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Pamantasan ng Cabuyao

Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

THE IMPACT OF SELF-EFFICACY TOWARDS ACQUISITION


OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS AMONG INMATES
OF NEW BILIBID PRISON, MUNTINLUPA CITY

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of


College of Arts and Sciences
Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Cabuyao City, Laguna

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree


Bachelor of Science in Psychology

Completo, Grace B.
Maron, Ivana Kyra M.
Velasco, Jennifer O.

March 2013

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


CERTIFICATION - AND - APPROVAL SHEET
This thesis entitled: THE IMPACT OF SELF-EFFICACY TOWARDS
ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS AMONG INMATES OF NEW
BILIBID PRISON, MUNTINLUPA CITY, prepared and submitted by: Grace B.
Completo, Ivana Kyra M. Maron, and Jennifer O. Velasco in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Psychology has been examined and
recommended for acceptance and approval for oral examination.

MR. FERDINAND V. MENDOZA


Research Adviser
________________________________________________________________________
ORAL EXAMINATION COMMITTEE
Approved by the panelists on the 6th day of March, 2013 at the Oral Examination
with the grade of ________.

PROF. EDGARDO C. SALAZAR


Chairman

DR. VICENTE M. CASTILLO


Member

PROF. ARIEL P. TUAZON


Member

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Psychology.

PROF. MARILOU R. TAYAO


Dean, College of Arts and Sciences

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

We hereby declare that the submission of this thesis entitled The Impact of SelfEfficacy towards Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills among Inmates of New Bilibid
Prison, Muntinlupa City is our own work and that is to the best of our knowledge and
belief. It contains no material previously published or written substantial extent has been
accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of a university.

We also declare that the content of this thesis is the product of our work, even
though we may have received assistance from others in style presentation and language
expression.

The Researchers:

GRACE B. COMPLETO

IVANA KYRA M. MARON

JENNIFER O. VELASCO

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

CERTIFICATE OF RECOMMENDATION

This thesis is hereby recommended for oral examination in partial fulfillment of


the requirements of the degree, Bachelor of Science in Psychology.

THE IMPACT OF SELF-EFFICACY TOWARDS ACQUISITION OF


KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS AMONG INMATES OF NEW BILIBID PRISON,
MUNTINLUPA CITY

The Researchers:

GRACE B. COMPLETO

IVANA KYRA M. MARON

JENNIFER O. VELASCO

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

EDITORS CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this undergraduate thesis entitled THE IMPACT OF


SELF-EFFICACY TOWARDS ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
AMONG INMATES OF NEW BILIBID PRISON, MUNTINLUPA CITY, prepared
and submitted by Grace B. Completo, Ivana Kyra M. Maronand Jennifer O. Velasco,
has been edited by the undersigned.

PROF. RINALYNN L. BORITO


Language Editor

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

STATISTICIANS CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this thesis entitled, THE IMPACT OF SELFEFFICACY TOWARDS ACQUISTION OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
AMONG INMATES OF NEW BILIBID PRISON, MUNTINLUPA CITY, prepared
and submitted by Grace B. Completo, Ivana Kyra M. Maron, and Jennifer O. Velasco,
has been statistically reviewed by the undersigned.

MS. TARAH A. NAVARRO


Statistician

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This research paper would not have been possible without the help and
supervision of several individuals who contributed and extended their valuable support in
the preparation and completion of this study. With enormous appreciation and
thankfulness, the researchers wish to acknowledge all those who made this study
successful.

Prof. Araceli S. Bustamante, Research Facilitator, for her continued advisory,


support, and supervision throughout the process of the research study;

Prof. Ferdinand V. Mendoza, for his guidance and unwavering support,


persistent advice, priceless insights and genuine patience to the researchers even during
times of short notice;
Vice President of Academic Affairs Dr. Vicente M. Castillo, Prof. Edgardo C.
Salazar and Prof. Ariel P. Tuazon, Panelists, for sharing their knowledge and skills in
improving this research study;

Prof. Rinalynn L. Borito, Language Editor, for rendering her services in the
proofreading and editing of this research;

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COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


Dr. Eriberto D. Tangcangco, Pastor E. Dacanay, Ms. Lariza V. Martin, Ms.
Lynn Haen and Mrs. Rose R. Mendoza, their validators, for sharing their time and
expertise in the validation of the research instrument;
Dr. Resurrecion S. Morales, Ph., D., the Chief of Training and Education
Division of New Bilibid Prison, and other NBP personnel, for their hospitality and for
their valuable support to the researchers, in all the activities, from conception to
completion of this research;

Ms. Tarah A. Navarro of Canossa School of Sta. Rosa, Statistician, in providing


the professional expertise in the statistics of this research;

Prof. Marilou Rimas Tayao, Dean-College of Arts and Sciences, whose support,
encouragement and guidance from the initial to the final stage enabled the researchers to
gain deeper understanding of their future profession;

The respondents, the selected inmates of Medium Security Compound of New


Bilibid Prison Muntinlupa City, for their trust and unselfishly spending their time
throughout the survey;

To all accommodating librarians and library personnel of Ateneo De Manila


University, and Pamantasan ng Cabuyao Library;

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


To all 4th Year BS Psychology students Batch 2012-2013, and their friends, for
their moral support and words of encouragement;

To the Completo, Maron and Velasco families, for providing the researchers the
much needed financial and moral support, especially during the times of pressure and
hopelessness, our sincerest thanks for the prayers and for the encouragements;

And most important of all, to God Almighty, thank you very much for blessing
the researchers with strength and knowledge to overcome and successfully finish this
research study. Lord we offer this to you.

-The Researchers -

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

DEDICATION

The price of success is hard work, dedication, and determination that whether we win
or lose, we have applied the best of ourselves to the task at hand.
- Vince Lombardi

This research work is wholeheartedly dedicated to the following persons who served as
our inspirations and motivations:

To our beloved family and friends for their unconditional love, encouragement and
support which made this research possible.

To the Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, for all those wonderful
learning experiences and knowledge imparted.

Above all, to Almighty God for giving us the strength, knowledge and wisdom
for this study.

- Grace, Ivana, & Jennifer

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Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


Table of Contents
Certification and Approval Sheet ....................................................................................... i
Certificate of Originality .................................................................................................... ii
Certificate of Recommendation ........................................................................................ iii
Editors Certification ........................................................................................................ iv
Statisticians Certificate ..................................................................................................... v
Acknowledgment .............................................................................................................. vi
Dedication ......................................................................................................................... ix
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................... x
Abstract ............................................................................................................................ xii
Chapter I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 1
Background of the Study ....................................................................................... 3
Theoretical Framework ......................................................................................... 6
Conceptual Framework ........................................................................................ 10
Statement of the Problem ..................................................................................... 11
Research Hypothesis ............................................................................................ 12
Significance of the Study ..................................................................................... 12
Scope and Limitations of the Study ..................................................................... 14
Definition of Terms ..............................................................................................15
Chapter II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Foreign Literature ................................................................................................ 19
Local Literature .................................................................................................... 22
Foreign Studies .................................................................................................... 24
Local Studies ....................................................................................................... 27
Synthesis .............................................................................................................. 28
Chapter III.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design ................................................................................................... 32
Research Locale ................................................................................................... 32
Population of the Study ........................................................................................ 33
Sampling Design .................................................................................................. 33
Data Gathering Tool ............................................................................................ 34
Validation of Instrument ...................................................................................... 36
Data Gathering Procedure .................................................................................... 36
Methods of Data Analysis .................................................................................... 38

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Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


Chapter IV: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Table Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis .................................................. 40
Chapter V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS& RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of the Study ......................................................................................... 64
Summary of Findings ........................................................................................... 65
Conclusions .......................................................................................................... 66
Recommendations ................................................................................................ 67
BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................... 69
APPENDICES
Appendix A: Specific Recommendation ............................................................. 71
Appendix B: Letter of Approval ......................................................................... 98
Appendix C: Instrument ..................................................................................... 100
Appendix D: Curriculum Vitae .......................................................................... 105
LIST OF TABLES
Table
A
1
2
3
4
5
6

Population of Selected Inmates Using Systematic Stratified Random Sampling 34


Self-efficacy of the Respondents in Terms of Thinking Processes ..................... 41
Self-efficacy of the Respondents in Terms of Motivational Processes ............... 43
Self-efficacy of the Respondents in Terms of Emotional Processes ................... 45
Self-efficacy of the Respondents in Terms of Selection Processes ..................... 48
Summary Table for the Level of Self-efficacy .................................................... 50
Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills of the Respondents in Termsof
Declarative Knowledge ........................................................................................ 53
7 Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills of the Respondents in Termsof
Knowledge Compilation ...................................................................................... 55
8 Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills of the Respondents in Terms of
Procedural Knowledge ......................................................................................... 57
9 Summary Table for the Level of Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills .............. 59
10 Test of Significant Relationship between Self-efficacy and Acquisition of
Knowledge and Skills among the Respondents ................................................... 61
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1

Conceptual Framework ............................................................................ 10

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COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


ABSTRACT

The impact of self-efficacy towards acquisition of knowledge and skills among


inmates of New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City is the focus of this study. The
researchers used Systematic Stratified Random Sampling in the selection of 124
respondents. A self-made questionnaire was used by the researchers to determine the
level of self- efficacy of the respondents in terms of thinking, motivational, emotional,
and selection processes. On the other hand, acquisition of knowledge and skills was
measured in terms of declarative knowledge, knowledge compilation and procedural
knowledge. After the assessment test, the data were tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted.
Statistical treatments applied in the study include: Simple Mean to determine the level of
self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge and skills among inmates in terms of the
abovementioned aspects; and Pearson r product moment correlation coefficient to
determine the degree of relationship between the variables. The average mean of selfefficacy of the respondents is 4.29 which is interpreted as high. Likewise, the average
mean of acquisition of knowledge and skills of the respondents is 4.10 which is also
interpreted as high. The pearson r value of the variables is 0.678 which is greater than
the critical r-value of 0.178. The null hypothesis was then rejected and therefore, selfefficacy has a significant relationship towards acquisition of knowledge and skills among
inmates of New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City.

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COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


Chapter I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
A person can identify goals he wants to accomplish, situations he would like
change, and dreams he would like to achieve. Putting these plans into action may not be
that quite simple. Yet, no matter how difficult these may be, somehow people manage to
accomplish them. What could be the underlying reasons for such phenomena? What do
the modern psychologists offer as answers? Could it be that what they have been
proposing that an individual's self-efficacy could play a major role in realizing ones
goals, tasks, and challenges in life?
Prominent psychologist of our times, Albert Bandura has defined self-efficacy as
"a person's belief in his ability to succeed in specific situations (Wookfolk, 2009). An
individual's sense of self-efficacy can play a major role on how he approaches goals,
tasks, and challenges. Self-efficacy thus becomes the center of this social cognitive
theory which emphasizes the role of observational learning & social experience in the
development of personality.
Furthermore, it has been theorized by Bandura that people with strong sense of
self-efficacy seemingly appear to have the staying power to endure the obstacles and
setbacks that characterize difficult undertakings. They are those who believe that they can

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perform well in a specific task and more likely to view difficult tasks as something to be
mastered rather than about with those people inside penitentiaries?
In penitentiaries abroad like those in the United States Federal Bureau of Prison,
and in Malaysia as well, self-efficacy is currently being experimented and tested as the
core theory behind drug and inmates rehabilitation program (Ibrahim et.al., 2011). For
instance, St. Jude Retreats, one of Americas Rehabilitation Centers, uses self-efficacy for
their rehabilitation program (Brown, n.d). This is primarily because good sense of selfefficacy seems to promote human accomplishment and positive well-being even if the life
behind prison bars is strewn with difficulties. They are full of impediments, adversities,
setbacks, frustrations, and inequities. This situation renders them helpless, even hopeless,
and makes it almost an insurmountable challenge for them to realize their capabilities.
Inmates must have a robust sense of personal efficacy to sustain the perseverant effort
needed to survive behind prison. In pursuits replete with difficulties, they either forsake
the situation they were in, abort their efforts prematurely when difficulties arise or
become cynical about the prospects of effecting significant changes in their situation in
their lives. Whenever opportunities are made accessible to them, there lie those
possibilities that can change the way they perceive themselves and even change their life
perception. Opportunities, however, are not in themselves solution to their problem. What
they do with those opportunities becomes a measure of their capabilities (De Vera, 2005).

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This research, however, aims to answer questions that may be opposed to what
most individuals think about imprisonment. It thus aims to determine if people who are in
difficult circumstances and socially cast out people behind bars such as the inmates of
New Bilibid Prison have self-efficacy or learned beliefs. And, do the NBP inmates have
the capacity to acquire new knowledge and skills in relation with Albert Bandura's
Theory of Self-efficacy?
These are some questions the researchers dare to answer in this study. The study
was conducted among Inmates of the Medium Security Compound of NBP. The
researchers derived great inspiration from the television documentary Patrol ng Pilipino
entitled "Paaralang De Rehas" (ABS-CBN, July 27, 2012). The said documentary film
featured the inmates studying and graduated inside the penitentiary. Thus, stirring deeply
the researchers interest on this study are the words of the reporter Ryan Chua in the said
documentary, to quote: "Bukod sa natututo, nagbabago pa ang pananaw sa buhay."
(Aside from learning, it causes a change in outlook in life).
Background of the Study
Banduras key contention on the role of self-efficacy in human functioning is that
peoples level of motivation, affective states, and actions are based more on what they
believe than what is objectively true (Pajares, 2008). For this reason, studies on selfefficacy show how people behave can often be better predicted by the beliefs they hold
about their capabilities rather than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.

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The reason could be because these self-efficacy perceptions help determine what
individuals do with the knowledge and skills they have. This may help explain why
peoples behaviors are sometimes disjoined from their actual capabilities and why their
behavior may differ widely even when they have similar knowledge and skills. Could this
be true?
Belief and reality are seldom perfectly matched, and individuals are typically
guided by their beliefs when they engage to the world. As a consequence, peoples
accomplishments are generally better predicted by their self-efficacy beliefs than by their
previous attainments, knowledge, or skills. This has been further affirmed by Fitton
(2008), who asserted that no amount of confidence or self-appreciation can produce
success when knowledge and skills are absent.
Self-efficacy beliefs can enhance human accomplishment in many ways. They
influence the choices people make and the courses of action they pursue. Individuals tend
to select tasks and activities in which they feel competent and confident and avoid those
which they feel otherwise. Unless people believe that their actions will have the desired
outcome, they have little incentive to engage in those actions. And whatever factors that
influence behavior, they are rooted in the core belief that one has the capability to
accomplish that behavior. But, could it really be applicable or hold true among socially
cast out people such as the inmates of NBP?

