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OGJRESOURCES

02/20/1995

DavidKaye,JamesIngram

DavidN.Galbraith,RussellDavies

AndrewPalmer&AssociatesLtd.

MobilNorthSealtd.
Aberdeen

Anewprocedureforassessingandrectifyingsubseapipelinefreespanswas
successfullyusedin1992inMobilNorthSeaLtd.'sBerylfieldandtheScottishArea
GasEvacuation(SAGE)pipeline.
Thespanassessmentmethodisintwoparts,eachparthavingtwostages,andconsists
ofpreliminarystressandvibrationfrequencychecksfollowedbydetailedstrainand
fatiguelifecheckswhereappropriate.
Comprehensivesoftware,automaticallylinkedtoaninspectiondatabase,hasbeen
writtentoallowefficientuseofthemethodology.
Resultsfromthefreespanassessmentindicatethattheassessmentprocedure,andin
particularthestrainbasedandfatigueanalyses,gavesignificantsavingsintermsof
reducednumberoffreespansforrectification.
CriticalfreespanswerestabilizedbygroutbagspositionedbyanROV.TheROVbased
systemenabledbothrisksandcoststobereducedinanormallyhazardousandcostly
environment,andutilizedtechnologyalreadyonboardapipelineinspectionvessel.
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Theoverallfreespanassessmentandrectificationprogramrepresentsasignificantstep
forwardforMobilNorthSeaintermsofreducingcosts,whilesimultaneouslyimproving
thespeedandsimplicityoffreespanassessment.
Thesystemprovidesthepossibilitythatfuturefreespanrectificationworksmaybe
performedinasingleoffshoreprogram,whichincludespipelineinspection,survey,
assessment,engineering,andrepairofallfreespansfromasinglesurveyvessel.

SAGEAREA

TheBerylAplatformwasinstalledinBlock9/13in1973.Subsequentdevelopmentsin
theblockincludetheBerylBplatformtheNess,Bwiss,Linnhe,andNESSIImultiwell
subseadevelopmentsandfoursinglesubseawells.
Atotalof25pipelinesarelaidintheblock.Mostare6in.ODflowlinesfromthesubsea
wellstotheplatformsbutincludeone16in.andone20in.hydrocarbontransferline
betweentheproductionplatformsandtwoshort36in.,oilexportlinestoloadingbuoys.
AllthefacilitiesnotedareoperatedbyMobilNorthSeaLtd.onbehalfoftheBlock9/13
coventurersAmeradaHessLtd.,EnterpriseOilplc,BGNorthSeaHoldingsLtd.,and
OMV(UK)Ltd.
Additionally,therecentlyinstalledSAGE(OGJ,Mar.8,1993,p.37)gasexportlineruns
323km(200miles)fromBerylAtoSt.FergusandisoperatedbyMobilNorthSeaon
behalfoftheBerylandBraegroups.
ThefinesareinspectedannuallyincompliancewithregulatoryandMobilNorthSea
requirementsandforcontinuedfitnessforpurpose.Aswithmostpipelines,theannual
surveysidentifynumerousfreespanswhichmustbeassessedand,ifnecessary,
rectified.
MobilNorthSeahasnowimplementedseveralimprovementstoitsmethodsfor
collectingandrecordingpipelineinspectiondataandforautomaticallyassessingthe
significanceoffreespansinrelationtotheservice,pressure,temperature,and
orientationofpipelines.
ThemethodsofdatastorageandfreespanassessmentarebasedonPCprogramsfor
useonshoreandatsea.
Thebasisforrecordinganddisplayingtheinspectionresultsisadatabasesystem
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(Coabis).Surveydatacanbeenteredintothesysteminrealtimeontheinspection
vesselastheinspectionisperformed.
Furthercheckscanbeundertakenonthedataintheofficeandincludegraphical
comparisonofallfeaturesfromoneyeartoanother.
Thebenefitsincludetheabilitytocorrectmismatchesiiidatumlocationsbetween
surveysbyreferencetofixedfeatures(forexample,flanges,anodes,andmajordebris)
andavisualrepresentationofhowfreespans,buriedlengths,andanydeteriorationvary
fromyeartoNear.
ThefreespanassessmentproceduresareincorporatedintoaPCbasedsuiteof
freespanassessmentprograms.Thedatabaseandfreespanassessmentsoftwareare
linkedsothatthereisnomanualtranscribingofdatafollowingtheirentryintothedata
baseonthevessel.
Thisextentofautomationeliminatesthepreviouserrorsmadeduringmanual
transcribingofdataandalsoreducesthetimerequiredforfreespanassessment.
Thefreespanassessmentprocedureconsistsoftwoseparatestages.Thefirststageis
designedtobeundertakenbyMobilNorthSea'sinspectionrepresentativeonthevessel
andcanbeusedtoidentifythemorecriticalfreespan@whereadditionalmeasurements
(naturalfrequency,forexample)maybebeneficial.
Thisenablesmoredatatobecollectedonthesefreespans,optimizesutilizationofthe
inspectionvessel,andmayalsoreducetheextentoffreespanrectificationthatis
subsequentlyrecommended,usingthetechniquesdescribedpresently.
Beforeimplementationofthesystemdescribedhere,selectionoffreespansfor
rectificationoccurredbyreferencetoa"limitingvalue"foreachdiameterofpipeline.
Calculationofthelimitingvaluewasbasedontheworstpossiblecombinationof
conditionsforanypipelineofthatsize.
Thechangeinassessmenttechniqueswaspromptedby,abeliefwithinMobilNorth
Sea'sengineeringdepartmentthatthetechniquewasoverlyconservativewith
excessivenumbersoffreespansbeingidentifiedforcorrection.Indeed,foranumberof
NearsMobilNorthSeaapplied"engineeringjudgment"totherequirementsfor
rectification.

