)

Mainmessageis THINKanddiscusswithclient

DesignforServiceability
g
y
howtosizeamember?
1.Agreeondeflectionlimits
A
d fl i li i lim withclient
i h li

2.Evaluateserviceabilityloadcombinationsthathavelimit lim

splitcombinationintoconstituentloadswi
estimatedurationofeachconstituentload

DesignforServiceability
g
y
3.

5 L4 w

I
384 E lim

(udl,ss)

Note:Designloadfactorsusedfor StrengthLimitStatedonotapplyto
ServiceabilityLimitState
y
((i.e.weusew notw*)

4. Se
Select
ect c
cross-section
oss sect o to g
give
e

5. Check
Ch k bending,
b di
shear,
h
axial
i l strength
t
th

Mu

Vu

Nu

ReferenceMaterial
AS4100 1998SteelStructures:
AS4100
1998SteelStructures StandardsAustralia,Sydney.
S d d A
li S d
AS1170.1&AS1170.2LoadingCodes:StandardsAssociationofAustralia,
Sydney.

NSTrahair&MABradford:TheBehaviorandDesignofSteel
g
StructurestoAS4100,3rd Australiaedition,E&FNSpon,London,1998.
MABradford,RQBridge&NSTrahair:WorkedExamplesfor
MABradford
RQBridge&NSTrahair WorkedExamplesfor
SteelStructures,3rd edition,AISC,Sydney,1997.
STWoolock,SKitipornchai&MABradford:DesignofPortal
FrameBuildings,3rd edition,AISC,Sydney,1999.

DESIGN
OFLATERALLY
RESTRAINED
BEAMS

LectureOutline
B
BeamDesign:
D i
NamegoverningLimitStates?
g
g
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________

LectureOutline
Steelbeam
Modesoffailure
LocalBucklingandSectionClassification
g
Compact
Noncompact
Slender

Sectioncapacityinbending

SectionCapacity
or

DesignCapacityofFullyLaterally
RestrainedBeams
or

In PlaneCapacity
InPlaneCapacity
or

DesignCapacityofveryShortLaterally
UnrestrainedBeams

Steelbeam
Beams aremembersofstructureswhichcarryloads
transversetotheirlength.
Thesemembersresistflexure (bending)andshear,
andsometimestorsion,introducedbytransverse
loads.
Purlins,rafters,joists,spandrels,lintels,floorbeams,stringersand
othersimilarstructuralpartsareallbeams.
othersimilarstructuralpartsareallbeams
Memberssubjectedtobendingand axialcompression
simultaneouslyarebeamcolumns.

Steelbeam
Beam (UDL -

major axis loading)

Beam

(couple)

Beam

(torsion)
(
)

Beam (UDL -

minor axis loading)

Beam-column

(axial compression
+ transverse loading)

SteelBeam wheredoweuseit?

Strengthlimitstatebending
momentcapacity
Designequationforbendingstrength

( M ) M *
Designcapacity>factoredstrengthlimitstate
D
i
it f t d t
thli it t t
moment

In planebending
Inplanebending
X (u)

Y (v)

Modesoffailure
Theusualstrengthmodes offailurefor
structuralsteelbeams are:
Plastification
Flangelocalbuckling
Lateralbuckling
Webcrippling
Weblocalbuckling undershear
Weshallconsidereachofthesestrengthlimitstatesinturn.

Plastification
AsteelbeammayfailwhenthePLASTICMOMENTMp
develops,orwhensufficientplastichingesdeveloptoforma
mechanism.

Mp = S fy

S plastic section
modulus

fy yield stress

2)
(
(MPa
= N/mm
/

S istabulatedformostrolledsectionsinhandbooks(mm3).

Ductilestressstraincurve
RecallMp isreliantonaDUCTILESTRESS
isreliantonaDUCTILESTRESSSTRAINCURVE
STRAINCURVE.

fy
E
1

Long plastic
plateau means
ductile

y = yield
i ld strain
t i = fy / E = fy / 2
2x10
105

MPa

Maximummoment
Maximummomentthatcanbeattainedisthe PLASTICMOMENTMp

equal areas
C
h
T
plastic neutral axis
NominalcapacityMmax =Ms =Mp
Ms iscalledtheSECTIONCAPACITY.
Itisthemomenttocausefailureofthecrosssection.
Here,Mp =C x h=T x h

Example1
CalculateMp forthesectionshownbelow.

500

20

200

C1
C2

h2

C1

h1

C2

10

T2
20
200

fyf =350MPa
MP

T1

Example2
CalculatethefactoredloadW* tocauseplasticcollapseofthe
beamshownbelow:
W*
410UB60

Sx = 1190 x 103 mm3


fyf = 300 MPa
MP
3000 mm

M = Sx f yf = 0.9 119010 300 Nmm


*

= 321.3 kNm

M = W L = 3W
*

*
M
321.3
*
W =

3
3

W * 107.1 kN

Designbendingcapacity
g
g p
y
M M S
*

= 0 .9

However,lateral
However
lateral andlocal
buckling usuallyresultin
l
loweringM
i Mmax belowM
b l Mp.

MS = MP
Beamsareusuallyunabletoreach Mp becauseof
theoccurrenceofpremature BUCKLING

LocalBuckling
g
and
S ti Cl ifi ti
SectionClassification

Basisofsectionclassification
Rolledorweldedsectionsmaybeconsideredasanassembly
ofindividualplateelements
Someare outstand

Outstand
Internal

flangesofIbeams
fl
f b
legsofanglesandTsections

Someareinternal
websofopenbeams
flangesofboxes

Internal
Web

Web

Flange
Rolled I-section

Flange
Hollow section

Basisofsectionclassification
Rolledorweldedsectionsmaybeconsideredasanassembly
y
y
ofindividualplateelements
Someareoutstand
Outstand

flangesofIbeams
fl
f b
legsofanglesandTsections
Web

Internal

Internal
te a

Someareinternal
websofopenbeams
flangesofboxes

Flange

Welded box section

Basisofsectionclassification
Astheplateelementsarerelativelythin,whenloadedincompressionthey
maybucklelocally
Thetendencyofanyplateelementwithinthecrosssectiontobucklemay
limittheaxialloadcarryingcapacity,orthebendingresistanceofthe
section,bypreventingtheattainmentofyield.
Avoidanceofprematurefailurearisingfromtheeffectsoflocalbuckling
maybeachievedbylimitingthewidthtothicknessratioforindividual
maybeachievedbylimitingthewidth
to thicknessratioforindividual
elementswithinthecrosssection.
Outstand
Internal

O t t d
Outstand
Internal

Internal
Web

Web

Flange

Rolled I-section

Web

Flange

Hollow section

I t
Internal
l

Fl
Flange

Welded box section

Flangelocalbuckling
g
g
Buckled flange

Compression flange
Buckled web
Web

Flange andtopcompressiveregionof
thewebDISTORT,buttheline
junctionbetweentheflangesandweb
remainsstraight.
OccursinslenderCOMPRESSIONFLANGES

Flangelocalbuckling
g
g
Ifthecompressionflangeofabeamisslender,itmaybuckleLOCALLY andpreventthe
beamfromreachingitsmaximumbendingstrengthMp(PLASTICMOMENT).

The stress to cause ELASTIC LOCAL BUCKLING ol is given


(see Trahair & Bradford Chapter 4):

ol

E t f
=k
12 (1 2 ) b f
2

Called
FLANGE OUTSTANDS
tf

where:

k = the local buckling coefficient that depends

on edge and loading conditions (= 0.425 here)


E = Young
Youngss modulus = 200 x 103 MPa

= Poissons ratio (0.3 for steel)

bf

bf

Platebuckling
A thin flat rectangular plate subjected to compressive
forces along its short edges has an elastic critical buckling
stress ((cr ) g
given byy

cr

k E t
=

2
12(1 ) b
2

k is the plate buckling parameter which accounts for edge


support conditions,
conditions stress distribution and aspect ratio of the
plate

Platebucklingin
g compression
p
Bounded plate
in uniform
compression

n = number of sine waves

For bounded
flanges kb = 4

Flangeplatebehaviourincompression
Critical buckling coefficient k therefore depends on:
Flange in Compression

Boundaryconditions
L
t

Stressdistribution
Aspectratio
(width/thickness)

(b)

(a)

Simply supported on
all four edges

Buckling coefficient k
5
b

Simply supported

longitudinal edge

Free

Exact

k = 0.425
0 425 + (b/L) 2

NOTE; for a web in pure


compression both longitudinal
edges
g are simply
p y supported
pp
and
k = 4.0.

(c)
1
0.425

Free
longitudinal edge

FREE FLANGE OUTSTAND

(d)

Plate aspect ratio L / b

Example3
p 3
What must we restrict the width to thickness ratio bf/tf to in order to
ensure yielding at fyf will occur before elastic local buckling?

If buckling is to be prevented,
prevented then from:

ol

E t f
=k
12 (1 2 ) b f
2

f yf > ol

so that

bf
tf

0 .425 200 10
=
12 1 0 .3 2
2

f yf 277 (fy in MPa)

tf

b
f

Sectionclassification
AS
AS4100definesthreetypesofcrosssection:
d fi th t
f
ti

(a)COMPACTSECTION
(b)NON COMPACTSECTION
( )
(c)SLENDERSECTION

Sectionclassification
Sectionclassificationdependson:
Sectionclassificationdependson
slenderness ofeachelement(definedby
awidthtothicknessratio)
idth t thi k
ti )
thecompressivestressdistribution

Slenderness parameter

bf
e =
tf

fy

250

fy in MPa units

Variations in ey and
ep due to residual
stress effects

Thesectionslenderness,
, e
Fromthepreviousexamplewesawthatthesectionslenderness(bf/tf)is
importantinenforcingyieldingtooccurbeforeelasticbuckling.
Itwillbeshownhowthiscanbeextendedevenfurther.
t
be s o
o t s ca be e te ded e e u t e

N.B.
The SLENDERNESS e
of a flange is defined by:

bf
e =
tf

fy

250

fy must be in units of MPa ( = N/mm2)


the significance of the f y term is
apparent from
f
Example
l 3.
The normalising with respect to 250
MPa is historical as most steels once
had fy = 250 MPa. Yield stresses are
now higher.
(b f t f ) f y 250 obviously is more
transparent than (b f t f ) f y

Sectionclassification
((a)COMPACTSECTION
)
ThesesectionsallowtheFULLPLASTICMOMENTMp andfor
thestrainhardeningregiontobeenteredbefore ELASTIC
BUCKLINGoccurs.
SectionsmustbeCOMPACT ifplasticanalysis/designistobeutilised.

Thesectionslendernessisgovernedby:

e ep
e p is constant

The limits on p are much tighter


th when
than
h fol = fy in
i Example
E
l 3
because higher strains at fy are
needed to make local buckling occur
in the strain hardening region.

Sectionclassification

There are limits for flange and web


classification

Th limits
The
li it are therefore:
th f

ep =10[stressrelievedflanges]
=9[hotrolled]
[h t ll d]
=8[welded]
[
]
Thedifferenceisdueto initialgeometricoutof
straightness andto differentresidualstresses.

ResidualStresses
Hot rolled
Hotrolled

Welded

Compactsection
p
M - of a
PLASTIC SECTION

M
Moment
t

MP
MY

Inelastic local
buckling well into the
strain-hardening
range

curvature -
The design equation is then:

= 0 .9

M S = M P = fyS

Example4
p 4
530UB92.4
Sx = 2370 x 103 mm3
fyf = 300 MPa

5333

209

10.2

209

N.B. Some UBs have e > 9.


We have not considered the
compactness of the web (this
will be done latter).

Sectionclassification
(b)NONCOMPACTSECTION
ThesesectionsallowtheFIRSTYIELDMOMENTMy tobereached,
butbucklelocallybeforeMp canbeattained.
Theirmoment/curvatureresponseis:

Thedesign
equationisthen:

Moment

M * M S

M- of a NON-COMPACT SECTION

= 0 .9

MP
MY
Inelastic local buckling
before Mp is reached

andfora
NONCOMPACT
SECTION

e ey

curvature -

M S = f y Ze

Noncompactsection
For non-compact
non compact sections:

ep e ey

The ey limits are looser than the ep limits and essentially


correspond to the coincidence of yielding and elastic local buckling,
but they are modified to include residual stresses and initial geometric
imperfections in the strength.

The limits are therefore

ey = 16 [most flange outstands]

= 15 [welded flange outstands]

N.B. We saw in Example 3 that first yield [MY ] and elastic local buckling
coincided when (b f t f ) f y = 277 , or

(b

t f ) f y 250 = e = 277

250 = 17.5

This is close to the above limits.

Noncompactsection
p
Ze istheeffectivesectionmodulus.
ofcourse,
f

Ze =S
S ifMS =MP
Ze =Z ifMS =MY

[Z =elasticsectionmodulus,
MY =fyZ]

Noncompactsection
p
R l behavior
Real
b h i

Moment

MP
MS
MY
IInelastic
l ti local
l l
buckling

Linear
approximation

curvature -

For non-compact sections we can interpolate linearly between


MY and MP, based on the value of e.