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This is one of the questions that stirred the interest of the researchers after
viewing numerous documentary films about the Philippines National Penitentiary. The
researchers find it necessary and worthwhile to contribute additional knowledge, data,
and insights to the society for a better understanding of the life behind prison bars. Thus,
hoping in its own little way, to enlighten the minds of the people and reduce the prejudice
towards inmates of New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City.
The researchers also learned during their immersion at NBP that a component of
the NBP Rehabilitation system is the offering of training and education programs aimed
at helping the inmates acquire knowledge and skills that would be useful in their life once
they are released from the prison. This is accompanied by the strong beliefs that
educating the inmates will give them the right frame of mind to think of improving
themselves, that they are good person capable of doing and accomplishing good for
others and the society. Couple this with acquiring skills that could help them make a
living. These help them thus for a better integration in the society such that they would
not again commit any crime or offense that would send them back to jail.
Underlying the said program however is the essential transformation that could
happen when an inmate is given opportunity that what he believes he is still capable of
doing good at and hoping that there still lies a better future ahead out of prison life, are
recognized and supported by the institution to make it happen. It is in these dynamics that

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behavioral transformation in particular and prison rehabilitation and correction in general
operate and materialized.
Thus, in the interest of social psychology, the researchers upon learning of selfefficacy being the core principle of NBPs rehabilitation program find it worthwhile to
study if there is a causal relationship between the inmates learned beliefs in their
capabilities and the reason for them to acquire different knowledge and skills.
Theoretical Framework
This research study was anchored and supported mainly by the following two (2)
theories: Banduras Theory of Self-efficacy and Andersons Adaptive Character of
Thought (ACT) Theory. Such theories served as the theoretical foundations concerning
self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge and skills which are the two main variables of
this study.
Bandura also defined self-efficacy as "people's judgments of their capabilities to
organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of
performances" (Santrock, 2008). He argued that of all the thoughts that affect human
functioning, self-efficacy beliefs provide the foundation for human motivation, wellbeing, and personal accomplishment and this serves as the core of social cognitive theory.
This is because unless people believe that their actions can produce the outcomes they
desire, they have little incentive to act or to persevere in the face of difficulties. Much
empirical evidences now support Bandura's contention that self-efficacy beliefs touch

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virtually every aspect of people's lives - whether they think productively, selfdebilitating, pessimistically or optimistically; how well they motivate themselves and
persevere in the face of adversities; their vulnerability to stress and depression, and the
life choices they make.
Furthermore, as Bandura asserted, self-efficacy determines how people feel, think,
motivate themselves and behave. Such beliefs produce these diverse effects through four
major processes. They include cognitive, motivational, affective and selection processes
(Ormrod, 2008).
Cognitive Processes is the thinking processes involved in the acquisition,
organization and use of information. It takes a variety of form. Much human behavior,
being purposive, is regulated by forethought embodying valued goals. Personal goal
setting is influenced by self-appraisal of capabilities. Those who have a high sense of
efficacy visualize scenarios that provide positive guides and supports for performances
while those who doubt their efficacy, visualize failure scenarios and dwell on many
things that can go wrong.
Motivational Processes is the activation to action. Level of motivation is reflected
in choice of courses of action, and in the intensity and persistence of effort. People who
regard themselves as highly efficacious attribute their failures to insufficient efforts and
those regard themselves as inefficacious attribute their failures to low ability.

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Affective Processes is the processes regulating emotional states and the processes
of elicitation of emotional reactions. It is the peoples belief in their coping abilities.
Those people who believe that they can exercise control over threats do not conjure up
disturbing thought patterns. But those who believe they cannot manage threats experience
high anxiety arousal. They usually dwell on their coping deficiency. They even magnify
the severity of possible threats and worry about things that rarely happen.
Lastly, Selection Processes is the processes influencing the types of activities and
environments people choose to get into. People with low sense of self-efficacy avoid
activities and situations they believe that exceed their capabilities. But people with high
sense of self-efficacy readily undertake challenging activities and select situations they
judge themselves as capable of handling.
On the other hand, Altmann (2011) cited a 1982 study of Anderson which
sketches a quantitative formulation of Fitts and Posners Stage Theory of skill
acquisition. In his model of Adaptive Character of Thought (ACT), learning occurs in
three stages: 1) declarative knowledge, 2) knowledge compilation, and 3) procedural
knowledge.
In Stage 1, the declarative knowledge, the learner produces a crude approximation
of the skill by using general-purpose problem solving strategies to interpret facts about
the skill. Performance is slow, error prone, and working memory load is high because
facts about the skill (e.g., the correct sequence of movements) must be actively rehearsed.

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Stage 2 is characterized by speedup, more seamless performance, and dropout of
verbal mediation. As Anderson explained, during this phase, declarative facts about the
skill are converted into procedural knowledge through knowledge compilation (as cited
in Anderson, 2009). Two mechanisms underlie knowledge compilation: composition and
proceduralization. Composition collapses successive productions into single productions,
and produces speedup and more seamless performance. The extent to which composition
can occur is determined by the capacity of working memory because the conditions
specified in a production must be represented in working memory. Through
proceduralization, declarative facts are instantiated in productions, thereby eliminating
the need to represent declarative information in working memory. Proceduralization is
responsible for the dropout of verbal mediation.
In the final stage, procedural knowledge, the search of alternate solution paths
becomes more selective. It is a collection of productions, or if-then statements that
specify a cognitive condition and an action that will be performed if that condition is met.
Generalization, discrimination, and strengthening are the three learning mechanisms
responsible for procedural knowledge (Anderson, 2008).
The above theoretical conceptions were the bases of the aspects of the variables to
be measured in this study. Hence, the aspects are not just an afterthought of the
researchers but verily widely accepted terms that helped define and measure the levels of
self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge and skills of the respondents.

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Conceptual Framework
The figure below illustrates the conceptual framework of the study in an attempt
to provide a brief and simple illustration of how the study was conducted on the basis of
the Input from the targeted participants; the Processes involved in the study; and, the
Output of this research work.
INPUT
Inmates enrolled in
the Educational
Program of Medium
Security Compound of
New Bilibid Prison,
Muntinlupa City
Self-Efficacy
*Thinking Processes
* Motivational Processes
* Emotional Processes
* Selection Processes

Acquisition of
Knowledge and
Skills

PROCESS

Data Analysis
Collection and
Organization of Data
through Self-Made
Questionnaire
measuring SelfEfficacy and
Acquisition of
Knowledge and Skills

OUTPUT

Degree of
Relationship
between Selfefficacy and
Acquisition of
Knowledge and
Skills
Enhancement
Program

* Declarative Knowledge
* Knowledge Compilation
* Procedural Knowledge

FEEDBACK
Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm of the Impact of Self-efficacy towards Acquisition of
Knowledge and Skills among Inmates of New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa

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The input was the data gathered from the respondents composed of selected
inmates of New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City. The process of data collection involved
was using a self-made questionnaire to measure inmates level of self-efficacy and
acquisition of knowledge and skills. It was then analyzed through the use of different
appropriate statistical tools. The output was the degree of relationship between selfefficacy and acquisition of knowledge and skills. From the generated results and through
statistical inferences, the researchers were able to derive the significant findings,
conclusions, practical contribution, and recommendation for readers and future
researchers.
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to find out the degree of relationship between self-efficacy and
acquisition of knowledge and skills among inmates of NBP. To achieve this objective, the
following questions were formulated.
1.0 What is the level of self-efficacy of the NBP inmates in terms of:
1.1 thinking process aspect;
1.2 motivational process aspect;
1.3 emotional process aspect; and
1.4 selection process aspect?

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2.0 What is the level of acquisition of knowledge and skills among NBP inmates in terms
of:
2.1 declarative knowledge;
2.2 knowledge compilation; and
2.3 procedural knowledge?
3.0 Is there any significant relationship between self-efficacy and acquisition of
knowledge and skills among NBP inmates?
Research Hypothesis
Ho. There is no significant relationship between self-efficacy and acquisition of
knowledge and skills among inmates of New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City.
Significance of the Study
This study entitled The Impact of Self-efficacy towards Acquisition of
Knowledge and Skills among Inmates of New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City aims to
bring benefits specifically to the following:
To the Inmates. As the main beneficiaries, this study hopes to help them by
providing additional insights and information regarding self-efficacy and how it could
affect their acquisition of knowledge and skills in the formal education or courses they
are taking inside New Bilibid Prison. Likewise, it also aims to help reduce misconception
and prejudice towards them.

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To the NBP Authorities. They are the one responsible for the task of
rehabilitation treatment of the NBP inmates. The results of the study may give
constructive inputs to them for the improvement of the existing rehabilitation program for
inmates with self-efficacy theory in its core.
To the Government. The findings this study yields hopes to help the government
to recognize and understand the needs of one of the marginalized sector of the society
specifically the inmates of NBP and thus continue to further support and uphold effective
rehabilitation programs of NBP; promote and duplicate them in other regional
penitentiaries.
To the Society. This study aims to provide them a glimpse of the world of
inmates inside NBP so as to better understand and broaden the acceptance of reformed
inmates that is going back to the folds of society.
To the Community within NBP. This study hopes to benefit the community
within NBP by increasing their appreciation of the rehabilitation program present in their
locale.
To the Academe. This study hopes to bring challenge to the academic institutions
on the significant role of education in the reformation of offenders and how they could
help support the educational programs of the national and regional penitentiaries.

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To the Students. This study hopes to give them insight on the importance of selfefficacy in accomplishing ones goals as well as serving as additional reference to study
the theory of Bandura in a localized setting.
To the future Researchers. This study hopes to be of great help as a background,
source of information, and a basis for conducting another research.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research was limited to the aspects of the variables of the study. It was
conducted to determine the degree of relationship between self-efficacy and acquisition
of knowledge and skills among inmates of New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City.
The respondents of the study were selected inmates currently enrolled in the
educational program of NBP Medium Security Compound. Enrollees from all levels and
educational courses were chosen as the target population of the study except for the
inmates enrolled in Alternative Learning System due to informal mode of teaching and
irregularity of schedule.
As of this date, there are about 6,000 inmates in Camp Sampaguita. Based on
NBP records, out of this general population, there are 755 inmates who are currently
enrolled in the educational program which is the target population of the research. The
accessible population however is 619 inmates only after excluding 136 inmates enrolled
in Alternative Learning System (ALS). Inmates enrolled under ALS have been

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considered inaccessible for research due to its informal mode of teaching and irregularity
of schedule or programs (modular).However, the actual sample of the study was 124
inmates or 20% of the target population.
Selected inmates were given self-made questionnaire designed to measure their
self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge and skills. Such self-made questionnaire was
used in the study to measure the aspects of the variables involve in this research namely:
thinking, motivational, emotional, and selection processes for self-efficacy; and
declarative, knowledge compilation, and procedural knowledge for acquisition of
knowledge and skills. Such aspects were adapted from Banduras Theory of Self-efficacy
and Andersons Adaptive Character of Thought Theory. The computed results of the
scores were used to determine the degree of relationship between variables.
This study was conducted for the school year 2012 2013. Such timeframe was
enough to conduct this research and to arrive at conclusions and recommendations within
or before the end of the said school year.
Definition of Terms
The following terms are conceptually and operationally defined as used and
treated in this study.
Acquisition of knowledge and skills. It pertains generally to the act or action of
acquiring new information and abilities. Specifically, it refers to that goal of

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inmates to acquire new knowledge and skills by enrolling themselves in
educational program of NBP. In this study, stages of acquisition of knowledge
and skills include declarative knowledge, knowledge compilation, and procedural
knowledge.
Declarative Knowledge. According to Anderson, it is a crude approximation of the skill
by using general-purpose problem solving strategies to interpret facts about the
skill. In this stage, an individual can only put into words the knowledge and skills
that has been acquired.
Educational Program. It is a program for providing education which is primarily
concerned not only to eradicate illiteracy but also to enhance the immediate
rehabilitation of inmates towards an integrated learning experience that may be
useful upon their release to the free society as based in the Bureau of Correction
Manual.
Emotional Processes. As stated by Albert Bandura, it is the processes regulating
emotional states and elicitation of emotional reactions. It refers to peoples coping
abilities in a certain situation.
Inmates. It is a person confined or kept in an institution such as in a prison or
penitentiary as defined in the Websters New Universal Dictionary and Thesaurus.

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Knowledge Compilation. Anderson defined this stage as the conversion of declarative
knowledge into procedural knowledge. It is producing an output by following a
step-by-step procedure.
Motivational Processes. In this study, it refers to activation to action. It is reflected in
choice of courses of action, and in the intensity and persistence of effort.
New Bilibid Prison. It refers to a public institution in which offenders against the law are
confined for detention or for punishments, discipline, and reformation and in
which they are generally compelled to serve their prison term; a prison in which
convicts are held for commission of major crimes. It is the location of the target
area of this study.
Procedural Knowledge. In this study, it refers to the notion of the self as fully capable of
producing an output based on what has been learned. It is the final phase after
declarative knowledge and knowledge compilation has been accomplished.
Selection Processes. As defined by Albert Bandura, it is the processes influencing the
types of activities and environments people choose to get into. It enables people to
create beneficial environments and to exercise some control over those they
encounter day in and day out.
Self-efficacy. It is defined by Albert Bandura and referred to in this study as the belief in
one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage

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prospective situation. It will be measured through four aspects namely: thinking
processes, motivational processes, emotional processes, and selection processes.
Thinking Processes. Bandura defined thinking processes as the acquisition, organization
and use of information. It enables people to predict events and to develop ways to
control those events that affect their lives.

