You are on page 1of 21

12

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DS

Degradation models and measurements


of corrosion in marine environment:
state of the art and challenges

Franck Schoefs

IC

LUNAM Universit, Univ. of Nantes, France


Institute for Research in Mechanical & Civil Engineering,
UMR CNRS 6183
Sea and Litoral Research Institute, FR CNRS 3473

Contents

LNE
C

Objectives of corrosion modeling for strutural


maintenance of steel structures

Key factors involved in the corrosion process


Review of existing models for LT corrosion
The Euromarcorr data base
Stochastic modelling:randomness and spatial
variability

Probabilistic modelling of NDT results and


inspection based decision

08/06/2012
Repair
efficiency

FranckSchoefs

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

Use of steel in harbour


structures

Long term prediction:


10 to 50 years
Modeling of the
influence of key factors
Modeling the variability

DS

Sheet-piles wall

12

Objectives of modeling
for maintenance

(for reliability and risk analysis)

On-pile wharf

Accurate/Suitable for
updating
Suitable for repair
modeling
Computation cost
reduction (optimisation of
repair, )

IC

08/06/2012

FranckSchoefs

Key factors involved

Marine environment

LNE
C

Solar
Energy

Primary constituents:
Na+,Cl,SO42,Mg2+,
K+,CO32,...
Secondary constituents:
NandPderivatives

+ CO2

+photosynthetic
pigments

Nutrients
Parameters
pH

Bacteria

Food chain

H2O

Temperature

Minerals salts

08/06/2012

Salinity

Gas

FranckSchoefs

>>dissolved O2<<

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Key factors involved


Main mechanism
O2 + 2H2O + 4e- 4OH-

Oxo-hydroxyde
Fe(+III)

Fe Fe2+ + 2 e-

DS

Fe2+ + 2OH- Fe (OH)2

O2

Fe2+

O2

Steel

Magnetite
Fe(+II/+III)

Fe2+

Steel

IC

FranckSchoefs

Key factors involved

LNE
C

Other
effects

[S. Borenstein, 1994] [P. Roberge, 1999]

Actual knowledge:
Identification of underlying mechanims, validate
assumption in lab., relative quantification //
on site: non-independent mechanims (overlaying,
different kinetics, competition, effect of environment,
nutrients: govern by Stochastic
factors)
FranckSchoefs

O2

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Spatial dependence
Relationship between depth and loss of steel

DS

Bacteria

[Marsh 1999]

IC

FranckSchoefs

Spatial dependence

LNE
C

Relationship between depth and loss of steel


O2
high

SPRAY

TIDE

IMMERSION
MUD

O2
low

[Larrabee, LaQue 1950]

SOIL

Loss ofweight (151dKureBeach,USA)


Area very sensitives
to
FranckSchoefscorrosion

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Spatial dependence
Spray zone
Splash zone

PMM

Tide zone

DS

BMM

Low see level

Immersion zone
Mud zone
Soil zone

7 zone of
exposure

IC

Vertical theoretical profile of the velocity of loss of


thickness (mm/year)
near the coasts
FranckSchoefs

Main models

Type 1. Empirical models


Immersion zone (ship
corrosion)

[Melchers, Jeffrey, 2008]

[Guedes Soares, Garbatov 1999]

LNE
C

Immersion and tidal


zone

08/06/2012

FranckSchoefs

CoV
constant
or
decreasing

20

10

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Main models

Type 1. Empirical models

Immersion zone (ship


corrosion)

[Guedes Soares, Garbatov 1999]

[Paik 2003 2004]

FranckSchoefs

IC

08/06/2012

DS

Immersion zone (ship


corrosion)

11

Main models

Type 2. Physico-chemical

LNE
C

Immersion zone

[Evans 1996, Tomashev 1966,


Chernov & Ponomarenko 1999]

Where: K: loss of thickness


P : coefficient accouting for
protective properties of
corrosion layer (m2/an).
For instance, P = (1054,04
121,35)
[1+(0,045
0,008)t0]

08/06/2012

FranckSchoefs

12

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Main models

Type 3. Phenomenological
Immersion zone

DS

[Melchers 2008]

Where:
c(t,E) : loss of thickness fn(t,E) :
mean of loss of thickness
(mm)
(t,E) : variability of loss of
thickness (mm)
b(t,E) : bias (error of modeling)
E : vector of environmental
factors (physical, chemical &
biological).

FranckSchoefs

IC

08/06/2012

13

Key factors involved


Strategy for LT modelling

LNE
C

Challenges for the LT modeling:


The corrosion process is hard to model:

It is affected by a lot of time-variant and space-dependent


factors : Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Salinity, Tide level,
Suspended materials-nutrients (bio-corrosion), pollution,
water flow/waves, abrasive materials.
Only few on-site measurements are available and not always
well documented (context+monitoring).
On-site measurements are costly and difficult to realize.
Complex and uncertain mecanisms: simultaneous and in
competition.

