Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 242

Maptek Vulcan

Introduction to Vulcan
Version 8.1

2012 Copyright
2012 Maptek
Maptek, Vulcan, I-Site, BlastLogic and the stylised Maptek M are registered and unregistered
trademarks of Maptek Pty Ltd; Maptek Computacin Chile Ltda; Maptek Computacin Chile
Ltda, Sucursal Per; Maptek S de RL de CV; Maptek Informtica do Brasil Ltda and KRJA
Systems, Inc. Registered marks are registered in one or more of the following countries:
Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Greece, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru, the Republic of
South Africa, Russia, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this manual shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted by any means - electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise - without written permission from Maptek.
No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein.
Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this manual, the publisher and
author(s) assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for
damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
info@maptek.com
www.maptek.com
Trademarks
Due to the nature of the material, some hardware and software products are mentioned by
name. The companies that manufacture the products claim many of these product names as
trademarks. It is not the intention of Maptek to claim these names or trademarks as their own.

Revision History Maptek Vulcan 8.1 Introduction to Vulcan


January, 2004 (5.0), United Kingdom, technical review
July, 2005 (6.0), United States/United Kingdom, technical review
March, 2006 (7.0), United States, technical update
January, 2008 (7.5), United States, Australia, technical update and layout change
March 2009 (8.0), Australia, technical update and layout change
May 2009 (8.0), International and N American versions, technical update
December 2011 (8.1), N America, technical update
August 2012 (8.1), N. America, layout change

ii

About this Manual


You may notice that images are slightly different on your computer; this may be due to
variations in operating systems. In addition some images have been modified to improve
readability.

Conventions used
The following conventions are typically used in training manuals and guides.

Example

Description

Design > Object Edit

Text in bold are commands or options selected from


a menu, panel or button.

<LEVEL>_SURVEY_POINTS>

File names or extensions, variables, formulas, text


entry, layers, triangulations, databases, scripts,
macros, and data such as displayed in the Report
Window, are in Monospace font.

Top Down or Bottom Up


design method

Text in italics are used for emphasis, special terms,


tab names, column names, panel group names, etc.

Tip:

Designates a hint such as an effective use of an option.

Note:

Designates a point to draw attention to; an informational comment.

Caution:

Designates a warning that, if not followed, can lead to a serious outcome such as data
corruption.
The following designates a help topic reference.
For details see related help topic(s):
The Vulcan Workbench : Preferences : Plotting Utility
Envisage : File : Plot : Contents
Envisage : File : Plot : Plot All Wizard
Envisage : File : Plot : Quick Plot

Conventions used

iii

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Terminology
Every effort is made to use consistent terminology throughout all Vulcan documentation.
The following terminology is typically used in manuals, guides, and help:

iv

The terms panel and dialog box are used interchangeably. Dialog is also used as a
general term to refer to subpanels and tabs.
Panels can have tabs but panels with tree navigation can have subpanels as well
as tabs. The two parts of the panel are called panes. The left pane, also referred to
as the navigation pane or tree pane, contains the navigation list and the right pane
is the subpanel and contains the details.
Option refers to a command or menu selection, while options may refer to choices
available on a panel.
The terms select and click may be used interchangeably.
The terms tick and check are used interchangeably.
The terms clear box and uncheck box may be used interchangeably.
The terms context menu, right-click menu, and shortcut menu are used
interchangeably. They refer to task-specific menus that appear when you rightclick.
The terms Tutorial and Exercise are used interchangeably.
The terms anticlockwise and counterclockwise are used interchangeably.
The terms nominate, choose, pick, and select may be used interchangeably.
The terms directory and folder may be used interchangeably.

About this Manual

Contents
About this Manual

iii

Conventions used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii


Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv

Chapter 1: Getting Started

Hardware and System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Computer Requirements for Microsoft Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Confirm System Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Graphics Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
TEMP and TMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
ENVIS_RESO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Installing Vulcan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Corporate Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Creating a Corporate Standards Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Activating Corporate Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Change the Default Specification File Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Service Packs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Licencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Types of Licences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Pack & Go (Borrow Licence) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Starting Vulcan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Dynamic Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Software Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Plotting Scale Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Project Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Project Coordinate Extents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Data Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Design Data Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Design Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Groups and Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Chapter 2: Vulcan Interface

17

Vulcan Work Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17


Menus, Windows and Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Primary Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Vulcan Explorer Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Report Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Application Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Menu and Window Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Parent and Child Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Move Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Contents

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Customising Vulcan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Favourites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Context Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Database Locks and Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Green Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Orange Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Red Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Database Repair and Restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Repair a Design Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Restore a Design Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Using Vulcan Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Chapter 3: View Data

33

Load and Remove Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


Zoom, Pan and Rotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Zoom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Zoom To Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Rotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
View Ports and Overview Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Perspective View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Other Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Section View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Create Section View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Other Section View Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Section View Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Chapter 4: Create Design Data

45

Design Menu Create Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45


Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Snap Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Indicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Snap to Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Snap to Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Snap to Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Custom Cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Directional Digitise Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Key In Point Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Bearing Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Create Line At Given Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Track Section of Existing Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Using Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2D Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3D Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

vi

Contents

Chapter 5: Label Design Data

57

Analyse Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Menu Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Label Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Point Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Point Labels to Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Object Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Object Label to Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Chapter 6: Edit Design Data

63

Edit Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Layer Edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Object Edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Point Edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Point Insert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Polygon Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Move Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Translate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Chapter 7: CAD Introduction

77

Data Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Report Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Change Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Setting up Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Using Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Chapter 8: Data Import and Export

83

File Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Import AutoCAD Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Export AutoCAD Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Import ASCII Data Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Export ASCII Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Import Shape Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Export Shape Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Chapter 9: Analyse Data

87

Analyse Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Coordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Distance Between Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Distance Along Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Polygon Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Chapter 10: Create a Database

91

Database Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Design File Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Key Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Import Data into a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
ODBC Database Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Link to Microsoft Access Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
AcQuire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Contents

vii

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Chapter 11: View a Database in Isis

111

Open Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111


Vulcan Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Notebook/Multiple Window Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Notebooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Multiple Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Chapter 12: View a Database in Envisage

115

Legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Load Drillholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Label Drillholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

Chapter 13: Database Maintenance

123

Edit the Database Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123


Edit Existing Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Insert/Delete Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Find Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Field Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Database Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Collar Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Downhole Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Along Record Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Individual Field Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Save and Run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Export Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Database List format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Standard ASCII format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Updating an Existing Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

Chapter 14: Drilling Utilities

137

Database Record Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137


Horizon Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Work with Drillholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Check Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Locate Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Set Visibility of Located Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Extract Located Holes to CSV/Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Create a selection file from located holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Mapfile Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

Chapter 15: Triangulation Models

145

Introduction to Triangulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145


Advantages of Triangulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Disadvantages of Triangulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Load Triangulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Unload Triangulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Triangle Attributes (Properties) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

viii

Contents

Chapter 16: Triangulation Surfaces

153

Create a Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153


Data Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Boundary Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Trending Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Spurs Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Condition Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Two Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Grid Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Image Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Chapter 17: Solid Triangulations

161

Create Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161


End Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Tri Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Chapter 18: Manipulate Triangulations

169

Boolean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Relimit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

Chapter 19: Analyse Triangulations

175

Areas and Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175


Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Solid Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Surface Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Chapter 20: Repair Triangulations

177

Check Triangulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177


Quick Repair Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Close Solid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Delete Crossing Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
General Repair Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Chapter 21: Primitives

183

Apply Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183


Custom Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

Chapter 22: Introduction to Grids

189

Grid Mesh Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189


Load and Remove Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Create Grids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Simple Grids from Object Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Interpolated Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Create Grids from Triangulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Grid Masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Colour and Contour Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Edit Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Create a Mapfile from a Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Export Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

Contents

ix

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Introduction to Grid Calc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198


Create a Specification File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Load Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Display Loaded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Grid Calc Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Model Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Grid Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Chapter 23: Data Organisation

205

.TRI Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205


Remote Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Network Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Access Master Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Post Data to a Master Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Chapter 24: Plotting

211

Plot All Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211


Specify Filenames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Specify Plot Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Default Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Drafting Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Title Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Plot Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Plot Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Plot Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Chapter 25: Presentation

219

Screen Dumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219


AVI Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
NGRAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Export Data to NGRAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Insert and View NGRAIN Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Download NGRAIN Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Set up Word or PowerPoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Inserting an NGRAIN file into Word or PowerPoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
VRML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Export Data to VRML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Insert and View VRML Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Index

227

Contents

Getting Started
Hardware and System
Requirements
For computer intensive options such as block modelling, using large triangulations or
databases, recommended requirements are vital.
Note:

Specifications listed may change in future Vulcan releases.

