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Lecture 1

Enterprise Architecture
Introduction
(Enterprise Architecture IS353)

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe

Taibah University
College of Computer Science & Engineering
Information Systems Department

Topic subject













Background
Enterprise Architecture definition
System architecture
The Role of EA
Enterprise Frameworks:
 Zachman Framework
 Open Groups Architecture Framework (TOGAF)
The Foundation for Execution
Business architecture
Information architecture
Application architecture
Technology architecture
Implementation
Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

Definition (cont)


The organizational structure of a system or component.


 IEEE Standard 610, Standard Computer Dictionary:
A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer
Glossaries
The fundamental organization of a system embodied in
its components, their relationships to each other, and to
the environment, and the principles guiding its design
and evolution.
 IEEE Standard 1471, IEEE Recommended Practice
for Architectural Description of Software-Intensive
Systems.

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

Definition (cont)


Oxford:
 The

art or science of building or constructing


edifices of any kind for human use
 The special method or style in accordance
with which the details of the structure and
ornamentation of a building are arranged.

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

Defining an IT Architecture


ANSI/IEEE Standard 1471-2000


 Conceptually

an IT Architecture is

The fundamental organization of a system,


 embodied in its components,
 their relationships


to each other
 and the environment,


and the principles governing its design and


evolution.

 Practically

it is represented in Architectural
Descriptions from the viewpoints of the
Stakeholders

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

Some more ANSI/IEEE definitions




Architect:
 the

person, team, or organisation responsible


for systems architecture

Architecting:
 the

activities of defining, documenting,


maintaining, improving and certifying proper
implementation of an architecture.

Architectural description
a

collection of products to document an


architecture.

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

Enterprise Architecture
 Enterprise

Architecture: the explicit

description and documentation of the


current and desired relationships among
business and management processes and
information technology
OMB Circular A-130,

Enterprise Architecture (cont)




Defines a framework in which one


describes the current and future work
activities and justifies the investments
(personnel, data, applications) of an
enterprise

Enterprise Architecture (cont)








Enterprise - the highest level of organization,


or one that is trans-organizational
Infrastructure - all supportive resources to
getting the job done: people, processes,
technology
Model - a recreation or representation of the
infrastructure
Framework - the collection of the models
suited to a specific enterprise

Reference Models


Business Reference Model (BRM) define


mission-critical lines of business, business
processes, and functions
Technical Reference Model (TRM) identifies
and describes the information services used to
achieve the BRM
Data Reference Model (DRM) defines the
data/information structures, definitions, and
valids required by the BRM in the context of the
TRM

Zachman Framework
Planners view

Contextual

Owners view

Conceptual

Designers view

Logical

Builders view

Physical

Integrators view

As Built

Users view

What

How

Where

Who

When

Why

What

How

Where

Who

When

Why

Functioning

Describing the Enterprise


Work
assignments

work
processes

data
mission

data

Investments,
Planning

data

Software system
design

data
business modeling

Data management

Defining the Enterprise


community

whole of
government
ministry

division
office

workgroup

# participants, complexity

Architecture views


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System Stakeholder:
 an individual, team, or organization (or classes thereof)
with interests in, or concerns relative to, a system
View:
 a representation of a whole system from the
perspective of a related set of concerns
Viewpoint: (a schema of the information in a view)
 acts as a pattern or template from which to develop
individual views by establishing the purposes and
audience for a view and the techniques for its creation
and analysis

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

Architecture view (cont)








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Description of the architecture from the viewpoint of a


specific stakeholder
The main mechanism of communication between the
architect and the stakeholder
Used to ensure accuracy of understanding of the current
system
Used to ensure the architecture meets the need of each
stakeholder
The collection of views comprises the description of the
architecture

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

Architecture view (cont)











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An architecture framework is a set of tools which can be used


for developing a broad range of different architectures.[3] It
should:
describe a method for defining an information system in terms
of a set of building blocks
show how the building blocks fit together
contain a set of tools
provide a common vocabulary
include a list of recommended standards
include a list of compliant products that can be used to
implement the building blocks

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

System architecture


Design:
 How

each component should be build


 OO, Class, design patterns etc.


Differences between architecture and design


 Many

different designs may address the same need


 Different architectures imply different needs


Sample from reality: House


 Architecture:

number of rooms, main structure,


character, guiding lines.
 Design: interior design, rooms structure, electricity,
etc
Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

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About Enterprise Architecture










Its not technical!


