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Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 68

Harsha

Asst. Prof., MIED, IIT Roorkee

COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN FLUID FLOW

AND HEAT TRANSFER

FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER

Review of basic fluid mechanics and the governing (Navier-Stokes)

equations

Techniques for solution of PDEs finite difference method (FD),

finite element method and finite volume method.

Finite volume (FV) method in one-dimension, Differencing

schemes, Steady and unsteady calculations, Boundary conditions, FV

discretizationin two and three dimensions, SIMPLE algorithm and

flow field calculations, variants of SIMPLE,

Introduction to Turbulence and turbulence modeling, illustrative

flow computations, Introduction to commercial software's FLUENT

and CFX grid generation, flow prediction and post-processing.

Application of FD methods for unsteady and steady heat

conduction problems.

(NavierNavier-Stokes) equations

Fluids are substances whose molecular structure

offers no resistance to external shear forces: even the

smallest force causes deformation of a fluid particle.

Although a significant distinction exists between

liquids and gases, both types of fluids obey the same

laws of motion. In most cases of interest, a fluid can

be regarded as continuum, i.e. a continuous

substance.

(NavierNavier-Stokes) equations

Classification of a Fluid (A fluid can only sustains

tangential force when it moves)

By viscous effect: inviscid & Viscous Fluid.

By compressible: incompressible & Compressible

Fluid.

By Mack No: Subsonic, transonic, Supersonic, and

hypersonic flow.

By eddy effect: Laminar, Transition and Turbulent

Flow.

(NavierNavier-Stokes) equations

Mathematically:

A vector field u (represents the fluid velocity)

Del Operator:

Laplacian Operator:

Gradient:

Vector Gradient:

Divergence:

Directional Derivative:

A path line is a line along which a fluid particle

actually travels. Since, it is the time history of the position

of a fluid particle, it is best described using the

Lagrangian description.

Since the particle incrementally moves in the direction

of the velocity vector, the equation of a path line is given

by:

given instant of time such that the fluid velocity vector at

any point on the streamline is tangent to the line at that

point. The requirement of tangency means that the

streamlines are given by the equation

A stream surface (or stream sheet) is a collection of

adjacent streamlines, providing a surface through which

there is no flow. A stream tube is a tube made up of

adjoining streamlines.

For steady flows (time-independent), path lines and

streamlines coincide.

Laws

CONSERVATION OF MASS

Consider a volume fixed in space (Figure 1). The

rate of increase of mass inside it is the volume

integral

surface integral

element dA.

The law of conservation of mass states that the rate of

increase of mass within a fixed volume must equal the

rate of inflow through the boundaries. Therefore,

(1)

volume fixed in space. The differential form can

be obtained by transforming the surface integral

on the right-hand side of Eq. (1) to a volume

integral by means of the divergence theorem,

which gives

which can be possible only if the integrand vanishes at

every point. (If the integrand did not vanish at every

that point and obtain a nonzero integral.)

This requires

(2)

the differential form of the principle of conservation of

mass.

Rewriting the divergence term in Eq. (2) as

(3)

following a fluid particle; it can be nonzero because of

changes in pressure, temperature, or composition (such

as salinity in sea water).

incompressible fluid as

(4)

steady.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

Consider the motion of the infinitesimal fluid

element shown in Fig. 2. Newtons law requires that

the net force on the element must equal mass times

the acceleration of the element. The sum of the

surface forces in the x1 direction equals

which simplifies to

Generalizing, the i-component of the surface force

per unit volume of the element is

the body force per unit volume. Then Newtons law

gives

(5)

to the net force at a point and holds for any

continuum, solid or fluid, no matter how the stress

tensor ij is related to the deformation field. Eq. (5)

is sometimes called Cauchys equation of motion.

motion

NAVIERSTOKES EQUATIONS

NAVIER

The constitute equation for a Newtonian fluid is

given as

(6)

obtained by substituting the constitutive Eq. (6) into

Cauchys Eq. (5) to obtain

(7)

is a general form of the Navier

NavierStokes equation.

thermodynamic state, and indeed for most fluids displays

a rather strong dependence on temperature, decreasing

with T for liquids and increasing with T for gases. However,

if the temperature differences are small within the fluid,

then can be taken outside the derivative in equation (7),

which then reduces to

(8)