Computer Requirements for Microsoft


Windows

Microsoft Windows 7, Vista, or XP operating system; Windows 7


recommended.(1)
Dual core Intel or AMD equivalent processor; quad core Intel or AMD equivalent
recommended.
2GB RAM; 4GB or more recommended.(2)
2GB total disk space for installation.
2GB free disk space for swap files.
Video cards

For desktops: 512MB OpenGL compliant 3D video card (e.g., NVIDIA


GeForce) with an appropriate OpenGL driver; 2GB or more
recommended (e.g., NVIDIA Quadro or SLI).
For laptops: 128MB OpenGL compliant 3D video card (e.g., NVIDIA
Quadro) with an appropriate OpenGL driver; 1GB or more recommended.

DVD-ROM drive for installation.


USB for dongle or network connection for FLEXlm (FLEXnet Publisher) floating
licence server.
3 button generic mouse with wheel.

(1) A 64 bit operating system is recommended.The 32 bit English language version of Microsoft
Excel 2007-2010 is required for full Chronos menu functionality.
(2) Vulcan works on both 32 and 64 bit operating systems as a 32 bit application.

Hardware and System Requirements

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Screen resolution: 1024 x 768

For desktops: large format widescreen single or dual monitor(s)


recommended.
For laptops: 17 or larger screen recommended.

Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 (or later).

Confirm System Specifications


To confirm specifications for Microsoft Windows XP:
1. Click the Windows Start button.
2. Open the Control Panel and double-click System. Alternatively, right-click My
Computer and select Properties.
3. Click General, the basic system configuration is displayed.
4. Click Advanced and then Settings.
5. In Performance Options, go to the Advanced tab. Click Change to set the
required virtual memory.
To confirm specifications for Microsoft Windows Vista or 7:
1. Click the Windows Start button.
2. Right-click Computer and select Properties. The basic configuration of your
system is displayed.
3. Click Advanced System Settings.
4. Under Performance, click Settings.
5. In the Advanced tab, click Change.
6. Deselect Automatically manage paging file size for all drives, and set a
Custom size for virtual memory.

Tutorial 1-1
Customise your virtual memory maximum.

Graphics Cards
Vulcan supports OpenGL compliant graphics cards such as nVidia GeForce,
nVidia Quadro or ATI Radeon. For best performance, ensure that the latest version
of graphics card drivers is installed.
To verify your graphics card for Microsoft Windows XP:
1. Right-click on the computer desktop and click Properties.
2. Go to the Settings tab and click Advanced.
3. Go to the Adapter tab to view graphics card details.
To verify your graphics card for Microsoft Windows Vista:
1. Right-click the computer desktop and click Personalise.
2. Select Display Settings and click Advanced Settings.
The graphic card installed is displayed on the Adapter tab.

Chapter 1 Getting Started

To verify your graphics card for Microsoft Windows 7:


1. Click Windows Start and choose Control Panel.
2. Click Hardware and Sound.
3. Under Devices and Printers, click Device Manager.
4. Expand Display adapters to view your graphics card.

Tutorial 1-2
Determine the graphics card installed on your computer.

Environment Variables
Environment variables are values that affect the way computer processes behave. There
are two types of environment variables:

System variables are tied to the machine.


User variables are tied to a specific user profile.

If the same variable is listed in both areas, the user variable is used.
Note:

Administrator privileges may be required to create or edit environment variables.


To manage environment variables in Microsoft Windows XP:
1. Click the Windows Start button.
2. Select Control Panel, and then double-click System. Alternatively, right-click My
Computer and select Properties.
3. Click the Advanced tab and then click Environment Variables.
To manage environment variables in Microsoft Windows Vista or Microsoft Windows 7:
1. Click the Start button.
2. Right-click Computer and select Properties.
3. Click Advanced system settings to access the System Properties dialog box.

Figure 1-1 Advanced system settings

Environment Variables

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

4. Click Environment Variables.

Figure 1-2 System Properties - Environment Variables


The environment variables to set are:

HOME
TEMP
TMP
ENVIS_RESO (recommended)

HOME
HOME directs Vulcan where to find files such as login.csh and startup.csh.The
Value of this variable is a path to a folder. The path may not contain spaces or special
characters.

TEMP and TMP


Vulcan uses these directories to create and store temporary files. As other programs use
these folders, these environment variables may already be set on the computer. The
Value of this variable is a path to a folder. The path may not contain spaces or special
characters.

ENVIS_RESO
The ENVIS_RESO environment variable points to the location of the Resources folder for
all Vulcan system data files such as:

Plot templates Stored in the file drafting.dgd.isis


Symbols Stored in the file symbols.dgd.isis
Line styles Stored in the file lines.dgd.isis

Chapter 1 Getting Started

Fonts The different fonts used in Vulcan, stored in .font files


Import specifications For importing ASCII and .csv files

A standard set of Vulcan resources is provided with each Vulcan version. Standard
resources are located in the folder: <vulcan>\etc\resources, where <vulcan> is
the path to the Vulcan program folder. To ensure that customised resources are available
when new Vulcan versions are installed, copy the items in the standard resource folder to
a unique location, then enter the path to this folders location as the Value for
ENVIS_RESO.
If multiple people require access to a Resources area, establish a resources folder on the
network. For example X:\Vulcan_resources where X is the network drive. The
ENVIS_RESO environment variable and the path to the resources folder must be defined
on all computers that will share the resources file.
Click the Resources tab in Vulcan Explorer to determine the location of the current
Resource area. The path can be found at the top of the Resources tab.

Figure 1-3 Vulcan Resources Location

Tutorial 1-3
1. Ensure the HOME environment variable is set to an appropriate path.
2. Set the TEMP and TMP variables to a file path name which does not include
spaces.
3. Create a resources folder at C:\Vulcan_resources and set up
ENVIS_RESO.

Installing Vulcan
During installation, note any changes made to the system. Backup all files before you edit
or replace them. Administrator privileges may be required to install software or make any
modifications to the computer.
For sites requiring a network licence (FlexNet Publisher), a notification is sent with the
licence file. Use the Install Network licence option to set up the server.

Installing Vulcan

Read the End-User Licence Agreement.


Administrator privileges are required.
Do not install a newer version of Vulcan over an old version. Save each version to
a unique folder.
If installing Vulcan to use with a node-locked Vulcan licencing dongle. It is
important to install the correct dongle drivers.

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Corporate Standards
For companies with multiple sites, corporate standards are used to maintain company
wide standards for Vulcan specification files. Each employee accesses a single set of files
stored at a central location. The following file types are supported by corporate standards:

.scd Colour scheme file


.ftd Feature file
.gcv Grade Control configuration file
.bdf Block definition file
.bef Block estimation file
.res Advanced Reserves specification
.tab Advanced Reserves reporting tables

Corporate standards do not prevent users from accessing their own personal specification
files. By default, it directs users to the corporate standard files first and then allow them to
browse elsewhere.

