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Dr. S. P.

Harsha
Asst. Prof., MIED, IIT Roorkee
COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN FLUID FLOW
AND HEAT TRANSFER

COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN FLUID


FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER
 Review of basic fluid mechanics and the governing (Navier-Stokes)
equations
 Techniques for solution of PDEs finite difference method (FD),
finite element method and finite volume method.
Finite volume (FV) method in one-dimension, Differencing
schemes, Steady and unsteady calculations, Boundary conditions, FV
discretizationin two and three dimensions, SIMPLE algorithm and
flow field calculations, variants of SIMPLE,
 Introduction to Turbulence and turbulence modeling, illustrative
flow computations, Introduction to commercial software's FLUENT
and CFX grid generation, flow prediction and post-processing.
Application of FD methods for unsteady and steady heat
conduction problems.

Review of basic fluid mechanics and the governing


(NavierNavier-Stokes) equations
Fluids are substances whose molecular structure
offers no resistance to external shear forces: even the
smallest force causes deformation of a fluid particle.
Although a significant distinction exists between
liquids and gases, both types of fluids obey the same
laws of motion. In most cases of interest, a fluid can
be regarded as continuum, i.e. a continuous
substance.

Review of basic fluid mechanics and the governing


(NavierNavier-Stokes) equations
 Classification of a Fluid (A fluid can only sustains
tangential force when it moves)
By viscous effect: inviscid & Viscous Fluid.
By compressible: incompressible & Compressible
Fluid.
By Mack No: Subsonic, transonic, Supersonic, and
hypersonic flow.
By eddy effect: Laminar, Transition and Turbulent
Flow.

Review of basic fluid mechanics and the governing


(NavierNavier-Stokes) equations
 Mathematically:
 A vector field u (represents the fluid velocity)

 A scalar field p (represents the fluid pressure)

 fluid density (d) and fluid viscosity (v)

Recalling vector operations


 Del Operator:
 Laplacian Operator:
 Gradient:

Vector Gradient:

Divergence:

Directional Derivative:

Path Lines, Streamlines, and Stream Functions


 A path line is a line along which a fluid particle
actually travels. Since, it is the time history of the position
of a fluid particle, it is best described using the
Lagrangian description.
 Since the particle incrementally moves in the direction
of the velocity vector, the equation of a path line is given
by:

 A streamline is defined as a line drawn in the flow at a


given instant of time such that the fluid velocity vector at
any point on the streamline is tangent to the line at that
point. The requirement of tangency means that the
streamlines are given by the equation
 A stream surface (or stream sheet) is a collection of
adjacent streamlines, providing a surface through which
there is no flow. A stream tube is a tube made up of
adjoining streamlines.
 For steady flows (time-independent), path lines and
streamlines coincide.

Laws

 All fluid mechanics is based on the conservation

laws for mass, momentum, and energy.

CONSERVATION OF MASS
Consider a volume fixed in space (Figure 1). The
rate of increase of mass inside it is the volume
integral

Fig. 1 Mass conservation of a volume fixed in space.

The rate of mass flow out of the volume is the


surface integral

because u dA is the outward flux through an area


element dA.
The law of conservation of mass states that the rate of
increase of mass within a fixed volume must equal the
rate of inflow through the boundaries. Therefore,
(1)

Eq. (1) is the integral form of the law for a


volume fixed in space. The differential form can
be obtained by transforming the surface integral
on the right-hand side of Eq. (1) to a volume
integral by means of the divergence theorem,
which gives

Eq. (1) then becomes

The aforementioned relation holds for any volume,


which can be possible only if the integrand vanishes at
every point. (If the integrand did not vanish at every

point, then we could choose a small volume around


that point and obtain a nonzero integral.)
This requires
(2)

which is called the continuity equation and expresses


the differential form of the principle of conservation of
mass.

The equation can be written in several other forms.


Rewriting the divergence term in Eq. (2) as

the equation of continuity becomes


(3)

The derivative D/Dt is the rate of change of density


following a fluid particle; it can be nonzero because of
changes in pressure, temperature, or composition (such
as salinity in sea water).

The continuity equation (3) can be rewritten for


incompressible fluid as
(4)

Eq. (4) is valid irrespective of whether or not the flow is


steady.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
Consider the motion of the infinitesimal fluid
element shown in Fig. 2. Newtons law requires that
the net force on the element must equal mass times
the acceleration of the element. The sum of the
surface forces in the x1 direction equals

Fig. 2 Surface stresses on an element moving with the flow.

which simplifies to

where dV is the volume of the element.