FREESPANASSESSMENT
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Pipelinefreespansareatriskfromdamagebyoneoftwodistinctmechanisms:by
excessivebendingfromexternallyappliedhydrodynamicorselfweightloading,orby
longtermfatiguedamage,fromflowinducedvibrations.
Thetraditionalmeansofensuringthatexcessivebendingdeformationcannotoccuris
todefineamaximumallowablefreespanlengthsuchthatthemaximumequivalent
stressinthefreespanislessthananacceptablefractionofthepipelinesteel'syield
stress.
ThisapproachhasbeenusedextensivelyforpipelinesintheNorthSeaandelsewhere.
Theapproachisconservative,however,inthatitfailstorecognizethepostyield
strengthofapipelinefreespananddoesnotrecognizethatapipelinecanremain
perfectlyserviceableandfitforpurposeeventhoughthepartofthepipelinesteelmay
haveexceededtheyieldlimit.
Thetraditionalmeansofensuringthatflowinducedvibrationscannotoccuristodefine
amaximumallowablefreespanlengthsuchthatthenaturalfrequencyofthefreespanis
toohightoallowanyflowinducedvibrationstodevelop.
Again,thisapproachhasbeenusedextensivelyintheNorthSeaandelsewherebutis
alsoconservative.Theapproachpreventsanyformoffreespanvibrationanddoesnot
recognizethatmodestfreespanvibrationsmaynotcausefatiguefailure.
Moresophisticatedandlessconservativefreespanassessmentmethodshavebeen
introducedinrecentyears.Modernpipelinedesigncodes,suchastherecently,issued
BS8010Part3,1explicitlyallowthemoresophisticatedapproach.
Inthefreespananalysisprogramdescribedhere,thesimplestressandvibrationcriteria
describedpreviouslyareusedforafirstpassanalysistoidentifythemorecritical
freespanswhicharethenexaminedinmoredetail.
Thesefreespansarereanalyzedwithmoresophisticatedstrainbasedcriteriatoassess
bendingdeformationandfatiguecriteriatoassesstheextentoffatiguedamageinduced
byfreespanvibration.
TheoverallflowchartforthefreespanassessmentisdescribedinFig.1.The
preliminaryanddetailedfreespanassessmentmethodsaredescribedinmoredetail
presently.
Thepreliminaryfreespanassessmentconsistsofchecksforoverstressinthefreespan
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andthepossibilitythatvortexinducedvibrationsmayoccur.Thesearealsodescribed
presently.

