Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 88
Blue Shield Towers, Hospital Road, Upper Hill. P.O. Box 49712-00100, Nairobi Tel 020-8013842 Email dg@kenha.co.ke

Blue Shield Towers, Hospital Road, Upper Hill. P.O. Box 49712-00100, Nairobi Tel 020-8013842 Email dg@kenha.co.ke / infor@kenha.co.ke Website www.kenha.co.ke

NATIONAL URBAN TRANSPORT IMPROVEMENT PROJECT ICB No. KeNHA/ 973/ 2015

REHABLITATION AND CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT OF JAMES GICHURU ROAD JUNCTION - RIRONI HIGHWAY (A104)

FACTUAL MATERIALS REPORT

MAY 2015

GENERAL MANAGER (SPECIAL PROJECTS) KENYA NATIONAL HIGHWAYS AUTHORITY P.O. BOX 49712-00100 NAIROBI

DIRECTOR GENERAL KENYA NATIONAL HIGHWAYS AUTHORITY P.O. BOX 49712-00100 NAIROBI

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter

Description

Page

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1

1.1

Design Standards

1

1.2

Location

1

1.3

Topography

1

1.4

Geology

1

1.4.1

Rocks

1

1.4.2

Soils

2

1.5

Climate

2

1.6

Vegetation

2

1.7

Pavement and Existing Road

2

2.0

SOILS AND MATERIALS SITE INVESTIGATIONS

4

2.1

General

4

2.2

Alignment Soil Investigation

4

2.2.1

General

4

2.2.2

Site Investigations and sampling

4

2.2.3

Laboratory Testing

5

2.2.4

Alignment Soils Test Results

5

2.3

Natural materials site Investigations

11

2.3.1 General

11

2.3.2 Gravel Sources

11

2.3.3 Hard Stone Sources

13

2.3.4 Sand Sources

24

2.3.5 Water Sources

24

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: ALIGNMENT SOILS INVESTIGATION AND TEST RESULTS

APPENDIX B: SUMMARY OF GRAVEL TEST RESULTS

APPENDIX C: SUMMARY OF HARD STONE TEST RESULTS

APPENDIX D: LOCATION PLANS FOR HARD STONE SITES

APPENDIX E: GRAVEL MATERIALS SITES LOGS

APPENDIX F: LOCATION PLANS FOR GRAVEL MATERIAL SITES

APPENDIX G: SUMMARY OF MATERIALS INVESTIGATION

1.0

INTRODUCTION

ESER Consultants Ltd were commissioned by Kenya National Roads Authority (KeNHA) to undertake Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study, Preliminary Engineering Design, Environmental Impact Assessment, Social Impact Assessment, Detailed Engineering Design and Preparation of Bid Documents for the Rehabilitation and Capacity Enhancement of Road A104 from James Gichuru Road Junction to Rironi (A104/ B3 Junction)

One of the tasks involved in the assignment was evaluation of existing pavement and soils and materials site investigation. The purpose of the materials investigations was to identify suitable and sufficient sources of pavement construction materials along the entire project road.

1.1 Design Standards

The design standards adopted will be those stipulated in the Road Design Manual Part

III and the standard specification for construction of Roads and Bridges of Kenya.

1.2 Location

The project road is a section of road A104 road running from James Gichuru Road Junction to Rironi at the junction to the B3 road. The project road runs through a generally rolling terrain.

1.3 Topography

The area lies within an altitude of 1800m to 2550m.

1.4 Geology

1.4.1 Rocks

The project area is part of the volcano-stratigraphy of the KedongKinangop region on the east side of the central Kenya rift. Four principal phases of volcanic eruption were:

widespread Kinangop tuff ash flows, Limuru flood trachytes, basalts and flood trachytes

of the rift floor, Quaternary salic caldera volcanoes.

The geology of the area is comprised of volcanic layers of basalts, trachytes, phonolites and tuffs all overlain by thick layers of clay soil. Basalts and trachytes form good aquifers whereas tuffs are aquifers only when fractured. Faults delineated from a study

of aerial photographs trend in a North-South direction in conformity with the structural

pattern of the eastern branch of the Great Rift Valley.

1

1.4.2 Soils

The main soil types are black cotton soils and the red soils. The soil drainage characteristics have been classified in accordance with the TRRL classification reproduced in table 1.4 below. These can be classified under ‘well drained’

Table 1.4: Soil Permeability Classification

Soil Class

Description

Impeded drainage

Very low permeability Clay soils with high swelling potential Shallow soils over largely impermeable layer , very high water table

Slightly impeded Drainage

Low permeability Drainage slightly impeded when soil fully wetted

Well Drained

Very permeable Soil with very high infiltration rates such as sands, gravels and aggregated clays

Source: TRRL Laboratory Report 706, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Department of Environment UK, 1976

1.5 Climate

The area has a moderate climate resulting from its high altitude, temperature ranges from 260C to 100C (lowest).

The area experiences a bi-modal rainfall pattern with the long rains falling between March and May with a mean rainfall of 1300mm while the short rains fall between October and December with a mean rainfall of 1000mm.The mean annual rainfall is

1150mm

1.6 Vegetation

The area is characterized by natural vegetation ranging from moist and dry forest. All types of indigenous trees exist especially near KARI Headquarters and Nairobi School. Some areas around Muguga and Limuru are fully cultivated and the original vegetation has been removed.

1.7 Pavement and Existing Road

The road is a four lanes dual carriageway separated by the median in which the concrete barriers separate both ways from Limuru to Westlands.