Generalizing, the i-component of the surface force
per unit volume of the element is

where we have used the symmetry property ij = ji .

Let g be the body force per unit mass, so that g is


the body force per unit volume. Then Newtons law
gives
(5)

This is the equation of motion relating acceleration


to the net force at a point and holds for any
continuum, solid or fluid, no matter how the stress
tensor ij is related to the deformation field. Eq. (5)
is sometimes called Cauchys equation of motion.
motion

NAVIERSTOKES EQUATIONS
NAVIER
The constitute equation for a Newtonian fluid is
given as
(6)

The equation of motion for a Newtonian fluid is


obtained by substituting the constitutive Eq. (6) into
Cauchys Eq. (5) to obtain
(7)

Where, we have noted that (p/xj )ij = p/xi . Eq. (7)


is a general form of the Navier
NavierStokes equation.

Viscosity in Eq. (7) can be a function of the


thermodynamic state, and indeed for most fluids displays
a rather strong dependence on temperature, decreasing
with T for liquids and increasing with T for gases. However,
if the temperature differences are small within the fluid,
then can be taken outside the derivative in equation (7),
which then reduces to

(8)
Where 2ui is the Laplacian of ui

For incompressible fluids u


u = 0, and using vector
notation, the NavierStokes equation reduces to
(9)

If viscous effects are negligible, which is generally found to


be true far from boundaries of the flow field, we obtain the

Euler equation

(10)

Continuity equation

for incompressible (constant density) flow


- derived from conservation of mass

where u is the velocity vector

u, v, w are velocities in x, y, and z directions

Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow of


Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

- derived from conservation of momentum

kinematic
viscosity
(constant)

density
(constant)

pressure
external force
(such as
gravity)

Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow of


Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

- derived from conservation of momentum

Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow of


Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

- derived from conservation of momentum

Acceleration term:
change of velocity
with time

Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow of


Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

- derived from conservation of momentum

Advection term:
force exerted on a
particle of fluid by the
other particles of fluid
surrounding it

Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow of


Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

- derived from conservation of momentum

viscosity (constant) controlled

velocity diffusion term:


(this term describes how fluid motion is
damped)
 Highly viscous fluids stick together (honey)
 Low-viscosity fluids flow freely (air)

Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow of


Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

- derived from conservation of momentum

Pressure term:
Fluid flows in the
direction of
largest change
in pressure

Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow of


Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

- derived from conservation of momentum

Body force term:


external forces that
act on the fluid
(such as gravity,
electromagnetic,
etc.)

Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow of


Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

- derived from conservation of momentum

change
body
in
= advection + diffusion + pressure + force
velocity
with time

Continuity and Navier-Stokes equations


for incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid

Continuity and Navier-Stokes equations


for incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid
in Cartesian coordinates
Continuity:
Navier-Stokes:
x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

Steady, incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid in an infinite


channel with stationery plates
- fully developed plane Poiseuille flow
Fixed plate

y
z

2a
Fluid flow direction
Fixed plate

Step 1: Choose the equation to describe the flow


Navier-Stokes equation will be used since the system
considered is an incompressible flow (Assumption 1) of
a Newtonian fluid (Assumption 2)
Step 2: Choose the coordinate system
Cartesian coordinate system is chosen

Continuity and Navier-Stokes equations


for incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid
in Cartesian coordinates
Continuity:
Navier-Stokes:
x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

Steady, incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid in an infinite


channel with stationery plates
- fully developed plane Poiseuille flow
Fixed plate

y
z

2a
Fluid flow direction
Fixed plate

Step 3: Decide upon the functional dependence of the


velocity components
x direction:
y direction:

u = function of (t, x, y, z)
v = function of (t, x, y, z)

z direction:

w = function of (t, x, y, z)

(1)

Assumption (3): steady flow and therefore no change in time


Assumption (4): infinite channel and therefore nothing
happens in z-direction
Assumption (5): fully developed flow and therefore no change
in the flow direction (that is, x-direction)
Using the above 3 assumptions, we reduce (1) to the following:
x direction:
y direction:

u = function of (y)
v = function of (y)

z direction:

w=0

(2)

