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Tener Goodwin-Veenema here,

with the first video for
Module One, Basic Foundational Concepts
of Disaster Preparedness.
Let's start off by talking about,
what is a disaster?
How do we define it?
A disaster is the result of
a vast ecological breakdown
between the relationship between
humans and their environment.
It may be a serious or sudden event on
such a large scale that the affected
community requires outside assistance or
help, or international aid.
Disasters really are any
destructive event that disrupts
the normal functioning of the community
and the people who live within it.
The health effects of a disaster
may result in casualties or victims
that overwhelm the healthcare capabilities
and resources within the community.
Because of this sym, surge in demand,
it requires that we use
a shift in our paradigm,
the way we think about designing and
implementing healthcare services.
We need to start to think
about allocating score,
scarce resources and
move towards models of disaster triage.
Disasters have been an integral part of
the human experience since the beginning
of time, causing premature death,
injury, illness,
impaired quality of life, social
dislocation, and altered mental status.
And the risk of a disaster
occurring is ubiquitous,
with at least one disaster occurring
somewhere in the world every week.
Let's talk about our classification
system for disasters.
A classification system is important
because it helps us organize our thinking
and our preparedness activities.
We have natural disasters, which may
be a wildfire, earthquake, tornado.
These are the result of
ecological disruptions or threats
that exceed the adjustment capacity
of the community where they occur.
Technological disasters may be
transportation accidents, structural or
industrial failures such as a bridge
collapse or a plant exploding.
We have human-caused disasters that
are events that are directly or

indirectly caused by
the actions of humans.
Finally we have context events.
Things that are occurring such as
climate change, sea level rise,
deforestation, urbanization,
and those other
catastrophic earth changes that are really
impacting the environment that we live in.
Disasters can also be classified
by their onset, their impact, or
their duration, how long they last.
And finally, hospitals and healthcare
facilities may classify disaster as either
internal, occurring within the facility,
or external to the facility,
but it impacts the functioning
of that healthcare organization.
Just to review,
the major types of disasters are natural,
pandemic and infectious diseases,
technological, and things like terrorism,
which are human-caused.
The effects of disasters may be broad and
extreme, infrastructure collapse,
physical injuries,
permanent disabilities and death.
International disasters frequently
cause large population movements,
shortages of food and access to water,
and may have a lasting
psychological impact on the individuals
and the communities who are affected.
We like to think about
disaster preparedness and
planning in terms of the overall
disaster life cycle.
And no matter where we are in the world,
somewhere we fall within
that disaster life cycle.
It's characterized by the phases of
pre-impact, impact and post-impact.
But what's more valuable to think about
it is the framework of preparedness and
planning, the period which we do
proactive planning efforts including
hazard assessment.
Mitigation is the phase of the disaster
life cycle where we take measures
designed to reduce the harmful
effects of the disaster occurring.
Response, where we implement our disaster
response plan and care for the victims.
And recovery, stabilizing and
returning the organization, or
the community or region,
to its pre-disaster functioning.
And of course,
most importantly, evaluation.

We always need to assess our response

in order to improve our preparedness
efforts for the next event.
Disaster planning for hospitals and
healthcare facilities is
a fascinating activity that involves
people from all over the organization.
We start by collecting data for
the purpose of
really formulating an evidence-based
emergency operations response plan.
Well, what kind of data
do we need to collect?
The first thing we do is conduct what's
called a hazard vulnerability analysis.
Hazard identification involves creating
a list of just that, all of the hazards
that create risk to the organization, or
people that live within that community.
Vulnerability is where we
identify those people and
places that are most likely to
be impacted by that hazard.
And finally,
the risk is a mathematical calculation
of what the probability is
that an event will occur.
The next thing we do is
conduct a community or
organizational assessment to look
at what resources do we have and
where are they located that we'll need to
use to respond to these types of events?
We consider, very broadly,
what is the hospital,
what are the other nearby
healthcare facilities?
What is our regional capacity to respond?
So disaster planning is tho, are those
efforts that address the potential
problems that may impact the local
hospital or the community or the state.
And when we talk about that,
what kinds problems we are looking at,
mass casualty incidents,
the occurrence of natural disasters,
overt acts of terrorism, or
mass gatherings that may result
in a decomposition of the integrity
of the event, and the safety and
the security of those participating or
attending that event.
Our goal is to ensure that we involve
all the appropriate parties in disaster
response, healthcare providers, police,
fire, EMS, hazmat, engineering and safety.
And that we focus on the three
Cs of solid disaster planning,
communication, collaboration and
coordination across all agencies.

Now I'm going to take a couple of moments

to talk about what the core preparedness
activities are that will
result in us designing and
producing an organizational or
a community emergency response
operations plan that will work, no matter
what type of event is going to occur.
Disaster and emergency operations response
plans are constructed very carefully.
The data that we have collected provides
the foundation for our decision making.
But from there,
we need to build our plan based upon
our empirical knowledge of how people
will normally behave in a disaster.
We need to account for
the normal human response when events,
major disaster events, and
public health emergencies occur.
Our core preparedness activities
need to drive us to move
beyond what we do routinely in a hospital.
We move beyond normal hospital daily
triage where we're able to care for
everyone that comes to us,
to a point where we need to
think differently about how we're
going to allocate resources and
how we're going to prioritize
who gets care first.
We use the incident command
system as our framework for
leadership and
command post activities, and
you'll hear more about that in
another module later on in the course.
So continuing on with what are our
core disaster preparedness activities.
Well, one thing we need to do is make
sure that our local response and
our organizational emergency response plan
accommodates the first 48 to 72 hours.
This is for a major disaster event
where we may need additional help from
outside the community,
potentially state or
even federal resources under
the Robert T Stafford Act.
Communities may need to be prepared to
stand alone for the first 72 hours.
We need to be sure that
we have identified and
accommodated within our plan
the most vulnerable populations.
We need to really have a clear
understanding of what we can expect from
local, state, and
federal disaster assistance.
Organizations need to identify their

training and education needs that their

personnel, what resources they have,
where they're located and
in particular this is important as it
relates to personal protective equipment
for healthcare providers
working in disaster response.
And finally, the last activity that we
include in our disaster plan is for
the early conduction of
a disaster assessment.
What is the damage that's been done?
How many people have been impacted?
And how do we prepare for
the next phase of our response?
So, in a nutshell,
this is our conceptual foundation for
disaster preparedness and
designing hospital or
healthcare organization emergency
operations response plans.
Our goal is to be prepared, to be ready,
to know who our partners are that we can
count on to help us in our response, and
to ensure that all of our healthcare
providers are adequately prepared
to maximize our capacity to respond
to the people who need our help.
Thank you.