There have been major damages of the carriageway with more rutting on the outer climbing lane. Also major patching works have been done in these sections. The rutting, raveling, block cracking, edge breaking, depression and potholes are visible on the entire section, where heavy traffic tend to avoid the outer lane meant to be the slow lane and they are using the inner lane that apparently seem to be less damaged than the outer lane.

2

On some sections there has been an overlay with a layer of asphalt concrete that has covered the apparent damages of the surface.

3

2.0

SOILS AND MATERIALS SITE INVESTIGATIONS

2.1 General

The purpose of soils and materials investigations was to determine the nature and condition of the alignments soils along the project road and to identify sources within reasonably short haulage distance along the project road where suitable natural construction materials could be acquired for the project. The suitability of the identified materials was to be ascertained by subjecting the materials to the relevant required tests.

2.2 Alignment Soil Investigation

2.2.1 General

The most important characteristic of the sub grade soils is its elastic modulus but its measurement is complicated and time consuming. Since there is always a good correlation between the CBR and the elastic modulus of soils and CBR test is fairly and widely used test, it has been decided to retain it as the quantitative means of evaluating the subgrade bearing strength.

2.2.2 Site Investigations and sampling

Alignment soils investigation was done at 500m interval at varying depth along the road. The sampling done was deemed to represent the entire width including the sections to be extended as stipulated in Sub clause 14.3.1 of the RDM Part III requires that at least one sample shall be taken per kilometer of anticipated alignment. Trial pits were generally excavated to a depth of up to a minimum of 1.0m below the normal ground level. For sections with a median, sampling was done at the middle of the median so as to collect the natural material. Where the New Jersey median exists, sampling was made alternatively left and right at 500m intervals as shown in the section below.

4

500m 500m
500m 500m
500m 500m
500m 500m
500m 500m
500m 500m
500m 500m
500m 500m
500m 500m
500m 500m

500m

500m
500m
500m 500m       500m 500m   500m 500m 500m A representative sample from each
500m 500m       500m 500m   500m 500m 500m A representative sample from each
500m 500m       500m 500m   500m 500m 500m A representative sample from each
500m 500m       500m 500m   500m 500m 500m A representative sample from each
 
 
   
   
500m
500m

500m

 

500m

      500m 500m   500m
      500m 500m   500m
500m       500m 500m   500m 500m 500m A representative sample from each trial
500m       500m 500m   500m 500m 500m A representative sample from each trial
500m       500m 500m   500m 500m 500m A representative sample from each trial
500m       500m 500m   500m 500m 500m A representative sample from each trial
500m       500m 500m   500m 500m 500m A representative sample from each trial
500m
500m
500m
500m

A representative sample from each trial pit was obtained and taken to laboratory for testing.

2.2.3 Laboratory Testing

The samples taken for laboratory testing were subjected to the following tests:-

Grading to 0.075 mm sieve;

Atterberg Limits (PI, LL, PL and Shrinkage);

CBR 4-Days soak and moulded at 100% OMC

Compaction test (MDD, OMC)

Swelling

2.2.4 Alignment Soils Test Results

The test results of the alignment soils are attached in Appendix A of this report. The summary of the CBRs along the road is shown in Table 2.1 below.

Table 2.1: CBR values of alignment soils

Km

20+932

21+432

21+932

22+432

22+932

23+432

CBR %

6

7

5

10

4

7

Class

S2

S2

S2

S3

S1

S2

5

Km

23+932

24+432

24+932

25+432

25+932

26+432

26+932

27+432

CBR %

10

11

7

6

5

9

7

8

Class

S3

S3

S2

S2

S2

S2

S2

S2

Km

27+932

28+432

28+932

29+432

29+932

30+432

30+932

31+432

CBR %

4

9

6

6

4

8

13

9

Class

S1

S2

S2

S2

S1

S2

S3

S2

Km

31+932

32+432

32+932

33+432

33+932

34+432

34+932

35+432

 

CBR %

5

5

9

 

4

5

4

8

3

Class

S2

S2

S2

S1

S1

S1

S2

S1

Km

35+932

36+432

36+932

37+432

37+932

38+432

38+932

39+432

CBR %

4

12

6

 

8

3

7

12

4

Class

S1

S3

S2

S2

S1

S2

S3

S1

Km

39+932

40+432

40+932

41+432

41+932

42+432

42+932

43+432

CBR %

6

8

6

 

5

5

11

7

5

Class

S2

S2

S2

S2

S2

S3

S2

S2

6

Km

43+932

44+432

44+932

45+432

45+932

CBR %

5

5

8

4

10

Class

S2

S2

S2

S1

S3

2.2.5 Observations on Alignment Soils Test Results

Using the Design Manual Part III the following are the CBR values assigned to each subgrade class ranging from S1 to S6.

Table 2.2: Subgrade classes

Class

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

CBR %

2-5

5-10

7-13

10-18

15-30

>30

2.2.5.1 CBR distribution

Alignment soils CBR results are shown graphically below.

7

Using the subgrade classes S1 to S6 as shown in Table 2.2 above, the subgrade

Using the subgrade classes S1 to S6 as shown in Table 2.2 above, the subgrade class in each chainage is assessed.

Table 2.3:

CBR distribution table

Subgrade

               

Class

<S1

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

Total

No. of

             

Samples

0

11

32

8

0

0

0

= 51

% of Total

0

21.6

62.7

15.7

0

0

0

From the above Table, it can be seen that the majority of alignment soils fall under Classes S2.