Creating a Corporate Standards Folder


If a central Resources folder (mapped with the ENVIS_RESO variable) already exists,
create a new folder in the same area for the corporate standards specification files to be
stored.
To protect company specification files from being overwritten, set the corporate standards
folder to read-only.

Activating Corporate Standards


If corporate standards is enabled during installation, a VULCAN_CORPORATE environment
variable is created. Enter the correct path to the corporate standards folder as the value
for VULCAN_CORPORATE.
If corporate standards are not enabled during installation, create VULCAN_CORPORATE to
enable corporate standards functionality.
For details see related help topic(s):
System Administration : Environment Variables

Change the Default Specification File Location


The default working directory is set to the corporate standards folder for several menu
options. Press the corporate standards button at the bottom of applicable dialog boxes to
set the option to look for files in the home directory instead of the corporate standards
folder for the current Envisage session. If the corporate standards environment variable
has not been set, this button does not appear.

Corporate Standards Enabled Files available in drop-down menu are located


in the corporate standards folder.
Home Directory Enabled Files available in drop-down menu are located in the
current working directory.

Chapter 1 Getting Started

Service Packs
Vulcan service packs are released when fixes for known issues and critical updates are
made.
Primary contacts at each mine site are notified when a new service pack is available for
download.

Licencing
Types of Licences
Licence files are required to run Vulcan. There are two types of licences:

Node-locked Dongle with matching licence file for use with a single computer.
Floating licence Dongle with matching licence file on a server, which can be
accessed by multiple users.

Store the licence file in an easy to remember location such as C:\Vulcan_licence.


To activate a licence file:
1. Click Licence Administrator on the Vulcan start dialog box.

Figure 1-4 Vulcan start panel Licence Administrator


2. The interface varies slightly with the licence type used.

Licencing

To activate a node-locked licence, browse to the location of the licence file


(.lic).
To use a floating licence, ensure the server name matches the dongle
location (FLEXnet Publisher). To display licence information click Refresh.
The Total and In use columns display the number of licences available for
each configuration and the number of licences in use.

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Different lines indicate different configurations, which are combinations of


menu options.
Licence Type indicates Nodelocked or Floating depending upon the type of
licence being accessed.

Shows who is using a


configuration.

Tests dongle
function

Click to confirm that a licence configuration can be used successfully

Figure 1-5 The Licence Administrator dialog box

Tutorial 1-4
Ensure the Licence Administrator can see your licence.

Pack & Go (Borrow Licence)


A licence can be borrowed, or checked out from a server. This allows use of Vulcan
independent of a network or dongle.
When a floating licence configuration has been borrowed, associated features stored on
the server for that configuration are not available to others until the licence is returned.
A borrowed licence is set with a time limit that protects against loss or theft of the licence.
To use a borrowed licence:

The licence must have borrowing privileges.


Install a current version of FLEXnet Publisher on the server.
Set a MAPTEK_BORROW environment variable.

To verify a floating licence:

Contact the network administrator to ensure the licence has borrowing enabled.
If borrowing is not enabled, contact Maptek to request a new licence file with
borrowing functionality. There is no charge for this service.

To verify a FLEXnet Publisher on the server machine:

Click lmtools.exe in the FLEXnet Publisher folder, typically C:\flexlm, to


launch LM Tools. Click Help > About. The version should be 11.9 or later.
FLEXnet Publisher may be installed from the Vulcan Installation CD.

To install a FLEXnet Publisher licence on the server machine:


1. Double-click autorun.exe.
2. Click Install Vulcan and Drivers then select Install Network licence.
Verify MAPTEK_BORROW is on the machine borrowing the licence.

Chapter 1 Getting Started

Figure 1-6 MAPTEK_BORROW settings


To activate a Borrow Session:
The computer must be connected to the network which runs the floating licence. To
connect to the licence server:
1. Start Vulcan then click Licence Administrator.
2. In the File or Server box at the top of the window enter <@server name>. If you
do not know the server name, contact the network administrator.

Figure 1-7 Vulcan Licence Administrator dialog box File or Server box
3. Click Refresh to show the floating licence types available.
4. Select the licence you would like to borrow and click Borrow licence.
5. Set a date and time to return the licence. If the time period requested exceeds the
borrow limit allowed for the licence, an error is displayed.
6. Click Start Borrowing.
7. Click OK. Licence Type and Borrow Time change to BORROWED.
8. Click OK to exit the Licence Administrator.
9. The Licence Key on the Vulcan start dialog box indicates that a licence has been
borrowed.

Licencing

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 1-8 Vulcan start panel with borrowed licence


To return a borrowed licence:
1. Reconnect the computer to the network.
2. Start Vulcan and click Licence Administrator.
3. Click on the licence to return.
4. Click Borrow licence then click Finish Borrowing.
5. Select the item to return and click Return Feature.
6. Click OK to return to the Licence Administrator window.
Note:

If the borrow time limit is exceeded, the licence is disabled on the machine which
borrowed it. The machine will have to be reconnected to the server to borrow the licence
again.

Starting Vulcan
1. Launch Vulcan from the programs folder or an icon on the desktop.
2. Double-click on Browse and navigate to the folder which contains Vulcan data.
Click OK.

10

The folder appears in the work area box.


To delete a directory, right-click on the folder and select Remove from
History or Remove all to delete the entire list.
The work area history is stored in a file called .vlauchpref, which is
located in your user directory.

Chapter 1 Getting Started

Figure 1-9 Double-click to browse for a file or folder

Tutorial 1-5
Browse to the start data folder.
To launch an application, double-click its name on the right-hand side of the dialog box:

Envisage 3D viewer and editor.

Plot Utility Plot files viewer.

Isis Database editor that interacts with Envisage.


Settings Dynamic Array settings (also called the Dynamic Memory settings).

Dynamic Arrays
Click Settings to launch the VULCAN Dynamic Array Configuration dialog box. Choices
in this option modify the size of Envisage arrays, which allows large objects, grids and
triangulations to be manipulated in Vulcan.
This panel can also be accessed in Envisage under Tools > Dynamic Memory Settings.
Note:

If modifying arrays using Tools > Dynamic Memory Settings from within Envisage, you
will need to restart Vulcan before changes can take effect.
If the Envisage Memory Availability bar decreases to a small amount, other options
may not have enough memory available to run. Leave Default values until a higher
setting is required.

Starting Vulcan

11

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Software Setup
The first time Vulcan is launched after install, the 3D Software User Setup Wizard is
displayed.

Figure 1-10 Vulcan 3D Software User Setup Wizard Workbench Layout


In Vulcan there are several layouts each with a different resolution size. It is advisable to
select default_1024. The three different layouts are:

Default - Standard screen layout.


Classic - Resembles older versions of Vulcan.
Maxgraphic - Maximises the graphics display area.

The layout can be changed using the Tools > Layout > Import. Layout defaults are
saved in .cui files located in <vulcan>\etc\defaults, where <vulcan> is the
Vulcan install location path.

Figure 1-11 Vulcan Workbench Layouts

Plotting Scale Units


Tip:

12

Delete the Vulcan.prefs file in your user folder to reset plotter units. Deleting this file
deletes all Vulcan preferences, so make a backup copy.

Chapter 1 Getting Started

Select Plotter Scale Units as Metric or Imperial.

Figure 1-12 Plotter Scale Units

Tutorial 1-6
Select the default_1024 layout and set the plotter scale units to Metric.

Project Details
A project file (.dg1) must be accessed each time Envisage is started. This file contains
the project code, coordinate extents information for the project and the project units.

Figure 1-13 Choose or create a Vulcan project file

Starting Vulcan

13

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Name of the .dg1 file.


Abbreviation for the
site or project. A
maximum of four
characters allowed.

A code added to secondary file; maximum of four characters allowed.