Aligning IT to business.
Answering all of the enterprise needs
Transverse view.
knowing and managing the current situation,
paving the road for the wanted one.
Implementation of information management
Enforce homogeneous solutions and enable
One system to the users.
Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

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About Enterprise Architecture (cont)




Architected business information systems


will have:
A

greater ability to respond to new demands


 A greater business value to the organization
 A greater ability to use new technology
 A faster, simpler and cheaper procurement
process
 The ability to support a faster time-to-market

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Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

About Architectural Framework









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Architecture design is a complex process


An architectural framework is a tool for:
 Designing a broad range of a architectures
 Assisting the evaluation of different architectures
 Selecting and building the right architecture for an
organization
It embodies best practice and acknowledged wisdom
It presents a set of services, standards, design concepts,
components and configurations
It guides the development of specific architectures

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

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About Architectural Framework (cont)




Use of a framework leads to:


 The use of common principles, assumptions and
terminology
 The development of information systems with
better integration and interoperability, especially
with respect to issues that affect the whole
enterprise
What Framework is Not:
 A framework does not make architectural design
an automatic process
 It is a valuable aid to experienced and
knowledgeable IT Architects

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Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

The position of IT Architects


Technical
Management

Business
Management

IT Architects

System Designers
& Developers

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Enterprise Architecture (EA)








Enterprise Architecture has


consistently failed to deliver
to business
Frameworks have grown
ever more complex
Competitive pressure has
never been more
So how can Enterprise
Architecture deliver results?
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The Role of EA






Informing and Supporting Business


Strategic Vision while reforming and
simplifying the approach to the processing
that supports the business
The Enterprise and the Business
The opportunities to do business better
and satisfy the business imperatives.
Supporting strategic agility, representing
technical innovation in business terms
interpreting that strategic vision to direct
and motivate IT activity.
Direct and motivate IT activity
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Zachman Framework





Row 1 Scope
External Requirements and
Drivers
Business Function Modeling
Row 2 Enterprise Model
Business Process Models
Row 3 System Model
Logical Models
Requirements Definition
Row 4 Technology Model
Physical Models
Solution Definition and Development
Row 5 As Built
As Built
Deployment
Row 6 Functioning
Enterprise
Functioning Enterprise
Evaluation

What

How

Where

Who

When

Why

Contextual

Contextual

Conceptual

Conceptual

Logical

Logical

Physical

Physical

As Built

As Built

Functioning

Functioning

What

How

Where

Who

When

Why

Open Groups Architecture Framework (TOGAF)




A set of methods for IT Architectures

IT Emphasis

Aims to provide a Common


Vocabulary

The Open Group

Technology Neutral

Technical Pedigree

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The Foundation for Execution


Strategic Initiatives

Operating model
Defines
integration and
standardization
requirements

Enterprise architecture

Foundation for execution


Core business processes
IT infrastructure

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Foundation and Infrastructure




Foundation is partly the IT Infrastructure

Automated and non-automated technology

Understanding is key

The tool is not the job!

Supporting the Undertaking to do Business

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Supporting Agility


Exploiting the Model

Integration & Standardisation

Agile Strategic Initiatives

Managed Progression

Business Types

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Business architecture



Enterprise architecture awareness


Implement EA vision
 Organization

commitment
 Mapping stakeholders


Business architecture
 How the business works
 BPM / BPMN / BPEN
 Business targets
 What are the vision and mission.
 Gaps from current situation
 Constraints

and demands from IT

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

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Information architecture










Influence from business architecture.


Classification enterprise information.
How information is being managed?
Where to store data?
Data schemas
How to collaborate data
Mapping of unused / missing information
Information availability
Information security.

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

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Application architecture
Byproduct of business and information
architecture.
 Aligning systems to business needs
 Basic structure of systems


 Architecture

patterns

Relations and communication between


systems
 How systems share data


Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

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Technology architecture




Influenced by other architectures.


Needed infrastructure to support the systems.
Collection of selected technologies and tools to
implement chosen architectures
 Development
 Tools
 Communication
 Backups
 Standards
Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

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Implementation


Solution
Mapping current situation
 Defining the ideal situation
 Gap analysis
 Creating blueprints, instructions and standards to fill the gaps.


Work plan



Practical definition of migration to ideal situation on time line.


Taking into account current situation and other constraints

Governance


Governance the chosen architecture in daily work

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

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Who implement it
Governmental agencies in the states
 Firms & enterprises
 Improvement of IT products and saving


Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University

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References



Clive Finkelstein, 2007, Introduction to


Enterprise Architecture. http://www.tdan.com/
Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Lecture Notes:
Enterprise Architecture Fundamentals, Thames
Valley University, 2008.

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