2.2.5.2 Materials suitable for pavement support

From the Roads Design Manual Part III, the materials forming the direct support of the pavement shall normally comply with the following requirements.

CBR at 100% MDD (Standard Compaction) and 4 days soak: More than 5%

8

Swell at 100% MDD (Standard compaction) and 4 days soak: Less than 2%

Organic matter (percentage by weight): Less than 3%

This means no pavement should be placed directly on class S1 soil and that in such a

case an improved subgrade is required on such soil.

2.2.5.3 The choice of the design subgrade

Subgrade Class S2 (CBR range 5-10%) makes up approximately 62.7% of the samples tested. However, as noted in Table 2.3 subgrade class above S2 makes a total percentage of about 15.7%. This means that 84.3% of the samples are equal or less than subgrade class S2.

The liquid limit (LL) varies from 39 65, with plasticity index ranging from 9 23. The material is fine in grading with percentages passing sieve 75µm ranging from 22 98% majority pits indicating values greater than 70%. The plastic modulus of the soil sample ranges from 551-2254.

The alignment soils can be classified as A 7 6 using the AASHTO system of classification and can be rated as poor soils. This is evident from extreme high nature of liquid limit, plasticity index and high filler content passing the 75µm sieve. The soils are generally silt and clay and are plastic in nature. For the design purposes it will be prudent to classify the native soils as S2 subgrade as it takes the highest percentage

(62.7%).

From alignment distribution the native subgrade class is S2. However the swelling behavior of the alignment soils has also been assessed. It is observed that for the entire road section, the swelling of the soils at 100% MDD (Standard Compaction) and four days soak is less than 2% except the section at chainage 35+432 and 37+932 with a swell of 2.1% and 2% respectively.

However, some of these sections have a CBR at 100% MDD (Standard Compaction) and four days soak which is below 5% hence classified as class S1. Therefore these sections are not suitable for pavement support and will be improved as recommended thereafter. The sections include;

Km 22+932 Km 23+432

Km 27+932 Km 28+432

Km 29+932 Km 30+432

Km 33+432 Km 36+432

Km 37+932 Km 38+432

Km 39+432 Km 39+932

Km 45+432 Km 45+932

All the other sections of the road alignment soils have a CBR of higher or equal to 5% with majority being classified as subgrade class S2, which is within the recommended value. Although from the Roads Design Manual Part III, S2 subgrade material is recommended for the direct support of the pavement, it is proven technically and

9

economically advantageous to replace or lay an improved subgrade not only on S1class soils, but also on S2 Class soils. This therefore calls for treatment measures of the soils to take care of the decreased subgrade bearing strength.

However it is therefore suitable to minimize the moisture changes and potential swelling in the expansive soils. This will be by use of materials of CBR values of 5% and above especially the top 300mm to provide good support for the pavement structure. The fill materials can be obtained from borrow sites approved by the Engineer.

2.2.5.4 Improved subgrade

Accordingly, there are results indicated in Table 2.3 for the CBR values where the alignment soils are mainly S2 subgrade strength class.

Better subgrade should be borrowed from borrow pits to be used as improved subgrade. The improved subgrade will replace the natural soil to obtain a higher class of subgrade bearing strength. Having determined the traffic class to be way above T1, an improved subgrade of class S3 could be attained as shown below.

10

Table 2.4:

Subgrade improvements

Strength of Native sub-grade soils

Improved subgrade

New class of sub-grade achieved

Material strength class

Minimum Thickness required

S1

S3

425

S3

S2

S3

300

S3

(Source: RDM part III Table 6.3.1)

Since the analysis of CBR values along the alignment reveals that the subgrade is predominantly S2 with pockets of S1 and S3. The pockets with deleterious material S1 will be removed and will be replaced with materials of class S3 subgrade or higher as localized treatment. Improved subgrade materials will be obtained from borrow pits approved by the Engineer.

2.3 Natural materials site Investigations

2.3.1 General

The purpose of the investigation was to identify sources within reasonably short haulage distance along the project road where suitable natural construction materials could be acquired for the project.

2.3.2 Gravel Sources

Possible sources of gravel whether new or existing were identified. Trial pits were excavated for the gravel sites at grids of 30m and 60m. The pits were dug and sampled to a depth of 1.5m to establish availability of enough material for the construction of the sub base, road base and for use in the embankments. A minimum of 5 trial pits were dug for each of the identified borrow pit and sampled to come up with a reasonable representative sample. A visual inspection and description of each type of material found was done as well as logging of the different strata as detailed in Appendix E.

The location of each proposed borrow pit was indicated on a key plan. A site plan of each proposed borrow pit was prepared, showing the means of access and location. In every sampled borrow site, all layers, including top soil and overburden, were accurately described and their thicknesses measured.

All layers proposed for use were sampled. The sample was taken over the full depth of the layer proposed, by taking a vertical slice of material.

11

The location plans for gravel material sites is included in Appendix F of this report. Representative samples from these borrow sites were subjected to the following laboratory tests.

Grading;

Atterberg Limits (PI, LL, PL and Shrinkage);

CBR 4-Days soak

Compaction (MDD, OMC)

2.3.2.1 Pavement Material Requirement & Results of Tests

Laboratory results on natural materials for base and sub base are contained in Appendix B of this report. The results were analyzed in accordance to the requirements stipulated in charts SB1 and B1 of the MOR$PW Design Manual Part III. These requirements are summarized in the tables below. The results obtained from the above tests were also analyzed to determine whether the materials needed to be improved with cement and lime.