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Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents review of related literature and studies of foreign and local
concepts taken from books, journals, magazines, unpublished thesis works and internet
sources. These provide the researchers a better insight in the development of the study.
Foreign Literature
Albert Banduras Self-Efficacy Theory first appeared in 1982 in his book SelfEfficacy: Mechanism in Human Agency. It was in this study that he presented and
defined it as the perceived beliefs about ones capabilities that contribute significantly to
human motivation and attainment of goals (Ormrod, 2008). He also postulated that selfefficacy affect human functioning through four major processes which is the cognitive,
affective, motivational, and selection processes.
Indeed, could a strong sense of self-efficacy be socially valued pursuits in
conducive to human attainment and well-being which brings the individual to acquire
knowledge and skills? In this case, Bandura stated upon that self-efficacy beliefs do not
simply develop from incantations of capability or by simply verbally expressing that a
person can do things. Instead, it has been said by Bandura that they are but the products
of a complex process of self-persuasion that rely in the cognitive processing of four

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diverse sources of efficacy formation. Thus, it could be said then that self-efficacy can
predict their subsequent capability to perform certain tasks or succeed in given activities.
From there on, it was then hypothesized that self-efficacy develops either
inactively (mastery experiences), vicariously (vicarious experience), persuasively (social
persuasion), and affectively (physiological state). And further studies even claimed that it
could also be considered that as part of human thought process, higher goals raised the
level of performance attainment for different tasks (Reese, 2009). Similarly, some
researchers

even

went

further

into

explaining

this

phenomenon

by

way

of symbolic structure of acquisition of knowledge and skills is a production system and


the subsymbolic structure is represented by a set of massively parallel. The subsymbolic
equations control many of the symbolic processes that include the cognition processes
(Pratte, 2008).
Thus, in effect, as mentioned in recent research on self-efficacy, it is said that
people can affect change in themselves and their situation through their own efforts since
judgments and actions are partly self-determined. Once an individual has passed through
the action stage of personal change, long-term maintenance becomes the challenge (Child
et.al., 2010).Nevertheless, given that learning is associated to different changes to
external cues, actions are an essential component of interactive skills. Different results
suggest that existing models of skill acquisition may need to be extended to include some

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forms of reinforcement learning that does not require the gradual declarative-toprocedural progression.
Furthermore it also shows that self-efficacy is a universal construct applicable to
different cultures, that cross-cultural studies were conducted across 25 countries. One of
this study was made by Scherbaum in 2008 widened the scope of specific self-efficacy
usually being measured on particular tasks. These social cognitive constructs linked to
General Self-Efficacy were goal intentions,

implantation, intentions, outcome

expectancies, self-regulation, and domain specific self-efficacy. Other variables tested


also supported previous studies, such as high positive affect, low negative affect, more
life satisfaction as well as motivation to acquire new knowledge and skills.
Although much of related literature supported the relationship of self-efficacy and
performance, there were contradictory findings on the bi-directionality of the
relationship. Since individuals self-efficacy judgments about their abilities are in
reference to a specific task or goal, having a high self-efficacy in a specific area or
domain does not necessarily mean that the person would have high self-efficacy in a
different domain (Ronning, 2009).
Close examinations on the implications of Social Cognitive Theory shows
findings that performance was positively related to subsequent self-efficacy. Yet, the
opposite was not supported (Richard, 2008).

Thus, self-efficacy led to increase in

performance and vice-versa. This reinforcing nature of self-efficacy on performance

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explained that people having high self-efficacy on performance could be the reason why
people with high self-efficacy choose to undergo more work challenges, persevere more
in their decisions and thus, achieve more. Likewise, performance also influenced selfefficacy beliefs that with more performance accomplishments individuals gained
confidence in their capabilities, thereby also increasing self-efficacy (Blackstone, 2010).
Local Literature
According to Capara (2008), self-regulated learning efficacy raises academic,
goals and aspirations, personal standards for the quality of work considered to be
acceptable, and beliefs in ones capabilities for academic achievement after one control
for instructional level, prior to academic performance and relevant aptitude. In general
experiences, success build robust self-efficacy beliefs whereas failures undermine them
especially if these failures happen before a sense of self-efficacy is firmly established.
Success however, should be qualified. To a large extent, self-efficacy is said to depend on
how struggling learners interpret success and the degree to which they take credit for it.
Consistent with motivational models, it was examined by the predictive
relationships of self-efficacy, task value and achievement of final grades. The discussion
was focused on those circumstances that are related to help-seeking behavior by
highlighting the important role that self-efficacy plays in students academic help-seeking
behavior, task value and achievement (Villavicencio, 2011).

The concept of skill

development and task achievement, suggests that the combination requires a transition

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from multitasking to cognitive processes concurrency. In the study, the procedure
demonstrates that as notes are being read on the staff, motor movements are planned and
executed, while the reading process is progressing beyond what is currently played. Thus,
concluding that sight-reading efficiency demands the coordination of psycho-motor
speed, early acquired expertise, mental speed, and the ability for auditory imagery
(Reyes, 2008).
Additionally, having a strong sense of self-efficacy remain an individual to be
task oriented in the face of pressing situational demands, failures and setbacks that have
significant personal and social repercussions. Once established, enhanced self-efficacy
tends to generalize other situations, in activities that are similar to those in which selfefficacy was enhanced (Duval, 2009).
The interactive skill acquisition, utilization of external cues can be learned by
reinforcement learning that occurs in parallel to the slow declarative-to-procedural
process. In fact, some studies show that the acquisition of interactive skills involving
actions that are cued by external information is possible even with a demanding
secondary task without concurrent awareness of the information. It is therefore possible
that the reinforcement learning process that we identified reflects a primitive form of
learning that is sufficient to learn the associations between external cues and actions
without verbal mediation (Logan, 2011).

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Similarly, Silvia (2011) asserts that the same level of performance success may
raise, leave unaffected, or lower perceived self-efficacy depending on how various
personal and situational contributions are interpreted and weighted. This means providing
a true civic main course, made up of values, knowledge, practices and behaviors can
increase self-efficacy. The purpose is to encourage the effective and constructive
participation in social activities.
Likewise, fundamentally, the placement of Skill Acquisition for self-reliant leads
to sound productivity in the society and that note, skills are appropriate towards the
contribution and development of both individual and the nation at large. These include
attitude of government, acquisition process, infrastructure and equipment and student
interest (Peace, 2009).
Foreign Studies
Since Bandura first introduced the construct of self-efficacy in 1982, researchers
have been very successful in demonstrating that individuals' self-efficacy beliefs
powerfully influence their attainments in diverse fields. In his 1997 book, Self-Efficacy:
The Exercise of Control, Bandura set forth the tenets of his theory of self-efficacy and its
applications to fields as diverse as life-course development, education, health,
psychopathology, athletics, business, and international affairs. In addition, Bandura
reviewed a vast body of research on each of these aspects of agency in diverse
applications of the theory. A search for the term "self-efficacy" in most academic

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databases reveals that, by the year 2000, over 2500 articles had been written on this
important psychological construct.
Some researches focused on measuring a generalized self-efficacy aimed at
assessing self-efficacy for purposes of therapeutic evaluation and correlation to selfconcept and self-esteem. Others have maintained that measures of self-efficacy should
either be domain-specific or task-specific. These studies contained that globalized scores
tend to decontextualized the self-efficacy behavior correspondence and transform selfefficacy into a generalized personality trait rather than a context-specific judgments
(Hoavar, 2009).
According to the studies of Lock, Lee, and Bobko (2011) the powerful effect on
goal level, goal commitment, and task performance, even when ability and past
performance were controlled for are going to execute courses of actions. And thorough
important factor in skill acquisition process is exposed to practical situations where the
skills are displayed. In such case, the individual might face challenges. Challenges
concretize the efforts to acquire theoretical and practical skills. Challenges bring about
rapid development. Rapid development should be based on purposeful plans rather than
chance. Only the plans, which lead to rapid acquisition of relevant skills, bring about
rapid development (Ali et al., 2009).
Societies posed with challenges develop rapidly because it clears the way for the
learning eyes and hands with the desire and urge to success, to perform beyond the

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obvious limits which the assistance they receive dictates. So, once an individual has
developed basic modem skills, the wheel would have been set rolling to achieve a
minimum standard of living. It is important to be mindful of the general level of different
skills in an economy so as to achieve a balanced development and high productivity in
skill acquisition. To achieve skill acquisition, there is need to monitor all areas to ensure
that effective linkages exist between attempts to develop theory and practical skills at
various levels (Luing, 2008).
Although research results were mixed on the exact predictive relationship of selfefficacy and performance, majority of studies support that self-efficacy is both
consequence of past performance as well as determinant of future performance. There are
at least two directions for developing the experimental methodology performance of an
individual.

Some recent studies also presented changes in psychological and socio cultural
intercultural adjustment which examined data collected over time. Two additional
constructs, intercultural adjustment self-efficacy beliefs and self-awareness, also were
studied for their change over the course of a sojourn. Intercultural adjustment selfefficacy beliefs also were examined for their temporal precedence over intercultural
adjustment. Moreover, intercultural adjustment self-efficacy was tested as a possible
moderator in the relationship between self-awareness and adjustment (Brenner, 2011).

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Thus creating a positive self-achievement individual can locate a successfully
domains like learning and memory, problem solving and decision making, language and
communication, perception and attention, cognitive development, or individual
differences. Besides, individual who proactively seek help will increase their acquisition
of knowledge. However, individual autonomy, reputation of the help-giver, and gender
will moderate entrepreneurs to proactively seek help (Pigot, 2011).
Local Studies
Self-efficacy is the extent to which a persons belief that he or she he perform
behaviors that are necessary to bring about a desired outcome. It determines our choices
of activities, our intensity of effort and our persistence in the face of obstacles and
unpleasant experiences, in part by reducing the anxiety that might interfere with engaging
in the activity.
In general, experiences of success build robust self-efficacy beliefs, whereas
failures undermine them especially if these failures happen before a sense of efficacy is
firmly established. Success however should be qualified. To large extent, self-efficacy
depends on how struggling learners interpret success and the degree to which they take
credit for it (Holahan, 2010).
Self-efficacy and self-concept are two mechanisms or personal agencies that
influence adaptive outcomes such as the academic performance. Self-efficacy
demonstrated predictive utility in terms of test performance. In general, to indicate that

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indeed, in academic situations, even among diverse groups, there exists a fusion of
confidence and competence (Dela Rosa, 2010).
Self-regulation, self-efficacy and metacognition can predict achievement goal
orientations. These studies contend that globalized self-efficacy scores tend to correspond
to various issue whether measures of self-efficacy that it should be general or specific,
owing to the fact that Banduras theory implies the self-efficacy expectations vary to
peoples experiences (Magno, 2008).
Mastery of goal is significantly related to all self-regulation subscales and selfefficacy. The contribution of self-efficacy on performance orientation is significantly
moderated by different individuals. Self-efficacy and self-regulation strategies such as
self-consequencing,

organizing,

and

environmental

structuring

are

important

characteristics of mastery-oriented students (Andaya, 2009).


Synthesis

The related literatures and studies cited in this study reflects the different effects,
impacts, and results regarding the self-efficacy towards acquiring knowledge and skills.
Self-efficacy has generated research in areas as diverse as medicine, athletics, media
studies, business, social and political change, psychology, psychiatry, and education. In
psychology, it has been the focus of studies on clinical problems such as phobias,
depression, social skills, assertiveness, smoking behavior, and moral development. Self-

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efficacy has been especially prominent in studies of educational constructs such as
academic achievement, attributions of success and failure, goal setting, social
comparisons, memory, problem solving, career development, and teaching and teacher
education. In general, researchers have established that self-efficacy beliefs and behavior
changes and outcomes are highly correlated and that self-efficacy is an excellent
predictor of behavior. The depth of this support prompted some researchers to conclude
that, particularly in psychology and education, self-efficacy has proven to be a more
consistent predictor of behavioral outcomes than have any other motivational constructs.
Clearly, it is not simply a matter of how capable one is, but of how capable one believes
oneself to be.

The contribution of self-efficacy on performance is significantly shown by Resse


(2009), Reyes & Bayan (2008), Pratte (2008), Villavicencio (2011), and Child & Fujioka
(2010) in which they explain the concept of skill development with motivational models
is being predictive to relationship of self-efficacy. Through external actions wherein
interactive skills are being developed, setting higher goals might raise the level of
performance attainment for different tasks. At the same time Logan (2011), Ali et al.
(2009), Luing (2008), Pigot (2011), Peace (2009), and Marder (2009), demonstrate that
the external cues can be learned by reinforcing self-efficacy. Fundamentally, placement
of this skills lead to sound productivity in the society towards the contribution and
development of both individual and nation at large.

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Similarly, studies of Omrod (2008), Capara (2008), Hoavar (2009), Brenner
(2011), Holahan (2010), Scherbaum (2008) and Magno (2008) also show that selfefficacy is the perceived belief of ones capabilities that an individual is necessary to
perform or bring about a desired outcome, thus concerning to individuals performance.
In connection with this, self-awareness, intercultural adjustment self-efficacy beliefs,
self-regulation and metacognition contend that, localized self-efficacy scores tend to
correspond to various issue whether measures of self-efficacy is general or specific.

Furthermore, Richard (2008), Blackstone (2010), Duval (2009), dela Rosa (2010),
Andaya (2009), Lock et al. (2011), and Silvia (2011) relatively explain that self-efficacy
led to increase in performance especially engaging to strong sense of self-efficacy. And
having this, it can remain individual task oriented in the face of setbacks that it may raise
academic goals, aspirations and personal standards for the quality of work considered to
be acceptable.

On the contrary, Ronning (2009) contradicts the findings of self-efficacy through


acquiring knowledge and skills. He explains that having a high self-efficacy in a specific
area or domain does not necessarily mean that the person would have high self-efficacy
in a different domain.
For more than two decades, the tenets of the self-efficacy, component of social
cognitive theory have been widely tested in varied disciplines and setting. And through
the above literatures, it helps the researchers to give a clearer and broader understanding

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about the two variables. It also introduces the thoughts that self-efficacy can lead to
perform a task which is similar to the acquisition of knowledge and skills.
In the Philippines, study of Self-efficacy has always been focused in a classroom
setting. But in other countries, it has already been tested not only in a classroom setting
but particularly, with inmates rehabilitation program. Since self-efficacy has already
been in existence with the studies in other countries rehabilitation program, the
researchers believed that it is also worth to be tested in a localized setting.
It has also been found out that there is a gap between findings of studies of selfefficacy. This made the researchers even more interesting with the topic while seeing the
need for further study. This study aim to find out if self-efficacy is correlated with
inmates acquisition of knowledge and skills.