Step 4: Use the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates

v
=0
y

u v w
+
+
=0
x y z

v = constant

v=0

or

Flow geometry shows that vv can not


be a constant, and therefore we choose

Fixed plate

v=0

2a
Fluid flow direction
Fixed plate

The functional dependence of the velocity components


therefore reduces to
x direction:
u = function of (y)
(3)
y direction:
v=0
z direction:

w=0

Step 5: Using the N-S equation, we get


x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

N-S equation therefore reduces to


p
2u
x - component:

+ 2 + g x = 0
x
y
p
y - component:

+ g y = 0
y
z - component:

p
+ g z = 0
z

Ignoring gravitational effects, we get


x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

p
2u

+ 2 =0
x
y

(4)

=0
y

p is not a function of y

=0
z

p is not a function of z

p is a function
of x only

Rewriting (4), we get

2 u 1 p
=
2
y
x

(5)

p is a function of x only and is a constant and


therefore RHS is a function of x only
u is a function of y only and therefore LHS is a
function of y only
Therefore (5) gives, function of (y) = function of (x) = constant

p
It means p =
x

= constant

That is, pressure gradient in the x-direction is a constant.


LHS = left hand side of the equation
RHS = right hand side of the equation

Rewriting (5), we get

2 u 1 p p
=
=
2
y
x

(6)

p
where p =
is the constant pressure gradient in the x-direction
x
Since u is only a function of y, the partial derivative becomes an
ordinary derivative.
Therefore, (5) becomes

d 2u
p
=
2
dy

(7)

Integrating (6), we get

p y 2
u=
+ C1 y + C 2
2

(8)

where C1 and C2 are constants to be


determined using the boundary
conditions given below:

u=0
u=0

at
at

y=a
y = a

no-slip
boundary
condition

y=a

Fixed plate

y
x

2a
Fluid flow direction

y = a

Fixed plate

Substituting the boundary conditions in (8), we get

C1 = 0

and

p a 2
C2 =
2

Therefore, (8) reduces to

p 2
(
u=
a y 2 ) Parabolic
velocity profile
2

Steady, incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid in an


infinite channel with one plate moving at uniform velocity
- fully developed plane Couette-Poiseuille flow
p y 2
u=
+ C1 y + C 2
2

(8)

where C1 and C2 are constants to be


determined using the boundary
conditions given below:

u =U
u=0

at
at

y=a
y = a

no-slip
boundary
condition

y=a

Moving plate
at velocity U

2a
Fluid flow direction

y = a

Fixed plate

Substituting the boundary conditions in (8), we get


U
C1 =
2a

and

U p a 2
C2 = +
2
2

Therefore, (8) reduces to


Parabolic velocity profile
p 2
U
2
(
(a + y ) is super imposed on a
u=
a y )+
2
2a
linear velocity profile

Steady, incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid in an


infinite channel with one plate moving at uniform velocity
- fully developed plane Couette-Poiseuille flow

u=

p 2
U
(
(a + y )
a y2 )+
2
2a

If zero pressure gradient is maintained


in the flow direction, then p = 0.

y=a

Moving plate
at velocity U

y
x

2a
Fluid flow direction

y = a

Fixed plate

Therefore, we get

u=

U
(a + y ) Linear velocity profile
2a
Point to remember:
- Pressure gradient gives parabolic profile
- Moving wall gives linear profile

Continuity and Navier-Stokes equations


for incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid

Steady, fully developed, laminar, incompressible flow of a


Newtonian fluid down an inclined plane under gravity
Exercise 1:
Show that, for steady, fully developed laminar
flow down the slope (shown in the figure), the
Navier-Stokes equations reduces to

d 2u
g
=
sin
2

dy

where u is the velocity in the x-direction, is the density, is


the dynamic viscosity, g is acceleration due to gravity, and is
the angle of the plane to the horizontal.
Solve the above equation to obtain the velocity profile u and obtain the
expression for the volumetric flow rate for a flowing film of thickness d.
Exercise 2:
If there is another solid boundary instead of the free-surface at y = d and the
flow occurs with no pressure gradient, what will be the volumetric flow rate?

Step 1: Choose the equation to describe the flow


Navier-Stokes equation is already chosen since the system considered
is incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid.
Step 2: Choose the coordinate system
Cartesian coordinate system is already chosen.