Table 2.4: Natural Gravel Requirements

Requirements

Natural

Natural

Natural

Natural

Gravel Sub

Gravels

gravel-

gravel-

base

Road base

Cement or

Cement or

Lime

Lime

Improved

Improved

for Sub

for road

base

base

CBR @ 95% MDD (AASHTO T180), 4 Day Soak

Min. 30

Min. 80

-

Min. 20

Plasticity Index

Max. 15

Max. 15

Max. 30%

Max 25%

Plasticity Modulus

Max.250

Max.250

Max. 2,500

Max.2,000

Max. Size

-

-

1015 mm

10-50 mm

Passing 0.075 mm Sieve

-

-

Max 40%

Max. 35%

Passing 0.425 mm Sieve (Lime only)

-

-

Min. 15%

Min. 15%

Plasticity Index (Lime only)

-

-

Min 10

Min 10

Material after treatment: CBR @ 95% MDD (AASHTO T180), 7 Day soak 7 day cure

-

-

Min. 60

Min. 160

Source: Charts SB1, SB2, B1, B2 (RDM part III-1987)

12

Materials Site

CBR @ 95% MDD (AASHTO T180), 4 Days Soak

Plasticity

Plasticity

Passing

Passing

Index

Modulus

0.075 mm

0.425 mm

Sieve

Sieve

Kikuyu

 

5

21

1659

73%

79%

Nyamu

6 - 14

10

1482

- 1670

55

71%

63

78%

Mutambuki

7 - 8

8 - 18

1482

- 1670

73

82%

82

90%

Maai Mahiu Site 1

9

29

9 - 24

459

- 1771

14

55%

15

70%

Maai Mahiu Site 2

0

2

10 28

187

1420

13

64%

15 - 64%

Apart from Maai Mahiu site 1 which qualifies as a source for cement / or lime improved sub-base, no other materials site satisfies the requirements for pavement construction, but they could be exploited for improved subgrade material.

2.3.3 Hard Stone Sources

The purpose of the hardstone investigations was to identify suitable and sufficient sources of stones for use in asphalt concrete works, concrete works and or wearing course works. The materials investigation was carried out in the month of July 2012. The identified hardstone sites are discussed below and their photographs and location plans are attached in Appendix D of this report.

2.3.3.1 Borrow and quarry material:

13

NAME OF QUARRY:

DESCRIPTION:

DISTANCE FROM MAIN SITE:

KIKUYU QUARRY

Hard stone Quarry

1.5 km

GPS POINT

N9862786, E240527

OWNER:

partly GOK / partly MR. EZEKIEL KURIA GITARU

CONTACT:

0726-015086

This hardstone quarry was first exploited by Federici Impresit Contractors in 1992. The area is approximately 5 acres. The quarry has two major geological characteristics: one half of the quarry extending to the South has red friable clays about 100-500cm deep followed by slightly decomposed friable soft stone (dark brown in colour) extending down to about 20 meters. This material is then followed by decomposed grey tuff (volcanic). This area was excavated and the contractor used this material both for sub- grade layer and improvement of sub-base layer. In some cases, the material was also stabilized and the results obtained were good for sub-base layer.

As the quarry extends northwards, the overburden reduces drastically to about 150cm deep, followed by decomposed grey volcanic tuff stone uniformly to a depth of approximately 20 metres on the average.

The material obtained under this layer is phonolitic trachyte which Federici Impresit Contractors used as their hard stone.

The hard stone was used to construct Westlands - Rironi and also as the aggregate mixer for the finder and wearing course for Rironi-Mai Mahiu Road, the year was 1992-

1994.

Since the Contractor had another hardstone just next to Njiru Quarry, most of the hardstone in the quarry was left cleared of the overburden and left unexploited. The local artisans have tried to exploit the stone but they can only manage to cut building stone from the grey tuff, the rest was left undisturbed.

The undisturbed samples were in consideration that this quarry has the stone required for the construction of the project road.

AREA I: The hard stone area is estimated to extend northwards and comfortably over an area not less than 5 acres.

VEGETATION: The quarry is located in an environmentally friendly area with almost no settlement to the east and to the north. A permanent river is also bordering the quarry. A permanent dam of almost 2 acres is also on the lower side of the border. A Quarry bordering a river will be environmentally acceptable as long as during exploitation, necessary mitigation measures are taken to avoid or minimize pollution of the river and

14

the quarry subsequently appropriately rehabilitated and properly drained. These measures have been well detailed in the EIA report section 6.3.1.2 part B4 and B5.

STATUS: The Ministry of Lands office in Kikuyu intimated that this quarry is partly owned by individuals and partly by the government. The government was said to have acquired part of the quarry during construction of Westlands-Rironi road in 1990.

OBSERVATIONS: The stratum of the quarry was interpreted as follows:

1

Red friable clay (coffee soil)

2

Highly decomposed soft stone (brown in colour)

3

Decomposed grey tuff (volcanic)

4

Dark grey phonolitic trachyte hard stone. From other observation, this material goes down to over 100 metres.

TEST REQUIREMENTS: Strata 4

This quarry has therefore been recommended and a sample has been taken for testing by Materials Branch. The following tests are therefore requested: LAA, SSS, ACV, FI, Sieve analysis of fine and course aggregates, specific gravity and Absorption of course aggregate.