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Chapter III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the discussion of the method, approach, and specific
research design that the researchers employ in this study. Respondents of the study were
also discussed here as well as the instrument and data analysis used by the researchers.
Research Design
Descriptive Correlational design was used in this study. Included in this design
are conducting interviews and giving series of questionnaires to the respondents. The
researchers used such design in order to describe and determine the levels and
consequently the degree of relationship between self-efficacy and acquisition of
knowledge and skills among NBP inmates.
Research Locale
This study was conducted at the National Bureau of Penitentiary, also known as
New Bilibid Prison (NBP). It is one of the countrys main and largest penitentiaries
managed by the Bureau of Corrections (BuCor). Established in 1941, the countrys
national penitentiary is located in a 624 hectare government reservation land along Brgy.
Poblacion, Muntinlupa City. It is approximately 30kilometers away from Cabuyao City,
Laguna.

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The NBP compound incarcerates prisoners in three (3) highly contained
compounds namely: Minimum Security Compound, Medium Security Compound, and
Maximum Security Compound. It was in the Medium Security Compound or more
commonly known as Camp Sampaguita that the researchers specifically conduct its study
and select its target participants.
Population of the Study
The actual sample of the study was 124inmates or 20% of the target population.
However, since sequential approach was employed during the administration of the
questionnaire in regards of the acquisition of knowledge and skills, only 119 inmates was
left as the actual number of respondents. Four (4) respondents failed during the first stage
of acquisition of knowledge and skills and one (1) respondent failed with the second
stage.
Sampling Design
The researchers used Systematic Stratified Random Sampling in the selection of
the participants. Such technique was used since subgroups of the population vary
dramatically in size in the accessible population. After using such technique, the number
of participants from each subgroup was represented equally based on their proportionate
ratio in the population. The table below illustrates the population of the study and the
technique used in the selection of the number of participants from each level.

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Table A
Population of Selected Inmates Using Systematic Stratified Random Sampling

Level

College (UPHSD)
High School (MNHS)
Elementary (IESA)

Population
(N)

Percentage
%

178
207
68

28.76
33.44
10.99

No. of
Participants
from the
Population
(n)
36
41
14

13
13
15
13
12
12
17
17
13
41
619

2.10
2.10
2.42
2.10
1.93
1.93
2.75
2.75
2.10
6.62
100%

3
3
3
3
2
2
3
3
3
8
124

Vocational Courses
Consumer Electronic Course (CEC)
Auto Diesel Mechanic Course (ADMC)
Practical Electricity Course (PEC)
Refrigeration Air-conditioning Course (RAC)
Tailoring & Haberdushery Course (THC)
Shoemaking & Leather Craft Course (SMLC)
General Building Construction Course (GBC)
Furniture & Cabinet Making Course (FCMC)
Figurine Making/Lamination Course (FMLC)
School of Fine Arts (SOFA)

TOTAL
Data Gathering Tool

The researchers utilized a self-made questionnaire for the collection of data. Items
in the questionnaires used for data gathering consisted of statements designed and
developed to measure the participants self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge and
skills in terms of the aspects specified earlier in the research problem. Schwarsers
Generalized Self-efficacy Scale which was initially established in 1979, Banduras
Teacher Self-efficacy Scale developed and used in 1999, and Umay Information Literacy

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Self-efficacy Scale made in 2006, were used as a guide for the researchers in the
formulation, construction and development of questionnaire.
The questionnaire was made to measure the respondents level of self-efficacy in
terms of thinking, motivational, emotional, and selection processes. On the other hand,
acquisition of knowledge and skills was measured in terms of declarative, knowledge
compilation, and procedural knowledge.
The researchers used a 5 Point Likert Type Rating Scale in the Questionnaire
where:
Description of Scale

Assigned Number

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither Agree nor Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

The following rating scale was used to serve as reference for the verbal
interpretation of the computed weighted mean of the variables:

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Range of Scale

Interpretation

4.50 5.00

Very High

3.50 4.49

High

2.50 3.49

Average

1.50 2.49

Low

1.00 1.49

Very Low

Validation of Instrument
The constructed questionnaire had undergone validation of five (5) professionals
composed by professionals in the field of psychology, research, statistics and language
editing. The researchers also tested its reliability through item analysis wherein
questionnaires are pre-tested and results were analyzed through one of the Split-half
method namely U-L Index Method.
Data Gathering Procedure
To gather information necessary for this study, the researchers accessed a vast
collection of books, journals, articles, theses, and other pertinent informative materials
from Ateneo De Manilas Old and New Rizal Library and NBP Medium Security
Compound Library. Aside from the said institutions, the researchers also utilized the
library of Pamantasan ng Cabuyao to look for additional information about the variables

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of the study. The researchers also searched on the World Wide Web for more information
relevant to the research.
After gathering pertinent information for the study, the researchers submitted a
letter to the NBP authorities soliciting the approval and institutional cooperation for the
research activities as early as July 2012.Approval was given and the researchers were
endorsed and accommodated by the Education and Training Division of the NBP
Medium Security Compound under Dr. Resureccion Morales, Ph.D. Access to valuable
data needed for research like the population of students enrolled in the educational
program, courses offered, time to conduct interviews and administer questionnaire to
respondents and other research activities were accorded to the researchers. Prior to the
research proper however, the researchers assessed the risk and benefit of conducting the
research in the said site before they immersed or spend reasonable time at NBP and with
the respondents-inmates.
For this study, data were gathered through the use of interview guide approach
and self-made questionnaire. Open-ended information was gathered by the researchers
through interviews and observation with the participants. Other personnel in the research
locale were also interviewed. It was exploratory and was used to gain a deeper
understanding of the variables the researchers study.
On the other hand, closed-ended information regarding inmates level of selfefficacy and level of inmates acquisition of knowledge and skills was collected through

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the use of self-made questionnaire. Sequential approach was employed during the
administration of questionnaire in measuring the respondents acquisition of knowledge
and skills. Its results were then analyzed to determine the degree of relationship between
variables and to produce findings and conclusions of the hypothesis tested in this study.
Methods of Data Analysis
The following statistical tools were used in analysis of the data gathered.
To determine the level of self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge and skills
among inmates, the formula used were Simple Mean. This formula got the average
responses of the participants in terms of the aspects of variables used by the researchers.

Formula:

where:

Xw

weighted mean

fx

the summation of frequency

total number of population

On the other hand, Pearson r product moment correlation coefficient was used to
determine the degree of relationship between self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge
and skills among NBP inmates.

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Formula:

where:

total number of population

summation of X or variable X

summation of Y or variable Y

xy

summation of X and Y or variable X and Y

x2

summation of squared variable X

y2

summation of squared variable Y

Interpretations for computed correlation coefficient are the following:


Coefficient of Correlation
1.00

Interpretation
Perfect Correlation

0.81- 0.99

Very High Correlation

0.61- 0.80

Substantial Correlation

0.41 - 0.60

Moderate Correlation

0.21 - 0.40

Low Correlation

0.01 - 0.20

Negligible Correlation

Decision Rule: When the computed r-value is less than the critical r-value at 0.05 level
of significance taken from the Table of Critical Values of Students Statistics, accept the
null hypothesis. Otherwise, reject the null hypothesis.

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Chapter IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents the data analysis and interpretation of the results gathered in
the study reflecting the level of self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge and skills
among the respondents. Also, the relationship of the variables among the inmates of New
Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City is also discussed here.
1. Level of Self-efficacy of the Respondents
The first main concern of the study is to determine the level of self-efficacy of the
respondents in terms of the following:
1.1 thinking process aspect,
1.2 motivational process aspect;
1.3 emotional process aspect, and
1.4 selection process aspect.
A survey was conducted by the researchers for this purpose. The
respondents were given a self-made questionnaire designed to measure their selfefficacy in terms of the aspects stated above. The complete data gathered through
the said questionnaire are shown in the following tables:

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Table 1
Self-efficacy of Inmates in New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City
in Terms of Thinking Process Aspect
Assigned Number

Indicator

15. Kaya kong alamin kung anu-ano


ang aking mga potensyal.
34
(I am capable of knowing or
discerning my potentials.)
6. Kaya kong gawin ang ibat-ibang
bagay ayon sa aking abilidad.
50
(I can do different things
appropriate to my own abilities.)
18. Kaya kong gampanan ang
mahihirap na gawain.
31
(I can perform difficult task.)
19. Kaya kong mapagtagumpayan ang
aking mga plano sa buhay.
56
(I can successfully accomplish my
goals in life.)
9. Alam ko na kaya kong gumawa ng
mga bagay na kapaki-pakinabang.
75
(I know that I can accomplish things
that are worthy and useful.)
Average Mean

Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

52

31

3.99

High

45

19

4.17

High

48

35

3.87

High

39

23

4.26

High

38

4.58

Very High

4.17

High

Legend:
Range of Scale
4.50 5.00
3.50 4.49
2.50 3.49
1.50 2.49
1.00 1.49

Interpretation
Very High
High
Average
Low
Very Low

Table 1 describes the level of inmates self-efficacy in terms of thinking


processes. The over-all mean response for this aspect is 4. 17and which is interpreted
as High. Out of five items in this aspect, one item got Very High and the other items
fell to majority as High.

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Item no. 9 - I know that I can accomplish things that are worthy and useful got
the highest mean of4.58 which is interpreted as Very High. On the other hand, the
remaining items yield mean scores within the High interpretation range. The lowest
item in this aspect is I can perform difficult task with the mean of 3.87. Over-all the
items reflect the inmates high level of self-efficacy belief in terms of thinking processes.
Considering that inmates are thinking most of the time on how to face difficult
life situation consequence of being incarcerated, having a strong sense of self-efficacy
cognitively remains among them even in the face of pressing situational demands,
failures and setbacks that have significant personal and social repercussions.
The above mentioned finding supports Banduras statement that self-efficacy
beliefs do not simply develop from incantations of capability but are the products of a
complex process of self-persuasion that rely in the cognitive processing of four diverse
sources of efficacy formation. And as part of human thought process, higher goals raised
the level of performance attainment for different tasks (Reese, 2009).

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Table 2
Self-efficacy of Inmates in New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City
in Terms of Motivational Process Aspect
Assigned Number
4
3
2 1
5

Indicator

3. Ang kumpiyansa ko sa sarili kong


kakayanan ay nagbibigay lakas sa
akin para magawa ang isang bagay.
81
(My confidence in what Im capable
of doing gives me the strength to
accomplish a task or goal.)
20. Likas sa akin ang humanap ng
paraan para lalo kong mapaigi ang
sarili kong kakayanan.
56
(I think its natural for or inherent
in me to look for ways to improve
and enhance my capabilities.)
13. Hindi ako tumitigil na makahanap
kaagad ng mga solusyon ukol sa
aking problema.
49
(I am always determined to
immediately find solutions to my
problems.)
11. Hindi ako sumusuko sa isang
bagay hanggat hindi ko ito
natatapos.
40
(I am persevering and determined in
accomplishing task up to its
completion.)
2.Gusto ko pang matuto ng ibang
bagay dahil naniniwala ako sa sarili
kong kakayanan.
94
(I would like to learn a lot of things
because I believe I have the
capacity to do so.)
Average Mean

Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

25

10

4.55

Very High

54

4.39

High

43

23

4.13

High

57

19

4.11

High

22

4.76

Very High

4.39

High

Legend:
Range of Scale
4.50 5.00
3.50 4.49
2.50 3.49
1.50 2.49
1.00 1.49

Interpretation
Very High
High
Average
Low
Very Low

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As shown in the table 2 above, the level of self-efficacy of inmates in terms of
motivational processes aspect has an average mean of 4.39which is considered as
High. This table also presents results of specific items, where two items yield Very
High scale while the remaining three items have High scales. The lowest mean is
4.11 with the indicator of I am persevering and determined in accomplishing a task up
to its completion which still served as High. And item number two I would like to
learn a lot of things because I believe I have the capacity to do so got the Very High
interpretation, which means that the inmates were also satisfied to their learned
capabilities through motivational processes.
This reinforcing nature of self-efficacy on performance explained that having a
high self-efficacy on performance could be the reason why inmates choose to undergo
more work challenges, persevere more in their decisions and thus, achieve more.
The above findings appear to be in accordance to Albert Banduras Self-Efficacy
Theory that first appeared in 1982 in his book Self-Efficacy: Mechanism in Human
Agency which states that perceived beliefs of ones capabilities contribute significantly
to human motivation and attainment (Ormrod, 2008, p.28).

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Table 3
Self-efficacy of Inmates in New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City
in Terms of Emotional Process Aspect

Indicator

Assigned Number
5

14. Palagay ang loob ko na kaya kong


humarap sa mga di inaasahang
pangyayari.
32
(I am confident and at ease
believing I can face any unforeseen
event.)
1.Komportable akong panghawakan
ang bawat sitwasyon dahil
naniniwala ako sa aking sarili.
66
(Im comfortable facing every
situation believing that I am
capable of handling them.)
10. Kaya kong mapanatiling kalmado
ang aking sarili sa pagharap sa mga
pagsubok.
52
(I can keep myself calm in facing
trials and tribulations.)
8. Masaya ako kapag nakakagawa ako
ng isang gawain dahil nagamit ko
ang aking natutunan.
93
(I am happy everytime I finished a
tasks because I was able to use or
apply what I learned.)
4. May kakayanan akong pigilan ang
aking masamang emosyon na alam
kong makasasagabal sa aking
50
gawain.
(I can control unpleasant feelings
that could hinder what Im doing.)
Average Mean
Legend:
Range of Scale
4.50 5.00
3.50 4.49
2.50 3.49
1.50 2.49
1.00 1.49

Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

42

35

3.79

High

38

12

4.39

High

40

27

4.21

High

25

4.76

Very High

46

16

4.13

High

4.26

High

Interpretation
Very High
High
Average
Low
Very Low

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The level of self-efficacy in terms of emotional processes as shown in this table
has an average mean of 4.26 indicating a High level. Under this aspect, item no. 8 I am happy every time I finished tasks because I was able to use or apply what I
learned, yields Very High interpretation with a mean of 4.76.
The results reflect and tend to indicate that the respondents emotional processes
are manifested clearly among the enrolled inmates coping with whatever emotional
problems they encounter daily while studying. Despite confronted by loneliness due to
homesickness and curtailment of liberty and other emotional problems they experience
daily, they still hold on to that learned beliefs or self-efficacy that they are still capable
of accomplishing tasks, and they can still continue with their studies.
The findings simply reiterate Banduras earlier propositions about this aspect of
regulating emotional states and the processes of elicitation of emotional reactions. It is
the peoples belief in their coping abilities. Those people who believe that they can
exercise control over threats do not conjure up disturbing thought patterns (Bandura, as
cited by Woolfolk, 2009).Self-efficacy is the extent to which a persons belief that he or
she can perform behaviors that are necessary to bring about a desired outcome. It
determines our intensity of effort and our persistence in the face of obstacles and
unpleasant experiences, in part by reducing the anxiety that might interfere with engaging
in the activity.

