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# NALYSIS ON ELECTRIC FIELDS AND EQUIPOTENTIAL LINES

In experiment 305, which is entitled Electric Fields and Equipotential Lines, we studied the nature of
electric fields by mapping the equipotential lines and then drawing in the electric lines of force using the conductive
paper. The experiment was made easier with the help of the digital multimeter.
Electric field is defined as the electric force per unit charge. To determine the electric field E more precisely,
consider a small positive test charge q at a given location. As long as everything else stays the same, the Coulomb
force exerted on the test charge q is proportional to q. Then the force per unit charge, F/q, does not depend on the
charge q, and therefore can be regarded meaningfully to be the electric field E at that point. We specify that the test
charge q be small because in practice the test charge q can indirectly affect the field it is being used to measure.
Coulombs law states that the electric force (

## Or if shown by graph is,

The electric force (

## ) is also inversely proportional to the square of the

distance of charges with each other (r) shown by the equation and the graph below.

Combining the two equations and removing the proportionality symbol, we will have the equation:

If, for example, we bring a test charge near the Van de Graaff generator dome, the Coulomb forces from
the test charge redistribute charge on the conducting dome and thereby slightly change the E field that the dome
produces. But secondary effects of this sort have less and less effect on the proportionality between F and q as
we make q smaller. The direction of the field is taken to be the direction of the force it would exert on a positive test
charge. The electric field is radially outward from a positive charge and radially in toward a negative point charge.
Electric field lines can be drawn using field lines. They are also called force lines.
The field lines are originated from the positive charge. The field lines end up at the negative charge.

## (Negative charge electric field)

A positive charge exerts out and a negative charge exerts in equally to all directions; it is symmetric. Field
lines are drawn to show the direction and strength of field. The closer the lines are, the stronger the force acts on an
object. If the lines are further each other, the strength of force acting on a object is weaker.
Closely
associated with the
concept of electric
field is the pictorial
representation of the
field in terms of lines
of force. These are
imaginary geometric
lines constructed so
that the direction of
the line, as given by
the tangent to the
line at each point, is
always
in
the
direction of the E
field at that 2 point,
or equivalently, is in
the direction of the
force that would act
on a small positive
test charge placed at
that
point.
The
electric field and the
concept of lines of
electric force can be
used to map out
what forces act on a
charge placed in a particular region of space.
Electric charge is a fundamental
conserved property of some subatomic
particles,
which
determines
their
electromagnetic interaction. Electrically
charged matter is influenced by, and
produces, electromagnetic fields. The
interaction between a moving charge and
the electromagnetic field is the source of
the electromagnetic force, which is one of
the four fundamental forces.
In some sources, definition of
electric charge is a characteristic of some
subatomic particles, and is quantized when

expressed as a multiple of the so-called elementary charge e. Electrons by convention have a charge of 1, while
protons have the opposite charge of +1.
In
general,
same-sign
charged
particles
repel
one
another,
while
different-sign
charged
particles
attract. This
is expressed
quantitatively
in Coulomb's
law, which states the magnitude of the repelling force is proportional to the product of the two charges, and weakens
proportionately to the square of the distance.
The total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant regardless of changes within the system
itself. This law is inherent to all processes known to physics and can be derived in a local form from gauge invariance
of the wave function.
In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge has a property called an electric field. This electric field
exerts a force on other charged objects. The concept of electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday.
The electric field is a vector with SI units of newtons per coulomb (N C-1) or, equivalently, volts per meter (V
m-1). The direction of the field at a point is defined by the direction of the electric force exerted on a positive test
charge placed at that point. The strength of the field is defined by the ratio of the electric force on a charge at a point
to the magnitude of the charge placed at that point. Electric fields contain electrical energy with energy density
proportional to the square of the field ntensity. The electric field is to charge as acceleration is to mass and force
density is to volume.In the experiment, we are not required to solve for any values like the electric force or the
intensity of electric field but rather we are asked to observe some properties of the electric field. We are able to do
this by making a simple
electric field that can be easily
observed. This can be done
by using a conductive paper
and a 6 volts battery to
generate electric charges. By
using a silver ink pen, we are
able to mark the electrodes on
which the electric charges will
pass.
The objective of the
experiments is to study the

nature of electric fields by mapping the equipotential lines and then drawing in the electric lines of force. To start of
the experiment, the materials used were conductive papers, silver ink pen, corkboard, push pins, connecting wires,
circular template, digital multimeter and battery and as shown below:

Conductive Paper

Template, Push
Pins and Wires

Battery

The experiment consists of two parts. One is Dipoles of Unlike Charges. On the first part of the experiment,
we searched for the points on the conductive paper that have equal potential. We have observed that when we
connected the points with the same potential, the result is a parabola curve. We did five trials. The experiment is not
very difficult since we have to find one point that has the same potential with the reference point. It requires patience.