TEST REQUIREMENTS: Strata 2

During excavation by the Contractor, both strata i.e. Strata 2 and 3 described separately as highly decomposed soft stone and decomposed grey tuff tend to blend. The resulting material after blending works well for service roads and improvement of access roads to materials sites. The consultant however did not sample this material since access roads are temporary roads whose design and maintenance is the responsibility of the contractor and they are not designed by the consultant neither do they require employer’s approval.

Various samples were taken from recommended trial pits and homogeneously blended to create a representative sample. The samples were taken to the laboratory and the following tests were requested viz: MDD/OMC, CBR, stabilised and unstabilized grading and PI.

OTHER OBSERVATIONS:

Easily accessible

Environmentally friendly

Has enough area for erection of site offices and crushing machine

15

NAME OF QUARRY:

MUTARAKWA QUARRY 4 Acres

DESCRIPTION:

Grey Volcanic Tuff Stone (Soft stone)

DISTANCE FROM MAIN SITE:

3.5 km

GPS POINT

N9877037, E234375

OWNER:

MR. GATHEE KAMAU:

LR 1185 Limuru/Kamirithu C/o Samuel Njoroge

CONTACT:

0721-789 668 or 0787-623 286

This soft stone quarry was exploited first time by G. Issaias General Contractors about 40 years ago. Since then, so many other contractors have entered and excavated the amount they required, yet the quarry still remains in the hands of the initial title deed holders. We talked to the owners and they are willing to dispose (sell) the required area.

We found the material to be between volcanic grey tuff and phonolite and therefore recommended for some tests to be carried out to find out whether it could be of some use in the construction of James Gichuru-Rironi Roads especially subbase layer and other road stone use. Some samples were taken and the following tests were requested viz: Los Angeles Abrasion (LAA), Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV) and Sieve analysis.

The stratum of the quarry was interpreted as follows:

1

2m deep Red coffee soil

2

1.5m deep Highly decomposed material (brown in colour)

3

Soft tuff (grey in colour) with evidence of possibility of existence Hard stone beneath

OTHER OBSERVATIONS:

Easily accessible

Environmentally friendly

Has enough area for erection of site offices and crushing machine

16

NAME OF QUARRY:

WAIYAKI QUARRY

DESCRIPTION:

Area of Hardstone 4 Acres

DISTANCE FROM MAIN SITE:

1 km

OWNER:

DR. MUNYUA WAIYAKI & OTHERS

CONTACT:

0733-785801

DESCRIPTION:

The land is sloping and virgin; the material was ‘investigated’ by JICA in 1993 by drilling, using rotary machine. Stone samples from this quarry were sampled and taken to the laboratory for the necessary tests. On the western lower foot of the quarry, there is also a permanent river and as long as during exploitation, necessary mitigation measures are taken to avoid or minimize pollution of the river and the quarry is appropriately rehabilitated and properly drained it will be environmentally acceptable for exploitation. These measures have been well detailed in the EIA report section 6.3.1.2 part B4 and

B5

17

NAME OF QUARRY:

DESCRIPTION:

DISTANCE FROM MAIN SITE:

OWNER:

NYAMU QUARRY 7 Acres

Decomposed friable porous stone

2 km from James Gichuru Road

NYORO NYAMU & OTHERS “RIRONI”

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DESCRIPTION:

The land lies 2 KM west of Rironi-James Gichuru Road on a sloppy ground, but easily accessible on the road to Ndeiya.

Trials were done and the material was found to have too much clay on 1 st and 2 nd strata. The 3 rd strata was found to have highly decomposed friable porous stone, the material found in quarry I with the same characteristic is more superior quality and also other land acquisition logistics are much more comfortable. In conclusion, the quarry was abandoned but some samples were taken just in case more material for subgrade would be required during the time of the road construction.

The site is also environmentally friendly.

18

NAME OF QUARRY:

KARAI

QUARRY 14 Acres

DESCRIPTION:

Grey & Volcanic tuff stone

DISTANCE FROM MAIN SITE:

Karai - 7 km from Nairobi/Nakuru Road

GPS POINT

N9862172, E235372

OWNER:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Accessibility: All weather road from Kikuyu or Kamangu side

Ownership:

Privately owned land. Owner ready to dispose for stone excavation.

Material:

Material already sampled for testing at the Material branch. Exploited by local artisans, good for subbase and service roads

Vegetation:

Stunted wattle back trees.

Overburden: Less than 30cm on average

The Strata was interpreted as follows:

1

1m deep Red coffee soil

2

2m Deep Highly decomposed material (brown in colour)

3

Soft tuff (grey in colour) with evidence of possibility of existence

Hard stone beneath

OTHER OBSERVATIONS:

Easily accessible

Environmentally friendly

Has enough area for erection of site offices and crushing machine

19

NAME OF QUARRY:

DESCRIPTION:

DISTANCE FROM MAIN SITE:

OWNER:

Bulbul QUARRY in Ngong7 Acres

Highly Weathered phonolite rock

20 km from James Gichuru Road

Ministry of Livestock

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DESCRIPTION:

The land is located in the area south east of Ngong town. It’s accessible through all- weather roads off the tarmac road track to Ngong town. The already acquired area measures 40acres, and there is room for expansion, and only 15acres has been exploited.

The ground condition at the site comprises of dark brown to reddish brown top soil strata of varying thickness from 0.4m to 1m and grading into residual clay soil to maximum depths of 3.6m below ground level.