Noncompactsection
p
Linear
approximation

Moment

MP
MS
MY

ey e
Ze = Z +
(S Z )
ey ep

ep
Section strength of
section with e

ey

Check:
e = ep

Ze = Z + 1(S-Z)
1(S Z) = S

[plastic]

e = ey

Ze = Z + 0(S-Z) = Z

[non-compact]

Sectionclassification
((b)SLENDERSECTION
)
Thesesectionsbucklelocallyevenbeforetheyieldstress(andMy)arereached.

Themoment/curvatureresponseis:
h
i

Forslender
sections:

Moment
M- of a SLENDER SECTION

e > ey

= 0 .9

MP
MY

andfora
SLENDER
SECTION:

Buckling failure prior to MY

curvature -

M S = f y Ze

Slendersection
Theeffectivesectionmodulusmaybecalculatedbytwomethods:

Method1:
Aneffectivewidthapproachomitsfromeachflangethewidthinexcessofthat
whichcorrespondstoey.
be

be

tf

compressionflange(partiallyeffective,2be)

ineffective(ignore)
(g
)

tensionflange(fullyeffective,b)

Slendersection
Theeffectivewidthbe isdefinedsuchthat:
be
tf

fy
250

= ey

or

ey
be
=
b
e

Althoughaccurate,themethodmaybecumbersomeforbeamcrosssectionsasthe
effectivesectionbecomesMONOSYMMETRIC,i.e.
Needtocalculatenewcentroid andI:
Centroidof
originalsection

Centroid of
d f ti ti
defectivesection

yC

yT

ZC = I

yC

Z e = min[Z C , Z T ]

ZT = I
and since

Ze = I

yC

yT

yT < yC

Slendersection
Method2:
Method2
Aneasierandsimplermethodtouse:

Ze

ey
=
e

whereZ istheelasticmoduluscalculatedforthefullsection.

Sectionclassificationbasedonweb
slenderness
l d
Sofarwehaveconsideredthecompressionflangewhichmay
f
f
bucklelocallyunderUNIFORMSTRESS.
Thewebissubjectedtobendingstress (compressionalongoneedge,
tensionalongtheotheredge)andmayalsobucklelocally.
tensionalongtheotheredge)andmayalsobucklelocally

web
T

Underbending,thecoefficientkinwebisapproximately23.9.

Weblocalbuckling
g
Stocky flange
Slender
web

Buckled web

Stocky flange

occursinslenderwebs
withlargebending and/or
shearstress
h t

Webcrippling
Occursduetolocalisedyieldingofthe
g
webnearconcentratedloads.
Behaviorisdominatedbygrossyielding
overasmallwebregion.

web
b

Sectionclassificationbasedonweb
slenderness
Webscanbeclassifiedsimilarlytoflangesas
Webscanbeclassifiedsimilarlytoflangesas:
COMPACT:

e < ep

NONCOMPACT:
NON
COMPACT:
SLENDER:

ep e < e y

e e y

Thelimitsare:

fy

dw
e =
tw

250

ep = 82

ey = 115

tw
dw

Sectionclassificationbasedonweb
slenderness
l d
ForaSECTION tobeCOMPACT:
boththeFLANGESandWEBmustbecompact.
ForaSECTION tobeNONCOMPACT:
EITHERtheFLANGEorWEBorBOTHarenoncompact.
ForaSECTION TOBESLENDER:
EITHERtheFLANGEorWEBorBOTHareslender.

Compactflange
Slenderweb

ii.e.thisSECTIONis
hi
i
classifiedas
SLENDER

Example5
p 5
Calculatethedesignbending(section)capacityfor
thecrosssectionshown.
240
4

8
10
240

fy =250MPathroughout

Example5
p 5
ThecrosssectionisthereforeNONCOMPACT.
f

Example5
p 5

Boxcrosssections
Forthecompressionflange,k
p
g , =4.0
Forthewebinbending,k =23.9

bf

compression
i
flange

b
bf

tf

Weldedboxcolumnin
bending

Rectangular(orsquare)hollowsection
[RHSorSHS]

Boxcrosssections
Forthecompressionflange,k =4.0
Theclassificationsarethesameasforflangeoutstands,butwith:

ep = 30

ey = 45

COMPACT if
again

= 40
= 35
3

e = (b f t f ) f y 250 < ep

NON COMPACT if
NONCOMPACT
SLENDER if

[ hot-rolled]
hot rolled]
[ lightly welded]
[ hheavily
il welded]
ld d]

ep e < ey

e ey

ThewebsofboxcrosssectionsareclearlythesameasthoseofIsections.

DESIGN
OF
LATERALLY
UNRESTRAINED
BEAMS

Lecture Outline
Lateral torsional buckling
Elastic lateral buckling
Twisting moment
warping

Moment gradient factor, m


Slenderness reduction factor, s
Idealised end conditions
full, lateral, partial and unrestrained

In-plane bending
X (u)

Y (v)

Out-of-plane buckling

X (u)

or LateralTorsional Buckling

Y (v)

Lateral Torsional Buckling


or

Flexural-Torsional Buckling
or

Member Capacity
or

Lateral-Torsional buckling
or

Out-of-Plane buckling

Lateral buckling

flexural torsional buckling

or

u
Buckled web

Buckled configuration
Original
configuration

u lateral displacement
twist

Introduction
Clamp at
root
Slender structural elements
loaded in a stiff plane tend to
fail by buckling in a more
flexible plane.
In the case of a beam bent
about its major axis, failure
may occur by a form of
buckling which involves both
lateral deflection and twisting.

Lateral-torsional
Lateralbuckling

Buckled
position

Dead weight
load applied
vertically

Unloaded
position

Consider an I-beam ..

Perfectly elastic, initially


straight, loaded by equal
and opposite end moments
about its major axis.

M
L
Section
Elevation

Unrestrained along its length.

Plan

End Supports

Twisting () and lateral


deflection (u)
prevented.
Free to rotate both in the
plane of the web and on
plan.

x
u

Strength limit state bending moment


capacity

Design equation for bending strength

Design capacity factored strength limit


state moment

Lateral buckling
Lateral buckling is the most influential strength limit
state in the design of steel beams.
Lateral buckling is also called flexural-torsional buckling
(or member buckling) and involves the lateral or sideways
instability of long slender beams.
Beams with FULL LATERAL RESTRAINT do not buckle
laterally and their strength is the
CROSS-SECTION STRENGTH defined by:

M * M S

M S = Ze f y

= 0 .9

Lateral buckling
Most commonly beams do not have full lateral restraint and the
nominal strength Ms must be reduced to the MEMBER
BENDING STRENGTH Mb.

Lateral buckling is catastrophic and so


represents a STRENGTH LIMIT STATE.

The design equation is:

M M b

= 0 .9

Lateral buckling

or

flexural torsional buckling

Occurs in slender, laterally unrestrained beams.


Beam deflects laterally ( = sideways) by u and twist

Like columns, the beam reaches an energy configuration at which it prefers to


snap into an OUT-OF-PLANE buckled position rather than continuing to bend
IN-PLANE.

{unstable if u, = 0 after buckling moment}


buckling moment or point of bifurcation

stable buckled position

u,

Lateral buckling

We must therefore calculate Mb based on


lateral buckling of the beam.

This is done by undertaking firstly an


ELASTIC BUCKLING ANALYSIS.

Elastic lateral buckling


The elastic buckling resistance depends on the
following cross-section properties:
Minor axis bending stiffness EIy
Torsion resistance GJ
Warping resistance EIw
Iy = minor axis second moment of area (mm4)
J = torsional constant (mm4)
Iw = warping constant (mm6)

E = Youngs modulus 200,000 MPa


G = Shear modulus
80,000 MPa
= 0.3

E
for G =
2(1 + )
steel

Elastic lateral buckling


Iy, J, Iw are all tabulated in the One Steel Handbook.
Alternatively for the doubly-symmetric I-section:
3

bf
tw
tf

Iy =
dw

bf t f

(N.B. web ignored)

1 n
1 3
3
J = bi ti = 2t f b f + t w3 d w
3 i =1
3

I w = I y h 2 4 (doubly symmetric )

Twisting moment - torque


Consider a built-in cantilever subjected to a
twisting moment ( torque)

Mt
move in

ELEVATION

move in

move out

PLAN

Mt

Warping
An interpretation of warping:

A situation where plane sections do not remain


plane during torsion.
This occurs with lateral buckling and its effect is
reflected in the warping constant Iw.

Torsion
The equation of torsion is:
3

d
d
M t = GJ
EI w 3
dz
dz
uniform torsion
resistance

warping torsion
resistance

= angle of twist

Lateral buckling
Basic model for lateral buckling is a simply supported I-beam
subjected to a uniform bending moment M.

Simply supported in the lateral buckling sense


means lateral deflection and twist are prevented at
the beam ends (u = 0, = 0), but the flanges are
free to rotate in their planes when the beam buckles
laterally.

Simply supported I-beam - model


M

free to rotate in plane during


buckling, but u = = 0

L
ELEVATION

BMD

PLAN
M

buckled
top flange

Elastic buckling moment


The ELASTIC BUCKLING MOMENT is:

Mo =

EI y
2

GJ +

EI w
2

(N.B. This is stated without proof. See Chapter 6 of Trahair & Bradford.)

Elastic buckling
Recall for the elastic buckling of a pin-ended column:

N oc =

EI y
2

pin-ended
column
deformed
shape

Euler buckling load


(elastic critical buckling load pin-ended column)

Example 1
Calculate the elastic lateral buckling moment for a simply supported
460UB82.1 beam of length L = 3m subjected to uniform bending.

460

191

From OneSteel Tables section properties handbook:


16

I y = 18.6 106 mm 4
J = 701 103 mm 4

9.9

I w = 919 109 mm6


16

191

460UB82.1

N.B. this is the ELASTIC BUCKLING MOMENT and not the actual
BUCKLING STRENGTH Mb which also depends on the yield stress fy.
Mb will be determined later.

Moment gradient factor, m


Of course beams in reality are rarely loaded in uniform bending,
nor are they pin-ended (or simply supported) so the formula for
Mo needs some modification.

So far we have considered uniform bending only.


This is very conservative as the elastic buckling moment
(Mo) is increased by unequal moments, transverse loads etc.

This effect is reflected in the m values given in


Table 5.6.1 of AS4100.

Moment gradient factor, m


M

single curvature

L
M

L
+ = compression

double curvature

M
BMD

- = tension
+

BUCKLED
SHAPE

moment is highest
in this region

M
moment is
very small in
this region

Moment gradient factor, m


The effect of the moment gradient is reflected in the m values given in
Table 5.6.1 of AS4100 (see attachment).
Alternatively, the BMD is often given using analysis software (Microstran,
Spacegas, Multiframe etc.). Therefore

M*m = maximum
m =

*
1.7M m
2.5
*2
*2
* 2
M 2 + M3 + M 4

( ) ( ) ( )
M*m
x

M*3
M*4

M*2
S/4

S/4

S/4

S/4

design moment within a


segment
where

M*2, M*4 = design


moments at quarter
points of a segment

M*3 = design moment


at the mid-length of a
segment

i.e. BMD segment

Moment modification factors

Slenderness reduction factor, s


The SLENDERNESS REDUCTION FACTOR s converts the ELASTIC
REFERENCE BUCKLING MOMENT Mo into a DESIGN STRENGTH.

1/ 2

where
M
M s

+ 3 s
S = 0.6
Mo

Mo

Mo - the elastic reference

buckling moment determined


from Le (effective length)
Mo =

s represents a transition between


Ms) and elastic
buckling (at Mo)

full yielding (at

2 EI y
2
e

GJ +

2 EI w
L2e

Ms the section bending

capacity depending on
whether the cross-section is
compact, non-compact or
slender =

Ze fy

Slenderness reduction factor, s


s

Section strength at Ms

1.0
Elastic buckling at Mo

s
0

Le
Short beam does not buckle
laterally and s = 1

Long beam is not influenced


by yielding as its bucking
moment is very small

Idealised end conditions


There are four types:

FULL RESTRAINT (F)


PARTIAL RESTRAINT (P)
LATERAL RESTRAINT (L)
UNRESTRAINED (U)

Idealised end conditions


FULL RESTRAINT (F)
Lateral deflection and twist are effectively prevented, i.e.

brace
stiffeners

compression
flange

seat support

shear
connector

concrete
slab

Idealised end conditions


PARTIAL RESTRAINT (P)
Lateral deflection prevented at some point other than at the
compression flange, and partial twist thus occurs during bucking.

compression
flange

buckled
configuration

tension
flange
Seat support restrains tension (T) flange fully at ends.