Figure 1-14 Project details

Leave as default

Click Finish to open


Envisage

Figure 1-15 Project coordinate extents

Project Coordinate Extents


The following values are defined in the .dg1 file:

Coordinate extents Minimum and maximum easting, northing and RL values for
the project. This defines the size of the Primary window in Envisage.
Vertical exaggeration Exaggeration value applied to all project Z values.
Project Display grid Specifies how the rotation axes are labelled in Envisage.
Coordinate unit Required coordinate units for the project.

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : Introduction : Setting Up Envisage : Creating a Project File

14

Chapter 1 Getting Started

Tutorial 1-7
Create a new .dg1 file using the information provided below:

Start File Name: training.dg1


Project Prefix: THOR
Environment Prefix: KRJA
Easting: 75,500 / 79,500
Northing: 2,500 / 6,000
Level: -300 / 300
Coordinate Unit: Metre

Data Overview
The most commonly used data in Vulcan are CAD data and triangulations. CAD data,
such as points, lines, and polygons, are stored in a design database (dgd.isis).
Triangulations are stored as separate files with the extension .00t.

Design Data Structure


Points
CAD data at the lowest level is made up of points consisting of X, Y, Z coordinates.

Objects
Sequential point entries make objects. For example:

A group of unconnected points.


A line (sequential group of connected points).
A polygon (sequential group of closed lines).

Layers
Objects are stored in layers.

Layers can contain one or more objects.


Layers can be used to organise objects by common attributes.

Design Database
Layers are not stored as individual files; they are stored in a design database file.

Data Overview

Multiple layers can be stored in a single design database file.


Design databases (also called design files) follow the following naming
convention: <project_code><database_name>.dgd.isis.
The associated index file for a design database is named
<project_code><database_name>.dgd.isix.

15

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Groups and Features


Groups Object attributes flag individual objects into a common group allowing you to
work related objects simultaneously. For example, you could group all cross-cuts on a
level so they may be edited as one.
Features A group of properties is stored in a file called a feature set. Each feature set is
assigned a feature name. Objects which are coded with a feature name share the
properties defined within the feature set. The feature file uses the naming convention
<project_code><identifier>.ftd.
Features and groups are discussed in Change Attributes on page 78.

16

Chapter 1 Getting Started

Vulcan Interface
Vulcan Work Area
In this chapter we will learn about the Vulcan user interface and how to customise it.
Main menu

Vulcan Explorer
window

Menu toolbars

Status bar

Primary window

Report window

Windows toolbars

Properties window

Application bar

Start menu

Figure 2-1 Vulcan user interface

Vulcan Work Area

17

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Menus, Windows and Toolbars


The user interface consists of the following:

Main menu
Start menu
Windows

Primary window
Toolbars menu and window
Vulcan Explorer window
Report window
Properties window

Status bar
Application bar
Toolbars

Main Menu
The Main menu is the horizontal bar below the title bar. Options displayed in the dropdown lists vary for each Vulcan licence.
Many menu commands provide keyboard shortcuts, which can be used in lieu of a
mouse. For example [Alt+F] opens the File menu.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : Keyboard Controls

Windows
There are several types of windows:

18

Hidden A window that is not visible. These are useful for enlarging the client
area.
Client A window positioned in the client area. Use [Ctrl+Tab] to cycle through
windows docked in the client area.
Floating A window that can be positioned anywhere on or outside the work area.
Floating windows are always visible on top of other windows.
Own A window that can be positioned anywhere on or outside the work area.
Own windows are used when several Vulcan applications run concurrently. They
are not always visible on top of other windows.
Docked A window is positioned in a docking area.

Chapter 2 Vulcan Interface

Docked toolbar

Work Area

Floating toolbar

Floating window

Figure 2-2 Vulcan windows

Primary Window
The Primary window is the default 3D design window as defined by the coordinate extents
in the .dg1 file. By default, the Primary window is confined to the client area.
To change the primary position:
1. Click Window > Windows.
2. Select the window to move then click the new position for the window.
3. For more advanced options, click the Advanced button.

Figure 2-3 Window Properties dialog box

Vulcan Explorer Window


Vulcan Explorer is used to organize and easily load data. Files in the current working
directory are categorized within the folders. The Other folder contains orphan files.

Vulcan Work Area

Virtual folders contain groupings of like data.


Icons help visually distinguish data types. For example, an image of a block
indicates block model files.
Directories other than the current working directory can be displayed.
Inside a virtual folder, subdirectories are displayed before the list of files. Remote
directories and .tri folders are two examples of subdirectory folders. See
Remote Directories on page 205.

19

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tip:

Click Windows Explorer to quickly access files in the work area.

The tabs at the bottom of the Vulcan Explorer window provide other views into the
system:

Data Displays files in the Vulcan work area. Files and layers that are loaded into
Envisage appear bold in this view.
Resources Displays files in the Vulcan Resources area, which is defined by the
ENVIS_RESO environment variable.
Envisage Displays only the files loaded on-screen, providing a concise list of
data currently in use.

Figure 2-4 Vulcan Explorer

Report Window
The Report window displays text information generated from the application in use.
Results from options such as statistics or reserves are generated in the Report window.

Close contents
Print contents
Save contents
Clear contents

Figure 2-5 Report window


There are three tabs on the Report window:

Workbench Displays errors or messages which relate to the Workbench.


Envisage Console Displays errors or messages which relate to Envisage.
Envisage Displays reports generated when performing certain operations, such
as object details or block reserves.

Other tabs may appear when other applications are running, such as Grid Calc or the
Block Model Utility. The text based results can be copied and pasted into other
applications. Highlight the text, right-click and click Copy from the context menu.

20

Chapter 2 Vulcan Interface

Status Bar
The Status bar displays information relating to the current application such as:

Prompts relating to an active menu option, including function tags.


Coordinates of the mouse pointer location on-screen.
Name of the open design database.

Application Bar
The visible icons on the Application bar correspond to active utilities such as Envisage or
the Report window. There is also a quick-link to Vulcan help.

Envisage

Vulcan
Explorer

Properties
Window

Vulcan Help

Report
Window

Start
Application

Figure 2-6 Application bar


Click the Close button
of an open window to close a utility or application. Reopen
applications and utilities via: the Window menu, Vulcan Start, or by clicking the
corresponding icon on the Application bar.

Figure 2-7 Vulcan Start menu


TC Shell, available in Vulcan Start, opens a new shell window, where commands and
scripts can be executed.

Menu and Window Toolbars


A toolbar is a bar containing graphic buttons or other controls providing fast access to
commands.
There are two types of toolbars:

Vulcan Work Area

Menu toolbars are located above and left of the Primary window and correspond
with menu commands.
Window toolbars are located below and right of the Primary window. Window
toolbars are linked to the window they are associated with, in this case the Primary
window. These options can not be found in any of the menus.

21

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

When using a command, the current option must be completed or cancelled before
another option can be selected. However, options from the Window toolbars can be used
in conjunction with options from the Menu toolbars. For example, while drawing a line
using Design > Create > Line you are able to rotate and pan without cancelling out of the
line creation option.
To see a list of other available toolbars right-click in a space alongside an existing toolbar.
The list varies between the Menu and Window toolbar docking areas. Another way to view
toolbars is to choose Tools > Toolbar Visibility. Note that the toolbars at the bottom of
the list beginning with [PRIMARY:] are Window toolbars

Figure 2-8 Available window toolbars

Parent and Child Toolbars


Toolbars can also be classified as parent toolbars and child toolbars. Child toolbars,
hidden within the parent toolbar, provide additional functionality. An arrow symbol in the
bottom right-hand corner of an icon indicates that a child toolbar exists in the option.
On the Graphics toolbar, several icons have a small, arrow symbol
in the bottom
right hand corner to expand the toolbar. Left-click and hold on the icon to display the child
toolbar. Left-click, hold, and drag to display the child toolbar as a floating window. Close
the child toolbar to hide it under the parent toolbar.