Underlying the soil horizon is the highly weathered phonolite rock suite and the highly weathered horizon consists of Ngong Volcanic rocks of Basanites and Tephrites. Below the highly weathered rock strata, the degree of weathering reduces from moderate to slight and into fresh state phonolite in some sections.

The phonolite rock encountered offers suitable road construction material that meets the material specifications.

The site is also environmentally friendly. The borehole logs, as investigated by the Ministry of Roads and Material Testing and Research Department for The China Road and Bridge Corporation (Kenya) is shown in Appendix C.

20

The location of each potential source of stone is indicated on a key plan. A site plan of each potential quarry was prepared, showing the characteristic features of the site (including outcrops) and the means of access and location. Six (6) No. hard stone quarries were identified as described above.

Investigations carried out Trial holes were dug on a 30 m grid to determine the overburden on each of the selected stone quarries. Five samples were taken per quarry and the position and level of each sampling point was accurately determined and recorded on the site plan, after the quarries have been drilled. Representative samples from these trial pits were taken to Central Testing Laboratories (CTL) located in Nairobi and subjected to the following laboratory tests:-

Los Angeles Abrasion

Aggregate Crushing Value

Sodium Sulphate Soundness

Flakiness Index

Plasticity Index on L.A.A. fines & Plasticity Index on Material passing the 425 micron sieve

Water absorption

Specific Gravity (oven-dry method)

Bitumen Affinity (for stone proposed for use with bitumen).

The results obtained from the above tests, are attached in Appendix C and discussed here below.

21

2.3.2.2 Test results

From the Roads design manual part III, for stone to be used in road pavement layers the requirements shown in the tables below should be achieved.

Table 2.3: Hardstone Quarry Test Results

Materials

Los

Aggregate

Sodium

Flakiness

%

Requirement

Angeles

Crushing

Sulphate

Index

passing

Abrasion

Value

Soundness

0.075mm

Graded

Max

Max 30%

Less than

Max 35%

-

Crushed

40%

12%

Stone

subbase

Graded

Max

Max 25%

Less than

Max 25%

-

Crushed

30%

12%

Stone road

base

   

Lean

Max

Max 28%

Less than

Max 25%

-

concrete

35%

12%

road base

Dense

Max

Max 28%

Less than

Max 25%

Max 1%

Bitumen

35%

12%

Macadam

road base

   

Asphalt

Max

Max 25%

Less than

Max 20%

Max 1%

Concrete

30%

12%

Surface

Max

Max 16%

Max 12%

Max 20%

-

dressing

20%

Concrete

Max

Max 35%

Max 12%

Max 35%

-

works

50%

Mutarakwa

64.3%

27.1%

8.2%

10.2%

0%

Quarry

Kikuyu

40.7%

20.3%

8.6%

11.5%

0%

Quarry

Karai Quarry

47.6%

26.4%

9.5%

13.9%

0%

Bulbul

14%

15%

2%

   

Quarry

(Source: Chart SB1, SB2, SB3, B1, B2, B4, B6, B7, S1a, S2a MoTC Road Design Manual Part III 1987)

22

Sub-base GCS: From the attached test results, it will be noted that the material suitability for use in subbase is within limits for Kikuyu quarry but not for Karai and Mutarakwa Quarries where the L.A.A exceeds the required value. The percentage of material smaller than 425 micron sieve for all the quarries was between 13% and 16% which is within the stipulated range of between 4-23%. These fines should be non- plastic. Weathered basic rocks like basalt, phonolite and dolerite are of very poor quality since they may contain minerals that are already decomposed and their use should be as limited as possible. L.A.A value exceeds the required maximum value in all the three quarries and therefore they are not suitable to supply material for use in road base. Bulbul quarry is satisfactory on all parameters.

GCS Base: L.A.A and ACV values exceed the required maximum value in three quarries except Bulbul quarry and therefore only the latter is suitable to supply material for use in road base GCS.

Lean concrete: The material suitability for use in lean concrete for road base fails in all quarries except Bulbul since the L.A.A exceeds the required maximum value of 35%. The percentage of material smaller than 425 micron sieve for all the quarries was between 13% and 16% which is within the stipulated range of between 9-24%.

Dense Bitumen Macadam: All quarries except Bulbul fail on the basis of L.A.A and ACV exceeding the required maximum values.

Asphalt Concrete: Kikuyu, Waiyaki and Karura quarries are unsuitable for use in Asphalt Concrete on the basis of L.A.A and/or ACV criteria. Materials from Bulbul quarry are suitable for use. It will be noted that for Waiyaki quarry the LAA was not done because after grading the material did not provide the required quantity of size 14/10 needed to carry out the test. The Consultant found it not necessary to provide extra sample for the test since the material had already failed in other aspects.

Surface Dressing: Kikuyu, Waiyaki and Karura quarries are unsuitable for use in surface dressing since in all the L.A.A and ACV exceeds the required value of 20% and 16% respectively. Bulbul quarry material is within limits and material can therefore be used.

Concrete Works: From the tests results, Kikuyu and Karai quarries qualifies for supply of material for concrete works but Mutarakwa quarry fails in L.A.A. In all three quarries, water absorption value exceeds the required value of 2.5%.