Where 2ui is the Laplacian of ui

u = 0, and using vector

notation, the NavierStokes equation reduces to

(9)

be true far from boundaries of the flow field, we obtain the

Euler equation

(10)

Continuity equation

- derived from conservation of mass

Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

kinematic

viscosity

(constant)

density

(constant)

pressure

external force

(such as

gravity)

Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

Acceleration term:

change of velocity

with time

Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

Advection term:

force exerted on a

particle of fluid by the

other particles of fluid

surrounding it

Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

(this term describes how fluid motion is

damped)

Highly viscous fluids stick together (honey)

Low-viscosity fluids flow freely (air)

Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

Pressure term:

Fluid flows in the

direction of

largest change

in pressure

Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

external forces that

act on the fluid

(such as gravity,

electromagnetic,

etc.)

Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid

change

body

in

= advection + diffusion + pressure + force

velocity

with time

for incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid

for incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid

in Cartesian coordinates

Continuity:

Navier-Stokes:

x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

channel with stationery plates

- fully developed plane Poiseuille flow

Fixed plate

y

z

2a

Fluid flow direction

Fixed plate

Navier-Stokes equation will be used since the system

considered is an incompressible flow (Assumption 1) of

a Newtonian fluid (Assumption 2)

Step 2: Choose the coordinate system

Cartesian coordinate system is chosen

for incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid

in Cartesian coordinates

Continuity:

Navier-Stokes:

x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

channel with stationery plates

- fully developed plane Poiseuille flow

Fixed plate

y

z

2a

Fluid flow direction

Fixed plate

velocity components

x direction:

y direction:

u = function of (t, x, y, z)

v = function of (t, x, y, z)

z direction:

w = function of (t, x, y, z)

(1)

Assumption (4): infinite channel and therefore nothing

happens in z-direction

Assumption (5): fully developed flow and therefore no change

in the flow direction (that is, x-direction)

Using the above 3 assumptions, we reduce (1) to the following:

x direction:

y direction:

u = function of (y)

v = function of (y)

z direction:

w=0

(2)

v

=0

y

u v w

+

+

=0

x y z

v = constant

v=0

or

be a constant, and therefore we choose

Fixed plate

v=0

2a

Fluid flow direction

Fixed plate

therefore reduces to

x direction:

u = function of (y)

(3)

y direction:

v=0

z direction:

w=0

x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

p

2u

x - component:

+ 2 + g x = 0

x

y

p

y - component:

+ g y = 0

y

z - component:

p

+ g z = 0

z

x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

p

2u

+ 2 =0

x

y

(4)

=0

y

p is not a function of y

=0

z

p is not a function of z

p is a function

of x only

2 u 1 p

=

2

y

x

(5)

therefore RHS is a function of x only

u is a function of y only and therefore LHS is a

function of y only

Therefore (5) gives, function of (y) = function of (x) = constant

p

It means p =

x

= constant

LHS = left hand side of the equation

RHS = right hand side of the equation

2 u 1 p p

=

=

2

y

x

(6)

p

where p =

is the constant pressure gradient in the x-direction

x

Since u is only a function of y, the partial derivative becomes an

ordinary derivative.

Therefore, (5) becomes

d 2u

p

=

2

dy

(7)

p y 2

u=

+ C1 y + C 2

2

(8)

determined using the boundary

conditions given below:

u=0

u=0

at

at

y=a

y = a

no-slip

boundary

condition

y=a

Fixed plate

y

x

2a

Fluid flow direction

y = a

Fixed plate

C1 = 0

and

p a 2

C2 =

2

p 2

(

u=

a y 2 ) Parabolic

velocity profile

2

infinite channel with one plate moving at uniform velocity

- fully developed plane Couette-Poiseuille flow

p y 2

u=

+ C1 y + C 2

2

(8)

determined using the boundary

conditions given below:

u =U

u=0

at

at

y=a

y = a

no-slip

boundary

condition

y=a

Moving plate

at velocity U

2a

Fluid flow direction

y = a

Fixed plate

U

C1 =

2a

and

U p a 2

C2 = +

2

2

Parabolic velocity profile

p 2

U

2

(

(a + y ) is super imposed on a

u=

a y )+

2

2a

linear velocity profile

infinite channel with one plate moving at uniform velocity

- fully developed plane Couette-Poiseuille flow

u=

p 2

U

(

(a + y )

a y2 )+

2

2a

in the flow direction, then p = 0.