Step 3: Decide upon the functional dependence of


the velocity components

x direction :
y direction :
z direction :

u = function (t , x, y , z )
v = function (t , x, y , z )
w = function (t , x , y , z )

(1)

Steady, fully developed flow and therefore no change in time and in the flow
direction. Channel is not bounded in the z-direction and therefore nothing
happens in the z-direction.

x direction :

u = function ( y )

y direction :
z direction :

v = function ( y )
w=0

(2)

Step 4: Use the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates

v
=0
y

u v w
+
+
=0
x y z

v = constant

or

Flow geometry shows that vv can not


be a constant, and therefore we choose

v=0

v
z

v=0

The functional dependence of the velocity components


therefore reduces to
x direction:
u = function of (y)
(3)
y direction:
v=0
z direction:

w=0

Step 5: Using the N-S equation, we get


x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

N-S equation therefore reduces to


p
2u
x - component:

+ 2 + g x = 0
x
y
p
y - component:

+ g y = 0
y
z - component:

p
+ g z = 0
z

No applied pressure gradient to drive the flow. Flow is


driven by gravity alone. Therefore, we get
x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

2u
= gx
2
y

d 2u
g
=
sin
2
dy

p
= g y = g cos
y

=0
z

p is not a function of z

(4)

What was
asked to be
derived in
Exercise 1

Steady, fully developed, laminar, incompressible flow of a


Newtonian fluid down an inclined plane under gravity
Exercise 1:
Show that, for steady, fully developed laminar
flow down the slope (shown in the figure), the
Navier-Stokes equation reduces to

d 2u
g
=
sin
2

dy

done

where u is the velocity in the x-direction, is the density, is


the dynamic viscosity, g is acceleration due to gravity, and is
the angle of the plane to the horizontal.
Solve the above equation to obtain the velocity profile u and obtain the
expression for the volumetric flow rate for a flowing film of thickness d.
Exercise 2:
If there is another solid boundary instead of the free-surface at y = d and the
flow occurs with no pressure gradient, what will be the volumetric flow rate?

d 2u
g
=
sin
2
dy

(4)
z

Equation (4) is a second order equation in u with


respect to y. Therefore, we require two boundary
conditions (BC) of u with respect to y.
BC 1:
BC 2:

At y = 0, u = 0
At y = d, du = 0

(no-slip boundary condition)

(free-surface boundary condition)

dy

Integrating equation (4), we get

Applying BC 2, we get

du g
=
sin y + A
dy

A =
sin d

Combining equations (5) and (6), we get

(5)

(6)

du g
=
sin (d y )
dy

(7)

z
d

y2
+ B
sin dy
Integrating equation (7), we get u =
2

Applying BC 1, we get

B=0

(8)

(9)

y2
Combining equations (8) and (9), we get u =

sin dy
2

(10)

Steady, fully developed, laminar, incompressible flow of a


Newtonian fluid down an inclined plane under gravity
Exercise 1:
Show that, for steady, fully developed laminar
flow down the slope (shown in the figure), the
Navier-Stokes equation reduces to

d 2u
g
=
sin
2

dy

done

where u is the velocity in the x-direction, is the density, is


the dynamic viscosity, g is acceleration due to gravity, and is
the angle of the plane to the horizontal.
Solve the above equation to obtain the velocity profile u and obtain the
expression for the volumetric flow rate for a flowing film of thickness d.
Exercise 2:

done

If there is another solid boundary instead of the free-surface at y = d and the


flow occurs with no pressure gradient, what will be the volumetric flow rate?

d 2u
g
=
sin
2
dy

(4)

Equation does not change.


BCs change.

z
BC 1:

At y = 0, u = 0

(no-slip boundary condition)


d

BC 2:

At y = d, du = 0

(free-surface boundary condition)

dy

u=0

(no-slip boundary condition)

Integrating equation (4), we get

du g
=
sin y + A
dy

g
y2
sin
+ Ay + B
Integrating equation (12), we get u =

2

d
sin

2

Applying the BCs in (13), we get B = 0 and A =

(12)
(13)

Therefore, equation (13) becomes

g
dy y 2

u =
sin
2

2

(14)

Volumetric flow rate through one unit width fluid


film along the z-direction is given by

z
d

Q = u dy
0

g
dy y 2
Q =
sin dy

2
2
0
d

g
dy
g
d 3 d 3 gd 3
y
=
Q =
sin
sin =
sin
6 0
6 12

4
4
2

(15)

Summary of Exercises 1 and 2

Gravity flow through two planes

Free surface gravity flow

z
d

y2

u =
sin dy
2

gd 3
Q=
sin
3

(10)
(11)

g
dy y 2

u =
sin
2

2

gd 3
Q=
sin
12

(14)
(15)

Steady, fully developed, laminar, incompressible flow of a


Newtonian fluid down a vertical plane under gravity
Exercise 3:
A viscous film of liquid draining down the side of a wide
vertical wall is shown in the figure. At some distance down
the wall, the film approaches steady conditions with fully
developed flow. The thickness of the film is d. Assuming that
the atmosphere offers no shear resistance to the motion of
the film, obtain an expression for the velocity distribution
across the film and show that

3Q
d =

(1 / 3 )

where is the kinematic viscosity of the liquid, Q is the


volumetric flow rate per unit width of the plate and g is
acceleration due to gravity.