If the quarries were further investigated for provision of soft stone and then tested for CBR, PI on LAA fines and PI of materials passing 0.425mm sieve then they could be used to supply soft stone for sub-base if they are found to comply with the following requirements of RDM part III clause 7.2.5:

LAA does not exceed 70%

PI on LAA fines is non-plastic

23

PI of materials passing 0.425mm sieve from the ‘As dug material’ does not exceed 15% with a plastic modulus of less than 250

CBR at 95% MDD (Modified AASHTO) after 4 days soak is 60% and above.

Since most of the quarries except Bulbul quarry have failed in one way or the other, the following hard stones sources have been identified by the consultant with a recommendation of sampling them during construction stage:

Kedong Quarry: Kedong hardstone quarry is an already existing quarry that has been used on Mai Mahiu-Naivasha road and it is still used as a commercial quarry supplying construction companies in the area. Currently it is supplying the Contractors working on the geothermal power plant in Naivasha among others. It is a basaltic rock that is relatively hard but produces fairly round aggregates suitable for asphalt work. The distance from the quarry to project road is approximately 27 km from Rironi.

Gilgil Stone Quarry: Gilgil hardstone quarry is a privately owned quarry that has been extensively exploited by the contractor who was working on the Naivasha- Lanet road. It is an open quarry, with a basaltic rock that has fairly round aggregates that are good for asphalt works. Since the quarry is government owned, it is the most ideal to exploit for this project. The only challenge would be the distance from the project road that is approximately 90 km from Rironi. This haulage will be a considerable cost.

2.3.4 Sand Sources

No sand sources were identified at the proximity of the project road but it was noted that the commodity being used in that region is normally imported from either Mai Mahiu or Mlolongo region after being deposited in river beds by water during rainy seasons. These mentioned sources however are not permanent and it therefore not possible to map them or give a location because by the time the contractor is going to implement the works, the material might already be exhausted. Although some recharge takes place by heavy rains, the sources get depleted as more sand is harvested, and harvesters will have to move further into the interior. This implies that the contractor may have to use commercial sources in Nairobi (which is normally what contractors do) or send his own lorries to haul it from the river beds in areas where sand harvesting will be taking place then.

2.3.5 Water Sources

Water for construction purposes is available from a dam in an old quarry in Kikuyu. According to the Managing director of Kikuyu water and Sewerage Company, the water impounds an estimated depth of 30m and an area of 2 acres. The dam is located approximately 2km from the project road on the LHS from Kikuyu underpass (GPS POINT: N9862606, E240803). The managing director of Kikuyu water and sewerage indicated that they once carried out a hydrogeological survey of the dam and found the depth of the dam to be approximately 30m. It was also confirmed by the Managing director of Kikuyu Water and Sewerage Company (Eng. Wahinya) that Kikuyu dam has

24

a permanent recharge and it has never dried up. He intimated that two individuals own

the dam and for one to draw water from the dam he has to consult these individuals.

One of the individual is known as Mr. Kinyuru (Msafiri). At the time of Consultants’ visit,

it was observed that there is a permanent outflow indicating that recharge is greater than outflow. This dries up only during extreme drought period.

Water can also be obtained from a dam in Limuru known as Manguo (GPS POINT:

N9877652, E2236779) which is about 2km from A104/B3 junction towards Limuru and another one in Karai known as Karai dam which is 7km from A104/B3 junction on the LHS from Kamandura. Manguo dam was reported by Limuru water and Sewerage Company to have water throughout the year unless also there is a drought.

25

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A:

ALIGNMENT SOILS INVESTIGATION AND TEST RESULTS

28

Sample No.

 

001

002

003

004

005

006

007

008

009

Chainage

 

20+932

21+432

21+932

22+432

22+932

23+432

23+932

24+432

24+932

Offset

 

CENTRE

RHS

LHS

CENTRE

RHS

LHS

CENTRE

RHS

LHS

Liquid Limit

%

57

48

47

48

54

50

39

48

47

Plasticity Index

%

15

14

14

14

17

16

17

13

11

Passing B.S.S No. 75mm

%

                 

Passing B.S.S No. 63mm

%

                 

Passing B.S.S No. 50mm

%

     

100

 

100

100

   

Passing B.S.S No. 37.5mm

%

     

98

 

97

90

 

100

Passing B.S.S No. 28mm

%

 

100

 

98

 

96

87

 

97

Passing B.S.S No. 20mm

%

 

96

 

94

 

93

80

 

97

Passing B.S.S No. 14mm

%

 

92

 

93

 

88

78

 

97

Passing B.S.S No. 10mm

%

 

91

100

92

 

86

75

100

97

Passing B.S.S No. 6.3mm

%

 

87

99

91

 

84

71

99

96

Passing B.S.S No. 5mm

%

 

85

97

90

 

82

69

99

96

Passing B.S.S No. 4mm

%

 

84

96

89

100

81

67

98

95

Passing B.S.S No. 2mm

%

100

79

89

87

98

78

63

97

94

Passing B.S.S No. 1mm

%

99

75

83

85

96

73

63

96

90

Passing B.S.S No. 0.6mm

%

99

73

79

82

95

67

59

95

86

Passing B.S.S No. 0.5mm

%

98

72

78

81

94

66

56

95

84

Passing B.S.S No. 0.425mm

%

98

72

77

80

93

65

55

94

81

Passing B.S.S No. 0.3mm

%

97

71

76

79

93

63

54

93

75

Passing B.S.S No.0.15mm

%

97

70

75

78

92

62

53

93

70

Passing B.S.S No. 0.075mm

%

97

70

75

78

92

62

50

93

69

M.D.D (Kg/m 3 )

 

1220

1350

1330

1320

1200

1380

1440

1490

1270

O.M.C

%

26.2

16.5

24.5

21.5

20.0

29.0

15.5

26.4

21.0

CBR at 100% MDD 4 days soak

%

6

7

5

10

4

7

10

11

7

swell at 4 days soak

%

1.0

0.5

1.1

0.3

0.9

1.0

1.0

0.3

0.6

29

Sample No.