Idealised end conditions


LATERAL RESTRAINT (L)
Compression flange is restrained against translation during
buckling, but the cross-section is free to twist during buckling.

screws

brace
thin roof sheeting
quite stiff in-plane but
flexible in bending

thin sheeting bends


during buckling

Idealised end conditions


UNRESTRAINED (U)
Free to both displace and twist during buckling,
i.e. cantilever tip.
W*

cantilever tip

Idealised end conditions


For these idealised end conditions, AS4100 specifies a

TWIST RESTRAINT FACTOR kt


RESTRAINTS
FF
end 1

FP

PP

FL
end 2

PL

kt

LL FU
1

PU

1.0
d w t f
1+

L 2t w

d w t f
1 + 2

L 2t w

Effects of load height


Load applied above the shear centre ( centroid for doubly
symmetric I-section) causes an increased destabilising
torque that lowers the buckling load.
W
W

load at shear centre

load at top flange level

Effects of load height


To account for the height of application of the load, AS4100 specifies a

LOAD HEIGHT FACTOR kl


For load WITHIN THE BEAM SEGMENT
RESTRAINTS
FF
PP

FP
PL

FU

PU

FL
LL

AT SHEAR CENTRE

AT TOP FLANGE

1.0

1.4

1.0

2.0

For load AT THE END OF THE BEAM SEGMENT


RESTRAINTS
FF
PP

FP
PL

FU

PU

FL
LL

AT SHEAR CENTRE

AT TOP FLANGE

1.0

1.0

1.0

2.0

Load and rotation factors: AS4100

conservatively
kr = 1

Lateral restrain classifications

Lateral restrain classifications

End restraints: examples

End restraints: examples

End restraints: examples

Twist factor: AS4100

Effective length Le
The reference buckling moment Mo is written in terms of the

EFFECTIVE LENGTH Le similarly as previously as:


2

Mo =

EI y
2
e

GJ +

2 EI w
L2e

L = segment length or length of a


sub-segment between full and/or
partial restraints

kt = twist restraint factor


kl = load height factor

Le = kt kl L
N.B. AS4100 also has a rotational
restraint factor kr that is difficult to
quantify and which we shall take
equal to unity (conservatively):

Le = kt kl kr L = kt xkl x 1.0 x L
L e = kt kl L

Bending capacity, Mb
Finally, the design equation for bending within a segment is:

M M b
M b = m s M s M s = 0 . 9
m reflects the effect of the distribution of the bending
moment along the beam.

s reflects the elastic lateral buckling (via Le

Mo) and
yielding (Ms). It accounts for load height and restraint (via Le).

Bending capacity, Mb
Clearly if ms < 1.0, the full SECTION STRENGTH in bending is
not attained (Ms), and the beam will buckle laterally at Mb. This
is very often the case.

Mb is the MEMBER STRENGTH in deference to Ms which is


the SECTION STRENGTH.

m reflects the bending moment effects (moment gradient) and is


reasonably difficult to control as the loading is fixed.

s can be increased by using a bigger section


(larger Iy, Iw, J) or by bracing the beam to decrease Le.

Example 2
Determine the maximum design moment M* of a 200UC52.2 .
The effective length Le = 3.5m and the end moments are as shown.
M*

206

204

12.5

8.0

S x = 570 103 mm3


12.5

204

200UC52.2
fyf = 300 MPa

I y = 17.7 106 mm4


J = 325 103 mm4
I w = 166 109 mm6

0.4M*

Example 2
1. Determine SECTION CAPACITY Ms

Example 2
2. Determine MEMBER CAPACITY Mb

Example 2

Example 2
In this case the SECTION STRENGTH
than the MEMBER STRENGTH
lateral buckling.

Ms governed rather

Mb that is determined by

This is because of:


the low value of

Le

am that produced a
very high elastic buckling moment Mo . m.

the high moment modification factor

This is NOT always the case and commonly:

Mb < Ms.

Example 3
The loads are applied on the top flange.
Determine the maximum design value of W*.
4W*
B

W*

200UC52.2
Grade 300
P

L
3m

3m

206

204

3m

12.5

S x = 570 103 mm3


I y = 17.7 106 mm4
J = 325 103 mm4

8.0

I w = 166 109 mm6


12.5

204

Example 3
In-plane analysis

*
*
*
M
=
0
=
6
R

3
4
W
+
3
W
C
A

R A* = 1.5W *
M B* = 1.5W * 3 = 4.5W *
*
C

M = W 3 = 3W

BMD

3W*

+
4.5W*

Example 3
Segment ABC moment gradient

3 m FL
16

Example 3
Segment ABC effective length

Example 3
Segment ABC elastic buckling capacity

Segment ABC section capacity

Example 3
Segment ABC slenderness reduction factor, s

Example 3
Segment CD elastic buckling capacity

Example 3
Segment CD slenderness reduction factor, s

Example 4
A simply supported beam with a span of 15m has a nominal central concentrated
live load of 100 kN acting on the top flange. The beam is restrained against
lateral displacement and twist only at the ends, and is free to rotate in plan.
Design a suitable WB in accordance with AS4100 of Grade 300 steel.

150kN

15m

Example 4
Assume fyf = 300 MPa, compact section

m = 1.35
Guess s = 0.25
M sx 562.5 10 6 / (0.9 1.35 0.25) = 1851.9 kNm
Sx 1851.9 10 6 / 300 = 6172.8 103 kNm
Try a 800WB192
b f = 300 mm

A g = 24400 mm 2

t f = 28 mm

S x = 8060 10 3 mm 3

d = 816 mm

I y = 126 10 6 mm 4

t w = 10 mm

J = 4420 10 3 mm 4
9

I w = 19600 10 mm

fyf = 280 MPa

Example 4

Example 4

DESIGN
SHEAR
CAPACITY

Lecture Outline
Strength
g limit state
Local buckling
Intermediate transverse stiffeners
YIELD limit
li it state
t t
BUCKLING limit state

Combined shear and bending


L d bearing
Load
b i stiffeners
tiff
YIELD limit state
BUCKLING limit state

Strength limit state


shear capacity
Design equation for shear
strength
t
th

( Vv ) V *
D i
Design
capacity
it factored
f t
d strength
t
th limit
li it
state shear

Local buckling in shear


The WEB off a steel
Th
t l member
b resists
i t th
the
SHEAR STRESSES.
Local buckling in shear may restrict the
SHEAR CAPACITY of a BEAM.
The design equation is:

V Vv
*

= 0.9

Vv = nominal

shear
h
capacity
it

Local buckling in shear


Consider firstly
y when the shear stress in
the web is APPROXIMATELY UNIFORM.

shear
stress

Parabolic
P
b li but
b
approximately
uniform

d dw tw

V
=
(d w t w )

For this case DEFINE Vv = Vu

(u uniform)

Local buckling in shear


Equation
ol

E
= k
12 (1
2

tw

dw

can also be used for local buckling


with shear stresses.

Example
p 1
Unsitffened web yielding in shear before buckling locally.
If the web is to yield before buckling locally then:

fy

y =

ol

For a long web, k = 5.35 and using E = 200 x 103 MPa, = 0.3
produces
2

f yw
3

5.35

200 10 t w

dw
which rearranges to
tw

12 1 0.3

f yw
250

81.9


dw

Example
p 1
The yield capacity is then

Hence in AS4100 if

Aw

f yw

dw
<
tw

82
f yw 250

The web yields before buckling and


where

Vw = 0.6 Aw f yw

For universal sections Aw = dtw


For welded sections Aw = dwtw

0.58 Aw f yw

Vu = Vw

Example
p 1
when

d w t w > 82 /

local buckling capacity

dw
and so when

tw

f yw 250 the capacity equals the

ol Aw
82
f yw / 250

th webb buckles
the
b kl before
b f
it yields
i ld andd Vu = vVw
where Vw = 0.6 Aw f yyw and

82

=
f yw
dw
t
250
w

Example
p 1
N.B.
g
, it is common to add
When bucklingg governs,
vertical stiffeners as Vu drops off rapidly as 1 (d w t w )2
The provision of these vertical stiffeners will not
i
increase
the
th capacity
it when
h yielding
i ldi governs, i.e.
i
when
82

d w tw <

f yw 250

(they only increase the buckling capacity)

Vertically stiffened webs


If a web has vertical stiffeners,, its strength
g is increased markedlyy because:

the elastic local buckling coefficient is increased


a benign tension field action develops similar to a truss action

Of course this only applies when

stiffener

Vu < Vw

flange

web

dw

stiffener

Verticallyy stiffened webs


Vu = v d V w V w

The nominal capacity is:

82

=
fy
dw
t
250
w

2
(
)
0
.
75
d
/
s
+1

when

82

=
fy
dw
t
250
w

s dw

[(d

/ s ) + 0 . 75
2

when

s < dw

Verticallyy stiffened webs


d =

1v

1 .15 v 1 + (s / d w )

+1

v reflects the local buckling contribution.

Under shear, the local buckling coefficient is approximately:

k = 5 .35 + 4 (d w s )

s dw

k = 5 .35 (d w s ) + 4

s < dw

Verticallyy stiffened webs


d reflects the TENSION FIELD contribution.
M

stiffener

stiffener
web

flange

Verticallyy stiffened webs


The stiffened web p
panel acts like a truss,, but the compression
p
region
g
of the
thin web plate is very slender and unable to resist much compressive stress.

Check the equations:

(d w / s )

so

Let s >> d (no stiffeners)

82
v =
d w f yw
t w 250

Hence

82

Vu =
d w f yw
t
w 250

1 v
1
d
+1 1
1.15v

1 Vw

which is the same as for


an unstiffened web.

Example
p 2
Calculate the design shear capacity for a 200x2 web plate if
stiffeners are placed at 400 mm intervals.

Example
p 2

Example
p 3
What stiffener spacing in the 200x2 web plate is needed
to resist a design shear V* = 56kN?

Example
p 3

This design
Thi
d i equation
ti agrees with
ith the
th previous
i
design
d i check
h k and
d illustrates
ill t t
the bilinear interpolation in the (v d) table.

Non-uniform shear stress distribution


The shear may be nonuniform in a monosymmetric beam:

parabola

2Vu
Vu =
f vm
0.9 +
f va

The
h strength
h Vu is defined
d f d as earlier
l for
f uniform
f
shear
h
stress

fvm = maximum shear stress


fva = average shear stress

For design:

V Vv = 0.9
*

Non-uniform shear stress distribution


vm = fvm = maximum shear stress

V Qmax
=
It w

area A
at this location Q = A y

va = fva = average shear stress


va = f va

V*
=
d wt w

f vm Qmax
For this case:
=
dw
I
f va

Proportioning intermediate transverse stiffeners


Intermediate transverse stiffeners are used to PREVENT BUCKLING OF
THE WEB IN SHEAR when subjected to a design shear force V*.
Recall the design check is:

Vu = v d V w V w

v and d are calculated based on a stiffener spacing s.

V w = 0 .6 Aw f yw

The stiffener must be STIFF ENOUGH to prevent


local buckling, as well as STRONG ENOUGH to carry
the tension field component without failing.
They must therefore be designed for STRENGTH and STIFFNESS.

Proportioning intermediate transverse stiffeners


MININUM AREA: A minimum area is required for the stiffeners to carry
the vertical force in the tension field action utilised in the use of v.

The minimum area rule is:


2
s
(
s / dw )
As 0 .5Aw (1 v )

2
d
w
(
)
1+ s / dw

= 1.0 for a pair of stiffeners

=1
1.8
8 for a single stiffener comprising of an angle section
= 2.4 for a single plate stiffener

v = factor determined earlier = f ((d w / t w ) f yw / 250 , s / d w )

Proportioning intermediate transverse stiffeners


MININUM STIFFNESS:
Stiffeners must be stiff enough to enforce a node
at the web/stiffener junction at local buckling

I s 0 .75 d w t w3
3 3
w w
2

1 .5 d t

s / dw <
s / dw

web

2
stiffener

Iw is the second moment of area of the stiffener about the


web centreline.

Buckling
g capacity
p
y
When intermediate stiffeners are used,
used the capacity of the web is
Vb = vdVw.
Hence:

V ( Rsb + Vb )
*

= 0 .9

Rsb = buckling capacity determined in the same way as for a


load bearing stiffener

Vb = dvVw as earlier, where


Vw = 0.6Awfy as earlier

dw
v = f
tw

s
,
250 d w
f yw

End p
panel
At the end of the beam the tension field must be anchored
anchored .

sep

end panel tension field


action cannot be mobilised
This can be achieved by choosing s in the design equation:

V * ( v d )V w

with

d = 1 .0

Connection of intermediate stiffener to web


< 4tw

< 4tw

Stiffener/web connection must be capable of resisting a design shear force of:

t w2
0.008 f ys [kN / mm]
bs
tw = web thickness in mm
bs = stiffener outstand in mm

fys in MPa (N/mm2)

Stiffener outstand
As for a load bearing stiffener local buckling
of stiffener must not occur prior to attainment of
the yield stress, i.e.

bs

ts

f ys
250

15

Vertically stiffened webs


local b
buckling
ckling of the web
eb in shear
yes

YIELD LIMIT
STATE

V * Vu

Vw = 0.6fyAw

v 1

Vu = vV w

yes

yes

END

no

proportion
INTERMEDIATE
(TRANSVERSE)
stiffeners

V b = v d V w

(spacing)

V Vb

no

yes

decrease s

no

N.B vd
includes s

BUCKLING
LIMIT STATE

no

V * Vw

END

increase Aw

END

Combined shear and bending


Sometimes Vv has to be reduced where high shear forces V* and high moments M*
coincide.
(for example, in a continuous beam where V* and M* are high at an internal support)

BMD

SFD

Combined shear and bending


g
Design capacity:

Vvm = Vv

V Vv m
*

= 0.9

M 0.75(M s )
*

when

1.6M
Vvm = Vv 2.2

M s

when

M
0.75
1.0
M s

MS is BENDING SECTION CAPACITY.