STRESSASSESSMENT

Thepreliminaryfreespananalysisperformedinthisstudyisbasedonafreespanmodel
describedbyPalmerandKay.2Themodelconsiderstheeffectoftheaxialforceinthe
freespan,tensioninducedbythesagofthefreespan,andpartialfoundationsupportat
thefreespanends.
MostseabedsoilsintheNorthSeaprovideonlypartialfoundationsupportattheends
ofafreespan.Infact,thepipelineembedsintothesoilateachendofthefreespan.
Thepointatwhichthefreespanissubjecttocompleteendfixityisusuallysome
distancealongtheseabedbeyondtheendofthefreespan.
Thisendfixitycontrolstherotationalandverticalstiffnessofthefreespansupportsand
affectsthebendingmomentswithinthefreespanitself.
Forbendingmomentcalculationsinthisstudy,theendsupportswereassumedtobe
completelyfixed,thatis,"clampedcrimped"endconditions.
Thisassumptionprovidesaconservativeestimateofendmomentsoverawiderangeof
typicalsoilconditionsintheNorthSea.
Themaximumbendingmomentinthefreespan,asaresultofboththepipeline'sself
weightandexternalhydrodynamicloading,iscalculatedwithbeamcolumntheory,
takingintoaccounttheeffectiveaxialforceinthefreespan.Thisforceincludesboththe
forceinthewallofthepipelineandtheforceresultingfromthepressureofthepipeline's
contents.3
Additionally,theeffectoftensiongeneratedbythesagofthefreespanisalsotakeninto
consideration.Thiseffectcanbesignificantforlongfreespansandhasanimportant
effectonboththeaxialstressesinthefreespanandthefreespan'snaturalvibration
frequency.
HydrodynamicforcesarecalculatedwithMorison'sequationwithappropriateforce
coefficients.Themaximumbending,axial,andhoopstressesinthewallofthepipeline
arethencalculated,andthegreatestvonMisesequivalentstressinthefreespanis
evaluated.
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Thisstressiscomparedagainsttheyieldstressofthepipelinesteel:

Iftheratioofthemaximumequivalentstresstothespecifiedminimumyieldstress
(SMYS)islessthan0.96,thefreespanisconcludedtobesafe.
Iftheratioisgreaterthan0.96,thenthefreespanisunacceptableonthe
preliminarystresscriteriaandrequiresfurtheranalysis.

REDUCEDVELOCITYASSESSMENT

Apipelinefreespancanbesubjecttoflowinducedvibrationfromvortexsheddingfrom
thefreespan.Vortexinducedvibrationispredominantlycontrolledbyadimensionless
parametercalledthereducedvelocitywrittenasshowninEquation1inthe
accompanyingequationsbox.
Generally,relativelysmallamplitudevibrationsofthefreespaninlinewiththeflow
directionoccuratvaluesOfVRgreaterthan1andpeakatVRbetween2and3,while
largeramplitudevibrationsacrosstheflowdirectionbeginatVRaround3andpeakat
VRofabout5.
ThetraditionaldesignapproachistoadoptacriticalVRwhichmustnotbeexceededin
designstormconditions.Theselectionofthecriticalreducedvelocityandthe
appropriatestormvelocityisopentoengineeringjudgment,however,andthe
applicationofthisapproachisofteninconsistent.
Intheanalysisdescribedhere,thecriticalreducedvelocityhasbeentakenasequalto
3.5,inwhichtheincidentvelocity(V)isthesumofthemaximumwaveinducedvelocity
andthemaximumcurrentvelocity.
Inordertoassesswhethervortexinducedoscillationswilloccur,itisnecessaryto
calculatethefreespan'snaturalfrequency(fN).
Inthisanalysis,thenaturalfrequency,iscalculatedbymodelingthefreespanasa
clampedclampedbeamunderanaxialforcewhichyieldsEquation2.
Inordertomodelthefinitefoundationstiffnessateachendofthefreespan,LEin
Equation2istakenas1.1multipliedbytheobservedlengthofthefreespan.
Thefreespanfrequencycanbeadifficultquantityt@predictaccurately.Toinvestigate
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thisfurther,thenaturalfrequencyoflongerfreespanswasmeasuredduringthe1992
surveyprogramwithanROVmountedaccelerometerpackage.
Fig.2showsthecalculatednaturalfrequencyforvariousfreespansin(he30in.SAGE
gasexportpipelineplottedagainstthemeasuredfrequency,.Thefigureshowsthe
calculatedfrequenciesforisolatedfreespansonly.
Thegeneralagreementisclearlygood,despitesomeinconsistenciesinthedata.The
agreementformultiplefreespansisnoticeablyworse,however.
AlthoughnotshowninFig.2,thecomparisonformultiplefreespanssuggeststhat
predictedfrequenciesformultiplefreespansstronglydependontheextentofsupport
providedbyintermediatetouchdownpoints.
Thedetailedfreespanassessmentconsistsofacheckforexcessivestraininthe
freespanandthecalculationofthefatiguelifeofthefreespan,