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In general, experiences of success build robust self-efficacy beliefs, whereas
failures undermine them especially if these failures happen before a sense of efficacy is
firmly established. Success however should be qualified. To large extent, self-efficacy
depends on how struggling learners interpret success and the degree to which they take
credit for it (Holahan, 2010, p.210).
Likewise, performance also influenced self-efficacy beliefs that with more
performance accomplishments individuals gained confidence in their capabilities, thereby
also increasing self-efficacy (Blackstone, 2010).

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Table 4
Self-efficacy of Inmates in New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City
in Terms of Selection Process Aspect
Assigned Number

Indicators

17. Kaya kong pumili ng mga gawaing


naaayon sa aking kakayanan.
58
(I can choose to accomplish tasks
according to my capabilities.)
12. Kaya kong magdesisyon sa mga
gawain na kaya kong salihan ayon
sa aking abilidad.
51
(I can decide on the tasks that I
could engage in based on my
ability.)
7. Nasisiyahan ako sa napipili kong
gawain sapagkat ayon ito sa aking
kakayanan.
(I am satisfied with the things I
68
choose to do because it is in
accordance to what I believe I am
capable of doing.)
16. Kapag alam kong sapat ang
kaalaman ko sa isang gawain o
bagay, ito ang pinipili ko ang
55
gawain.
(I select to do a task if I know that I
have sufficient knowledge to do it.)
5. Ang mga pinipili kong gawain ay
nakakadagdag kumpyansa sa aking
sariling kakayanan.
60
(My preferred tasks give me more
confidence in my own capability.)
Average Mean

Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

47

13

4.36

High

50

15

4.25

High

40

11

4.48

High

49

15

4.34

High

37

18

4.27

High

4.34

High

Legend:
Range of Scale
4.50 5.00
3.50 4.49
2.50 3.49
1.50 2.49
1.00 1.49

Interpretation
Very High
High
Average
Low
Very Low

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Table 4presents the mean scores and interpretations of respondents self-efficacy
in the aspect of selection process. Over-all it yields 4.34 mean indicating High level
in this aspect.
As further shown in table 4, all items under this aspect have means falling within
the range of High interpretation scale. It is a clear indication that inmates select
whatever task they engage into and do them with their own choice taking into
consideration first their belief that they have the capabilities to perform them.
The plausible reason for this finding is that selecting their choice of activities or
tasks may raise their level of pursuing their goals because they know how to handle and
manage them. According to Capara (2008), self-regulated learning efficacy raises
academic, goals and aspirations, personal standards for the quality of work considered to
be acceptable, and beliefs in ones capabilities for academic achievement after one
control for instructional level, prior to academic performance and relevant aptitude
(p.228). Fundamentally, their confidence and knowledge at work determined their level
to rise in academics and non-academics activities and participation.

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Table 5
Summary Table for the Level of Self-efficacy

Different Aspects
of Self-efficacy

Mean

Thinking Processes
Motivational Processes
Emotional Processes
Selection Processes

4.17
4.39
4.26
4.34

High
High
High
High

Average Mean

4.29

High

Interpretation

Legend:
Range of Scale
4.50 5.00
3.50 4.49
2.50 3.49
1.50 2.49
1.00 1.49

Interpretation
Very High
High
Average
Low
Very Low

The above table presents the summarized result of the level of self-efficacy as
measured based on its four aspects. The Thinking Processes got 4.17 which is
interpreted as High; Motivational Processes is the aspect that got the highest mean of
4.39, which is also High; Emotional Processes got 4.26 mean which is also
High in interpretation; and Selection Processes with the mean of 4.34, is likewise
interpreted as High. This means that inmates in New Bilibid Prison have a high sense
of self-efficacy which reflects on their belief in their own capability.

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The above findings indicate strong support to the dynamics of Albert Banduras
Self-efficacy theory. According to Bandura, self-efficacy affects human functioning
through four major processes which is the cognitive, affective, motivational, and
selection processes. It was then hypothesized that self-efficacy develops either inactively
(mastery experiences),

vicariously

(vicarious

experience),

persuasively

(social

persuasion), and affectively (physiological state).


Moreover, self-efficacy is the extent to which a persons belief that he or she can
perform behaviors that are necessary to bring about a desired outcome. It determines our
choices of activities, our intensity of effort and our persistence in the face of obstacles
and unpleasant experiences, in part by reducing the anxiety that might interfere with
engaging in the activity.
The findings also affirm the study of Duval (2009). He concluded that having a
strong sense of self-efficacy remain an individual to be task oriented in the face of
pressing situational demands, failures and setbacks that have significant personal and
social repercussions. Once established, enhanced self-efficacy tends to generalize other
situations, in activities that are similar to those in which self-efficacy was enhanced.

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2. Level of Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills of the Respondents
The second main concern of the study is to determine the level of acquisition of
knowledge and skills among the respondents in terms of the following aspect:
2.1 declarative knowledge,
2.2 knowledge compilation, and
2.3 procedural knowledge.
The respondents were again given a self-made questionnaire in a
sequential approach to measure their acquisition of knowledge and skills in terms
of the aspects stated above. The results of the conducted data gathering on this
study are shown in the tables below.

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Table 6
Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills of Inmates in New Bilibid Prison,
Muntinlupa City in Terms of Declarative Knowledge
Assigned Number

Indicators

1. Kaya kong ipaliwanag sa salita ang


aking mga natutunan.
51
(I can explain verbally or in words
what I have learned.)
2. Higit kong naipapakita ang aking
kaalaman sa pamamagitan ng
pagpapaliwanag kaysa sa aktwal na
paggawa.
23
(I can show what I know better
through verbal explanation than
through actual work.)
3. Lahat ng bagay na itinututro sa akin
ay paulit-ulit kong minememorya at
kaya kong sabihin sa iba.
30
(I repeatedly memorize everthing
that is taught to me and I can
repeatedly relay it to others.)
4. Kaya kong ituro ang aking mga
kaalaman sa pamamagitan ng
pagpapaliwanag sa salita.
41
(I am capable of sharing / teaching
others what I know through verbal
explanations.)
5. Madali lang para sa akin na
ipaliwanag sa iba kung paano gawin
ang isang bagay bagamat hiindi ko
pa ito nagagawa.
10
(Its easy for me to verbally explain
how to do things even though I
havent done it in actual.)
Average Mean

Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

53

14

4.29

High

62

30

3.86

High

59

27

3.97

High

51

24

4.08

High

39

51

11

3.24

Average

3.89

High

Legend:
Range of Scale
4.50 5.00
3.50 4.49
2.50 3.49
1.50 2.49
1.00 1.49

Interpretation
Very High
High
Average
Low
Very Low

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The results shown in the Table 6 above presented the respondents level of
acquisition of knowledge and skills in terms of declarative knowledge. This aspect has an
average mean of 3.89 and thus considered to be High. Four (4) items under this
aspect (nos. 1 to 4) all yields High interpretation scale while only one (1) item (no. 5)
has 3.24 mean of 3.24 or Average in the interpretation scale.
The result reflects the respondents capabilities to learn or acquire new knowledge
or skills taught to them verbally. It thus preclude that they may perform task learning it
by understanding the verbal instructions given to them and could later demonstrate their
own capabilities to perform as accompanied by verbal explanation on how to do it.
In affirms the study of Reyes and Bayan (2008) that as notes are being read by the
respondents, motor movements are planned. Thus, concluding that performance
efficiency demands the coordination of psycho-motor speed, early acquired expertise,
mental speed, and the ability for auditory imagery as established in declarative
knowledge.

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Table 7
Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills of Inmates in New Bilibid Prison,
Muntinlupa City in Terms of Knowledge Compilation

Assigned Number

Indicators

1.Kaya kong gawin sa aktwal ang lahat


ng aking natututunan.
46
(I can perform actual tasks taught to
me.)
2.Kaya kong ipakita ang aking kayang
gawin ayon sa pagkakasunud-sunod.
35
(I can demonstrate tasks in a step by
step procedure of doing it.)
3.Kaya kong magtakda ng
pamamaraan o sunud-sunod na
hakbang sa paggawa ng isang bagay
40
na aking natutunan.
(I can arrange a step by step
procedure of doing a task.)
4. Ginagawa ko na ang mga bagaybagay na itinuro sa akin noon ayon
sa pagkakasunud-sunod ng mga ito.
36
(I do things in a step by step
procedure the way it was taught to
me.)
5. Pinagsasama sama ko lahat ng
aking natutunan at ginagawa ko ito
ayon sa sunud-sunod na
47
pamamaraan.
(I can gather all Ive learned and do
it orderly and systematically.)
Average Mean

Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

53

18

4.19

High

55

27

4.03

High

55

23

4.13

High

61

18

4.08

High

52

19

4.22

High

4.13

High

Legend:
Range of Scale
4.50 5.00
3.50 4.49
2.50 3.49
1.50 2.49
1.00 1.49

Interpretation
Very High
High
Average
Low
Very Low

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Table 7 shows the measured level of acquisition of knowledge and skills in the
aspect of knowledge compilation which garnered a 4.13 average mean and interpreted
as High. Majority of the responses of inmates yields scores within the High scale.
Item number2 - I can demonstrate tasks in a step by step procedure of doing got the
lowest mean at 4.03 and the highest item is statement number 5 - I can gather all Ive
learned and do it orderly and systematically with a mean of4.22.

With this result, it reveals that inmates can demonstrate tasks or activities in a step
by step procedure that have been taught to them which indicate tendencies for exercising
or displaying sense of confidence in capability to perform the task.

It supports the study of Chikhaoui & Pigot (2011) who concluded that confidence
in capability to perform a task creates a positive self-achievement, thus, individual can
locate a successfully domains like learning and memory, problem solving and decision
making, language and communication, perception and attention, and cognitive
development.
The study share also same observation and conclusion that the interactive skill
acquisition, utilization of external cues can be learned by reinforcement learning that
occurs in parallel to the slow declarative-to-procedural process. It further supports some
studies which show that the acquisition of interactive skills involving actions that are
cued by external information is possible even with a demanding secondary task without
concurrent awareness of the information. It is therefore possible that the reinforcement

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learning process that we identified reflects a primitive form of learning that is sufficient
to learn the associations between external cues and actions without verbal mediation
(Logan, 2011).
Table 8
Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills of Inmates in New Bilibid Prison,
Muntinlupa City in Terms of Procedural Knowledge
Indicators

Assigned Number
4
3
2 1
5

1. Alam ko na kaya ko ng gawin ng


tama ang lahat ng aking natutunan.
68
(I know I can do what I learned
correctly.)
2. May sapat na akong kakayanan
upang makatuklas ng ibang paraan
sa paggawa ng isang bagay.
42
(I am capable of discovering other
ways of doing things.)
3. Kaya ko pang gawin ang aking mga
natutunan ng may karagdagang
kahusayan.
52
(I can perform things I learned with
improvements or efficiency.)
4. Magagawa ko na ang lahat ng
kaalamang aking taglay.
37
(I can do things with all the
knowledge that I possess.)
5. Kaya ko ng ipakitang mabuti sa iba
ang aking napag-aralang gawin.
66
(I can demonstrate well to others
what I learned to do.)
Average Mean
Legend:
Range of Scale
4.50 5.00
3.50 4.49
2.50 3.49
1.50 2.49
1.00 1.49

Mean

Verbal
Interpretation

34

17

4.43

High

66

11

4.26

High

47

20

4.27

High

53

26

4.04

High

45

4.45

High

4.29

High

Interpretation
Very High
High
Average
Low
Very Low

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The level of acquisition of knowledge and skills in terms of this last aspect upon
evaluation yields an average mean of 4.29 mentioned into High interpretation. The
means are all interpreted as High with their designated items.
Such result means that after listening, saying and reciting the process of how to
acquire knowledge and skills, the inmates can now demonstrate it correctly and orderly.
And they can also create different ways on how to do things so that they can make it as
easy as possible.
However, according to Ali (2009), in such case, the individuals might face
challenges. But challenges concretize the efforts to acquire theoretical and practical skills.
Challenges bring about rapid development. Rapid development should be based on
purposeful plans rather than chance. And only the plans, which lead to rapid acquisition
of relevant skills, bring about rapid development.

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Table 9
Summary Table for the Level of Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills

Different Aspects
of Self-efficacy

Mean

Declarative Knowledge
Knowledge Compilation
Procedural Knowledge

3.89
4.13
4.29

High
High
High

Average Mean

4.10

High

Interpretation

Legend:
Range of Scale
4.50 5.00
3.50 4.49
2.50 3.49
1.50 2.49
1.00 1.49

Interpretation
Very High
High
Average
Low
Very Low

The average mean in the variable acquisition of knowledge and skills proposed a
High interpretation under 4.10 mean. The three means with its individual aspect got
also a High interpretation. It means that inmates can pass through the three stages in
everything that they were learned for.
Significantly, societies posed with challenges develop rapidly because it clears the
way for the learning eyes and hands with the desire and urge to success, to perform
beyond the obvious limits which the assistance they receive dictates.

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It affirms the study of Luing (2008) that once an individual has developed basic
modem skills, the wheel would have been set rolling to achieve a minimum standard of
living. It is important to be mindful of the general level of different skills in an economy
so as to achieve a balanced development and high productivity in skill acquisition. To
achieve skill acquisition, there is a need to monitor all areas to ensure that effective
linkages exist between attempts to develop theory and practical skills at various levels.

3. The Relationship between Self-efficacy and Acquisition of Knowledge and


Skills among NBP inmates.
The final concern of this study is to determine if there is a relationship between
self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge and skills among inmates of New
Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City. The result of the conducted survey on this
matter is shown in the table below;

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Table 10
Test of Relationship between Self-efficacy and Acquisition
of Knowledge and Skills among the Respondents

Variables

Pearson
r
Value

Critical
r
Value

Decision

Conclusion

Reject the null


hypothesis

There is a
significant
relationship
between selfefficacy and
acquisition of
knowledge and
skills.

