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Lab report on Optical Communication


Exercise 1
Simulation of the Impact of NRZ and RZ Formats
In this exercise we observe the impact of these two different transmitter code formats
over 960 km distance made of 12 equal spans comprising of 60 km long single-mode
fiber (SMF) and 20 km long dispersion compensating fiber (DCF).

Fig 1: BER of NRZ format

Fig2: BER of RZ format

From the above figure we found that BER for RZ code format increase with
increasing bit rate. Due to shorter pulse width RZ get suffer from dispersion. While
comparing between BER for RZ and NRZ it is founded that NRZ code format have
quite stable BER with increasing bit rate. So from this comparison we could say that
for fiber operating at 10Gbps we use NRZ code format. Also in Digital transmitter
NRZ have higher data rate transmission on the same rise time value instead of RZ

Simulation of Optical Fiber Attenuation

In this exercise we observe the influence of optical fiber attenuation on
communication link when this link needs to carry 2.5 Gbps channel through 1550 nm
SFM optical fiber
Result without dispersion

While comparing transmitted and received wavelength spectrum we found that power
decrease dramatically due to attenuation in optical cable due to different loss like
scattering, bending and Absorption.

Above three figures are transmitted data signal, laser output and received output
signal respectively. As we see voltage reduces to 0.02V for laser output and to
0.0002V for received output signal due to attenuation in fiber cable.
BER comparison
Since there is no dispersion in the fiber so we found BER to be at 0.
Eye diagram comparison with and without Dispersion


Fig5: Eye diagram (a)NLFiber, (b) after NLFiber (c) after NLFiber with dispersion
Eye diagram after NLfiber have decrease in amplitude but there no distortion in eye
pattern so there is no need to put any amplifier in system even though the amplitude
of signal is small. But for the case of dispersion the output eye pattern get distorted
as seen in the figure. To overcome this problem we use optical amplifier to
regenerate the signal.

A. Simulation of Dispersion vs. Fiber Length
In this exercise we learn about the dispersion occur in single mode fiber at various
optical fiber lengths.
BER at Different Fiber length



Fig 6: BER for (a) 50km (b) 90km (c) 100km (d) 120km fiber length
At 50 km fiber BER is zero. But increasing the fiber length BER also increase and
found that for 120km fiber BER 10e-2.5.
Dispersion at various fiber lengths
Dispersion for various fiber lengths was analysis with respect to fiber distance and
found that for all cases dispersion increases linearly with increase in fiber distance.
B. Simulation of Dispersion vs. Bit Rates
In this exercise we learn about the dispersion occurs in single mode optical fiber at
various transmission bit rate 500Mbps, 1Gbps and 10 Gbps. And fiber length is kept
at 80km.
Eye pattern

Fig 7: Eye pattern

(a) 500Mbps (b) 1Gbps

For transmission bit rate of 500Mbps and 1Gbps we didnt found proper eye pattern it
is because of signal is not properly sampled.
BER Tester
We found BER for all case is 0.

Exercise 4

Simulation of DWDM System

In this exercise a dense WDM (DWDM) lightwave system consisting of 5 channels
over single mode fiber (SMF) spans is evaluated. Another optical fiber, so called
Dispersion Compensating Fiber (DCF) with opposite dispersion slope is placed in
line, so that fiber dispersion is fully compensated.


Fig7: BER at dispersion slope (a) -0.35e3


Dispersion compensation fiber used negative dispersion which compensated the

positive dispersion of conventional fiber so we can use fiber for long distance
communication. As in the fig.7 we see the variation of BER with change in slope.
BER at -350 dispersion slope is about 10e-100 while we change dispersion slope in
DCF to -250 we found that BER vary rapidly to about aprox. 10e-3.5 or we can say
that BER increased.

Property Map

Fig8: optical power map for EDFA gain of 28dB and 30 dB

Now we can see from figure8 that power of signal at 30dB EDFA is almost constant
over distance but when the EDFA Amplifier gain is reduce by 2 dB then we found the
rapid variation on the signal power with respect to distance which not good for long
distance communication.
When dispersion slope of DCF change from-0.35e3s/m^3 to -0.28e3 s/m^3

Fig9: dispersion slope of DCF

(a) -0.35e3s/m^3

(b) -0.28e3 s/m^3

When dispersion slope was -0.35e3s/m^3 the dispersion at fiber cable was almost
constant with respect to distance but when slope increases from -0.35e3s/m^3 to
-0.28e3 s/m^3 then we found the linear increases in the dispersion with increase in
Hence in this lab we were familiar with Optsim software tool for design and simulation
of optical communication systems. Here we learn about the RZ and NRZ code
formats, attenuation in fiber, fiber dispersion and dense WDM. Beside this we were
also familiar with Dispersion Compensation fiber (DCF) and EDFA and their important
in optical communication.