STRAINASSESSMENT

Theserviceabilityofapipelinewhichfailstheoverstresscheckpreviouslydescribedwill
beunaffectedprovidedthatthepostyielddeflectionsofthefreespanarenotexcessive.
TheBS8010designcode,1forexample,allowsyieldduetolargebendingstresses
providedthatcertainrequirementsontheplasticstrains,weldductility,anddiameter
wallratioaresatisfied.
Theseconditionscanoftenbemetbysubseapipelinefreespanswheretheseabed
providesaboundarywhichpreventsexcessivedeformationofthefreespan.Oncethe
freespantouchesdown,itbecomesessentiallytwofreespansseparatedbyasingle
support.
Thecentraltouchdownlimitsthebendingdeformationoftheoriginalfreespanand
providesasupportwhichreducesthestressesinthesubsequentdoublefreespan.
Thegreatestpossiblebendingstrainwhichcouldoccurcanbecalculatedfromthegap
belowthefreespanandthelengthofthefreespan.Thismaximumpossiblestrainis
thencomparedagainsttwolimits,basedonthefollowing:

Themaximumallowablestraingovernedbyweldductilityandsteelproperties
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Thebucklingstrainonthecompressivesideofthepipeline,whichisafunctionof
thepipediameter/wallthicknessratio.
Ifeitheroftheselimitsisexceeded,thereisariskofexcessivepipelinedeformationand
thefreespanmustberectified.

FATIGUEASSESSMENT

Adetailedandaccurateassessmentoftheconsequencesofflowinducedvibrationsof
thefreespancanbeperformedbypredictingtheamplitudeoffreespanvibrationsover
thefreespanlifeandevaluatingthesubsequentfatiguedamage.
Thefatiguecalculationisperformedbyfirstgeneratingaprobabilitydistributionofthe
incidentwaveandcurrentvelocitiesoverthedesignlifeofthefreespan.
Forwaves,thisisusuallyprovidedbyascatterdiagram.Forcurrents,thedataareoften
muchmoredifficulttoobtainbutcanoftenbeestimatedfromthestatisticaldistributions
ofthetidalandstormcurrentcomponents.
Foragivenfreespan,theincidentreducedvelocitycanthenbecalculatedforeach
waveandcurrentcombinationintheenvironmentaldataset.Theamplitudeoffreespan
vibrationcanbepredictedbyinterpolationofexperimentalmeasurementsoffreespan
vibrations.4
Thepredictionoftheexpectedamplitudeiscomplicatedbythepresenceofthe
oscillatorywavecomponentsuperimposedonasteadycurrent.Thiscanberesolvedby
referencetomoreextensivedataor(asfollowedinthisstudy)moredetailedmodeling
offreespanvibrationswithsteadyandoscillatoryflow.
Theeffectofwaveinducedoscillationsisalsoincludedintheanalysis.Inthiscase,the
waveinduceddisplacementwasestimatedfromtheoscillatoryhydrodynamicforceon
thefreespanwithanallowanceforanyresonanceofthefreespan.
Foreachwavecurrentcombination,theoscillatorystressesinducedbytheapplied
vortexdisplacementorwaveloadingcanbepredictedfrombeamcolumntheory.The
correspondingfatiguedamageatthatstressrangeiscalculatedfromSNcurvefatigue
data.
Ifthenumberofcyclestofailureforaparticularwavecurrentcombination(i)isgivenby
Ni,thenthetotalfatiguedamageforthatcombinationisshowninEquation3.
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Thetotalfatiguedamageforallwavecurrentcombinationscanbecalculatedwith
Miner'sruleasthesumofallparticularcombinations(Equation4).
Ifthetotalfatiguedamageisgreaterthan1,thenthefreespanisdeemedtobe
unacceptableandrectificationshouldbeconsidered.Iftotalfatiguedamageislessthan
1,thefreespandoesnotrequirecorrection,butitwouldbeprudenttomonitorthe
freespanduringsubsequentsurveystodetermineifitwillgrowwithtime.
Itshouldbenotedthatspanscanreducewithtimeandtherateoffatiguedamagemay
decline.