Combined shear and bending

1.0

Vvm/Vv

0.75

1.0

M*/Ms

Proportioning method
an alternative procedure
If the flanges
g have enough
g capacity
p
y to resist the bending
g moment,,
the web may resist all of the shear force. Thus,

M M f = 0.9
*

Mf = Cdf = Tdf = Af fyf df


Af = area of flange
df = distance
di t
b
between
t
flange centroids
DESIGN THE WEB
ONLY FOR SHEAR

V Vv
*

then

C = Af fyf

df

T = Af fyf

Mf

Web crippling limit state


Occurs due to localised yielding of
the web near concentrated loads.
Behavior is dominated by gross
yielding over a small web region.

web
b

Web crippling limit state


Crippling
Crippling is caused by YIELDING of the web due to concentrated
loads (point loads and reactions).
CRIPPLING IS PREVENTED BY LOAD BEARING STIFFENERS
PLACED IN PAIRS ON EACH SIDE OF THE WEB AND WELDED TO
THE FLANGE.

We have to design
g for two
limit states:

Stiffener p
plates
welded to web
and flanges

YIELD and
BUCKLING

web

Web crippling limit state


CONCENTRATED
CONCENTRATED LOADS
LOADS are only an abstraction
(structural idealisation) used in structural analysis

In reality,
y, the loads are applied
pp
to the flange
g byy a STIFF BEARING PLATE

P*

Stiff bearing
plate

flange
ELEVATION

web

Web crippling
pp g limit state
We will consider firstlyy the case when NO STIFFENERS are p
present.
If either the YIELD or BUCKLING limit state fails for the unstiffened web
then stiffeners must be design for
for.
The bearing stress is assumed to disperse through the flange at 1:2.5
bearing
plate

R*
bbf

flange

R*

1
2.5

2.5

ELEVATION

web
b
END ELEVATION

Web crippling
pp g YIELD limit state
For the YIELD LIMIT STATE:

R Rby
*

= 0.9

Rby = 1.25bbf t w f y
yielding
bearing

The 1.25 factor accounts


for the benign
g triaxial
stress state at the
flange/web interface
where
h
the
th restraining
t i i
actions allow large stresses
to be resisted so that the
strength is taken as
((1.25fy)

Web crippling BUCKLING limit state


For the BUCKLING
LIMIT STATE,
S
the
h
stress is dispersed as
below to obtain bb:

bb

dw/2
1

SUPPORT REACTION
CASE

2.5

R*
POINT LOAD
CASE

dw/2

The web is then considered as an


effective
column as below:
effective column

R*

N
tw

1
2.5

1
1

bb

2.5

dw/2

Le

bb

dw/2
N

Web crippling BUCKLING limit state


The BUCKLING LIMIT STATE is then:

R Rbb
*

= 0.9

Rbb is the buckling capacity of a column bb wide by tw thick with a


slenderness ratio Le/r = 3.5 (dw/tw)
buckling
bearing

radius
di off gyration
ti

I/A

Web crippling BUCKLING limit state


The BUCKLING capacity Rbb of the column
column can be obtained from the
following recipe:
1. Calculate the MODIFIED SLENDERNESS: n =

Le
r

fy

dw
= 3.5
250
tw

fy
250

2. Use the column tables with n and b = 0.5 to determine c (T6.3.3(3))


3. The column capacity is then:

Rbb = c (t wbb ) f y

If Rb = min [Rby, Rbb] the check is then:

R Rb = 0.9
*

Web crippling
If either the YIELD or BUCKILNG limit states fail for an unstiffened web
then PAIRS OF LOAD BEARING STIFFENERS will be required.

tw

bs
bs

ts
A-A

web

If the stiffeners are to be adequate they must again


satisfy YIELD and BUCKLING limit states.

Web crippling
N.B.
load
l d bearing
b
i
stiffeners
iff
resist
i concentrated
d lloads
d
intermediate transverse stiffeners (which were considered
earlier) resist local buckling of the web in shear.

The YIELD LIMIT STATE is:

R Rsy
*

Rsy = Rby + As f ys

yield
stiffened

Rby
b - capacity of unstiffened web (as earlier)
As - area of stiffener (2bsts)
fys - yield stress of stiffener

= 0.9

Example 4
Check the adequacy of a pair of load bearing stiffeners 100 x 16 plates with
fys = 350 MPa for the girder shown with a design load of 1600 kN applied
through a stiff bearing of length 300 mm. Check YIELD only.

1500

300

25

10

Rby
b = 1.25bbf t w f y
25

300

Rsy = Rby + As f ys

Web crippling
pp g BUCKLING limit state
The BUCKLING LIMIT STATE is:

= 0.9

R Rsb
*

stiffened

buckling

Rsb is the column buckling capacity of the following


effective cross-section:
cross section:

tw

web

ts

ls

bs
ls

Eff ti cross-section
Effective
ti

bs
17.5t w
or s / 2
f y / 250

s = spacing
between
stiffeners

(whichever is less)

Web crippling
pp g BUCKLING limit state
The column buckling capacity Rsb can be obtained from the following recipe:

1. Determine the slenderness ratio:

Le
r

Le = 0.7dw if the flanges are restrained by other structural members against twist
rotation, i.e.

Le = 1.0 dw
otherwise

members
prevent
twist

Web crippling
pp g BUCKLING limit state
r

I/A

For the effective section:

I (2 b s + t w ) t s / 12
3

A = 2 b s t s + 2 17 . 5 t w /

f y / 250 t w

or

A = 2 b s t s + 2 (s / 2 )t w

whichever is less

Web crippling
pp g BUCKLING limit state
2. Calculate the modified slenderness ratio:

Le
n =
r

fy
250

3. Determine c from tables using b = 0.5


4. The BUCKLING STRENGTH is then:

Rsb = c Af y

N.B. The load bearing stiffener must YIELD before it buckles locally
it lf Th
itself.
Therefore,
f

outstand of stiffener

bs
ts

ys

250

15

yield stress of
stiffener

Example
p 5
Check the BUCKLING LIMIT STATE in Example 4.
4

1500

300

25

10

16
100

10

100
25
300

ls

ls
EFFECTIVE
STIFFENER/WEB
CROSS SECTION
CROSS-SECTION

Example 5

(Flanges unrestrained
i
against
i
twist)
i

Example
p 5

Clearly load bearing stiffeners design is a TRIAL & ERROR


PROCESS requiring design checks.

Web crippling
load bearing stiffeners resist concentrated loads
INCLUDE
STIFFENERS

WITHOUT
STIFFENERS
YIELD LIMIT
STATE

BUCKLING
LIMIT STATE

YIELD LIMIT
STATE

BUCKLING
LIMIT STATE

Rsy = Rby + As f ys

Rsb = c Af y

Rbb = c (t wbb ) f y

Rby = 1 .25bbf t w f y

R* Rb

Rb = min[Rbb, Rby]
yes

END

no

R Rs
*

Rs = min[Rsy, Rsb]
yes

END

no

increase As

Steel Beam-Columns

Strength
Limit
State

Reference
e e e ce Material
ate a
9AS4100 1998 Steel Structures: Standards Australia, Sydney
9AS1170 1 & AS1170
9AS1170.1
AS1170.2
2L
Loading
di C
Codes:
d Standards Association
of Australia, Sydney, 1998.

9NS Trahair & MA Bradford: The Behavior and Design of Steel


Structures to AS4100, 3rd Australia edition, E&FN Spon, London, 1998.
9MA Bradford, RQ Bridge & NS Trahair: Worked Examples for
Steel Structures, 3rd edition, AISC, Sydney, 1997.
9ST Woolock, S Kitipornchai & MA Bradford: Design of Portal
Frame Buildings
Buildings, 3rd edition,
edition AISC,
AISC Sydney,
Sydney 1999.
1999

Lecture
ectu e Out
Outline
e
9

Steel Beam-column
9

Strength limit state

Types of failure:
in-plane failure
9 lateral-torsional
l t l t i l buckling
b kli

biaxial failure

BMD, Mx

Frames
a es

x - direction

2-D frame
BMD, My

x
w

3 D frame
3-D
y
x

y - direction

w,UDLappliedinboth
xandydirection

In-plane
p a e be
behavior
a o
STEEL BEAM COLUMNS are subjected to
COMBINED BENDING and COMPRESSION
N
M1

This is typical of a

column in a rigid
frame:
A

M2
N

Steel beam
Beam (UDL -

Beam

major axis loading)

(couple)

Beam
(torsion)

Beam (UDL minor axis loading)

Column
(axial compression)

Beam-column
(axial compression
+ transverse loading)

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
There are three STRENGTH LIMIT STATES that may have to be considered:

(i) IN
IN-PLANE
PLANE FAILURE
when the member is loaded about its major axis with full lateral support so that lateral
beam buckling cannot occur (or column buckling cannot occur around the minor axis)
or when the column is bent about its minor axis

(ii) FLEXURAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING


when the member is bent about its major
j axis and there is insufficient lateral support
pp

(iii) BIAXIAL FAILURE


when the member is loaded about both principal axes

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o

X (u)

Y (v)

Out--ofOut
of-plane
p
buckling
g

X (u)

or LateralTorsional Buckling
or FlexuralTorsional Buckling

Y (v)

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
mM

M
N

N
Lateral restraints

1 m 1

For a column with an imperfection o the moment under the


application of an axial force N at mid-height
mid height is:

N o
1 N NE
[P- effect (second order effects)]

N E = EI / L
2

Euler buckling load

In--plane behavior
In
R ll
Recall,
e0

P- effect

N
M
M

L
M [1-(1+) z/L]

M
N

eL

eccentrically applied axial load


results in double curvature bending

FIRST ORDER EFFECTS


N
SECOND ORDER EFFECTS

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
N

The first-order moment No is therefore amplified by:

In a beam-column, the imperfection may be thought of as


being caused by the moments M and mM at the ends

mM

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
Thee deflected
de ected sshape
ape of
o the
t e beam-column
bea co u
iss ggiven
ve by ((Trahair andd Bradford,
d o d, 1998
998
Chapter 7):

v=

M
[cos z ( m cos ecL + cot L )sin z 1 + (1 + m ) z L]
N
where

when

N 2 N
=
= 2
EI L N E
2

N
< cos
N E the maximum moment is:

N
N

+ cot
M m = M 1 + m cos ec
NE
N E

and when

cos

N
NE

the maximum moment is


(i.e. at the end of the member)

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
These equations are clearly cumbersome
cumbersome, and the maximum
moment is approximated by:

M max

cm
=M
M
1 N NE

where
h
cm = 0.6-0.4
0 6 0 4m

The maximum stress in the beam-column is:

max

N M max
= +
A
Z

Axial stresses

Bending stresses

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
If the beam
beam-column
column reaches its maximum strength when max = fy then:

max

N M max
= fy = +
A
Z

cm
N
M

+
1=
NY M Y 1 N N E

/fy

from

N M max
1=
+
Af y
Zf y
M max

or

cm
=M
M
1 N NE

where
In AS4100:
NY is replaced by the strength
Ns (=kf Ag fy)

NY = Afy is the squash load


MY = Zfy is the first yield moment

MY is replaced by the bending strength


Ms = Ze fy
Effective modulus

so

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
D i equation:
Design
ti

The DESIGN MOMENT M* is usually obtained from a secondorder elastic frame program (i.e. Microstran or Spacegass)

cm
which has the amplification
p
factor
build into it.
1 N NE
Alt
Alternatively,
ti l the
th maximum
i
momentt M*max can be
b obtained
bt i d ffrom a fi
firstt
order (linear) analysis and then amplified to produce M*.

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
AS4100 thus requires the design actions N* and M* to satisfy:

The strength Ms(1-N*/Ns) is called Mr .

N
*

M M S 1
NS

Reduced from Ms due


to axial force.

N S

[N.B. for a R-C cross-section]:

N*

No N *
M S

strength
p
envelope

M*

strength
envelope

M*

M o

Example
a pe1
Determine
D
t
i the
th d
design
i major
j axis
i section
ti momentt capacity
it
Mrx of a 200UC52.2 of Grade 300 steel which has a design
axial compressive force of N* = 143.9 kN
204

f y = 300 MPa

12.5
2206

8.0

A = 6660mm2
S x = 570 103 mm3

12.5

Plastic section modulus

Example
a pe1
For compression:

F bending:
For
b di

Example
a pe1
For combined actions:

Plastic
ast c capac
capacity
ty
The equation:

M M S 1 N N S
*

is based on first yield at

If the cross
cross-section
section is
COMPACT (i.e. local
buckling is not a problem
and e < ep) then the stress
distribution at failure is:

f il
failure,
i.e.
i
PLASTIC
BEHAVIOUR

fy
Stress reaches
first yyield fy

M*

N*
ELASTIC
BEHAVIOUR

M*

N*

fy

Example
a pe2
Pl ti analysis
Plastic
l i off a rectangular
t
l cross-section
ti
f y = 300MPa

M*

N*
N

Geometric
centroid

fy
C
d

dn > d / 2

T
fy
Plastic
neutral axis

C = bxdnxfy
T = bx((d-dn)xfy

Example
a pe2
N = C T = bd n f y bdf y + bd n f y = N S + 2d nbf y
d
d dn
M = C +T
2
2 2

These equations may be solved for dn, and using

N S = bdf y
bd 2
MS =
fy
4
produces at plastic failure
N

NS

M
+
=1
MS

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
N
M
+
M S N S
*

1.0

N*
N S

= 1

M*
N*
+
=1
M S N S
M * M S

1.0

The linear interaction may therefore often be too conservative. In AS4100, if the crosssection is COMPACT and EFFECTIVE (kf = 1) and doubly symmetric then

rx

= M

N*
1 . 18 1
N S

= 0 .9

Example
a pe3
The 200UC52
Th
200UC52.2
2 considered
id d earlier
li iis d
doubly-symmetric
bl
t i
compact (e < ep for bending) and effective (e < ey for
compression). Hence
M rx = 1.18 153.9(1 143.9 1798) = 167.1kNm

204

N
M * M rx = M S 1.181
N S

12.5

12.5

2206

8.0

M S

but M S = 153.9kNm < 167.1kNm


The section is thus unaffected by axial
compression and fails plastically at

M S = 153.9kNm

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
The equation:

M M rx
*

is a check on the strength of the cross-section under bending (M*)


and
d compression
i (N*)
If th
the b
beam-column
l
is
i too
t slender
l d (i.e.
(i Le/r
/ is
i too
t great)
t) it may fail
f il
by column buckling at NC rather than yield at NS.
N.B. We have considered it to be laterally restrained, so it cannot
buckle laterally at Mb < MS. We will check this later.