22

Chapter 2 Vulcan Interface

Expand
child
toolbar

Figure 2-9 Zoom data extents child toolbar

Several icons have three points (ellipsis)


in the bottom right-hand corner. Left-click
the icon to toggle the function on and off. Right-click the icon to display a properties dialog
box, which provides additional options used in conjunction with the option.

Figure 2-10 Slice properties dialog box

Move Toolbars
Toolbars may minimise from view, float on the desktop or dock in the window.
Click once to minimise
Double-click to float

Figure 2-11 Move toolbars


To minimise a docked toolbar:
1. Click the blue arrow at the head of the toolbar to minimise it.
2. Click again to maximise the toolbar.
To float a toolbar use one of two methods:

Double-click the double lines at the start of the toolbar.


Left-click and hold the double lines at the start of a toolbar. Drag to a new location.

To dock a toolbar use one of two methods:

Left-click and hold the title bar at the top of the toolbar window.
Drag the toolbar to a docking space. A preview rectangle appears to show where
the toolbar will dock.
Double-click on the toolbars title bar to re-dock in its last docked position.

Tutorial 2-1
Practise floating and docking toolbars.

Vulcan Work Area

23

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Customising Vulcan
The Tools menu contains options for customising your work area. Preferences can be set
to control display options, such as colour, position of dialog boxes and appearance of the
background.

Preferences
Use Tools > Preferences to modify work area appearance or set defaults.
If working with data which is stored on a network, it is important to:

Enable Network mode: Tools > Preferences > Workbench > Vulcan Explorer
Set up an Alternative Work Area: Tools > Preferences > Envisage >
Miscellaneous

The most commonly used preferences are:

Set a default Rotation mode: Tools > Preferences > Envisage > Graphics >
Input
Stop continued rotation: Tools > Preferences > Envisage > Graphics > Input
Reverse wheel zoom direction: Tools > Preferences > Envisage > Graphics >
Input
Assign Text Defaults: Tools > Preferences > Envisage > Defaults > 2D Text and
Tools > Preferences > Envisage > Defaults > 3D Text
Enable the Properties Window: Tools > Preferences > Envisage >
Miscellaneous
Set up Remote Directories: Tools > Preferences > Workbench > Vulcan
Explorer. See Remote Directories on page 205.

Figure 2-12 Preferences dialog box

24

Chapter 2 Vulcan Interface

Toolbars
Custom toolbars can be created for easy access to frequently used commands. Only
items visible in menu toolbars can be added to a custom toolbar.
To create a custom toolbar:
1. Choose Tools > Customise.
2. Select [*] New Toolbar on the Toolbars tab (right panel).
3. From the Vulcan Menus tab (left panel) click and drag the commands into the
[*] New Toolbar folder. Expand the Untitled Toolbar by clicking the expand
button . Note that a new option to add a [*] New SubMenu appears. Right-click
the title to Rename the toolbar.
Note:

[*] New SubMenu and [*] New Toolbar at the bottom of the right panel are
present by default, and can not be deleted.

Tip:

To make efficient use of the work area, menu command items can be shown as
submenus in the toolbar. This ensures that the menu commands display in a
vertical listing, however an additional mouse click is required to access them.

Figure 2-13 Create custom toolbar


4. Click OK to display the new toolbar as a floating toolbar. If a menu command has a
shortcut icon associated with it, then the icon displays in the toolbar in place of the
menu command name.
5. Enter a name for the new toolbar.

Figure 2-14 Name customisation file


6. Tick Set as Default to automatically load the toolbar next time Vulcan starts. The
.vwc file is saved with the convention: <customise_file_name>.vwc.
7. Click Tools > Layout > Save to save the position of all toolbars.

Vulcan Work Area

25

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Keyboard Shortcuts
Hotkeys execute menu commands quickly. Key strokes can be customised to execute
commonly used commands.
To customise keyboard shortcuts:
1. Choose Tools > Customise and click the Hotkeys tab.
2. On the Vulcan Menus tab select a menu option. Under Modifier and Key, create a
keyboard shortcut, for example [Shift+F4].
3. Click Apply Hotkey and click OK.

Figure 2-15 Create hotkeys

Favourites
Right-click the Primary window to quickly execute stored favourite commands.
Tip:

To enable favourites, click Tools > Preferences > Envisage > Graphics > Dialogs and
Popups, then check Right mouse click displays favourite menu items.
To customise favourites:
1. Choose Tools > Customise and select the Favourites tab.
2. From the Vulcan Menus tab (left panel) click and drag the commands into the
Favourite Menus folder (right panel). Click OK.

26

Chapter 2 Vulcan Interface

Figure 2-16 Customise favourites


Chosen favourites display above right-click history menu items.
Favourites section
Right-click
history section

Figure 2-17 Favourites display

Context Menus
Right-click an object in Vulcan to display associated context menus. Click Tools >
Context Menus to customise commands which appear in context menus.

Figure 2-18 Set desired context menus

Colours
Colour schemes are saved in the scheme file (.scd). The file is stored in the current
working directory unless the corporate standards environment variable is enabled. The
Scheme file naming convention is <project_code>.scd or corpstd.scd.
Click File > Colour Table > Colours to edit the current colour palette. Alternately, click
Colour on the Status toolbar, and choose Edit Colours.

Vulcan Work Area

27

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Colours can be edited manually or automatically.


Tip:

Click File > Colour Table > Save to save the default colour palette before making
changes.

Figure 2-19 Choose colour palette


To save the current colour table to a specific design database, click File > Save to save
the active colour table to an open design database (.dgd).
Note:

The colour table is not available to other design databases unless it is saved to the
scheme file (.scd) with File > Colour Table > Save.
Save the current colour table to the scheme file:

Tip:

Click File > Colour Table > Save and enter a Legend name for the colour table
scheme. The colour table identifier can contain up to 20 alphanumeric characters.
The table is saved to the Colour scheme file (<proj>.scd) located within your
current working directory. If this file does not exist, a warning appears before being
automatically created.

To apply a colour table saved to an .scd file to any design database:


1. Open the design database and click Colour on the Status toolbar.
2. Click Edit Colours and click Load Colour Palette.
3. Select the Colour scheme file. Click Open and select the colour table.
4. Click OK twice then click File > Save.
To edit the colour table manually:
1. Click File > Colour Table > Colours.
2. Select a colour from the colour table. The colour displays in a colour box to the
right.
3. Use the sliders to change the colour. The colour in the display updates
dynamically.
4. Click Replace.

28

Chapter 2 Vulcan Interface

To edit the colour table automatically:


1. Click File > Colour Table > Colours and click the Auto tab.
2. Select a range of colours to edit. To do this, click on the first colour in the range,
press and hold the [Shift] key, then click on the second colour.
3. Select an option from the Auto Edit list.
4. Click Apply. Click OK to update the current colour table.

Figure 2-20 Available automatic colour ranges

Database Locks and Recovery


If a system failure occurs, such as a computer crash, the design database can easily be
recovered.
Changes made to existing design data are performed on a copy of the data contained in
the work file (.wrk). The data is updated in the design database after each save.
Lost CAD data can be recovered by reloading a previous version of the work file.

Green Lock
A green lock indicates a .dgd is open.

Orange Lock
Indicates that data may have been lost during an improper shut-down. The database
should be recovered before work continues.
Caution:

If everyone on a server crashes at the same time, recovery steps should be followed by
one person at a time. If everyone attempts to recover at the same time, data becomes
permanently lost.