ASSESSMENTRESULTS

Figs,35showtheresultsoftheinspectionandanalysisprogramfortheSAGEgas
exportpipelineandtheBerylBtoA16in.gasand20in.oiltransferlines.
Eachfigureshowsthetotalnumberoffreespansobservedduringthesurvey,the
numberoffreespansthatfailedthepreliminaryanalysis,andthenumberoffreespans
thatfailedthedetailedanalysis.
Thefreespanshavebeengroupedinto10mlengthstohelpidentifywhichfreespans
havefailed.ResultsaresummarizedinTable1.
Theportionoffreespanswithineachlengthgroupwhichfailedthepreliminaryand
detailedanalysesincreaseswithincreasingfreespanlength.Severalshortfreespans
wereobservedduringthesurvey,butofthesefreespansnonefailedeitherthe
preliminaryordetailedanalysis.
Asthefreespan'slengthincreases,thetotalnumberoffreespansobserveddecreases
oftheobservedfreespans,anincreasingproportionfailedthepreliminaryanalysisand
anincreasingproportionofthesefreespansfailedthedetailedanalysis.
Noneofthefreespansinthe6in.flowlinesfailedthedetailedanalysisorrequired
rectification.
Thecostsavingthatresultsfromusingtherevisedfreespananalysisisdemonstrated
byFigs.35andbyTable1.Forexample,Fig.3showstheresultsforthe30in.SAGE
pipeline(BerylgasexporttoSt.Fergus).
Ifthefreespanfailurecriteriawerebasedontheworstcaselimitingfreespanlength
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fromthepreliminaryanalysis,whichistypicalofthepreviousMobilNorthSea
approach,thenallfreespansgreaterthan30mwouldrequirerectification.
Thisgivesatotalof166freespans.Clearlynotallthesefreespanswouldbestabilized,
buttheselectionofappropriatefreespansforstabilizationwouldthenbebasedlargely
onintuitiveengineeringjudgmentratherthanengineeringcalculation.
Ifthefreespanfailurecriteriawerebasedonthepreliminaryanalysisbutappliedto
eachindividualfreespan,thetotalnumberoffreespansrequiringrectificationwouldbe
reducedsignificantlyto20.Ofthesefreespans,only11failedthedetailedanalysis
describedpreviously.
Thetotalnumberoffreespansrequiringsomeformofstabilizationisthereforereduced
from166toonly11.Manyofthesefreespansfailedassessmentbyfatigueonly.Where
theremaininglifeextendsoverseveralyears,rectificationcouldbedelayedand
advantagetakenofanynaturalbackfillingoftheline.
SimilarconclusionscanbemadefortheBerylBtoAoilandgastransferpipelinesin
Figs.4and5.Thetrendsareratherlessclearbecauseofthelowertotalnumberof
freespansinthesetwopipelines,buttherevisedassessmentprocedureagainprovides
abetterandlessconservativebasisfortheselectionoffreespansrequiringsomeform
ofrectification.

STABILIZATIONTECHNIQUES

Thenormaltechniquesforstabilizingspanningpipelinesarerockdumping,grouted
support,orgravelcementbagsupports.Thesetechniquesarenormallyinstalledand
deployedbyeitheracustombuiltvessel,suchasrockdumpvessels,ordivingsupport
vessels.
Bothtypesareextremelycostlywithassociatedhighmobilizationcosts.
Thedecisionwasmadetoconsidernotonlythesetypesofvesselsbutalsonew
techniquessuchasROVsystems.ThecostofrunninganROVbasedvesselcapableof
remotemaintenanceoperationisapproximately2533%thatforadivingvessel.
Inaddition,ithasbeenaMobilNorthSeainitiativeoverthepastfewyearstoremove
thediverfromasmanysubseaapplicationsaspossibletoreducehazardsandcosts.

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Atechnicalandcostcomparisonwasmadeofthethreeoptionsandofremote
maintenanceusingROVsystems.
Thecosts(Table2)areindicativeandbasedonaMobilNorthSeacostestimateof
criticalfreespansonboththeSAGEandBerylBtoBerylApipelines.Itwasassumed
thatatotalof12freespansrequiredsupport,splitequallyintotwolocations
approximately200kmapart.
Onthebasisofthecostcomparison,theROVbasedtechniqueswereeventually
chosenandusedsuccessfullyin1992.