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
M x M ix
*

Hence in AS4100:

N*
M ix = M sx 1
N C
In-plane
p
strength

bent about x-axis

N C = ( C k f Af y )
is the column strength

N.B. We have assumed the


b
beam-column
l
fails
f il in-plane
i l
by
b
column buckling about the xaxis. It cannot fail by buckling
about the y-axis because it is
laterally restrained.
NC must be determined therefore from nx

Effective length
g factor
For column design or checking we generally use the effective length
Le (although the above example has shown how n can be determined
from the elastic bucklingg load determined byy a computer
p
program
p g
or
from charts in text books).

Le = ke L
L is the column length;
ke is
i the
h EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR
Some standard cases for isolated columns are given below
(Trahair & Bradford, 1998):

Effective length
g factor
l =L

l = L/ 2

l = 0.7L

NE

NE

l = L/ 2

l = 2L

NE

NE

NE

l
L

L
L

l
NE =

Theoretical

ke
AS4100

ke

2EI

2 2EI
NE = 2
L

L2

4 2EI
NE = 2
L

1.0

0.5

0.7

0.5

2.0

1.0

0.5

0.85

0.7

2.2

4 2EI
NE = 2
L

NE =

2EI
4L2

Example
a pe4
Check
Ch
k th
the 200UC52
200UC52.2
2 considered
id d earlier
li if it iis subjected
bj t d tto
design moment of 121.5 kNm and 124.7 kNm as well as an
axial compression of 143.9 kN. The effective length Le about
the x-axis is 7.0 m.
f y = 300MPa
204

rx = 89.1mm

12 5
12.5

12.5

206

8.0

124.7 kNm
143.9 kN

121.5 kNm
143.9 kN

Example
a pe4

N*
M ix = M sx 1
N C

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
The linear interaction equation is essentially based on first yield
at fy and may in some cases be too conservative. Thus for
compact doubly symmetric sections (with kf = 1), AS4100 uses:
3
*

+
N

*
m
M M ix = M sx 1
1
2 N C

1+ m
+ 1.18

2
M rx

N*
1
N C

Example
a pe5
For the 200UC52.2 in the previous example
204

f y = 300MPa

12.5

rx = 89.1mm
206

80
8.0

124.7 kNm

121.5 kNm

12 5
12.5

143.9 kN

143.9 kN

Example
a pe5

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
If the cross-section is bent

about the y-axis then in AS4100:

M M ryy = 0.9
*
y

N
M ry = M sy 1

N S
Section capacity about y-axis

and out-of-plane buckling CANNOT occur.

In--plane
In
p a e be
behavior
a o
Further if the cross-section is doubly symmetric and compact,
the less conservative equation below may be used:

M M ry
*
y

= 0.9

N
M ryy = 1.19M syy 1
N S
*

M syy

Section capacity about y-axis

Example
a pe6
Determine
D
t
i the
th d
design
i minor
i
axis
i section
ti momentt capacity
it
Mry of a 200UC52.2 of Grade 300 steel which has a design
axial compressive force of N* = 143.9 kN
S y = 264 103 mm3

204

Z y = 174 103 mm3

12.5

b
206

80
8.0

N.B. for a rectangular section

S = bd 4 Z = bd / 6
2

12 5
12.5

So S = 1.5Z and the code requires that

Z e 1.5Z

Example
a pe6

Out--o
Out
of--p
of
plane
a e be
behavior
a o
A beam
beam-column
column bent about its principal (x) axis may buckle laterally and twist,
if there is insufficient lateral support, at a load which is significantly less than
the maximum load predicted by an in-plane analysis.
This flexural-torsional buckling may occur while the member is still elastic, or
after some yielding due to in-plane
in plane bending and compression has occurred
occurred.

Out-of-plane
behaviour
In-plane
behaviour
Flexural-torsional bucking of beam-columns

Out--ofOut
of-plane
p
buckling
g

X (u)

or LateralTorsional Buckling
or FlexuralTorsional Buckling

Y (v)

Out--o
Out
of--p
of
plane
a e be
behavior
a o
Consider an elastic beam-column in uniform bending:

Moc

Moc
Noc

Noc
L
SIMPLY SUPPORTED

Out--o
Out
of--p
of
plane
a e be
behavior
a o
The combination of moment Moc and compression Noc to cause lateral
buckling (i.e. buckling out of the plane of loading) is derived in
Chapter 7 of Trahair and Bradford (1998) as

M oc

Mo

N oc

= 1

Ny

1 N oc

Nz

EI y

GJ + EI w
2
L2
L

where

GJ
Nz = 2
ro

Mo =

2 EI w
1 +
2
GJL

is the Euler buckling load

Ny =

2 EI y
L2

is the torsional buckling load (i.e. the load to buckle


the member by twisting about its longitudinal axis,
axis
and ro2 =

Ix + Iy
A

, ro = polar radius of gyration)

Out--o
Out
of--p
of
plane
a e be
behavior
a o
Equation

M oc

Mo

N oc

= 1

Ny

1 N oc

Nz

does not account for the amplification of Mc due to Ncx, where is the mid1
span deflection. We have seen that the amplification is
1 N N X
where

N x = 2 EI x L2

Hence equation

M oc

Mo

M oc

Mo

as the member is bent about its x-axis

N
= 1 oc

Ny

N
= 1 oc
Nx

1 N oc

Nz

can be replaced by:

1 N oc

Ny

1 N oc

Nz

Out--o
Out
of--p
of
plane
a e be
behavior
a o
For most hot-rolled sections Noc<<Nx, and Ny<<Nx so that:

(1 N
Equation

M oc

Mo

= 1 oc

Ny

N z ) > (1 N N y )(1 N N x )

1 N oc

Nz

can then be approximated by:

N oc
M oc
1
+
=1
(1 N c N x ) M o
Ny
This equation is the basis of the AS4100 design rule.
rule

Out--o
Out
of--p
of
plane
a e be
behavior
a o
Since

M oc
1 N oc N x
corresponds to the amplified moment
(that is, the second order M* from a stiffness package),
this equation becomes:

or

M M ox
*
x

out of plane

N*
M*
+
1
N c M b

M ox = M b (1 N N c )
*

Example
a pe7
Check the out
out-of-plane
of plane member capacity of the 200UC52.2
200UC52 2 beambeam
column of Grade 300 steel considered previously with end moments of
121.5 kNm and 124.7 kNm that bend it into reverse curvature if the
effective
ff ti lengths
l
th for
f column
l
and
d beam
b
lateral
l t l buckling
b kli are both
b th
Le = 7000 mm.

A = 6660mm 2 I x = 52.8 10 6 mm 4 I y = 17.7 106 mm 4


ry = 51.5mm J = 325 103 mm 4 I w = 166 109 mm 6

204
12.5

12.5

206

8.0

Example
a pe7

Example
a pe7

Example
a pe7

Biaxial
a a be
bending
d g
More
o e generally
ge e y a beam-column
be
co u
iss bent
be about
bou BOTH
O
major
jo axes
es by M*x and
d M*y ,
as well as being subjected to a compressive force N*.
Thi situation
This
it ti is
i complex
l to
t model
d l accurately.
t l AS4100 requires
i
a CROSS
CROSSSECTION CHECK to be made according to:
or for compact doubly-symmetric I-sections

*
x

*
y

M
N
+
+
1
N S M Sx M Sy

according to the less conservative:

M
prx

*
x

M
+
M
pry

*
y

prx

where:
*

N
2..0
s = 1. 4 +
N s

M pry

N*
= 1 . 18 M sx 1
N S

M sx

N*
= 1.19 M sy 1
N S

M
sy

Biaxial
a a be
bending
d g
AS4100 also requires a MEMBER CHECK to be made according to:

M brx
*
x

M
+
M
bry

M brx = min[M ix , M ox ]

*
y

M bry = M iy

m = 1 .4

Example
a pe8
Determine the maximum design value M* of a 200UC52
200UC52.22 beam-column
beam column
of Grade 300 steel which has a design axial compressive force of N*=
143.9kN, major axis (x-axis) end moments of M* and 0.974M* causing
reverse curvature
t
b
bending,
di
and
d minor
i
axis
i (y-axis)
(
i ) end
d moments
t off 0.4
04
M* and 0.4M* causing single curvature bending. Le = 7m for column
and beam buckling.
204
12.5

Mx
x

206

8.0

I x = 52.8 10 6 mm 4

ry = 51.5mm

I y = 17.7 106 mm 4

J = 325 10 mm
3

12.5

A = 6660mm 2

My

I w = 166 109 mm 6

Example
a pe8

Example
a pe8

Frames

Lecture
ectu e Out
Outline
e
9
9

C l
Column:
9

elastic buckling load

effective length factor

Frames:
with simple joints
9 with semi-rigid joints
9 with rigid joints
9

Types:

Analysis Method:

First order (linear, no P- effects)

Second order (nonlinear, P- effects)

Elastic Buckling Analysis


(braced and sway frames)

Effective length
g factor isolated column
For column design or checking we generally use
the effective length Le

Le = ke L
L is the column length;
ke is
i the
h EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR
Some standard cases are given below (Trahair & Bradford, 1998):

Frame Idealisation
STRUCTURAL FRAMES are composed
p
of one dimensional members
connected together in skeletal arrangements which transfer the applied loads to the
supports.

Reduction of 3-D framework to plane frames

Two-dimensional flexural frames


TWO DIMENSIONAL FRAMES a number of independent
two-dimensional frames with in-plane loading.

THE STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR of a flexural frame is


influenced by the behaviour of the member joints, which are usually
considered to be either SIMPLE, SEMI
SEMI-RIGID
RIGID or RIGID,
according to their ability to transmit moment.

Member joints
Force &
Moment connection

Force connection

Moment connection

Frames
a es
While most FRAMES are three-dimensional, they may often be
considered as a series of parallel two-dimensional
two dimensional frames,
frames
or as two perpendicular series of two-dimensional frames.

THE BEHAVIOUR of a structural frame depends on its


arrangement and loading, and on the type of
connections used.

Frames
ThemembersusuallyhavesubstantialBENDINGACTIONS
ThemembersusuallyhavesubstantialBENDINGACTIONS,
andiftheyalsohavesignificantaxialforces,thentheymustbe
designedasbeamties orbeamcolumns.
I f
InframeswithSIMPLECONNECTIONS,themoments
ithSIMPLECONNECTIONS th
t transmitted
t
itt d
bytheconnectionsaresmall,andoftencanbeneglected,and
thememberscanbetreatedasisolatedbeams,
oreccentricallyloadedbeamties orbeamcolumns.
However,whentheconnectionsareSEMIRIGIDorRIGID,
thereareimportantmomentinteractions betweenthemembers.

Frames with simple joints


No moment is transmitted through a SIMPLE
JOINT,, the members connected to the jjoint mayy
rotate.
If there are sufficient number of pin-joints to make the structure statically
determinate then each member will act independently of the others,
determinate,
others and may be
designed as:
an isolated tension member, compression member, beam

or

beam-column.
(if the
th pin-jointed
i j i t d structure
t t
i indeterminate,
is
i d t
i t then
th some partt off it may actt as a
rigid-jointed frame)

Frames with simple joints


One of the most common methods of designing frames with

SIMPLE JOINTS is often used for rectangular frames with


vertical (column) and horizontal (beam) members under the action
of vertical loads only.
Th columns
The
l
i suchh a frame
in
f
are assumedd to
t actt as if eccentrically
t i ll
loaded.
(it should be noted that such a pin-jointed frame is usually incapable of resisting
transverse forces, and must therefore be provided with an independent bracing
or shear
h
wall
ll system)
t )

Frames with semi


semi-rigid
rigid joints
SEMI-RIGID JOINTS are those which have
d
dependable
d bl momentt capacities
iti andd which
hi h partially
ti ll
restrain the relative rotations of the members at the joints.

The action of these joints in rectangular frames is to reduce the


maximum moments in the beams,
beams and so the semi-rigid design
method offers potential economies over the simple design method.