Database Locks and Recovery

29

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

To recover a design database after a system failure:


1. Restart Envisage but do not remove any lock files.
If you have added a default design database to your project file (.dg1) and this
was the file that was open when you exited Envisage, a message displays
informing you that the file is locked. Click OK to accept this message.
2. In Vulcan Explorer an orange lock marks the database name that was in during the
system failure.
3. Right-click on the lock and select Recover. This creates a recover.dgd.isis
in the same location. When recovered, a message informs you of recovery
success.
4. Right-click on the database you just unlocked and click Open. A green lock is
displayed next to the database name.
5. Click File > Load Recovered Layers to load the lost design data.
6. Click File > Save to save the design database.
7. Delete the recover.dgd.isis file.

Red Lock
Red locks are activated by an .isis_lock file, which is temporarily created while a
.dgd is active.

Tutorial 2-2
Ensure you have a green lock on a .dgd.

Database Repair and Restore


Sometimes a design database may become unstable. Symptoms that a design database
may need attention:

Layers are missing from the design database.

Layers load into Envisage, but are never visible.

Layers are loaded into Envisage, but are not visible until another layer is loaded.
Error message that a layer is already loaded when attempting to load a layer.
Error accessing design work file messages.

Repair a Design Database


To repair an unstable design database:
1. Make a backup copy of the design database.
2. Right-click on the design database in Vulcan Explorer and choose Repair.
3. Check Restore deleted layers if layers appear to be missing. Click OK.

30

Chapter 2 Vulcan Interface

Figure 2-21 Repair Design Database

Restore a Design Database


Vulcan automatically saves a copy of a design database the first time it is accessed each
day. Backups are stored in the working directory in a dgd_backup folder automatically
created by Vulcan. This functionality must be enabled in Tools > Preferences >
Envisage.

Figure 2-22 Enable automatic design database backup functionality


To replace a design database with a prior version:
1. Close the design database.
2. Right-click on the design database in Vulcan Explorer and choose Restore
Backup.
3. Select which backup copy to replace the current design database.
4. Click OK to replace the design database with an older version.

Figure 2-23 Choose design database to restore

Database Repair and Restore

31

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Using Vulcan Help


Vulcan Help is accessed by pressing the [F1] key, clicking Help > Vulcan Help, or the
help icon on the Standard toolbar. Some dialog boxes contain a help icon which displays
the help relevant to the option.

Figure 2-24 Dialog box help icon

Figure 2-25 Help icon on Standard toolbar


Under some help topics, certain words may be underlined (hyperlinks) or highlighted in
blue (tool tips). Click a hyperlink to open related topics. Hover over a tool tip to display
extra information.
Pages in the Help menu that are frequently referenced can be added as favourites by
selecting Add on the Favourites tab.

Tutorial 2-3
Start Vulcan Help and read about a menu option.

32

Chapter 2 Vulcan Interface

View Data
Load and Remove Data
Layers, triangulations and other files can be loaded using the menu options or the Vulcan
Explorer Window. When files are loaded, the name appears in bold.
To load data use one of the following methods:

Double-click on a file.
Drag and drop a file into the Primary window.
Right-click on a file and select Load.
Click File > Open.
Click Open on the Standard toolbar.

To remove data use one of the following methods:

Tip:

Right-click on the file in Vulcan Explorer and select


Remove.
Right-click on an object loaded in Envisage and
select Remove.
Use icons on the Standard toolbar for removing
layers and underlays.

Figure 3-1 Vulcan Explorer

To load multiple consecutive files, click and hold [Shift], then select the top and
bottom file in the range. Right-click on the highlighted files and select Load.
To load multiple non-consecutive files, click and hold [Ctrl] while selecting
individual files. Right-click on the highlighted files and select Load.

Remove Layer icon Remove Underlay(s)

Open icon

Figure 3-2 Standard toolbar icons

Load and Remove Data

33

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Note:

An underlay is a temporary graphical item. Examples include triangulations, labels, and


block model slices.

Tutorial 3-1
Practise loading and removing the POLY1 layer and the topo.00t triangulation.

Zoom, Pan and Rotate


Zoom
Zooming can be accomplished using several methods:

Use the middle mouse wheel. For example, to zoom into the northeast corner,
move the mouse pointer to that corner and scroll using the mouse wheel.
Use the Zoom icon. To define a zoom area, click once in the bottom left hand
corner of the zoom area, then click a second time in the upper right hand corner of
the zoom area.

Figure 3-3 Zoom icon

Use the Zoom factor field box on the Digitise toolbar.


a. Click in the Zoom factor field box.
The default zoom factor is 0.8, but any number can be entered, including
numbers greater than 1.0. For example, a zoom factor of 2 produces 2 x
magnification.
b. Press [Enter] any number of times to apply the entered factor.
c. When the desired view is achieved, click in the Primary window to re-focus
the cursor.

Figure 3-4 Zoom factor field

When viewing data in a neutral situation, it is possible to zoom in or out using the
middle mouse button and the right mouse button simultaneously. An overlay circle
temporarily appears on-screen. Drag the cursor towards the circle to zoom out and
move away from the circle centre to zoom in.
When in virtual sphere or Z-up rotation modes (see Rotate on page 36), use the
[S] key from the keyboard to zoom in/out.
If the Zoom toolbar is active, use either the + (plus) or - (minus) keys to zoom in
and out. These toolbar icons use a zooming factor of 1.25 and 0.8 respectively.

Right-click to cancel out of zooming mode.

34

Chapter 3 View Data

Tip:

Press the [Z] key on the keyboard to activate zoom mode while in Plan view.
Press the [B] key and the [F] key on the keyboard to cycle backward and forward
through the last zoomed views.

Zoom To Toolbar
The Zoom Data Extents icon sets the zoom value to allow all graphics to be displayed in
the Primary window.
If zooming to a specific object(s) is desired, highlight the object(s) and click the Zoom
Highlighted icon under the Zoom Data Extents child toolbar.
To zoom to the active layer select the Zoom Current Layer icon under the Zoom Data
Extents child toolbar.
Click Reset View on the graphics toolbar to return the Primary window to Plan view.
Zoom Data Extents icon

Zoom Highlighted
Zoom Current Layer
Reset View icon

Figure 3-5 Zoom toolbar options

Pan
Panning is accomplished in a variety of ways:

Click on the Pan icon. Once active, use the left mouse button to click relative From
and To points in the Primary window

Figure 3-6 Pan icon


Tip:

Click the [P] key on the keyboard to activate the pan mode.

Zoom, Pan and Rotate

On a 3-button mouse, hold the middle and left mouse buttons while moving the
mouse.
Position the mouse and zoom in and out with the middle mouse wheel.
Use the arrow keys on the keyboard to pan up, down, right and left.

35

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Rotate
Four different rotate modes are located in the rotation child menu.

Ortho Sphere Rotation


Virtual Sphere Rotation
Z-Up Rotation
Ortho Rotation

Figure 3-7 Rotation Child Menu

Ortho Sphere Rotation: The axes display in different colours. Left-click and hold
rings of the displayed sphere to rotate about the three principal axes (X, Y and Z).
Virtual Sphere Rotation: Left-click and drag the mouse to rotate.
Z-Up Rotation: Left-click and drag the mouse to rotate. Similar to Virtual Sphere
Rotation, except the Z axis is always up. This mode ensures that the horizon
remains horizontal when viewing topographical data.
Ortho Rotation: Left-click and drag the mouse to rotate. Keyboard strokes can
control rotation around vertical [V], the plane of the screen [W], and perpendicular
to the screen [U].

Tutorial 3-2
Try all four rotate modes and select the most comfortable option.
Click Tools > Preferences > Envisage > Graphics > Input to set the default rotation.
Input options

Default rotate modes

Figure 3-8 Input options

Tip:

Rotation speed is controlled by the distance the cursor is away from the centre of rotation.
To decrease the rotation speed, move the cursor away from the centre of rotation and
describe a wide arc. To speed up the rotation, move the cursor in a tight circle around the
centre point.