Steady, fully developed, laminar, incompressible flow of a


Newtonian fluid over a porous plate sucking the fluid
Exercise 4:
An incompressible, viscous fluid (of kinematic viscosity ) flows between
two straight walls at a distance h apart. One wall is moving at a constant
velocity U in x-direction while the other is at rest as shown in the figure. The
flow is caused by the movement of the wall. The walls are porous and a
steady uniform flow is imposed across the walls to create a constant d u = V du
dy
dy
velocity V through the walls. Assuming fully developed flow, show that the
velocity profile is given by
2

u=

1 exp(Vy / )
U
1 exp(Vh / )

Also, show that


(i) u approaches Uy/h for small V, and
(ii) u approaches U exp[ V (h y ) / ] for very
large Vh/.

V
U
h

Step 1: Choose the equation to describe the flow done


Step 2: Choose the coordinate system done
Step 3: Decide upon the functional dependence of the velocity components
Steady, fully developed flow and therefore no change in time and in the flow
direction. Channel is not bounded in the z-direction and therefore nothing
happens in the z-direction.

x direction :

u = function ( y )

y direction :
z direction :

v = function ( y )
w=0

(1)

Step 4: Use the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates

u v w
+
+
=0
x y z

v
=0
y

v = constant or v = 0

v =V

U
h

The functional dependence of the velocity components


therefore reduces to
x direction:
u = function of (y)
(2)
y direction:
v=V
z direction:

w=0

Step 5: Using the N-S equation, we get


x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

N-S equation therefore reduces to


x - component:
y - component:
z - component:

2u
u
p
V
+ 2
=
y
y
x

p
= g
y
p
=0
z

No applied pressure gradient to drive the flow. Flow is caused by the


movement of the wall. Therefore, we get
x - component:

d 2 u V du
=
2
dy
dy

(3)
V
U
h

d 2 u V du
du
V
=
=
where
=

dy 2 dy
dy

(3)

Equation (3) is a second order equation in u with respect to y. Therefore,


we require two boundary conditions (BC) of u with respect to y.
BC 1:

At y = 0, u = 0

BC 2:

At y = h, u = U

(no-slip boundary condition)


(no-slip boundary condition)

Integrating equation (3), we get


Integrating equation (4), we get

du
= exp(y + A)
dy

u=

(4)
(5)

exp(y + A) + B

Applying the BCs in equation (5), we get

0=
U=

exp( A) + B
exp(h + A) + B

(6)
(7)

From equations (6) and (7), we get

exp( A) =

U
exp(h ) 1

B=

exp( A) =

U
exp(h ) 1

Substituting the above in equation (5), we get

u=

U
U
1 exp(y )
exp(y )
=
U
exp(h ) 1
exp(h ) 1 1 exp(h )

u=

1 exp(Vy / )
U
1 exp(Vh / )

(8)
V
U
h

u=

1 exp(Vy / )
U
1 exp(Vh / )

(8)

(i) For small V, expand exp(Vy/) and exp(Vh/) using Taylor series as follows:

(Vy / ) 2 (Vy / ) 2
+
+ K
1 1 + (Vy / ) +
3!
2!

U
u=

(Vh / ) 2 (Vh / ) 2
1 1 + (Vh / ) +
+
+ K
2!
3!

For small V, we can ignore the terms with power. We then get

Vy /
y
u=
U= U
Vh /
h

V
U

Could you recognize the above profile?

u=

1 exp(Vy / )
U
1 exp(Vh / )

(8)

For very large Vh/, exp(Vh/) goes to infinity. Therefore. Divide equation (8) by
exp(Vh/). We then get

u=

exp( Vh / ) exp(Vy / ) exp( Vh / )


exp( Vh / ) 1

For very large Vh/, exp(-Vh/) goes to zero. Therefore, we get

exp(Vy / ) exp( Vh / )
u=
U
( 1)

u = U exp[ V (h y ) / ]

U
h

Thanks