Need to gather data in a well documented data base

08/06/2012

FranckSchoefs

14

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DS

12

The Euromarcor Data


Base

IC

08/06/2012

15

FranckSchoefs

The Euromarcor Data


Base: the protocol
Z-axis

Sheet-pile
wall

Beam

LNE
C

Vertical axil along the


structure

Zaxis

ZA : Aerial Zone

ZE : Spray Zone

ZT : Tidal Zone

Tie-rod

Measurement
zone
(average of
readings)

ZL : Low Seawater Zone


ZI : Immersion Zone
ZM : Mud Zone

Residual thickness measurements


by using ultrasonic testing

Soil

X-axis

Lateral and frontal section of the structure

08/06/2012

FranckSchoefs

16

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

The Euromarcor Data


Base

Data distribution by
structures aging

Age (years)
FranckSchoefs

IC

08/06/2012

DS

Number of NDT controls

Structures composed by sheet-piles


Concerns 4 harbors : Boulogne-sur-Mer & Le Havre
(Channel), Port-la-Nouvelle & Ste (Mediterranean sea)

17

The Euromarcor Data


Base

Structures number

LNE
C

23 studied structures
35 000 measures

08/06/2012

Harbors

FranckSchoefs

18

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

23 studied structures
35 000 measures for sheet piles
ZA : Aerial Zone

ZL : Low Seawater Zone


ZI : Immersion Zone
ZM : Mud Zone

Soil

Harbors

IC

08/06/2012

Measurement collects distribution


of loss of thickness in function
of exposure zones for studied structures

DS

Measures number

ZT : Tidal Zone

Number ofmeasurements

ZE : Spray Zone

12

The Euromarcor Data


Base

FranckSchoefs

The Euromarcor Data


Base

LNE
C

Summary

100 000 measurements: The data base is now


documented
Nb and location of
measurements

Type of maritime
Environment / owner

Chemical
characteristics

FranckSchoefs

19

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Data Analysis

IC

08/06/2012

DS

Synopsis

FranckSchoefs

21

Data Analysis

Spatial evolution (with depth)

Marine cots (m)

LNE
C

Spatial trend of corrosion as a function of Z-axis

Harbor HA : Basin, Tidal effect

Loss of thickness (mm)

08/06/2012

FranckSchoefs

22

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Data Analysis
Statistical analysis

Gamma pdf
the best one

DS

Best fit:
Maximum
Likelihood
Estimate

Number of Measures

PDF retained for representing loss of thickness in function of time

Age (years)

IC

08/06/2012

FranckSchoefs

23

Stochastic Modelling
Of corrosion

LNE
C

General model
ZA

c(x,zj,t,) = T(x,zj,t) + c(0,zj,t,)

ZE

ZM

Loss of thickness c (mm) as a function of x, exposal


zone zj & time t, is the hazard

ZBE
ZI

ZB

Centered determinist trend T (mm) of stochastic


process as a function of x

Soil

08/06/2012

FranckSchoefs

24

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Stochastic Modelling
Of corrosion

c(x,zj,t,) gamma distributed

Gamma distribution of parameters & ( & > 0):


ZA
ZE

ZBE
ZI
ZB

Soil

25

IC

08/06/2012

DS

ZM

FranckSchoefs

Stochastic Modelling
Of corrosion

LNE
C

c(x,zj,t,) gamma distributed

ZA
ZE

ZM

Five zones

ZBE

ZI

increases and reaches


a constant value

ZB

Soil

Temporal evolutions of loss of thickness from &

CoV isdecreasingwithtime

08/06/2012

FranckSchoefs

26

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Stochastic Modelling
Of corrosion

c(x,zj,t,) gamma distributed


ZA
ZE

ZBE
ZI
ZB

Soil

08/06/2012

DS

ZM

Distribution for t = 25 years

IC

[Schoefs, Boero, Melchers, 2010]FranckSchoefs

27

Stochastic Modelling
Of corrosion

LNE
C

General model
ZA

c(x,zj,t,) = T(x,zj,t) + c(0,zj,t,)

ZE

ZM

Loss of thickness c (mm) as a function of x, exposal


zone zj & time t, is the hazard

ZBE
ZI

ZB

Centered determinist trend T (mm) of stochastic


process as a function of x

Soil

08/06/2012

FranckSchoefs

28

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Data Analysis
Spatial variability

- Pile scale

- Structural scale
Sea water

Sea water

Inspan

Outspan

DS

Wing

- Harbour scale

Tidal zone

7 mm

4 mm

2 mm

1 mm

Ratio Outspan/Inspan

IC

1000 m

FranckSchoefs

Data Analysis

1
0,8

Depth2.5

Depth2

Depth1.5

Depth1

Depth0.5

Depth0.0

Fluctuation parameter 28 cm

Depth0.5

0,4
0,2
0

51,50

52,50

53,50

54,50

55,50

Distance(m)

FranckSchoefs

0,6

0,2
50,50

0,35

Corrlation()

LNE
C

0,6

Spatial variability

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Data Analysis

Spatial variability

Optimisation of the
distance between
15
inspection
meas.

c=95%, =3

[conf. Tran et al. 2012]

DS

18
meas.