y=a

Moving plate

at velocity U

y

x

2a

Fluid flow direction

y = a

Fixed plate

Therefore, we get

u=

U

(a + y ) Linear velocity profile

2a

Point to remember:

- Pressure gradient gives parabolic profile

- Moving wall gives linear profile

for incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid

Newtonian fluid down an inclined plane under gravity

Exercise 1:

Show that, for steady, fully developed laminar

flow down the slope (shown in the figure), the

Navier-Stokes equations reduces to

d 2u

g

=

sin

2

dy

the dynamic viscosity, g is acceleration due to gravity, and is

the angle of the plane to the horizontal.

Solve the above equation to obtain the velocity profile u and obtain the

expression for the volumetric flow rate for a flowing film of thickness d.

Exercise 2:

If there is another solid boundary instead of the free-surface at y = d and the

flow occurs with no pressure gradient, what will be the volumetric flow rate?

Navier-Stokes equation is already chosen since the system considered

is incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid.

Step 2: Choose the coordinate system

Cartesian coordinate system is already chosen.

the velocity components

x direction :

y direction :

z direction :

u = function (t , x, y , z )

v = function (t , x, y , z )

w = function (t , x , y , z )

(1)

Steady, fully developed flow and therefore no change in time and in the flow

direction. Channel is not bounded in the z-direction and therefore nothing

happens in the z-direction.

x direction :

u = function ( y )

y direction :

z direction :

v = function ( y )

w=0

(2)

v

=0

y

u v w

+

+

=0

x y z

v = constant

or

be a constant, and therefore we choose

v=0

v

z

v=0

therefore reduces to

x direction:

u = function of (y)

(3)

y direction:

v=0

z direction:

w=0

x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

p

2u

x - component:

+ 2 + g x = 0

x

y

p

y - component:

+ g y = 0

y

z - component:

p

+ g z = 0

z

driven by gravity alone. Therefore, we get

x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

2u

= gx

2

y

d 2u

g

=

sin

2

dy

p

= g y = g cos

y

=0

z

p is not a function of z

(4)

What was

asked to be

derived in

Exercise 1

Newtonian fluid down an inclined plane under gravity

Exercise 1:

Show that, for steady, fully developed laminar

flow down the slope (shown in the figure), the

Navier-Stokes equation reduces to

d 2u

g

=

sin

2

dy

done

the dynamic viscosity, g is acceleration due to gravity, and is

the angle of the plane to the horizontal.

Solve the above equation to obtain the velocity profile u and obtain the

expression for the volumetric flow rate for a flowing film of thickness d.

Exercise 2:

If there is another solid boundary instead of the free-surface at y = d and the

flow occurs with no pressure gradient, what will be the volumetric flow rate?

d 2u

g

=

sin

2

dy

(4)

z

respect to y. Therefore, we require two boundary

conditions (BC) of u with respect to y.

BC 1:

BC 2:

At y = 0, u = 0

At y = d, du = 0

dy

Applying BC 2, we get

du g

=

sin y + A

dy

A =

sin d

(5)

(6)

du g

=

sin (d y )

dy

(7)

z

d

y2

+ B

sin dy

Integrating equation (7), we get u =

2

Applying BC 1, we get

B=0

(8)

(9)

y2

Combining equations (8) and (9), we get u =

sin dy

2

(10)

Newtonian fluid down an inclined plane under gravity

Exercise 1:

Show that, for steady, fully developed laminar

flow down the slope (shown in the figure), the

Navier-Stokes equation reduces to

d 2u

g

=

sin

2

dy

done

the dynamic viscosity, g is acceleration due to gravity, and is

the angle of the plane to the horizontal.

Solve the above equation to obtain the velocity profile u and obtain the

expression for the volumetric flow rate for a flowing film of thickness d.