Frames with rigid joints


Behaviour:
RIGID JOINT a joint
j i which
hi h has
h sufficient
ffi i rigidity
i idi to virtually
i
ll
prevent relative rotation between the members connected.
Properly arranged welded and high-strength friction grip bolted
joints are usually assumed to be rigid.
There are important interactions between the members of frames with rigid
joints, which are generally stiffer and stronger than frames with simple or semirigid joints.
Therefore rigid frames offer significant economies.

Frames with rigid joints


Behaviour:
Although a RIGID

FRAME may behave in an approximately linear fashion

while its service loads are not exceeded, especially when the axial forces are small,
it becomes non-linear near its in-plane ultimate load because of yielding and
buckling effects.

When the axial compression forces are small, failure occurs when a sufficient
number of plastic hinges have developed to cause the frame to form a collapse
mechanism, in which case the load capacity of the frame can be determined by

plastic analysis of the collapse mechanism.

Frameswithrigidjoints
g j
MethodsofAnalysis:
9 First
Firstorderelasticanalysis
orderelasticanalysis
9 Secondorderelasticanalysis
9 Advancedanalysis

Stressresultants(M,N&V)
( ,
)
anddeflections
Equilibrium
Stressstrain
Stress
strain
Compatibility

9 First
Firstorderplasticanalysis
orderplasticanalysis
CollapseLoad(Equilibrium,Mechanism)

Stability
Bucklingloads
Effectivelengths

9 Elasticbucklingofbracedframes
9 Elasticbucklingofunbraced(sway)frames

First-order
First
order elastic analysis
Assumptions:
9

Material behaves linearly (yielding effects are ignored);

The members behave linearly (no P-

The frame behaves linearly (no frame instability effects such as those

effects are taken into account)

caused by the moments of the vertical forces and the horizontal frame
deflections P-
deflections,

effects, are taken into account)

i.e. Flexibility
y method of analysis,
y , Stiffness method of analysis
y
(commercial computer packages)

Second-order
Second
order elastic analysis
Second order effects in elastic frames include additional moments
moments.
The second-order
second order moments arising from the member deflections from the
straight line joining the member ends are often called the P-

effects.

The second-order moments arising from the joint displacements are often
called
ll d the
h P-
P
9

effects
ff t .

I braced frames, the


In
th joint
j i t displacement
di l
t are small,
ll

and only the P- are important.


9

I unbraced
In
b
d

fframes, the
th PP effects
ff t are iimportant,
t t

and often much more so than the P- effects.

Second-order elastic analysis


y
P
P

ISOLATED COLUMN

P-

P-

FRAME
braced

sway

Second-order
Second
order elastic analysis

IndependentBehaviour

InteractiveBehaviour

First order plastic analysis


PLASTIC ANALYSIS tends to be used less commonly,
y,
even if a steel structure satisfies the more stringent conditions
that must be imposed for rational plastic analysis.
All instability effects are ignored.
The collapse
p strength
g of the frame is determined by
y using
g the rigid-plastic
g p
assumption and finding the plastic hinge locations which first convert the frame
to a collapse mechanism.
All members must be ductile so that the plastic moment capacity can be
maintained at each hinge over a range of hinge rotations sufficient to allow the
plastic collapse mechanism to develop
develop.

Plastic analysis and design will be considered in subsequent


lectures, but it is worth noting that the plastic analysis is
dependent on the elastic buckling load factor (c) of the frame.

Advanced analysis
Ideally, the member stress resultants (M,
Ideally
(M V,
V N) should be
determined by a method of frame analysis which accounts for
both second
second-order
order effects (P
(P- and P
P-)
), inelastic
behaviour, residual stresses and geometrical imperfections,
and any
y local or out-of-plane
p
buckling
g effects.

Such a method has been described as an advanced analysis.

Advanced analysis is still basically a research tool.

Elastic buckling of braced frames


Analysis:
The results of an elastic buckling analysis may be used to approximate any second-order effects.

The set of member forces Nom which causes buckling depends on the distribution of
th axial
the
i l forces
f
in
i the
th frame,
f
and
d iis often
ft expressedd in
i terms
t
off a load
l d factor
f t c by
b
which the initial set of axial forces Nim must be multiplied to obtain the member
forces Nom at the frame buckling,
buckling so that Nom = c Nim.
Alternatively, it may be expressed by a set of effective length factors km which
define the member forces at frame buckling by Nom = 2EIm/(kmLm)2
The determination of the frame buckling load factor c may be carried out using a suitable
computer program (i.e. buckling analysis option in Microstan)

Elastic buckling of braced frames


A l i
Analysis:
Alternatively, the

effective length factor km of each compression member

may be obtained by using estimates of the

member relative end stifnesses

1, 2 in a braced member chart (AS4100).

The direct application of this chart is limited to the vertical columns of regular
rectangular frames with regular loading patterns in which each horizontal beam
has zero axial force, and all the columns buckle simultaneously in the same
mode.

Effective length
g factor frame column
More generally a column may be in a braced frame or a sway frame.
Elastic spring
restraints against
rotation and
translation

Elastic spring
p g
restraints against
rotation

A is restrained by Column A-1 and beams A-2 and A-3


B is restrained by column B-6 and beams B-5 and B-4

Relative end stiffnesses braced frame


If the frame is BRACED AGAINST SWAY, and is of regular rectangular geometry
with negligible axial force in the beams, ke is the solution of (Trahair & Bradford,
1998)

A B

A + B
tan ke

+
=1
1 cot +
4 ke 2 ke
ke
ke
where at end A

(I L )

=
(I L )

columns

and similarly at end B

modifying factor

beams

(I L )

=
(I L )

columns

beams

ke is then obtained from Fig. 4.6.3.3 of AS4100. The values of e are given below.

Stiffness factor,, e far end restraint conditions


Sway Frame

Non Sway (Braced) Frame


M

e = 1.0
far end rigid
g

e = 1.5
far end pinned

e = 2.0

far end fixed


4EI/L

M
3EI/L

e = 0.5

3EI/L

e = 0.67

M
6EI/L

e = 1.0

2EI/L

M
4EI/L

Relative end stiffnesses


FIXED BASE

PINNED BASE
column

column

beam

beam

A = 0.6

A = 10

Buckling
g load factor braced frame
For a BRACED FRAME ((i.e. one that is not free to sway)
y)
the procedure to calculate the effective length is:
STEP 1.
1 Calculate
C l l t A and
d B for
f each
h off the
th columns.
l
STEP 2.
2 Use
U th
the chart
h t to
t determine
d t
i ke for
f each
h off th
the columns.
l

STEP 3. Calculate

N om =

2 EI

(k e L )

for each of the columns.

STEP 4. Estimate the BUCKLING LOAD FACTOR, m


f each
for
h off the
h columns,
l
where
h N* is
i the
h axial
i l
compression in the column.

N om
=
N*

Effective length factor braced frame


STEP 5.
5 Estimate the FRAME BUCKLING LOAD FACTOR from
cr = min of the m values
STEP 6. Recalculate Nom = crN* for each of the columns

STEP 7. By using

N om =

2 EI

(L e )2

= cr N *

recalculate the effective length for each of the columns from

Le =

EI
2

N om

Example
a pe1
16 kN

40 kN

E
24 kN 60 kN 56 kN 100 kN
D

5m

100UC14

1890

3.18x106

B, E

250UB25

3270

35.4x106

C, D

150UC23

2980

12.6x106

250UB37

4750

55.7x106

B
C
6m

Section A (mm2) I (mm4)

Member

5m
Find the effective length for each of
the columns.

8m

A first order matrix stiffness analysis produces the following axial forces in this
braced frame:
Member
N* (kN)

A
-39.5

-0.8

-197.4

-31.9

E
-7.6

F
+4.7

Example
a pe1
A

Example
a pe1
Elastic
s c buc
bucklingg loads:
o ds:

Buckling load factor:


A
C
D

Example
a pe1
Recalculate
ec cu e buc
bucklingg loads
o ds in each
e c member:
e be :
A
C
D

Effective lengths
A

Elastic buckling of sway (unbraced) frames


Analysis:
The determination of the frame bucking load factor c of a rigid-jointed
rigid jointed
unbraced frame may also be carried out using a suitable computer program.

For isolated unbraced members of very simple unbraced frames, a buckling


analysis
l i may also
l be
b made
d from
f
first
fi principles.
i i l

Alternatively the effective length factor, km of each compression member may be


obtained by using estimates of the relative end stiffnesses 1, 2 in a chart such as
that of

AS3600.

Relative end stiffnesses sway frame


If the frame is FREE TO SWAY and is of regular rectangular geometry with
negligible axial force in the beams, ke is the solution of:

A B ( ke ) 36
= cot
6( A + B )
ke ke
2

where (as for a braced frame)

(I L )

=
(I L )

columns

beams

and
d

(I L )

=
(I L )

columns

beams

ke is obtained from Fig. 4.6.3.3 of AS4100

Effective length factor sway frame


The procedure for determining Le in a SWAY FRAME is:
STEP 1. Calculate A, B and use the chart to determine ke for each column
STEP 2. Calculate

N om =

2 EI

(k e L )

for each of the columns

STEP 3. For each STOREY calculate its buckling load factor from

ms =

(N
(N

STEP 4.
4 Estimate frame bucking load factor from cr = min of the ms values
STEP 5. Recalculate Nom = crN* for all the columns
STEP 6. Recalculate

Le =

2 EI
N

om

for all the columns

om
*

L)
L

Example
a pe2
20
10

40

20 kN

Member A (mm2) I (mm4)

C
B

50

50

80

5m

A, E

6660

52.8x106

B, D

3860

17.6x106

3270

35.4x106

5210

86.4x106

30
A

E
6m

5m
Find the effective length for each of
the columns.

6m

A first order matrix stiffness analysis produces the following axial forces in this
braced frame:
Member
N* (kN)

A
-116.2

-37.5

-22.5

-42.5

E
-143.9

F
-8.9

Example
a pe2
Elastic
s c buc
bucklingg loads:
o ds:
Upper storey columns

Example
a pe2
Elastic
s c buc
bucklingg loads:
o ds:
Lower storey columns

Example
a pe2
Buckling
uc
g load
o d factor:
co :
Upper storey columns

Lower storey columns

Example
a pe2
Recalculate
ec cu e buc
bucklingg loads:
o ds:
Upper storey columns

Lower storey columns

Design of connections I

Lecture Outline
Bolts bolt group
Bolts,
Welds,, weld ggroup
p
butt weld, fillet weld

Force connections
splices in tension and compression, truss joints, shear splices
and connections in beams

Moment connections
b
beam
momentt splice
li

Force and moment connections


seat for the beam-to-column connection, semi-rigid beam
to-column connection, the full strength beam splice

Connections
Connections are used to transfer the forces supported
pp
by
y a structural
member to other parts of the structure or to the support.
They are also used to connect braces and other members which provide
restraints to the structural member.
Connections join members using CONNECTORS
CONNECTORS, such as bolts,
bolts pins,
pins
rivets, or welds, and may include additional plates or cleats.
The arrangement off the
Th
h components iis usually
ll chosen
h
to suit
i the
h type off
action (force or moment) being transferred and the types of member
((tension or compression
p
member,, beam,, or beam-column))
A connection is designed by analysing the method of force transfer from the
member through the connection and its components to the other parts of the
structure, and by proportioning each component so that it has sufficient
capacity for the force that it is required to transmit.

Connections
The need for connections:
gap

Axial action
(longitudinal stresses )
stress/force
t
/f
transfer
t
f required
i d

M
Shear action
(shear stress )
surfaces slide past each other

Bending
g action
(longitudinal stresses)

C
T
Lack of compatibility

P
Torsion action
(shear stress)
bracket rotates

CONNECTIONS
(a) hold parts together
(b) allow transfer of internal actions

Connections
Real connections usuallyy have combinations of these actions:

Moment action due to V & H.

T
Tension action due to H.

H
S

Shear action due to V


V.

V
T

Torsion action due T = Ve.


Shear action due to V.

Connections
Splice:
p

design for
M* and V*
BMD

V
M*

SFD

V*

Bolts
Several different types of bolts may be used in structural connections
connections,
including ordinary structural bolts (i.e. commercial or precision bolts
and black bolts), and high strength bolts.
Bolts may transfer loads by shear and bearing, by friction between
plates clamped together,
together or by tension.
tension

i.e.
4.6 ultimate tensile strength fuf (f-fastener) 400 MPa
- structural or block bolts (industrial buildings)
8.8 high strength bolts fuf = 830 MPa
(yield is 0.8 of 830 664 MPa)

Pins
Pin connections
Pi
ti
used
d to
t be
b provided
id d iin some triangulated
t i
l t d frames
f
where
h
it was thought to be important to try to realize the common design
assumption
p
that these frames are p
pin-jointed.
j

The cost of making a pin connection is high because of the machining


required for the pin and its holes, and also because of difficulties in
assembly.

Pins are now rarely used, except in special applications where it is


necessary to allow relative rotation to occur between the member being
connected.
t d

Rivets
In the past,
past hot
hot-driven
driven rivets were extensively used in structural
connections. They were often used in the same way as ordinary
structural bolts are used in shear and bearing and in tension
connections.
There is usually less slip in a riveted connection because of the tendency
for the rivet holes to be filled by the rivets when being hot-driven.
Shop riveting was cheaper than filed riveting, and for this reason shop
riveting was often combined with field bolting.
However,, the use of riveting
g has declined considerably,
y, and has been
largely replaced by welding or bolting.