Self-efficacy
Acquisition
of Knowledge and Skills

0.678

0.178

Decision Rule: If the computed r-value is less than the critical r-value at 0.05 level of significance,
accept the null hypothesis. Otherwise, reject the null hypothesis.

Table 10 shows the Pearson Product Moment Correlation between the variables of
this study NBP inmates self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge and skills. The
calculated r value at 0.678 indicates there is substantial correlation. This calculated
Pearson r value is greater than the critical r value which is 0.178. The null hypothesis is
thus rejected. There is a significant relationship between inmates self-efficacy and
acquisition of knowledge and skills.
It strongly supports the study of Lock, Lee, and Bobko (2011) who stated that the
powerful effect on goal level, goal commitment, and task performance, even when ability

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and past performance were controlled for are going to execute courses of actions. And
thorough important factor in skill acquisition process is exposed to practical situations
where the skills are displayed.
It also affirms the study of Dela Rosa (2010) that self-efficacy and self-concept
are two mechanisms or personal agencies that influence adaptive outcomes such as the
academic performance. Self-efficacy demonstrated predictive utility in terms of test
performance. In general, to indicate that indeed, in academic situations, even among
diverse groups, there exists a fusion of confidence and competence.
Similarly, Silvia (2011) asserts that the same level of performance success may
raise, leave unaffected, or lower perceived self-efficacy depending on how various
personal and situational contributions are interpreted and weighted. This means providing
a true civic main course, made up of values, knowledge, practices and behaviors can
increase self-efficacy. The purpose is to encourage the effective and constructive
participation in social activities. And as part of human thought process, higher goals
raised the level of performance attainment for different tasks (Reese, 2009).
In general, experiences of success build robust self-efficacy beliefs, whereas
failures undermine them especially if these failures happen before a sense of efficacy is
firmly established. Success however should be qualified. To large extent, self-efficacy
depends on how struggling learners interpret success and the degree to which they take
credit for it (Holahan, 2010, p.210). Likewise, performance also influenced self-efficacy

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beliefs that with more performance accomplishments individuals gained confidence in
their capabilities, thereby also increasing self-efficacy (Blackstone, 2010).

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Chapter V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations
based on the data gathered during the conduct of the study.
Summary of the Study:
This study was conducted for the purpose of determining the impact of selfefficacy towards acquisition of knowledge and skills among inmates of New Bilibid
Prison, Muntinlupa City. Specifically, it determined the following:
1. The level of self-efficacy of the respondents in terms of:
1.1 thinking process aspect,
1.2 motivational process aspect,
1.3 emotional process aspect, and
1.4 selection process aspect.
2. The level of acquisition of knowledge and skills of the respondents in terms of:
2.1 declarative knowledge.
2.2 knowledge compilation, and
2.3 procedural knowledge.
3. The degree of relationship between self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge
and skills among the respondents.

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Descriptive Correlational method of research was utilized in this study and an
interview guide approach was used for gathering data. A self-made questionnaire served
also as an instrument for collecting data. One-hundred-nineteen (119) inmates
participated in the study. Statistical treatment of the data includes the Systematic
Stratified Random Sampling for establishing the sample size; the average mean in
determining the level of the variables among respondents; and the Pearson r for
determining the degree of relationship among the variables. This study was conducted
during the school year 2012-2013.
Summary of the Findings:
The following are the findings of the study:
1. Out of the 119 respondents, the average mean score of self-efficacy is 4.29, which
is described as high. Similarly, the different aspects used to determine the level
of self-efficacy of the respondents are found out to be all at the high level. The
mean for the aspects under self-efficacy are as follows: motivational processes
with the highest mean score of 4.39; selection processes with the second highest
mean score at 4.34; followed by the emotional processes with the mean score of
4.26; and the thinking processes with the lowest mean score of 4.17.
2. The average mean score of acquisition of knowledge and skills of the respondents
is 4.10, which is interpreted as high. Likewise, all aspects used to represent the
acquisition of knowledge and skills among the respondents are also determined as

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in the high level. Procedural knowledge got the highest mean score of 4.29.
Knowledge compilation got the second highest mean score of 4.13. And lastly,
declarative knowledge got the lowest mean score of 3.89.
3. Self-efficacy has a significant relationship towards acquisition of knowledge and
skills among the respondents. Its r - value is 0.678 which is greater than the
critical value of r at 0.05 level of significance. Thus, the null hypothesis was
rejected.
Conclusions:
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn:
1. Inmates enrolled in the educational program of New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa
City has a high level of self-efficacy in terms of thinking, motivational,
emotional, and selection processes. This means that they believe on their own
capabilities to produce positive outcomes.
2. There is a high level of acquisition of knowledge and skills among inmates
enrolled in the educational program of New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City in
terms of the following stages: declarative knowledge, knowledge compilation,
and procedural knowledge. It is clearly manifested by enrolling themselves
voluntarily in the educational program offered by NBP to acquire new knowledge

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and skills. And this means that the respondents can do task assigned verbally,
actually, and actively.
3. There is significant relationship between self-efficacy and acquisition of
knowledge and skills among inmates of New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City.
This means that if a particular inmate has a high self-efficacy, there is also a high
tendency for him to acquire more knowledge and skills.
Recommendations:
In view of the findings and conclusions of the study, the researchers hereby
recommend the following:
1. The institutions (Itaas Elementary School, Muntinlupa National High School,
TESDA, and UPHSL) must continually support the NBP program that uplifts
inmates personhood and self-efficacy through the provision of academic
assistance to them.
2. NBP psychologists should continue in providing psychological support towards
the inmates while building and restoring not only their self-esteem but also, their
self-belief. They should positively influence the inmates so as to help them
become well-adjusted members of the society in the future.
3. Seminars and workshops among the inmates discussing the value of having a
strong sense of self-efficacy should be provided. This can help them to create a

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more positive belief on themselves, cope with their situation, and thus, increasing
their tendency to acquire more knowledge and skills through NBP programs.
4. The Bureau of Correction should encourage the family of the inmates to
continually support their family member while serving their prison term. They
should make them feel loved, trusted and accepted so as to strengthen their belief
in their own capabilities specifically in motivational and emotional aspects.
5. The Personnel of New Bilibid Prison, particularly those of Education and
Training Division may invite academic institutions for a educational trip in NBP
not only to showcase the talents and capabilities of the inmates therein but also to
lessen the misconception among them. This will also help the inmates feel more
positively about themselves, thus, can improve their behavior while serving their
prison term.
6. The government, particularly the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, could
conduct further assessment of the NBP rehabilitation program and study the
feasibility of duplicating or adapting it in other regional and local penitentiaries.
This may be helpful to inmates in general during the course of their rehabilitation.
7. The future researchers may also consider studying the effect of having selfefficacy in the behavioral reformation of inmates in NBP.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS
Ali, D. (2009). Dual Learning Processes in Interactive Skill Acquisition. New Jersey:
Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy in Changing Society. New York: Cambridge University
Press.
Bruning, R., Schraw, G., & Ronning, R. (2009). Cognitive Psychology and Instruction.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Ormrod, J. (2008). Human Learning (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson
Education Inc.
Reese, E. (2009). Childrens Self-efficacy Across Self-Esteem. New York: Psychology
Press.
Santrock, J. (2008). Educational Psychology (3 rd Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill
Companies Incorporated
Woolfolk, A. (2009). Educational Psychology 4th Ed. New Jersey. Pearson Education
South Asia Pte Ltd.

JOURNALS / ARTICLES
Altmann, E., & Gray, W. (2008). An Integrated Model of Cognitive Control in Skill
Acquisition. Psychological Review, 115, 602-639.
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy: Mechanism in Human Agency. American
Psychologist, 39 (2), 122-147. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.37.2.122
Best, S. & Schunn, A. (2008). How People Acquire Knowledge and Skills. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 22, 576-598.
Blessing, M. (2009). Acquisition of Cognitive Skill. Psychological Review, 89, 369-403.

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Dela Rosa, E., (2010). Self-Concept, Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Performance on
Operations Involving Fractions among Diverse Academic Groups. Philippine
Journal
of
Psychology.
43,
(1).
Retrieved
from
http://ejournals.ph/index.php?journal
Fu, Wai-Tat, & Anderson, J. (2008). Dual Learning Processes in Interactive Skill
Acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 14 (2), 179-191. 60582867
Kopiez, O. & Lee, C. (2008). Acquisition of Knowledge Using Proactive Help-seeking
Behaviour. International Journal of Behaviour & Research, 15 (3), 242 261.
doi:10.1108/13552550910957337
Locke, E., Frederick, E., Lee., C., & Bobko, P., (2011). Effect of Self-efficacy, Goals,
and Task Strategies on Task Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69,
(2), 241-251. Retrieved from PsychARTICLES database.
Magno, C., & Lajom, J. (2008). Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy, Metacognition, and
Achievement Goals in High School and College Adolescents. Philippine
Journal
of
Psychology,
41
(1).
Retrieved
from
http://ejournals.ph/index.php?journal
Sussman, V. (2009). A Study Of Self-Awareness, Self-Efficacy, And Sojourner
Adjustment Over Time. Health Education Quarterly, 13, 73-91.
Teague, E. (2009, February). Behind Bars. Messenger of Saint Anthony. 30 33.
Villavicencio, F. (2011). Influence of Self-efficacy and Help-seeking on Task Value and
Academic Achievement. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 44 (2), 213-222.
PUBLISHED THESES
Child, C. & Fujioka, N. (2010). Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and perceived efcacy as
mediators of the relation of supportive parenting to psychosocial outcomes
among urban adolescents. (Published Thesis). University at Albany, State
University of New York.
Marder, S. (2009). Self-Efficacy and the Role of Friendship During College. (Published
Thesis, University of New Hampshire, USA). Retrieved from

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http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=uRTHo15UZv0C&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&d
q=SelfEfficacy+and+the+role+of+friendship+during+college

UNPUBLISHED THESES
Ng, J. (2010). Effects of Training in Enhancing Self-efficacy for Math Skills
Improvement. (Unpublished Masters Thesis). Ateneo De Manila University,
Loyola Heights Quezon City
Prieto, J., Edeliza S., & Umali, J. (2008). The Economic Status and Self-esteem of
Pubescent Female Resident of Southville Marinig, Cabuyao Laguna.
(Undergraduate Thesis). Pamantasan ng Cabuyao, Cabuyao Laguna
Soriano, M. (2008). Life Goals and Aspirations, Academic Motivation, Self-efficacy, and
Persistence among Students Who Work. (Unpublished Masters Thesis) Ateneo
De Manila University, Loyola Heights Quezon City.

ELECTRONIC REFERENCES
ACT-R Research Group (2012). ACT-R Publications. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from
http://a ctr.psy.cmu.edu/publications/index.php
Cherry,

K. (n.d.) What is self-efficacy? Retrieved July 6, 2012 from


http://psychology.about.c om/od/ theor iesofpersonality/a/self_efficacy.htm

Fitton, E. (2008). Understanding Self-efficacy. Retrieved October 26, 2012 from


http://www. funderstandin.com/content/self-efficacy
Ibrahim, U. & Olalia, S. (2011). Self-efficacy as the Core Theory of Rehabilitation
Treatment in Other Countries. Retrieved July 6, 2012 from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubme d/21706 815.com.ph
Pajares, F. (2008) Current Directions in Self-efficacy Research: In advances in
Motivation and Achievement. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from
http://www.emory.edu/mfp/eff.html
Pajares, F. (2008). Information in Self-efficacy. Retrieved August 10, 2012 from
http://www. uky.edu/~eushe2/Pajares/self-efficacy.html

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SPEECH
Hoavar, V. (2009, February). What is the impact of teacher self-efficacy on the student
learning outcome?. Paper Presented at the 3rd WIETE Annual Conference on
Engineering and Technology Education in Pattaya, Thailand. Retrieved from
http://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=What+is+the+impact+of+teacher
+self-effic ac y +on+the+student+learning+outcome

TELEVISION NEWS INFORMATION


Salas, T. (Writer), & Leyco, J. (Director). (2012). Patrol ng Pilipino [Television
Documentary Episode]. In C. Roque (Producer), Paaralang De Rehas. Quezon
City, Phlippines: ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs.

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APPENDICES

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SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATION

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SEMINAR WORKSHOPS ON SELF-EFFICACY
AND ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
Description: An extensive two (2) days in-house seminar designed to make inmates understand,
appreciate and value self-efficacy and acquisition of knowledge and skills. The seminar involves
lectures by invited resource speakers with expertise of the topics; group workshops will be
facilitated to simulate the learning acquired. Individual sharing of personal reflections and
introspections and plenary discussions will also be facilitated.
1. To gain deeper understanding of Self-efficacy and its valuable contribution to ones life
2. To become knowledgeable on how acquisition of knowledge and skills operates and thus
lead to appreciation on how they should perform in their courses.
3. To increase ones level of self-efficacy and on encouraging more inmates to pursue the
same.

Theme: Believe in the power that you can

Day 1
Morning Session: Seminar
Topic: Self-Efficacy
Title: Self-Efficacy is Everywhere but Awareness of it is rare!
Objectives:
At the end of the seminar, the participants will be able to:

Develop ways to control events that affect their lives


Increase the intensity and persistence of effort in all the aspects of their
lives
Enhance their coping abilities in all challenges
Create beneficial environment and do exercise some control over those
they encounter day in and day out

Participants: 30 pax., inmates enrolled in the Educational Program of NBP


Timeframe: day seminar/ day workshop:
1 hour and 30 minutes to 2 hours of lecture

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Resource Frame:

Overview of the Self-Efficacy (Introduction, History, Definition)


Sources of Self-Efficacy
Activated Processes of Self-Efficacy by Bandura
(Characteristics of People with Strong and Weak Sense of Self-Efficacy)
Factors Affecting Self-Efficacy
(Increases and Decreases Factors of Self-Efficacy)
AVP Presentation/Video/Sample (from the speaker);
(example experiences from the inmates)

Afternoon Session: Workshop

The speaker, facilitator or co-facilitator prepares the materials needed for the workshop.

