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COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC.

, BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93

Technical Note

Shear Connectors
This Technical Note begins by defining the program's default allowable shear
connector loads for AISC-LRFD93 composite beam design. Shear connector
capacities are defined for both shear studs and channel shear connectors.
Next the equations used for determining the number of shear connectors on
the beam are provided.

Shear Stud Connectors


The capacity for a single shear stud is calculated using Equation 1.
Qn = 0.5bsAsc f c' E c AscFu

Eqn. 1

Equation 1 is based on AISC-LRFD93 specifications Equation I5-1. The bs


factor in Equation 1 is not specified by AISC. It is provided by CSI to give you
additional control over the allowable shear connector load. The default value
for this factor is 1, but you can modify it in both the preferences and the
overwrites.
If there is formed metal deck, the value of Qn obtained from either Equation 1
or from the overwrites, if specified, is reduced by a reduction factor, RF that
is specified in Technical Note Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISCASD89. Note that the reduction factor is different depending on whether the
span of the metal deck ribs is oriented parallel or perpendicular to the span of
the beam.
The reduction factor, RF, only applies to the 0.5bsAsc f c' E c

term in Equation

1. It does not apply to the AscFu term.


The terms fc and Ec can be different on the two sides of the beam. The program calculates Qn for each side of the beam separately using Equation 1 and
uses the smaller value in the calculations.

Shear Stud Connectors

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Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

Shear Connectors

Channel Shear Connectors


The capacity for channel shear connectors is calculated using Equation 2.
Qn = 0.3bs (tf + 0.5tw)Lcsc f c' E c

Eqn. 2

Equation 2 is based on AISC-LRFD93 specifications Equation I5-2. The bs


factor in Equation 2 is the same as that described for Equation 1 in the previous section.
Because the program does not allow channel shear connectors to be used
with formed metal deck, there is no reduction factor that needs to be applied
to the value of Qn calculated using Equation 2.
The terms fc and Ec can be different on the two sides of the beam. The program calculates Qn for each side of the beam separately using Equation 2 and
uses the smaller value in the calculations.

Horizontal Shear for Full Composite Connection


Between Maximum Moment and Point of Zero Moment
Positive Bending
The total horizontal shear to be resisted between the point of maximum
positive moment (where the concrete is in compression) and the points of
zero moment for full composite connection, Qn-100, is given by the smaller of
Equations 3, 4a or 4b as applicable. Table 1 defines the conditions where the
various equations are applicable and it defines what to use for Ac left and Ac right
(both simply called Ac in the table) in Equation 3 for each condition.

Channel Shear Connectors

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Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

Shear Connectors

Table 1: Table Defining Equations to be used to Calculate Horizontal Shear for


Full Composite Connection
Deck Rib
Span Relative
to Beam Span

Beam Section

Perpendicular

Rolled section
from the program database

3 as noted
and 4a

User-defined

3 as noted
and 4b

Rolled section
from the program database

3 as noted
and 4a

User-defined

3 as noted
and 4b

Parallel

Use Smaller
of These
Equations

Note About Ac in
Equation 3
Ac in Eqn. 3 is the area of concrete in the slab above the metal
deck that is above the elastic
neutral axis of the fully composite beam
Ac in Eqn. 3 is the area of concrete in the slab, including the
concrete in the metal deck ribs,
that is above the elastic neutral
axis of the fully composite beam

Q n100 = 0.85fc' left A c left + 0.85fc' right A c right

Q n 100 = A s Fy + b cp t cp Fycp
Q n 100 = b f -top t f -top Fyf -top + ht w Fyw +
b f -bot t f -bot Fyf -bot + b cp t cp Fycp

Eqn. 3
Eqn. 4a

Eqn. 4b

Number of Shear Connectors


Between Maximum Moment and Point of Zero Moment
For full composite action, the number of shear connectors between a point of
maximum positive or negative moment and adjacent points of zero moment,
N1, is given by Equation 5.

N1 =

Q n 100
Qn

Eqn. 5

In Equation 5, Qn-100 is as determined in the previous section entitled "Horizontal Shear for Full Composite Connection" and Qn is determined as de-

Number of Shear Connectors

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Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

Shear Connectors

scribed in either the previous section entitled "Shear Stud Connectors" or the
previous section entitled "Channel Shear Connectors" depending on the type
of shear connector used.
For partial composite connection, the number of shear connectors between a
point of maximum positive (not negative) moment and adjacent points of
zero moment, N1, is given by Equation 6.

N1 =

Q n PCC
Qn

Eqn. 6

In Equation 6, Qn-PCC is equal to the percent composite connection times Qn100. For example, if there is 70% composite connection, Qn-PCC = 0.7 Qn-100.
Thus, the percent composite connection, PCC, for AISC-LRFD93 design is
given by Equation 7.

PCC =

Q n PCC
Q n 100

Eqn. 7

Between Point Load and Point of Zero Moment


The program uses Equation 8 to check that the number of shear connectors
provided between a point load and a point of zero moment is sufficient. Equation 8 is not specified by AISC but is used by CSI as the LRFD equivalent of
Equation I4-5 in the AISC-ASD89 specification.

M u M n steel alone
N 2 = N1
M n comp M n steel alone

Eqn. 8

In Equation 8,
Mn comp

Maximum moment capacity of composite beam, considering partial composite connection if applicable, kip-in.

Mn steel alone =

Moment capacity of steel beam alone, kip-in.

Mu

Moment at point load location, kip-in.

N1

Number of shear connectors required between the point of


maximum moment and the point of zero moment, or end
of the slab, unitless.

Number of Shear Connectors

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Shear Connectors

N2

Number of shear connectors required between the point


load considered and the point of zero moment, or end of
the slab, unitless.

Resistance factor used to determine moment capacity of


composite beam, unitless. This is equal to either bcpe, bcpp,
bcne, or bcnp depending on whether there is positive or
negative bending and whether the stress distribution considered is elastic or plastic.

Equation 8 is checked at each point load location.

Number of Shear Connectors

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