STABILIZATIONPROCEDURE

Thecriticalfreespansrequiringrectificationinthe1992pro,ramvariedgreatlyinlength
andheightofftheseabed.Inparticular,theheightoffreespansranged75250mmoff
theseabed.
Thesystemofdeployingandinstallingthegroutedsupporthadtodealwithboth
extremesoffreespanheight.
Thechosenmethodofrectificationwastodeployagroutbagandpositionitbelowthe
pipeline.Thebagwastheninflatedwithgroutwhich,whencured,providesarigid
supporttotheline.
ThevesselusedforthefreespanrectificationprogramwastheKommandorSubsea
operatedbySubSeaOffshoreLtd.ThisvesselhadalreadybeenchartedfortheSAGE
pipelineinspectionprogramandwasideallysuitedforROVoperations.
Theonlyadditionalequipmentrequiredwasagroutingspreadandlaunchandrecovery
systemfortheROVinstalledgroutbags.
Astandardgroutingspreadwasemployedtomixandpumpagroutmixturespecifiedby
MobilNorthSea.
Thegroutdesignwasbasedonachievingaminimumcompressivestrengthwithina28
dayperiod.
Thegroutbagsupportwasdesignedtoensurethatitbeinflatedcorrectlyandthatitbe
easytousefortheROVanddeploymentframesystem.Thebagitselfwasbuiltfrom
industrystandardfabric.
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Theoperationwascarriedoutinfiveoperations:

1. Groutsupportlocation.TheROV'wasdeployedtosurveythefreespanandmark
thelocationonthepipelinewheretheproposedgroutedsupportshouldbeplaced.
ThismarkingwasmadebyuseofawhitemarkerchainvisiblebyROVsonarand
cameras.
2. Groutbagdeployment.Thegroutbagwasdeployedonacircularswivel
deploymentframe,launchedfromanAframeoverthesideoftheKommandor
Subsea.
Thegroutbagdeploymentframeandrouthoseumbilicalwerethenloweredtothe
seabedsurface,landingapproximately510mfromthepipelinesupportlocation.
3. Groutbaginstallation.Thedeploymentframewasturnedonitsswivelbaseby
ROVtoensurethatthegroutbag'sleadingedgewasfacingtowardsthepipeline.
TheROVwasusedtopushaneedleattachedtothegroutbagunderthefreespan
andthentopullthebagthroughontheothersideofthepipelineandpullthebag
awayfromitsdeploymentframe.
Thisoperationwascarriedoutslowlytoensuretheaccurateplacementofthe
groutbagunderthepipeline.
4. Groutbaginflation.Groutwaspumpedthrougha58mmboregrouthosewhich
wasattachedtothegroutbagviaaquickreleaseconnector.
Oncethedesiredsupportshapewasachievedandgroutwasseenventingfrom
thetopthebag,groutingwasstoppedandthequickreleaseconnectionbrokenby
theROV.
5. Deploymentframerecoveryandpostinstallationsurvey.Thedeploymentframe
waspulledawayfromthelocationtoallowflushingofthegrouthosethe
deploymentframewasthenrecoveredbacktothevessel.
TheROVthenmadeitsfinalpostinstallationsurvey,ofthefreespanandthenewly,
installedsupport,recordingpositionalandvisualdata.
Thetotaldurationforthesefiveoperations,basedonagroutbagvolumeof1.5cum,
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wasapproximately3hrdependingonweather.Approximatelyfourgroutbagscouldbe
placedincloseproximity,withina12hrshift.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

TheauthorswishtoacknowledgetheassistanceofStephenBoothandAndrew,Palmer
foradviceontheworkdescribedinthisarticle.

REFERENCES

1. BritishStandard,Institution,BS8010"CodeofPracticefirPipelines,Part3
PipelinesSubsea:DesignConstructionandInstallation,"February1993.
2. Palmer,A,C.,andKaye,D.,"RationalAssessmentCriteriaforPipelineSpans,"
EuropeanSeminarOffshorePipelineTechnology,,1991.
3. Palmer,A.C.,andBaldry,J.A.S.,"LateralBucklingo(AxiallyCompressed
Pipelines,"journalofPetroleumTechnology,No.26(1974),pp.128384.
4. "VibrationofPipelineSpans,"ReportNo.EX1268,December1984,Hydraulics
Research,Wallingford
5. "RulesforSubmarinePipelineSystems,"DetnorskeVeritas,DnV1981.

Copyright1994Oil&GasJournal.AllRightsReserved.

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