Step 1: Arrange the chair in a circular manner. (See the illustration below)

Counselee

Counselee
Counselor

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Step 2: Proceed to the instruction of the participants.
Instructions:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose a partner.
Let the participants seated in a circular position facing their partner.
Distribute the Interview Guide Approach (See attached file) for the participants.
The participants in the inner circle will act as the interviewer or counselor while
the participants in the outer circle will act as the interviewee or counselee.
5. After 15 minutes, participants will exchange their role.
6. After 15 minutes again, let the participants stand and rotate inner (clockwise) and
outer (counter clockwise).
7. Then, do steps 4 ad 5 again.
Step 3: Sharing of the experiences of selected inmates towards the activity.
Step 4: Synthesis/Processing

Day 2
Morning Session: Seminar
Topic: Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills
Title: Lets do it by stages!
Objectives:
At the end of the seminar, participants will be able to:

Put into words the knowledge and skills that has been acquired
Produce an output by following the step-by-step procedure
Create their own simplest/creative way of producing an output

Participants: 30 pax., inmates enrolled in the Educational Program of NBP


Timeframe: day seminar/ day workshop:
1 hour and 30 minutes to 2 hours of lecture

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Resource Frame:

Overview of Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills by Anderson


(Introduction, History, Definition)
Stages of ACT
AVP Presentation/Video/Sample (from the speaker);
(example experiences from the inmates)

Afternoon Session: Workshop


Step 1
Instruction:
1. Choose a partner.
2. Think then share your skills, talent or knowledge with your partner wherein the 3
stages of Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills could be applied.
3. Rate your partner using the Activity Sheet (See attached file). Participants will not
be able to proceed to the next stage without passing the first stage.
Step 2: Sharing of the experiences of selected inmates towards the activity.
Step 3: Synthesis/Processing

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Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills Activity Sheet

Name:
Age:

Date:
Gender:

Direction: Rate your partner according to his performance in acquiring skills, talent or
knowledge that has been taught by you before proceeding to the next stage. Otherwise,
your partner will have to repeat again the activity until he can pass to the next stage.
Range Scale:
7 10

High (can pass through the next stage)

56

Average (can pass through the next stage)

4 and below

Low (cannot pass through the next page; repeat the stage)
Stage 1: Declarative Knowledge

10

10

10

Stage 2: Knowledge Compilation

Stage 3: Procedural Knowledge

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PROGRAMME OF ACTIVITIES
Day 1 Self-Efficacy is Everywhere but Awareness of it is rare!
MORNING SESSION
PART 1:
Assembly/Registration
PART 2:
Invocation ........................................................................................
National Anthem ..............................................................................
Opening Remarks ............................................................................
Ice breaker .....................................................................................
Inspirational Activity
(an AV Presentation or short film depicting the theme)
Lecture on Self-Efficacy ..................................................................
Q&A
LUNCH BREAK
AFTERNOON SESSION
PART 3:
Group Dynamic
Review of Lecture or new lecture (how one could help enhance others SE)
Individual Reflection/Retrospection on experienced Self-efficacy
Group Sharing (with guided questions) or peer counseling style of building up
others SE
Plenary Discussion on experiences, realizations on the exercises
PART 4:
Closing Statements (can be creatively done through a Panunumpa sa Sarili

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PROGRAMME OF ACTIVITIES
Day 2 Lets Do it by Stages!
MORNING SESSION
PART 1:
Assembly/Registration
PART 2:
Invocation .............................................................................................
National Anthem ...................................................................................
Opening Remarks .................................................................................
Ice breaker ...........................................................................................
Inspirational Activity
(an AV Presentation or short film depicting the theme)
Lecture on Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills ...................................
Q&A
LUNCH BREAK
AFTERNOON SESSION
PART 3:
Group Dynamic
Review of Lecture / new lecture (how one could acquire knowledge & skills)
Activity by Partners
Group Sharing (with guided questions)
Plenary Discussion on experiences, realizations on the exercises
PART 4:
I.
II.
III.

Awarding of Plaque of Appreciation


Distribution of Certificates for the participants
Closing Remarks

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BELIEVE IN THE POWER THAT YOU CAN
THEME: Self-efficacy learned beliefs

OBJECTIVES: At the end of the session, the participants will;


-

Enhance the belief on their own capability


Appreciate what they are capable of
Persevere more to improve what they are capable of doing
Be able to put into action what they believe they can do

TARGET PARTICIPANTS:
Inmates enrolled in the educational program of Medium Security Compound
New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City

TIME FRAME:
Approximately one (1) to one and a half (1 ) hour

MATERIALS:
-

Bond paper
Ball pen
Blackboard and chalk
Manila Paper or Cartolina
Bowl / box containing the cut-out questions or task for the participants

ORIENTATION:
1. Greet the participants and introduce oneself.
2. Explain what the activity is all about; its purpose, its goal/objectives of the
activity.

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Our activity for today is entitled Believing in the Power that you can.
What we are about to experience is a kind of structured learning exercises
designed for the participants to have a clear understanding of what they are
capable of. Its focus is ones belief towards his capability. At the end of the
activity, we hope that the participants will be able to enhance their belief in their
own capability; appreciate what they are capable of; persevere more to improve
what they are capable of doing; and put into action what they believe they can do.
Participation of every participant is encouraged throughout the activity so that
they may experience a different style of learning and appreciation towards
oneself.
3. Introduce an energizer
Amerikano, Aleman, Pilipino (A Variation)
Instruction: Gather all the participants to stand up and form a closed circle. The
facilitator will act as the first it. The it will say, Amerikano, Aleman,
Pilipino several times and point on any participant in the circle. When you say,
Amerikano, the participant being pointed has to salute and say, Yes. Sir!.
When you say Aleman, the participant has to raise right hand, kick his feet on
the floor and say, Achtung!. And when you say, Pilipino, he has to sway his
arms apart and say, Mabuhay!. The participant who will not portray the action
right will have to show his talent at the center of the circle. If the participants got
easily familiarize with the game, change the Amerikano, Aleman, Pilipino into
Buko, Bukoko, Buko-buko with different action.

EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING:
1. Let the participants form two (2) groups.
2. The facilitator will pick the task / question from the box, he will make a signal in
order for the participants to go to the front and do whatever is ask to do or answer
what is being asked.
3. It depends upon the members of the group who will go first and to the succeeding
activities.
4. They will be given points according to their performance. Whoever wins will get
a prize from the facilitator.

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5. After the activity, they will be given time to tell something and share their
learning experiences about the activity.
Note: Please refer to attached SLES Activity Guide.
DATA GATHERING PROCESSES:
1. Post some questions on the board regarding the past activity. Such questions will
be the following:
- What and how did you feel before we start the activity?
- Did you have doubts to do what was being asked by the facilitator?
- How do you feel while doing the activity?
- What do you think is the importance of believing in your own capability?
- Were you able to appreciate your own ability through the activity? In what
way?
- What do you think is the role of believing that you can while you are doing
what is asked for?
- How do you assess your belief in your own ability?
2. Ask the participants to answer the question within 10 minutes. They should write
their answers in a short bond paper.
3. Let them discuss their answers within their respective groups.
4. Ask them to create a presentation of their collaborated answers to be putted in a
manila paper / cartolina for 15-30 minutes.
5. Have a representative from each group to discuss their presentation.
DATA ANALYSIS:
Give some compliments for each group presentation. Discuss the commonalities
and differences you found from each group. Summarize what they have discussed and
highlight some points of their discussions. The facilitator may also discuss here what he
had observed during the sharing of their answers. And most importantly, do not forget to
highlight the ultimate realization from each group.

GENERALIZATION:
The whole aspect of the activity will be generalized and the facilitator will
integrate what is the main lesson and learning of the activity.

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


CLOSING / DRAMATIC EXIT:
Dramatic exit will be presented through a power point presentation. The final
message can also be given by the facilitator regarding the importance of believing in
ones own capability and can also give some tips on how to enhance such belief towards
the self.
NOTE: The activities for this SLE are just suggestions. One may modify it
depending on the participants. Questions in the Dta Gathering / Processing may
vary depending on the activity to be used.
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING ACTIVITY

Complete the phrase by writing on the board and after it, you should be able to
explain why.

I can explain my life as an animal and that animal is ________________.

Dancing is a gun. Could you show me your talent in dancing?

I am sad. I need somebody to make me smile. Could you do it for me?

It would be nice if someone in this group could boast his talent through singing.
Please go to the front and let me here your angelic voice.

I dont know how to solve this in 15 seconds. Could you solve it for me?

My friend fined it difficult to translate his command in English. Can someone


translate this in English?

360 divided by 15 is ?

Pwede mo ba akong sundin sa paliparan upang mapadali akong


makarating sa bahay ninyo?

If I will ask you, what was your dream when you were still a kid? Could you share
it with us and what do you think you should do to accomplish those dreams?

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


-

Situational: Your strict professor who doesnt accept criticism mistakenly encodes
your grades. Unfortunately, you are no longer entitled to enroll in the educational
program because of her. But you know that if you complain, she will make your
life miserable. She will get really angry and will humiliate you in front of the class
and with her colleagues. What would you do and why?

If you know the good news of our Lord Jesus Christ about salvation which is in
John 3:16; For God so loved the world He gave his only begotten Son that
whosoever believeth in Him should not perish but have an everlasting life, could
you have the courage to share it to your friends and classmates? How will you be
able to share it with them while in fact you know that they will insult you because
they find it corny and uninteresting topic to discuss?

You have a misunderstanding with your father. You are always scolded by him
and he blames you for the mistake that you have done. Your good friend warned
you of being conceited because it might be too late to say sorry and compromise
with your father because hes old. What would you do?

In school, your classmates or co inmates always make fun of you. You are always
bullied by them. During one of the subjects, you have an idea that might solve a
mathematical problem. But you know that they will laugh at your opinion. Will
you just keep it for yourself? If you will speak for yourself, how will you say it
just to let them know that you have the right to be heard?

The only left option to pay the bill of your mother in the hospital is to ask for
financial assistance at a certain NBP personnel. But that NBP personnel is the
person who is the cause of your mothers illness. Would you have the courage to
approach him/her? How and why?

The only way for your group to win and get a prize is to act as insane in front of
the class for an impromptu. If you will do it, your group will pass a subject. Act as
an insane to get the prize of your group.

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


ALTERNATIVE ACTIVITY
1. Put a trash can on the floor.
2. Have the participant stand 8 to 10 feet away from the trash can.
3. Crumple up a piece of paper to make a paper ball.
4. Let the participant try to throw the paper ball into the trash can.

How did that affect your confidence?


Were you successful? That is, did you toss the paper ball in the can?
If you made it, do you want to try it again? Why?
If you didn't make it, do you want to try again? Why?

5. Now move five feet farther from the trash can, make another paper ball, and try again.

Did you make it? Now how do you feel about succeeding? Are you more
confident or less confident? Why do you think you feel this way?

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


ACTIVITY SHEET
Write there (3) situations in which you believe you are capable of. Then write
three (3) situations in which you believe you are not capable of.

1.

I believe I can .....

3.

I believe I can .....

2.

I believe I can .....

3.

I believe I cant .....

1.

I believe I cant .....

2.

I believe I cant .....

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


March 2013

Mr. VICENTE M. CASTILLO, Ed. D


VICE-PRESIDENT for ACADEMIC AFFAIRS
PAMANTASAN NG CABUYAO
Brgy. Banay-banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

THRU: Ms. MARILOU RIMAS TAYAO


Dean, College of Arts & Sciences

Dear Mr. Castillo;


This is to formally solicit your official approval for the organizing and conducting
educational trip of BS Psychology students enrolled in Pamantasan ng Cabuyao in New
Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City. The objective of which is to give the students a personal
glimpse of the world within the mind of the most seemingly neglected, discriminated, and
marginalized sector of the society. This will also give further understanding and
appreciation of the inmates so as to lessen the misconception among them.
If approved, the cost to be incurred (solely for transportation expense for hiring a
bus) will be shouldered fully by the students. The cost is considered minimal compared to
the greater benefits the students will derived therein (see attached cost benefits analysis).
Once, given the official permission to pursue this activity, the undersigned intends to
solicit the support and cooperation of the Psychology Department, the universitys
Intrepid Psychological Society (i-Psy) to organize the activity and make it successful. The
measurement of which will be that the activity is educational, has increased awareness
and social consciousness, and most importantly conducted safely (waivers will be
required from students/parents).

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


COST BENEFITS ANALYIS
COSTS TO STUDENTS
Financial Cost
Transportation Costs for Hiring
a 55 Seater Airconditioned Bus
PhP 15,000.00/55 pax
= PhP 300.00/student
Cost of Individually Owned Packed
Meals (Bring individual packed
lunch, snacks)
Time
One day absence in other subjects
10-12 hours to be spend in the entire
educational trip

BENEFITS TO STUDENTS,
TEACHERS and PNC

Students will have a personal


glimpse of the actual application of
theories
and
principles
of
Psychology in the clinical setting
Students will gain insights on what
is usually happening inside an
institution like penitentiary
Students will have a more personal
look at the condition of people who
are socially cast out and
incarcerated
The institutional visit hopes to
increase the students level of
awareness and social consciousness
on the need and challenges of
inmates confined therein
The institutional visit and the
students
exposure
to
the
rehabilitation program present in
there will help them discern the
specific field of psychology they
wish to pursue in the future
The students will be able to gain
knowledge about the different
therapies for rehabilitation of
inmates
Instructors of the subject related to
the educational trip could then
easily provide students of real and
actual examples of the subjects
(Abnormal & Clinical) and
practices which could lead to better
to teaching of the lessons for better
understanding and appreciation of
students

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

The educational trip will provide an


opportunity for students with
knowledge, skills and values that
will help them see for themselves
how these will enable them to
contribute to the development of
the local community and the
country as a whole as stated in its
vision and mission.

Bus to be hired will be selected on the basis of its roadworthiness, safety record, drivers
performance record and companys overall service record in providing shuttle services
for educational trips. This is to ensure the safety and security of the students during the
trip.
An organized educational trip. Appropriate task groups or committees will be formed,
oriented on the roles and goals it must perform and achieve. Such as Security Committee
(1 Teacher, 5 Student Marshalls task to ensure peace and order during the whole event);
Safety Committee (1 Teacher, 5 able members First-Aid Team); Educational Committee
(1 Teacher and Class Officers) to ensure instructions of learning are prepared, used and
processed in order that the intended purposes of the educational trip is achieved. Hence,
alongside this request for approval is the support of the Head of Department of
Psychology and another Psychology or CAS professor to join the field trip.
The educational trip will not be compulsory for the students in consideration of their
financially capability to shoulder the cost this entails.
Should you grant us your approval, we will settle the schedule of this activity as soon as
possible.
Thank you very much for your support.