Tutorial 3-3
Set your favourite rotate mode as the default.

36

Chapter 3 View Data

To exit rotation mode press [Enter] or [Esc] or simultaneously click all three mouse
buttons. Further rotations in the current session remember the rotation centre until
another centre is specified.

View Ports and Overview


Window
The Overview window is used to simultaneously view data loaded in the Primary window
from two different directions.

Figure 3-9 Overview window icon


The Overview window may be resized, moved or docked. This window is associated with
a modified set of toolbars.

Figure 3-10 Overview window

Tutorial 3-4
Load an Overview Window. Zoom in/out in the Primary window. Notice the blue extent
lines change in the Overview Window as you zoom.

Perspective View
Perspective View displays data from an isometric perspective. This is ideal for
visualisation of topographic models. Click the Perspective View icon or by pressing the
[V] key to toggle the option.

Figure 3-11 Perspective View icon

View Ports and Overview Window

37

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Using Zoom in Perspective View mode, behaves differently from zooming in normal
view. When zooming in perspective mode, three boxes are displayed to help visualise the
zooming process.
All objects inside the smallest box are still visible after the zoom. All objects outside the
largest box are not visible after the zoom. Objects between these two boxes may be
visible, but it depends upon the depth of the zoom. The middle box represents the userdefined area.

Figure 3-12 Zoom in Perspective View

Figure 3-13 Data in Perspective View


In the above example, the data closest to the viewer appears to be distorted by the
perspective. In actuality, all tunnels are of the same cross-sectional size. Perspective
View mode is a visualisation tool only and is not recommended for normal digitising work.

Tutorial 3-5
1. Turn Perspective View on.
2. Try zooming, panning, or rotating and pick out differences between being in
regular view and Perspective View.
3. Turn off Perspective View.

38

Chapter 3 View Data

Figure 3-14 Regular mode and Perspective View

Tip:

When using Perspective view, open an Overview window and note the perspective
pyramid. The apex of the pyramid is the viewing point and the pyramid itself defines the
depth of view. Data not within the pyramid overlay are not visible in the Primary window.

Other Views
The Window file holds information about windows that are created. The Window file uses
the naming convention <project_code>.wnd.
The Envisage view can be changed in several ways using the View menu. The most
common tools are:

View > Change View > Set View: Select an axis position in Envisage, then
specify the rotations around the X, Y, and Z axes.
View > Change View > Vertical Exaggeration: Enter a vertical exaggeration.
This exaggeration has an effect until the Reset View resets exaggeration to a
default value of one.
View > Windows > Fit Layer: Generates a new temporary window which fit to the
coordinates of a nominated layer. This is useful if the data is located outside the
extents defined in the .dg1.

Visibility
Vulcan has two visibility toolbars, Visibility and PRIMARY:Visibilty.

Other Views

The Visibility toolbar is associated with tools located under View > Visibility.
The PRIMARY:Visibilty toolbar is a Windows toolbar; therefore it is not associated
with any menus. It is useful because these visibility tools can be used while
performing other menu options. For example, while digitizing a design, a

39

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

triangulation which is impeding the view of other objects can be rendered invisible
without exiting a digitizing mode.

Figure 3-15 Visibility toolbar

Make Objects Invisible


Make Triangulations Translucent
Make Objects Visible

Make Objects Shadowed

Make Triangulations Solid

Figure 3-16 PRIMARY:Visibility toolbar

Note:

You cannot snap to an object that is shadowed or invisible

Tip:

To make an entire layer in which the object resides visible, shadowed or invisible, choose
a visibility option, then press and hold the [Shift] key while selecting the object.

Section View
Create Section View
Click View > Create Section (or press the Create Section View icon on the Standard
toolbar) to limit what is viewed on-screen to a defined section and thickness.
Note:

This option does not unfold a section based on a multi-segment line. To unfold a section,
use tools in Geology > Drilling Section.

Figure 3-17 Create Section View icon

40

Chapter 3 View Data

Figure 3-18 Create Section dialog box


The Create Section dialog box is broken down into four areas:

Section Type Defines the window and objects to slice through.

Create or replace the windows primary section: The view changes


according to chosen specifications.
If Create a section through all objects or Create a section through a
single object are used, the view is not realigned until Align view is
enabled on the Slice Properties toolbar.

Figure 3-19 Align view icon

Primary Section Shadows Shows data in a buffer outside the defined section
width
Clipping Planes Defines the sections appearance.
Select Plane By Choose the method for defining the section. If 2 points or 3
points are used, standard snap modes can be used to define these points.

The coordinates of the current screen plane are displayed in the status bar. To exit
Section view, left-click the Toggle Sliced View icon on the Graphics toolbar.

Section View

41

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 3-20 Toggle Sliced View icon

Tutorial 3-6
1. Create a Section view with a clipping width of 25 on either side of the section.
2. Make your step size 50.
3. Select the plane by 2 points and click anywhere along the topo triangulation.

Other Section View Notes


If multiple non-primary sections have been created, all section slices are displayed at
once. This allows block models sliced in different orientations to be viewed
simultaneously.

Figure 3-21 Vertical and horizontal dynamic block slices.


Where multiple non-primary sections have been created, the clipping width of each
individual section is influenced by the others. A fail-safe way to have the current section
obey the clipping criteria, is to set all of the non-current sections to No Clipping.

42

Chapter 3 View Data

Section View Properties


Right-click the Toggle Sliced View icon from the Graphics toolbar to open the Slice
toolbar. This dialog box is used to navigate and control the Section view.
Move Slicing Plane

Slice Backwards

Clip Translucent Solids

Slice Forward

Clip drop-down menu


Display slider bar
Highlight Intersections

Align View With Current Slicing Plane

Figure 3-22 Slice toolbar

Slice Forward and Slice Backwards steps forward and backward through the
data at the defined Step interval.
Move Slicing Plane navigates through the data dynamically. Enable the option,
then hold down the left mouse button while dragging. This command can also be
accessed using View > Move Sections.
Align View With Current Slicing Plane is useful after rotating out of the Section
view. It is frequently used after creating a non-primary section, because this type of
section does not automatically change the view to be in the plane of the section.
Highlight Intersections toggles plane intersects on and off. For example, the
intersection of a triangulation with the section plane.

Drag the Display slider bar pointer to control the visibility of the section plane grid. The
grid display is invisible when the slider control is all the way to the left and fully visible
when the slider bar is all the way to the right.

Tip:

The colour of the section grid plane display, and optionally, the coordinate
annotation, is set in the Create Section dialog box using the Display colour palette.

Clip Translucent Solids controls whether translucent triangulations remain


complete or be clipped by the section. Use the Clip drop-down list to change the
view of the section by altering the clipping.

By Width clips data by the distance entered in the Front and Back fields.
Forwards displays all data on and in front of the slice at the plane.
Backwards displays all data on and behind the plane slice.

No Clipping sets the section to an infinite width.

Tutorial 3-7
Move up and down through the sections with the Overview window on to become
familiar with Section view.