Bolts, rivets

Bolt dimensions
4 6 commercial bolts
4.6

8 8 high strength bolts


8.8

fuf = 400 MPa


MP

fy

fyf = 240 MPa

fy

nominal
diameter
D
of
fastener

fuf = 830 MPa


proof stress fyf = 660 MPa

0.2% permanent strain

dc core
dia.

ds

diameter
of tension
stress area

Types of filed connections

Joints between beams


Force &
M
Moment
connection
i

Force connection

M
Moment
connection
i

Force connection

Force & Moment connection


Force &
Moment connection

Beam--to
Beam
to--column joints
Force &
Moment connection
M
Moment
t connection
ti

Force connection
Moment connection

Axial shear

Force connection

Force connection

Force connection

Force connection

Eccentric shear / Tension


Force & moment
connection
ti

Force connection

Flexible end connections

Any moment
transfer can
b neglected
be
l t d
Force connections

Rigid and semisemi-rigid connection

Force & moment


connection

Force & moment connection

Semi--rigid
Semi
g connection

Force & moment connection

Prying action

Connections to concrete cores

Connections to concrete cores

Connections to concrete cores

Web panel in shear


(instability)

Axial compression and


bending moment

A h
Anchorages
Base plate

Contact steel-concrete and concrete in compression

Bolt tightening
g
g
SNUG TIGHTS (S) achieved by full effort of a person using a
standard spanner (friction between two surfaces is not too high)
BERARING (B) design action transferred by shear in bolts and
bearing on connected parts at STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
FRICTION (F) bolts tightened to induce a minimum tension so
that damping action transfers shear at SERVICEABILITY LIMIT
STATE due to friction
TENSION ((T)) snugg tightened
g
and then tightened
g
further a
certain number of fraction of turns

Bolts
Bolts suffer only 2 actions, tension and shear.

bolts in tension
T

bolts in shear
P/2
P

P/2

Torsion

(Pe causes shear)

S
P
P/2

P/2

two shear planes

P one shear plane

Bolt categories
g
very flexible (semi
(semi-rigid
rigid connection)
4.6/S
8 8/S
8.8/S
88.8/TB
8/TB
8.8/TF

only snug tightened

can be snug tightened too but it is wasteful


friction capacity
capacit (serviceability
(ser iceabilit limit state)

Commercial
C
i l packages
k
(i.e.
(i Microstran,
Mi
t
Spacegas,
S
etc.)
t ) assume
moment connection (hence connections are able to resist
bending moment)

Modes of failure
B lt in
Bolts
i TENSION
Bolts in SHEAR
B lt in
Bolts
i BEARING
Desi n checks required:
Design
a. Bolt strength
g
b. Plate bearing
c. Plate tearing:
i Straight
i.
St i ht across
ii. Staggered

Modes of force transfer

Force
connection

Bolted plates in shear and


tension
ae
df

Tearing out at end of a plate,


due to tension

V*v Vv
=0.7
Vv= ae t fup

fup - ultimate
lti t ttensile
il strength
t
th off
plate material

Bearing failures
top
p plate
p

V* B

beam reaction

other p
plate

V* B

per bolt

local crushing
under washer

Force
connection

Strength
g limit state
Shear

*
f

V f

Vf* = design shear force


Vf = nominal shear capacity of bolt
Vf = 0.62 fufkr (nnAc + nxAo)

= 0 .8
(i)

Connections are less ductile


than beams
(ii) We do not want connection
to be the weakest link in
the structure

nn= number of shear planes with treads IN the shear plane whose
bolt area is Ac
nx= number of shear planes without treads EXCLUDED from
shear plane whose bolt area (shank area) is Ao

Shear distribution in a
force connection

Strength limit state


kr= reduction factor for a lapped
pp connection of length
g Lj
If:

Lj < 300 mm kr = 1.0


300 < Lj < 1300 mm kr = 1.075 Lj /4000
nx = 1
nn = 3

Lj > 1300 mm kr = 0.75

Ao

T*

T*
Lj
Not exactly in equilibrium
moment imbalance

nx
Shear
planes

Ac

nn
nn
nn

Tension

*
tf

N tf

= 0 .8

Ntf* = design tension force


Ntf = design tension capacity of bolt
Ntf = As fuf
As = tensile stress area of bolt

Shear and tension


Bolts
o s aree only
o y subjected
subjec ed too two
wo actions:
c o s: TENSION
NS ON and
dS
SHEAR,,
caused by axial forces, shear forces, bending moments and torsion,
when tension and shear occur together, the bolt strength has to
satisfy the following interaction equation:
2

N
+
N
tf
*
tf

1 .0

= 0 .8

INTERACTION CURVE
pure shear

SHE
EAR

V
f
*
f

safe

pure
tension
AXIAL

Vf , Ntf = nominal
i
capacities
i i determined
i
earlier
i
(snug tighten bolts there is no tensile force in bolts)

Shear and tension

Shear and tension typical examples


NO BENDING

BENDING

PV

PV
CG of
bolt
group

PH

CG of
bolt
group

e
PV /n

Line of P through CG

Shear force
from loading

Pv

M Moment
from
frame
action

BENDING

M = Pv e
M causes extra
t
tension per bolt

PH
Shear per
Sh
bolt V*vf

PH /n
Tension per
b lt V*tf
bolt

Beam--to
Beam
to--column joints
Force &
Moment connection
Moment connection

Force connection

Moment connection

Shear and tension typical examples


BENDING

Tension in these bolts


T1
T

M
S

h1 h
2

h3
dn/3

NA

y3

y
1

T23

d
dn

dn/3

Plates compressed
mp
together
g
Could calculate position of NA by trial and error until T
but usually dn

h/6.

C,

Shear and tension typical examples


(i) Take moment about line of force C.

M = n1T1h1 + n2T2h2 + etc.

n1= No. of bolts on level 1

(ii) From linear force diagram

T2 = T1 y2/y1 , T3 = T1 y3/y1
(iii) Substitute into M equation and rearrange.

T1 = M y1 /(nihiyi) per bolt at level 1.


(iv) Shear per bolt = S / total number of bolts.
(v) Now apply shear and tension interaction equation.
However if there are horizontal forces, such as Phe , eccentricities etc,
include their effects and then apply interaction equation.

Ply in bearing
Bearing force on ply Vb* due to a bolt
ply

ae

V Vb
*
b

bolt

= 0 .9

Vb = nominal bearing capacity of ply

Vb = 3.2d f t p fup > aet p fup


df = bolt diameter
tp = thickness of ply
fup = ultimate tensile strength of ply

Example 1
Checking the capacity of a connection
lap splice connection 35 70 70 35
40
70

Splice
l
plates,
l
2x10mm
10
thick
h k
fy = 260 MPa steel, fu = 410 MPa
35 70

N*

70 35

N* N*
*

10

N*

20
70

10

40

9M24,8.8/S

ELEVATION

PLAN

Spliced plate, 20mm thick


fy = 250 MPa steel, fu = 410 MPa

a. Bolt strength
M24 8.8 /S in dholes= 26mm

Threads intercept one shear plane


plane, plain shank the other shear plane.
plane

Design capacity of bolts in shear = Vfn + Vfx = 133 + 186 = 319 kN [TA2.2]

b Plate bearing
b.

(spliced plate)

Vb = 3.2 x 24 x 20 x 410 = 630 kN 35x 20 x410 = 287 kN


Since 287 < 319, plate bearing capacity governs.

Example 1

Serviceability limit state for bolt


For 8.8/TF where slip at service load is to be limited
Although a serviceability limit state still uses a capacity reduction factor

Shear:

V V sf
*
sf

= 0 .9

V*sf = nominal bolt shear capacity for friction-type connection


Vsf = neiNtikn

= slip factor (coefficient of friction) taken usually as 0.35


nei = number of effective interfaces
Nt = minimum
i i
bolt
b lt pretension
t i in
i
generating a friction-type connection

kn = 1.0 for standard holes


= 0.85 for short slotted or oversize
holes
= 0.7 for long slotted holes

Shear + Tension
V

V
sff
*
sf

N
+
N
ti
*
tf

1 .0

= 0 .7

Vsf* = design serviceability shear force


Ntf* = design strength shear force (bolt pre-tension)
Nti = bolt p
pretension
Minimum Nti VALUES (kN)
M16 95
M20 145
M24 210
M30 335
M36 - 490

Bolt group subjected to inin-plane


loading
doubler plate
weld

bolt

Momentt
M
connection
column
stiffener

stiffener

Consider n bolts of equal area subjected to force P eccentric e


to the y-axis which passes through the bolt centroid.
y

Pe

end plate

Bolt group subjected to inin-plane


loading
Separate shear caused by P and Pe are hard to calculate and sum vectorially.
Instead we calculate position of
INSTANTANEOUS CENTRE OF ROTATION.
Force Vfi* on i-th bolt and radium ri from centre of rotation.

y
(xc, 0)

e
ri

Vfi*
x

Bolt group subjected to inin-plane


loading
V = kri A
*
fi

I z = A x + y
2

k = constant
A = area of bolt
2

about centroids

Pe
k =
Iz
P
xc =
kn A

N.B.
(1) force in x
x-direction
direction as well its effect can be included in the same way; and
V

*
fi

= {V fi* x 2 + V

*
fi

y 2 }1 / 2

(2) if welds are used replace the bolt area with the weld size and summations by
integrals along the weld

Example
p 2
A typical web side plate connection is shown in the figure on
the next slide in which a single 10mm thick side plate is bolted
t th
to
the web
b off a b
beam and
d iis welded
ld d tto th
the fl
flange off th
the column.
l
In designing the welds, the beam reaction is assumed to act
through the centroid of the bolt group at a distance of 90mm
from the face of the column. In designing the bolts, the beam
reaction is assumed to act at the line of the weld at a distance of
90mm from the centroid of the bolt group.
Problem:
For a design beam reaction of 250 kN, determine the maximum
shear force in a bolt of the bolt group

Example
p 2

Example
p 2
Solution:
The calculations are based on the instantaneous centre of
rotation approach of Chapter C9 of the Commentary (AS4100).
By inspection, the centroid of the bolt group is at its geometric
centre.

Example
p 3
Determine the maximum shear in the bolt group in the beam
splice shown.
25
55 140 30
65
35
70
70
35

75

Member design
actions at bolt group
centroid
Shear = +160kN
Moment = +20kNm

8-M20 8.8/S bolts.


Threads in shear plane.
2x280mm E48XX fillet welds.
Single web plate.
This problem demonstrates the in-plane elastic analysis of a bolt group.

Example
p 3

Example
p 4
Check an M20 88.8/S
8/S bolt whose treads intercept a single shear
plane for a design shear of Vf* = 43.1kN
25
55 140 30 75
65
35
70
70
35

Member design
actions at bolt group
centroid
Shear = +160kN
Moment = +20kNm
8-M20 8.8/S bolts.
Threads in shear plane.
2x280mm E48XX fillet welds.
Single web plate.

This problem illustrates the determination of the shear capacity of a bolt.

Example
p 4

Example
p 5
Determine the maximum design tension force that can be
transmitted in conjunction with a design shear force of Vf* =
43.1kN byy an M20 8.8/TF bolt whose threads intercept
p a single
g
shear plane.
Member design
25
55 140 30 75
65
35
70
70
35

actions at bolt group


centroid
Shear = +160kN
Moment = +20kNm
8-M20 8.8/S bolts.
Threads in shear plane.
plane
2x280mm E48XX fillet welds.
Single web plate.

This problem illustrates the checking of the strength of a bolt under combined
shear and tension.

Example
p 5

Example
p 6
Determine the maximum serviceability tension force that can
be transmitted in conjunction with a serviceability shear force
of Vsf* = 30.0kN byy an M20 8.8/TF bolt in a standard hole.
This problem illustrates the checking of the serviceability of a bolt in a frictiongrip connection with a single interface.

Bolt groups in torsion


e

PV

Pys = P/n

y
Bolt shear
due to
torsion

y
CG

T = PVe

PTx

PTy

CG of bolt group

bolt shear due


to torsion

From mechanics of solids PT

= torsional constant x r

Torque per bolt Ti = PT x r = C x r2 = C x (xi2


For n bolts, total torque T =
Torsional constant C =

x
PT

+ yi2)

Ti = C x r2 = C (xi2 + yi2)

T / (xi2 + yi2)

Bolt g
groups
p in torsion
In bending = My/I
In torsion PT = Tr/IP
or torsional components
p
PTx = Ty/I
y P,
where IP =

PTy = Tx/IP

(xi2 + yi2)

CRITICAL BOLT vectorial effect of components is maximum


PTy

PTy

PTy

Pmax = P

PTy
PTy

PTy

+ (PTy + PyS )

Tx

VECTORIAL SUMMATION

PTy
PTy
PTy

PTy
PTy

PTy

PTy

Design of connections II

Lecture Outline
Welds, weld group
butt weld
weld, fillet weld

M
Moment
t connections
ti
beam moment splice

Force and moment connections


seat for the beam-to-column connection, semi-rigid beam
to-column connection, the full strength beam splice

Welds
Structural connections between steel members are often made by arc
arc-welding
welding
techniques, in which molten weld metal is fused with the parent metal of the
members or joint plates being connected.
Welding is often cheaper than bolting because of the great reduction in the
preparation
p
p
required,
q
, while ggreater strength
g can be achieved,, the members or
plates no longer being weakened by bolt holes, and the strength of the weld
metal being superior to that of the material connected.
In addition, welds are more rigid than other types of load-transferring
connectors.
On the other hand, welding often produces distortion and high local residual
stresses,
t
and
d results
lt iin reduced
d dd
ductility,
tilit while
hil fi
field
ld welding
ldi may b
be diffi
difficult
lt
and costly.