 

010

011

012

013

014

015

016

017

018

Chainage

 

25+432

25+932

26+432

26+932

27+432

27+932

28+432

28+932

29+432

Offset

 

CENTRE

RHS

LHS

CENTRE

RHS

LHS

CENTRE

RHS

LHS

Liquid Limit

%

54

58

41

52

54

52

45

54

49

Plasticity Index

%

19

20

10

17

19

17

15

16

11

Passing B.S.S No. 75mm

%

                 

Passing B.S.S No. 63mm

%

                 

Passing B.S.S No. 50mm

%

           

100

   

Passing B.S.S No. 37.5mm

%

     

100

   

94

   

Passing B.S.S No. 28mm

%

   

100

96

   

91

100

 

Passing B.S.S No. 20mm

%

 

100

97

96

   

84

99

 

Passing B.S.S No. 14mm

%

 

99

95

96

 

100

81

99

 

Passing B.S.S No. 10mm

%

 

99

94

95

 

99

80

99

 

Passing B.S.S No. 6.3mm

%

 

99

90

94

 

99

78

99

 

Passing B.S.S No. 5mm

%

 

99

89

94

 

99

77

99

100

Passing B.S.S No. 4mm

%

 

98

88

94

 

98

76

99

99

Passing B.S.S No. 2mm

%

 

98

84

93

100

98

73

98

99

Passing B.S.S No. 1mm

%

100

97

79

91

99

97

71

97

99

Passing B.S.S No. 0.6mm

%

99

73

72

91

98

95

68

96

98

Passing B.S.S No. 0.5mm

%

99

72

70

90

98

95

67

95

98

Passing B.S.S No. 0.425mm

%

99

71

69

90

98

94

66

95

98

Passing B.S.S No. 0.3mm

%

98

70

67

89

98

92

65

93

98

Passing B.S.S No.0.15mm

%

98

69

66

89

97

88

65

92

97

Passing B.S.S No. 0.075mm

%

98

69

60

89

97

88

65

92

97

M.D.D (Kg/m 3 )

 

1080

1220

1450

1180

1420

1120

1400

1140

1170

O.M.C

%

29.2

29.4

28.0

27.7

25.0

19.8

21.2

29.0

25.0

CBR at 100% MDD 4 days soak

%

6

5

9

7

8

4

9

6

6

swell at 4 days soak

%

1.2

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.9

1.2

1.8

1.3

1.6

30

Sample No.

 

019

020

021

022

023

024

025

026

027

Chainage

 

29+932

30+432

30+932

31+432

31+932

32+432

32+932

33+432

33+932

Offset

 

RHS

LHS

RHS

LHS

RHS

LHS

RHS

LHS

RHS

Liquid Limit

%

56

53

46

49

53

48

57

50

53

Plasticity Index

%

15

16

13

17

18

18

19

12

18

Passing B.S.S No. 75mm

%

   

100

           

Passing B.S.S No. 63mm

%

   

92

           

Passing B.S.S No. 50mm

%

   

89

   

100

     

Passing B.S.S No. 37.5mm

%

   

84

   

98

 

100

 

Passing B.S.S No. 28mm

%

   

83

100

 

94

 

95

 

Passing B.S.S No. 20mm

%

   

80

94

 

93

 

93

 

Passing B.S.S No. 14mm

%

   

78

92

 

93

100

88

 

Passing B.S.S No. 10mm

%

   

76

87

 

91

98

88

 

Passing B.S.S No. 6.3mm

%

   

73

83

 

90

94

88

 

Passing B.S.S No. 5mm

%

   

71

80

 

89

89

87

 

Passing B.S.S No. 4mm

%

 

100

69

78

100

88

85

87

100

Passing B.S.S No. 2mm

%

 

99

64

71

99

86

64

86

99

Passing B.S.S No. 1mm

%

100

98

61

67

97

84

46

86

98

Passing B.S.S No. 0.6mm

%

99

97

58

65

93

82

35

84

95

Passing B.S.S No. 0.5mm

%

99

96

57

65

90

81

33

83

93

Passing B.S.S No. 0.425mm

%

98

95

56

64

86

80

29

81

91

Passing B.S.S No. 0.3mm

%

98

93

54

62

81

78

25

80

86

Passing B.S.S No.0.15mm

%

98

90

54

61

78

75

22

76

85

Passing B.S.S No. 0.075mm

%

98

90

54

61

77

75

22

76

84

M.D.D (Kg/m 3 )

 

1210

1290

1320

1450

1310

1240

1400

1220

1150

O.M.C

%

25.9

26.3

23.0

20.8

27.2

28.0

27.8

26.2

24.0

CBR at 100% MDD 4 days soak

%

4

8

13

9

5

5

9

4

5

swell at 4 days soak

%

1.0

1.6

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.5

1.4

31

Sample No.

 

028

029

030

031

032

033

034

035

036

Chainage

 

34+432

34+932

35+432

35+932

36+432

36+932

37+432

37+932

38+432

Offset

 

LHS

RHS

LHS

RHS

LHS

RHS

LHS

RHS

LHS

Liquid Limit