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


TALK SHOW FOR INMATES FAMILY
Description: A half day talk show for the family of inmates to encourage them to
continue and strengthen the support for their family member inside the penitentiary. It
will involve sharing of experiences before, during, and after imprisonment of invited
former inmates that are successful at present together with their family. An open forum
will also be conducted about on how a family should further support their family member
whos incarcerated. Words of wisdom and tips on how a family could strengthen inmates
belief on their own capability will also then be provided by a resource person who has an
expertise of such topic.

THEME: LETS SUPPORT THEIR BELIEF THAT THEY CAN


DATE:
TIME: 8:00 AM 12:00 PM
VENUE:
PARTICIPANTS: Family of Inmates
OBJECTIVES:
1. To encourage the family of inmates to support their family member
while serving their prison term.
2. To discuss the impact of being loved, trusted and supported by a
family member despite the condition of being incarcerated.
3. To help the family of inmates become aware of the ways on how to
strengthen the belief of their family member inside the prison about
their own capability

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


PROGRAMME
8:00am 8:30am Opening Prayer ........................................................
Welcome Address .....................................................
Introduction of Speakers ..........................................
8:30 am 10:45am Sharing of Experiences of Former Inmates ............

Life before imprisonment


Life inside the prison and how the family supported them to
strengthen their belief in themselves
Life after imprisonment

10:45am 11:30am Open Forum ..........................................................


Words of Wisdom / Tips for Families ....................
Awarding of Certificates .......................................
Closing Remarks ..................................................

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


October 30, 2012

ATTY. MANUEL CO
Officer-in-Charge
National Bureau of Penitentiary
New Bilibid Prison, Muntinlupa City

Thru: P/SUPT. RAMON M. REYES


We, Grace B. Completo, Ivana Kyra M. Maron and Jennifer O. Velasco, 4 th Year BS
Psychology students from Pamantasan ng Cabuyao are preparing for our thesis proposal
in partial fulfilment of the requirement to complete our course. We are sincerely and
genuinely interested and have chosen the following topic for our research: The Impact of
Self-Efficacy towards Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills among Inmates of NBP.
The topic stirred interest in us after having seen a couple of documentary films and
related literatures about the rehabilitation programs in the countrys national penitentiary.
Something that we perceive that most of the society in general and us students in
particular are not aware that the inmates attend formal studies and acquire new
knowledge and skills even while serving their prison term.
As psychology students, our study also aims to test Albert Banduras Self-Efficacy theory
being the core operating principle of NBPs innovative rehabilitation treatment.
Furthermore, we, the researchers attempt to make in our own little way, a contribution at
least in our locality (school) to increase their level of awareness on the said topic and
respondents, with focus on the positive psychology.
The proposed study will involve data gathering procedure such as survey questionnaires
and student made assessment tests. For this reason, we humbly solicit your help, support
and approval for us to conduct our study among the Inmates of Medium Security
Compound of the New Bilibid Prison.
If approved, rest assured that all respondents and information gathered therein will be
treated with respect and utmost confidentiality, following the ethical standards of
research. Rest assured too that we will duly oblige and cooperate to the security rules and
regulations of the institution at all times in the conduct of our research. Please do not

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


hesitate to contact our College Dean, Mrs. Marilou R. Tayao at 0917-881-5266 for the
confirmation of this matter.

Hoping and praying for your kind consideration. Thank you very much and God bless
you.

Respectfully yours,

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subd., Banay Banay, Cabuyao Laguna
College of Arts and Sciences

Pangalan (opsyonal): _________________

Antas/Taon/Kurso: ______________

Panuto: Ang mga sumusunod na pangungusap ay nababatay sa pakiramdam, pananaw,


karanasan, at opinyon hinggil sa paniniwala sa sariling kakayanan. Walang mali o tamang
sagot kayat lahat ng kasagutan ay tatanggapin. Mangyari lamang na sagutan ang bawat
pangungusap sa pamamagitan ng paglalagay ng tsek
sa kahon sa kanang bahagi base
sa inyong pagsang-ayon at di pagsang-ayon. Makakaasa na lahat ng kasagutan ay
bibigyang halaga at pakaiingatan. Ang inyong kooperasyon ay malaking tulong sa amin.
Maraming Salamat.
5
4
3
2
1

Lubos na Sumasang-ayon
Sumasang-ayon
Hindi Sigurado
Hindi Sumasang-ayon
Lubos na Hindi Sumasang-ayon
Paniniwala sa Sariling Kakayanan
5

1. Komportable akong panghawakan ang bawat sitwasyon dahil


naniniwala ako sa aking sarili.
2. Gusto ko pang matuto ng ibang bagay dahil naniniwala ako sa
sarili kong kakayanan.
3. Ang kumpiyansa ko sa sarili kong kakayanan ay nagbibigay
lakas sa akin para magawa ang isang bagay.
4. May kakayanan akong pigilan ang aking masamang emosyon
na alam kong makasasagabal sa aking gawain.
5. Ang mga pinipili kong gawain ay nakakadagdag kumpyansa
sa aking sariling kakayanan.
6. Kaya kong gawin ang ibat-ibang bagay ayon sa aking
abilidad.
7. Nasisiyahan ako sa napipili kong gawain sapagkat ayon ito sa
aking kakayanan.
8. Masaya ako kapag nakakagawa ako ng isang gawain dahil
nagamit ko ang aking natutunan.
9. Alam ko na kaya kong gumawa ng mga bagay na kapaki-

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


pakinabang.
10. Kaya kong mapanatiling kalmado ang aking sarili sa
pagharap sa mga pagsubok.
11. Hindi ako sumusuko sa isang bagay hanggat hindi ko ito
natatapos.
12. Kaya kong magdesisyon sa mga gawain na kaya kong
salihan ayon sa aking abilidad.
13. Hindi ako tumitigil na makahanap kaagad ng mga solusyon
ukol sa aking problema.
14. Palagay ang loob ko na kaya kong humarap sa mga di
inaasahang pangyayari.
15. Kaya kong alamin kung anu-ano ang aking mga potensyal.
16. Kapag alam kong sapat ang kaalaman ko sa isang gawain o
bagay, ito ang pinipili ko ang gawain.
17. Kaya kong pumili ng mga gawaing naaayon sa aking
kakayanan.
18. Kaya kong gampanan ang mahihirap na gawain.
19. Kaya kong mapagtagumpayan ang aking mga plano sa
buhay.
20. Likas sa akin ang humanap ng paraan para lalo kong
mapaigi ang sarili kong kakayanan.

Maraming Salamat po!

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subd., Banay Banay, Cabuyao Laguna
College of Arts and Sciences

Pangalan (opsyonal): _____________________ Antas/Taon/Kurso: _______________


Panuto: Ang mga sumusunod na pangungusap ay nababatay sa pakiramdam, pananaw,
karanasan, at opinyon hinggil sa pagkakaroon ng bagong kaalaman at kasanayan. Walang
mali o tamang sagot kayat lahat ng kasagutan ay tatanggapin. Mangyari lamang na
sagutan ang bawat pangungusap sa pamamagitan ng paglalagay ng tsek
sa kahon sa
kanang bahagi base sa inyong pagsang-ayon at di pagsang-ayon. Makakaasa na lahat ng
kasagutan ay bibigyang halaga at pakaiingatan. Ang inyong kooperasyon ay malaking
tulong sa amin. Maraming Salamat.
5
4
3
2
1

Lubos na Sumasang-ayon
Sumasang-ayon
Hindi Sigurado
Hindi Sumasang-ayon
Lubos na Hindi Sumasang-ayon
Pagkamit ng Kaalaman at Kakayahan
Stage 1

1. Kaya kong ipaliwanag sa salita ang aking mga natutunan.


2. Higit kong naipapakita ang aking kaalaman sa pamamagitan ng
pagpapaliwanag kaysa sa aktwal na paggawa.
3. Lahat ng bagay na itinututro sa akin ay paulit-ulit kong
minememorya at kaya kong sabihin sa iba.
4. Kaya kong ituro ang aking mga kaalaman sa pamamagitan ng
pagpapaliwanag sa salita.
5. Madali lang para sa akin na ipaliwanag sa iba kung paano
gawin ang isang bagay bagamat hiindi ko pa ito nagagawa.
Maraming Salamat po!

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subd., Banay Banay, Cabuyao Laguna
College of Arts and Sciences

Pangalan (opsyonal): ____________________ Antas/Taon/Kurso: _______________


Panuto: Ang mga sumusunod na pangungusap ay nababatay sa pakiramdam, pananaw,
karanasan, at opinyon hinggil sa pagkakaroon ng bagong kaalaman at kasanayan. Walang
mali o tamang sagot kayat lahat ng kasagutan ay tatanggapin. Mangyari lamang na
sagutan ang bawat pangungusap sa pamamagitan ng paglalagay ng tsek
sa kahon sa
kanang bahagi base sa inyong pagsang-ayon at di pagsang-ayon. Makakaasa na lahat ng
kasagutan ay bibigyang halaga at pakaiingatan. Ang inyong kooperasyon ay malaking
tulong sa amin. Maraming Salamat.
5
4
3
2
1

Lubos na Sumasang-ayon
Sumasang-ayon
Hindi Sigurado
Hindi Sumasang-ayon
Lubos na Hindi Sumasang-ayon
Pagkamit ng Kaalaman at Kakayahan
Stage 2

1. Kaya kong gawin sa aktwal ang lahat ng aking natututunan.


2. Kaya kong ipakita ang aking kayang gawin ayon sa
pagkakasunud-sunod.
3. Kaya kong magtakda ng pamamaraan o sunud-sunod na
hakbang sa paggawa ng isang bagay na aking natutunan.
4. Ginagawa ko na ang mga bagay-bagay na itinuro sa akin noon
ayon sa pagkakasunud-sunod ng mga ito.
5. Pinagsasama sama ko lahat ng aking natutunan at ginagawa
ko ito ayon sa sunud-sunod na pamamaraan.
Maraming Salamat po!

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES


Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subd., Banay Banay, Cabuyao Laguna
College of Arts and Sciences

Pangalan (opsyonal): ___________________

Antas/Taon/Kurso: _______________

Panuto: Ang mga sumusunod na pangungusap ay nababatay sa pakiramdam, pananaw,


karanasan, at opinyon hinggil sa pagkakaroon ng bagong kaalaman at kasanayan. Walang
mali o tamang sagot kayat lahat ng kasagutan ay tatanggapin. Mangyari lamang na
sagutan ang bawat pangungusap sa pamamagitan ng paglalagay ng tsek
sa kahon sa
kanang bahagi base sa inyong pagsang-ayon at di pagsang-ayon. Makakaasa na lahat ng
kasagutan ay bibigyang halaga at pakaiingatan. Ang inyong kooperasyon ay malaking
tulong sa amin. Maraming Salamat.
5
4
3
2
1

Lubos na Sumasang-ayon
Sumasang-ayon
Hindi Sigurado
Hindi Sumasang-ayon
Lubos na Hindi Sumasang-ayon
Pagkamit ng Kaalaman at Kakayahan
Stage 3

1. Alam ko na kaya ko ng gawin ng tama ang lahat ng aking


natutunan.
2. May sapat na akong kakayanan upang makatuklas ng ibang
paraan sa paggawa ng isang bagay.
3. Kaya ko pang gawin ang aking mga natutunan ng may
karagdagang kahusayan.
4. Magagawa ko na ang lahat ng kaalamang aking taglay.
5. Kaya ko ng ipakitang mabuti sa iba ang aking napag-aralang
gawin.
Maraming Salamat po!

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

Grace B. Completo
Block 4, Lot 4,Brgy. Diezmo, Cabuyao Laguna
+639357897693
gcompleto_psy2@yahoo.com
Personal Information
Nickname
Sex
Civil Status
Date of Birth
Place of Birth
Father
Occupation
Mother
Occupation

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Grace
Female
Single
May 7, 1986
Cabuyao, Laguna
Loreto L. Completo
None
Cerenia B. Completo
Production Staff

Educational Attainment
Tertiary
Name of School

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao

School Address

Katapatan Subd., Banay-banay Cabuyao, Laguna

Course

Bachelor of Science in Psychology

Year

2013

Name of School

Camp Vicente Lim National High School

School Address

Mayapa, City of Calamba Laguna

Year Graduated

2003

Name of School

Canlubang Elementary School

School Address

Canlubang, City of Calamba Laguna

Year Graduated

1999

Secondary

Primary

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

Ivana Kyra M. Maron


Block 16, Lot 24, Brgy. Bigaa, Cabuyao Laguna
+639161208742
vanakikz@yahoo.com
Personal Information
Nickname
Sex
Civil Status
Date of Birth
Place of Birth
Father
Occupation
Mother
Occupation

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Vanang
Female
Single
August 8, 1992
Binan, Laguna
Alfredo N. Maron
Deceased
Nelia M. Maron
Government Employee

Educational Attainment
Tertiary
Name of School

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao

School Address

Katapatan Subd., Banay-banay Cabuyao, Laguna

Course

Bachelor of Science in Psychology

Year

2013

Name of School

Sto. Nino Montessori School

School Address

San Jose, Occidental Mindoro

Year Graduated

2009

Name of School

Bigaa Elementary School

School Address

Bigaa, Cabuyao Laguna

Year Graduated

2005

Secondary

Primary

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
Katapatan Subdivision, Banay - Banay, Cabuyao, Laguna

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

Jennifer O. Velasco
Ph 4C, B2, L25, Golden City Subd. Brgy.Dila,
City of Sta. Rosa Laguna.
+639262436686
sumanidags@yahoo.com
Personal Information
Nickname
Sex
Civil Status
Date of Birth
Place of Birth
Father
Occupation
Mother
Occupation

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Jenn
Female
Single
August 31, 1990
Maragondon Cavite
Aniceto A. Velasco
Deceased
Emma O. Velasco
Production Staff

Educational Attainment
Tertiary
Name of School

Pamantasan ng Cabuyao

School Address

Katapatan Subd., Banay-banay Cabuyao, Laguna

Course

Bachelor of Science in Psychology

Year

2013

Name of School

Western Colleges

School Address

Brgy.Ciriaco Nazareno, Naic Cavite

Year Graduated

2006

Name of School

Malainen Luma Elementary School

School Address

Naic Cavite

Year Graduated

2002

Secondary

Primary