Welds
Force connection

Force connection

Intermediate web stiffeners

Butt welds
Butt welds
Fillet welds
Butt welds are frequently used to splice tension members
members.
A full penetration weld enables the full strength of the member to be developed,
while
hil the
th butting
b tti together
t th off the
th members
b
avoids
id any joint
j i t eccentricity.
t i it
Butt welds often require
q
some machining
g of the elements to be jjoined.
Special welding procedures are usually needed for full strength welds between
thi k members
thick
b
to
t control
t l the
th weld
ld quality
lit and
d ductility,
d tilit while
hil special
i l inspection
i
ti
procedures may be required for critical welds to ensure their integrity.

Butt weld

Fillet welds
We will
w only
o y co
consider
s de equal
equ leg
eg fillet
e we
welds
ds here:
e e:
throat
t

throat

t
weld size

Design
g actions are calculated/unit length
g of weld on p
plane of throat:
Longitudinal shear, transverse shear, normal force all act on throat and
are summed vectorially to produce:

vw* = design force per unit length of weld

Fillet weld joint

Forces on weld elements


The forc
force p
perr un
unitt length
ngth of fillet weld in the x,, y and z
directions may be determined using the familiar expressions:
general fillet
weld group

*
*
P
M
*
x
zy

vx =
Lw
I wp

centroid of fillet
weld group

Py*

*
M
*
zx
vy =

Lw
I wp

*
z

*
x

P*
y
M*
y

*
y

M y M x
P
v =
+

Lw
I wx
I wy
*
z

P*x
M*x

M*

P*

Weld in x-y
plane, z = 0

General fillet weld group

Design equation
v v w
*
w

Strength
S
e g des
design:
g :

*
w

(v ) + (v ) + (v )
*
x

*
y

* 2
z

D i off any generall fillet


Design
fill t weld
ld group subject
bj t to
t a generall design
d i action
ti sett

(P *x, P *y, P *z, M *x, M *y, M*z )


may be obtained by evaluating the property set

Lwx, Lwy, Lwz, Iwx, Iwy, Iwp (see Table on next slide)
and substituting into the governing equation
(fillet weld group loaded in-plane
in-plane and out-of-plane)
out-of-plane ),
checking that the governing inequality is satisfied, at each of the critical points.

Practical fillet weld g


groups
p
Many
y fillet weld groups
g p comprise
p
lines of welds parallel
p
to the x and y axes.
For such relatively regular fillet weld groups, the identification of possible critical
points is correspondingly more straightforward.
The possible critical points for
a fillet weld g
group
p consisting
g of
lines of weld parallel to the x
and y axes only are numbered 1
to 8.
8

y
2

x
7

4
5

Possible critical p
points in
particular weld group

Forces on weld elements


where:

Lw
Iwx, Iwy

- the total length of the weld;

Iwp

- the p
polar moment of area of the weld elements about the
centroid of the weld group (treated as a line element)
= Iwx + Iwy

- the second moments of area of the weld elements


(treated as a line element) about the x and y axes respectively;

The previous expressions can be


sightly modified in order to allow
them to reflect realistic
distributions of the design force
set ((P*x, P*y, P*z) between
components of the total length of
the weld group, as follows:

Px* M z* y
v =

Lwx I wp
*
x

v =
*
y

Py*
Lwy

M z* x

I wp

*
Pz* M x* y M y x
+

v =
Lwz
I wx
I wy
*
z

where:

Lwx, Lwy, Lwz


the lengths of the weld
assumed to receive the
component forces along
the individual x, y and z
axes respectively

Fillet Weld Group Loaded


i -plane
inin
l

Fillet weld group loaded in-plane by a common


design action set of forces (P*x, P*y) and design moment (M*x):
*
*
P
M
*
x
zy
vx =

Lwx I wp

v =
*
y

v*z = 0

Py*
L wy

Py*
Pz*

*
z

M x
+
I wp

M z*

Fillet Weld Group Loaded


out--of
out
of--plane
Fillet weld group loaded out-of-plane by a common
design
g action set of forces (F*y, F*z) and design
g moment (M*x)):

v*x = 0

v *y =

Py*
L wy

*
*
M
P
*
xy
z
vz =
+
Lwz
I wx

Py*
Pz*
Mx*

Fillet Weld Group Loaded


out
out--of
out
of--plane
plane
P

Line welds
unit thickness

e
Mx
Py

Lw1

yt

1
Lw2

yc
Centroid of
weld group

Lw1

v*y = P*y/Lw = force per unit length acing in y-direction


Lw = total weld length = 2Lw1 + 2Lw2
v *z = M *xyc/Iwx = normal force per unit weld in x-direction at point A
Iwx = second moment of area of unit weld about centroid (mm3)

Weld group subjected to outout-of


of-plane loading
vn vz

throat

vy

(perpendicular)

vt
force per unit length

vz = p
produces normal component
p
p
vz / 2 and transverse component
on throat.

{ (

vw = v + vz
2
y

Therefore at A (say)

) + (v

)}

2 1/ 2

v y2 + v z2
n

For bolts calculate Ix as

A y 2

Py
V
=
y
and
n

etc.

vz / 2

Design
g equation
q
Strength
S
e g des
design:
g :

v v w
*
w

vw = nominal
i l capacity
it off fillet
fill t weld
ld per unit
it llength
th
vw = 0.6fuwttkr

= 0 .6 GP
SP special
p
ppurpose
p

kr = reduction factor for length of weld Lw(m)


= 1.0 (Lw < 1.7)
= 1.10
1 10 0.06L
0 06Lw (1.7
(1 7 < Lw < 8.0)
8 0)
= 0.62 (Lw > 8.0)
tt = throat
th t thi
thickness
k

= 0 .8 SP

=t/ 2

fuw = ultimate tensile strength


g of weld
= 480 MPa for E48XX electrodes (most common)
= 410 MPa for E41XX electrodes

(high degree of inspection)


GP general purpose
(low degree of inspection)

Weld stress trajectories


j

Weld symbols

Weld symbols

Example 1
Determine the maximum shear per unit length in the uniform
thickens weld group caused by a design shear force of 160kN
through
g the centroid of the bolt ggroup
p and a moment of 20kNm
N
about the centroid of the bolt group.
25
55 140 30 75
65
35
70
70
35

Member design
actions at bolt group
centroid
Shear = +160kN
Moment = +20kNm

8-M20 8.8/S bolts.


Th d iin shear
Threads
h
plane.
l
2x280mm E48XX fillet welds.
Single web plate.
This problem demonstrates the in-plane elastic analysis of a fillet weld
group under combined shear and bending.

Example 1
The centroid of the weld group is (70 + 30 + 25 + 37.5) = 162.5 mm from
the centre of the bolt group.

V * = 160 kN, M * = 20 + 160 162.5 / 1000 = 46.0 kNm

( I x + I y ) / t = 2 280 3 / 12 + 2 280 (75 / 2 )

= 4 . 446 10 6 mm 3
A / t = 2 280 = 560 mm

x c = V * (I x + I y ) / M * A

= 160 10 3 4 .446 10 6 t / 46 .0 10 6 560 t


= 27 .6 mm

rmax =

(75 / 2 + 27 .6 )

= 154 .4 mm

+ 140

yc = 0

vw* = M *rmax t / (I x + I y )
= 46.0 10 6 154.4 / 4.446 10 6
= 1.597 kN/mm

Example 2
Determine the weld leg size required for the equal leg fillet weld
group, if the weld category is SP and the electrode is E48XX.
25
55 140 30 75
65
35
70
70
35

Member design
actions at bolt group
centroid
Shear = +160kN
Moment = +20kNm
8-M20 8.8/S bolts.
Threads in shear p
plane.
2x280mm E48XX fillet welds.
Single web plate.

This problem illustrates the design of a fillet weld group

Example 2
f uw = 480 MPa

k r = 1.0

= 0.8
vw* = 1.597 kN / mm
1.597 103 0.8 0.6 480 tt 1.0

tt 6.93mm
t 6.93 2 = 9.8mm

Use 10x10 SP E48XX weld.

N.B. A smaller weld could be used if the weld group dimensions


were increased
increased. This would require the reanalysis of the weld
group.

Example 3
An 8mmx8mm SP fillet weld from E48XX electrodes has a
longitudinal design shear per unit length of vwL* = 1.0kN/mm and
transverse design shears per unit length of vwx* = 0.6kN/mm
0 6kN/mm and
vwy* = 0.4 kN/mm. Check the adequacy of the weld.
This problem illustrates the checking of a fillet weld under combined loadings.
loadings

vw* =

(1.0

+ 0.6 2 + 0.4 2 = 1.233kN / mm

f uw = 480 MPa
tt = 8 / 2 = 5.66mm
k r = 1.0 = 0.8
vw = 0.8 0.6 480 5.66 1.0 = 1.303kN / mm > 1.233kN / mm = vw*
Therefore OK.

Example 4
Box section fillet welded to end plate
(Fillet loaded out-of plane)
y
1

2
3

305

450 kN

weld
group
cetroid

90 kNm
4

7
5

203

Design actions:
Px* = 0 , Py* = 450 kN , Pz* = 0
M

*
x

= 90 kNm
kN , M

*
y

= 0, M

*
z

=0

Weld g
group
p properties:
p p

L w = 2 (305 + 203 ) = 1016 mm

Example 4
If it is
i assumedd that
th t the
th vertical
ti l shear
h is
i primarily
i
il taken
t k by
b the
th webs
b
of the box section, then this vertical shear must be assumed to be
transferred through the vertical fillet weld only.
Hence,
L w = 2 305 = 610 mm
d = 305 mm
b = 203 mm

I wx = d

6 + bd / 2 = 14 . 2 10 mm
2

at ppoints 1,, 2,, 3,, 8

y = 152.5 mm

4, 5, 6, 7

y = 152 . 5 mm

Example 4
Global set of design actions per unit length
v*x = 0

v*z = (90000) ( 152.5)/14.2106


v*y = - 450/610
= + 0.967 at points1, 2, 3, 8 ( y = + 152.5)
= - 0.738 at points 3, 4, 7, 8
=0
at points1, 2, 5, 6
= - 0.967 at points4, 5, 6, 7 (y = -152.5)

R l
Resultant
force
f
per unit
i length:
l
h
v w* =

( 0 . 738 )2

+ ( 0 . 967

)2

= 1 . 22 kN/mm

Weld capacity:

8 mm E48XX fillet weld

v w = 0.6 f uw t t k r = 1 .30 kN/mm > v w*

= 0.8 fuw = 480MPa


t w = 8 tt = 8 2 = 5.66
kr = 1

Example 5
Fillet welded bracket loaded In-Plane
y
175

275

180 kN

d = 300 mm
b = 275 mm

3 2

1
Weld group
centroid

300

x
4 5

weld centroid
x

b2
x =
= 89 . 0 mm
2b + d

design actions
Px* = 0 Py* = 180 kN Pz* = 0

critical points

*
x

=0 M

*
z

= 180 (275 + 175 89 . 0 )

*
y

=0

= 64980 kNmm

Example 5
Weld group properties:
Lw = 2 275+ 300= 850mm

assume Lwx = Lwy = Lwz = Lw = 850mm


I wp = I wx + I wy
3002 (6 275+ 300) 2753 (275+ 2 300)
I wp =
+
12
3(2 275+ 300)
= 21.8106 mm3
at points 1, 6 :

x = 275 89.0 = +186


y = 300/ 2 = 150

at points 2, 3, 4, 5 :

x = 89.0 y = 150

Example 5
Global design actions per unit length:
*

M
64980150
zy
v*x =
=
I wp
21.8106

= + 0.447 at points 1, 2, 3 ( y = +150)


= 0.447
44 at points
i
4, 5, 6 ( y = 150
1 0)
*
M
x 180 64980186
v*y =
+ z =
+
Lwy I wp
850
21.8106

Fy*

= 0.767 at points 1, 6 (critical)


180 64980 ( 89.0)
=
+
850
21.8106
= +0.054 at points 2, 3, 4, 5 (not critical)

Resultant
R
lt t fforce per unit
it length:
l
th
points 1, 6

vw* =

( 0.447)2 + ( 0.767)2

= 0.888 kN/mm
6 mm E48XX fillet weld
v w = 0.6 f uw t t k r
= 0 . 978 kN/mm > v w*
OK

= 0.8 fuw = 480MPa


t w = 6 t t = 6 2 = 4.24

kr = 1

Reference material
NS Trahair & MA Bradford: The Behaviour and Design of Steel
Structures to AS4100, 3rd Australian edition, E&FN Spon,
London, 1998.
ST Woolcock, S Kitipornchai & MA Bradford: Design of Portal
F
Frame
Buildings,
B ildi
3rd edition,
diti AISC,
AISC S
Sydney,
d
1999
1999.
TJ Hogan & IR Thomas: Design of structural connections, 4th
edition, AISC, Sydney, 1994.