Data obtained
are the following:

Abscissa

Ordinate

.605 Volts

-1

10.3

-0.8

9.3

-0.4

9.1

-1.5

8.8

-2.2

10

-2.5

11

-0.9

7.1

-2.8

-3.2

1.182 Volts

1.529 Volts

1.774 Volts

-3.5

7.5

-4.3

-5.3

-2.1

5.3

-3.9

-4.8

6.5

2.02 Volts

## And as we graph the data, this figure was made.

Showing that those blue lines were the data
gathered, the equipotential lines form by the
coordinates and by following the manual, that the
electric field is perpendicular to the equipotential
lines, those green lines were produced.

The distances of the equipotential lines are proportional to its distance to the point source. The closer the
equipotential lines are to the source, the closer they are to each other.

On the second part of the experiment, we followed the same procedure as the first. Here, instead of having on
a point of negative charge, we made it surround the positive charge. The only difference is that we drew a circle that
will serve as our guard ring and our point source is the origin. We have observed that after connecting the points with
equal potential, the resulting figures were circles.

## In this part, the following table

was the results achived:

Abscissa

Ordinate

-1

-1

-0.2

-0.6

-0.9

-0.8

-.07

-2

2.31 Volts

3.47 Volts

-.08

-1.9

-1.8

-0.9

-1.5

-1

-3

-1.6

-2.2

-2.5

-1

-2.8

-0.1

-4

-1.2

-3.8

-1.8

-3.4

-2

-3.2

-5

-0.9

-4.9

-1.2

-4.8

-1.5

-4.7

4.18 Volts

4.75 Volts

5.16 Volts

## And the graph formed is below.

Same formation and analyzation was
made for blue lines were the data
gathered, the equipotential lines form by
the coordinates and by following the
manual, that the electric field is
perpendicular to the equipotential lines,
those green lines were produced.
The small movement of the tester
on the conductive paper will have a big
movement on the reading of multimeter
made the experiment slower and difficult.
Another thing is, tt is not possible
for the equipotential lines to intersect each
other, since they all follow the law of
conservation of charge in which they must
trade their charge to attain a new one.
In the discussion of electric fields
one can easily grasp its importance in our
modern life from the compass used by early travelers to the technology used in our VCRs. One example of which is
electric motors which power our appliances and electric generators which produce electricity that run our world.
We can find electric fields in our everyday life and from there we can see the importance it has done for us.
The field generated in the experiment is produced from the special conductive paper, thus causing or
making a hole in the paper would inevitably produce errors in the experiment. It is also a keen idea to take exact and
precise measurements in order to make the graph as round as possible.

CONCLUSION
ON
ELECTRIC
EQUIPOTENTIAL LINES

FIELDS

AND

## Experiment 305, which is entitled Electric

Fields and Equipotential Lines, aims to consider the
nature of electric fields by mapping the equipotential
lines and then drawing in the lines of electric lines of
force.An electric field is an area where electrostatic force
is present.On the other hand, equipotential lines are
lines with equal potential.

In the experiment, we used the conductive paper as the electric field. We plotted the points wherein the
potentials are equal. The resulting figure was a parabola. We plotted the same coordinates on the negative x-axis.
After doing five trials, we connected the five parabolas with a line intersecting perpendicularly. This is the electric line
of force with direction from the positive to negative x-axis.
We also plotted the points with equal potential on a guarded ring. Using the origin as our point source, we
produced circles. This means that the electric lines are trapped inside the guard ring. The reason for this is that the
guard ring can conduct electricity since it is made up silver. As we increase the distance from the point source, the
voltage decreases.
In this experiment we can see that the equipotential lines generated are proportional in strength with respect
to their distances from the point source, from this we can assume that the strength of the electric charge is
proportional to its distance.