PDF

Nt

Ns

IC

Min N=Nt*Ns

Number of sections of 10 meters


length

FranckSchoefs

Probabilistic Modelling
Of Inspection results

LNE
C

RBI
(optimize the
planning)

In harsh environment
Bad detections exist

(detection of a non existing


defect, non detection of an
existing defect)

Consequence
analysis

Structural network
Limit states

Bad decisions (over-costs)


- Non necessary repair
(detection of a non existing
defect)
- Failure (non detection of an
existing defect)

Risk
Assessment

FranckSchoefs

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Probabilistic Modelling
Of Inspection results

Zone arienne

Error of measurements = f(z)

Zone dclaboussures
Zone de marnage

DS

Zone basses eaux


Zone immerge

Corrosion

Zone de boues

Sol de fondation

IC

08/06/2012
IMdR 09 Cachan, France 13 octobre 2009

08/06/2012
FranckSchoefs

Introduction of inspection in decision process


Good
decisions
E1

E2

E4

E3

LNE
C

No
corrosion

[Rouhan & Schoefs, 2003]

Useless repair

Decision

Corrosion

Failure

4 conditional probabilities:
- P4: probability
- P3: probability
- P2: probability
- P1: probability

of presence of corrosion, conditional to defect detection


of presence of corrosion, conditional to no corrosion detection
of no presence of corrosion, conditional to corrosion detection
of no presence of corrosion, conditional to no corrosion detection

: probability of defect presence


P(X=1) = ; P(X=0) = 1-
(from expert judgment for instance) FranckSchoefs

33

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Probabilistic Modelling
Of Inspection results

Ultra-Sonic measurements on steel structures

Three cardinal points


Uncertainty on measurements

Signal + Noise

DS

Statistical
analysis

Loss of thickness

Error (Noise)

IC

Assumption (expert judgement):


Real value = mean value
(no systematic bias)
FranckSchoefs

Probabilistic Modelling
Of Inspection results

LNE
C

[Boero & Schoefs, 2009-2011]

Failure
Repair
Inspection Practice 1 (P1)
Inspection Practice 2 (P2)
Inspection Practice 3 (P3)

Cost
1.0000
0.0100
0.0025
0.0020
0.0010

Error

FranckSchoefs

P1: Grinding of the rust with


quality control

P2: Grinding of the rust


without quality control
P3: Brushing of the rust

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Probabilistic Modelling
Of Inspection results

[Boero & Schoefs, 2009-2011]

DS

Corrosion in the mud zone after


25 years

IC

[Schoefs et al., 2010]

FranckSchoefs

Probabilistic Modelling
Of Inspection results

LNE
C

[Boero & Schoefs, 2009-2011]

Fair discrepancies

Significant discrepancies
Knowledge of is essential

FranckSchoefs

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Repair efficiency
Results of EC Interreg project (2007))

Ranking of 5 main coating products performance

Zinc polyurethane Monocomponent + mixed resin


polyurethane + hydrocarbon

------- : Bad
------- : Medium

Epoxy-polyamide or
polyester coating +
flakeglass

DS

3 limit states

------- : Good

Epoxy coating

Fixing (4 months)

Paint 1 Paint 2 Paint 3 Paint 4 Paint 5

Visual aspect(10 months)

Paint 1 Paint 2 Paint 3 Paint 4 Paint 5

Porosity (10 months)

Paint 1 Paint 2 Paint 3 Paint 4 Paint 5

Pb : head of pile

IC

08/06/2012

FranckSchoefs

39

Conclusion

LNE
C

A lot of existing models able fit the trend: the


propagation of uncertainties is another challenge
Need for future connections between models:
phenomenological and probabilistic
Gather data: duratiNet data base => key long term
factors (propagation of uncertainties) First year
monitoring
More data from various structures/environment to
understand the key factors for LT modelling
Resilient questions:
Updating models when errors of measurements occur
To know more: publications in Struct Safety, CACAIE,
FranckSchoefs
Paralia, NSIE

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

12

Thanks to

DS

Medachs Project
(EC Interreg project 2005-2009)
Gerom Project
(French Collaborative project 2006-2010)
Oxand society (http://www.oxand.com/), PhDs, Msc

http://www.nantes.fr/

IC

08/06/2012

LNE
C

FranckSchoefs

41