Exercise 2:

done

flow occurs with no pressure gradient, what will be the volumetric flow rate?

d 2u

g

=

sin

2

dy

(4)

BCs change.

z

BC 1:

At y = 0, u = 0

d

BC 2:

At y = d, du = 0

dy

u=0

du g

=

sin y + A

dy

g

y2

sin

+ Ay + B

Integrating equation (12), we get u =

2

d

sin

2

(12)

(13)

g

dy y 2

u =

sin

2

2

(14)

film along the z-direction is given by

z

d

Q = u dy

0

g

dy y 2

Q =

sin dy

2

2

0

d

g

dy

g

d 3 d 3 gd 3

y

=

Q =

sin

sin =

sin

6 0

6 12

4

4

2

(15)

z

d

y2

u =

sin dy

2

gd 3

Q=

sin

3

(10)

(11)

g

dy y 2

u =

sin

2

2

gd 3

Q=

sin

12

(14)

(15)

Newtonian fluid down a vertical plane under gravity

Exercise 3:

A viscous film of liquid draining down the side of a wide

vertical wall is shown in the figure. At some distance down

the wall, the film approaches steady conditions with fully

developed flow. The thickness of the film is d. Assuming that

the atmosphere offers no shear resistance to the motion of

the film, obtain an expression for the velocity distribution

across the film and show that

3Q

d =

(1 / 3 )

volumetric flow rate per unit width of the plate and g is

acceleration due to gravity.

Newtonian fluid over a porous plate sucking the fluid

Exercise 4:

An incompressible, viscous fluid (of kinematic viscosity ) flows between

two straight walls at a distance h apart. One wall is moving at a constant

velocity U in x-direction while the other is at rest as shown in the figure. The

flow is caused by the movement of the wall. The walls are porous and a

steady uniform flow is imposed across the walls to create a constant d u = V du

dy

dy

velocity V through the walls. Assuming fully developed flow, show that the

velocity profile is given by

2

u=

1 exp(Vy / )

U

1 exp(Vh / )

(i) u approaches Uy/h for small V, and

(ii) u approaches U exp[ V (h y ) / ] for very

large Vh/.

V

U

h

Step 2: Choose the coordinate system done

Step 3: Decide upon the functional dependence of the velocity components

Steady, fully developed flow and therefore no change in time and in the flow

direction. Channel is not bounded in the z-direction and therefore nothing

happens in the z-direction.

x direction :

u = function ( y )

y direction :

z direction :

v = function ( y )

w=0

(1)

u v w

+

+

=0

x y z

v

=0

y

v = constant or v = 0

v =V

U

h

therefore reduces to

x direction:

u = function of (y)

(2)

y direction:

v=V

z direction:

w=0

x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

2u

u

p

V

+ 2

=

y

y

x

p

= g

y

p

=0

z

movement of the wall. Therefore, we get

x - component:

d 2 u V du

=

2

dy

dy

(3)

V

U

h

d 2 u V du

du

V

=

=

where

=

dy 2 dy

dy

(3)

we require two boundary conditions (BC) of u with respect to y.

BC 1:

At y = 0, u = 0

BC 2:

At y = h, u = U

(no-slip boundary condition)

Integrating equation (4), we get

du

= exp(y + A)

dy

u=

(4)

(5)

exp(y + A) + B

0=

U=

exp( A) + B

exp(h + A) + B

(6)

(7)

exp( A) =

U

exp(h ) 1

B=

exp( A) =

U

exp(h ) 1

u=

U

U

1 exp(y )

exp(y )

=

U

exp(h ) 1

exp(h ) 1 1 exp(h )

u=

1 exp(Vy / )

U

1 exp(Vh / )

(8)

V

U

h

u=

1 exp(Vy / )

U

1 exp(Vh / )

(8)

(i) For small V, expand exp(Vy/) and exp(Vh/) using Taylor series as follows:

(Vy / ) 2 (Vy / ) 2

+

+ K

1 1 + (Vy / ) +

3!

2!

U

u=

(Vh / ) 2 (Vh / ) 2

1 1 + (Vh / ) +

+

+ K

2!

3!

For small V, we can ignore the terms with power. We then get

Vy /

y

u=

U= U

Vh /

h

V

U

u=

1 exp(Vy / )

U

1 exp(Vh / )

(8)

For very large Vh/, exp(Vh/) goes to infinity. Therefore. Divide equation (8) by

exp(Vh/). We then get

u=

exp( Vh / ) 1

exp(Vy / ) exp( Vh / )

u=

U

( 1)

u = U exp[ V (h y ) / ]

U

h

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