Section View

43

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

44

Chapter 3 View Data

Create Design Data


Design Menu Create Tools
Use the Design > Create tools to create layers and objects. This menu creates CAD
objects, but does not contain editing tools.
Ellipse

Textured Polygon

New Layer

Line

Point

Spline

Arc

Feature

2D Arrow

Grid

Rectangle
Polygon

2D Text

3D Text
3D Arrow

Symbol

Figure 4-1 Design toolbar

To begin digitising in Envisage first create (using New Layer) or allocate a layer.
To create Points, indicate an X,Y and Z location in 3D space using the mouse
cursor.
Line segments are created from a series of X, Y, Z locations.
A Polygon is a connected series of lines and a Textured Polygon is one with a
triangulation or texture image tiled over it.
To define a Rectangle, select the bottom left and a top right corner.
Use Spline, Arc, and Ellipse commands to create curves.
Any closed CAD data, such as polygons and circles, can be filled with a pattern. To
add a pattern right-click on the object, select Properties and choose a Pattern.
Do not digitise a closing segment when creating polygons as it is created using the
shortest distance between the first and last points digitised. Right-click to close.
Use the backspace key to undo the last digitised point while still actively digitising.
If not in an active digitising mode, use Design > Point Edit options to modify
existing points.
Undo/redo functionality can be used to undo an entire object rather than just a
point.

The Design toolbar can be turned on/off under Tools > Toolbar Visibility.

Design Menu Create Tools

45

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 4-1
CAD Creation Points, Lines, and Polygons
1. Ensure that a design database is open so that a new layer may be created.
2. Click Design > Create > Layer and enter DESIGN for the layer name and a
description.
3. Create five points anywhere on your screen using Design > Create > Point.
4. Create a line anywhere on your screen using Design > Create > Line.
5. Create a polygon using Design > Create > Polygon.

Tip:

When creating a layer:

Avoid using special characters such as !,@,#,$,%,^,&,or *.

Layer names are limited to 40 characters.

An underscore _ is a valid character, but cannot be the first character.


Layer descriptions are limited to 80 characters.

Tutorial 4-2
CAD Creation Arcs and Circles
1. Create a new layer using Design > Create > Layer.
2. In the Layer field, type DESIGN2.
3. Add a Description then click OK.
4. Click Design > Create > Arc.

Figure 4-2 Circular Arc dialog box


5. Select both options Centre and Radius and Radius and set the diameter to
10. Enter 1 for the Arc length step size. Click OK.
6. When prompted, indicate the centre point.
7. Right-click to exit the command.
8. Click Design > Create > Rectangle.
9. Use Design > Create > Polygon Textured.
10. Choose Use tiled texture and select EARTH

46

Chapter 4 Create Design Data

Arrows
Click Design > Create > Arrow 2D to label objects with a Plan view arrow. Design >
Create > Arrow 3D will create arrows in multiple planes.

Symbols
Symbols can also be chosen for use in the design. Vulcan contains a symbol database,
symbols.dgd.isis, found in the Vulcan Explorer window under the Resources tab.
This database contains some standard symbols for oil and gas wells. Symbols from this
database can readily be added to a design layer using Design > Create > Symbol.
Custom, user-defined symbols can also be created using File > Symbols > New along
with standard Vulcan CAD tools.

Tutorial 4-3
1. Insert a symbol using Design > Create > Symbols.
2. Choose Centre Scaled X.
3. When prompted indicate the first and second alignment points.

Snap Modes
The Snap Mode options are located on the Digitise window toolbar.
Snap Snap
Track Section of Existing Line
To Bearing
To
Indicate Points Grids input
Cancel Current Operation
Toggle Dynamic
Volume, right-click
for properties
Snap To Objects

Key In
Point Data

Enter Zoom Factor


Create line at given angle

Smart Snap, right-click for properties

Figure 4-3 Digitise toolbar

Indicate
Indicate (or Free snap mode) digitises points without snapping to existing objects.
Points are created on a default Z elevation defined on the status bar at an X and Y point
indicated with the mouse.
If a gradient is defined on the status toolbar, the first point inherits the default Z value and
the remaining points follow the defined gradient. Hold down the [Shift] key to digitise a
point with the same Z level as the last edited/selected point.

Snap Modes

47

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tip:

Use the Indicate mode in Plan view or in Section view. If the screen is rotated, the
resulting point may not be created where intended.

Snap to Objects
Snap to Objects snaps to any existing graphical object. The X,Y and Z coordinates are
interpolated from the object clicked.

Snap to Points
Snap to Points digitises at points or intersections. When a position is chosen in
Envisage, snapping occurs to the closest existing point. The X, Y and Z coordinates for
the new point are the same as the existing point.
Tip:

Before creating a point, hold the [Shift] key to preview where Vulcan will snap to.
To snap to a point, click on the line segment close to the desired point instead of clicking
the exact point desired.

Snap to Grid
Snap to Grid requires that a 2D mapping grid is loaded on-screen. When executed, input
is snapped onto the closest grid intersection beneath the cursor.

Custom Cursor
To activate the custom cursor, left-click the custom cursor icon on the graphics toolbar.
Right-click the icon to modify cursor properties.

Figure 4-4 Custom Cursor Properties dialog box


A Scaled Cursor changes accordingly when zooming in or out. A Fixed Cursor does not
dynamically scale up or down but remains the specified size, which is from edge to edge
of the cursor. For example, if Circle is checked as the Scaled Cursor, then the specified
size is the diameter of the circle.

48

Chapter 4 Create Design Data

Directional Digitise Tools


Vulcan has three main directional tools to aid with digitised designs: Key In Point Data,
Bearing Input and Create Line At Given Angle. These features are accessed via icons
on the Digitise toolbar.
Bearing Input

Key In Point Data

Create Line At Given Angle

Figure 4-5 Digitise toolbar

Key In Point Data


Key In Point Data can be used in two different ways:

Get point coordinates


Create points with coordinates

Both options have a button in the Keyboard Input dialog box.


Tip:

To get or create a point relative to the last digitised point, enter an R in front of a
coordinate value or check All Relative.

Figure 4-6 Keyboard Input dialog box


To use Get Point functionality:
1. On the Keyboard Input dialog box click Get Point.
2. Click on any point on-screen. X, Y and Z windows are populated with the chosen
points coordinates.
To use Create Point functionality:
1. Open a layer. Click Design > Create to digitize an object such as a line, arc or
rectangle.
2. Click the Key In Point Data icon, then click Create Point to enter relative or
absolute coordinates while digitizing the object.

Directional Digitise Tools

Select All Relative if all coordinate entries are relative to the last point.
Alternately enter R before the coordinate entry to convert that value into a
relative distance. For example, a Z value of R100 is interpreted as 100
units greater than the previous Z value; R-100 is treated as 100 units less
than the previous value.
Enter R or check All Relative; do not use both concurrently.

49

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 4-4
Use Key In Point Data to create the shape shown below in a new layer named
CAD_INPUTS.

Tip:

Vulcan remembers the coordinates of the last created or selected point. Relative values,
are calculated from the last point entered or selected in Envisage.

Bearing Input
Bearing Input creates new points at a specified angle and distance or from the last point
when in a digitising mode.
Points are created with this tool in one of three ways.

Bearing units

Figure 4-7 Bearing Input dialog box

Tip:

50

Bearing and Inclination angles can be controlled.


Enter Bearing values in decimal degrees (dd), degrees.minutes.seconds (dms) or
gradients (grad).
Inclination refers to the amount of grade (slope) from the last digitised point.
Values must be entered in decimal degrees. A positive inclination projects the
point above the horizon, and a negative value produces a point below the horizon.

Bearing values can be converted between decimal degrees, degrees.minutes.seconds,


and gradients using the toggle buttons for bearing units (Figure 4-7).

Chapter 4 Create Design Data

Tutorial 4-5
Use Bearing Input and Keyboard Input dialog boxes to create the shape shown below
(in red) in the CAD_INPUTS layer created in Tutorial 4-4.

Create Line At Given Angle


There are four methods for creating a new point with Angle Input. The Angle Input option
only works if you are in a menu option that prompts for a point coordinate such as Design
> Create > Line or Design > Create > Polygon.

Angle units

Figure 4-8 Angle Input dialog box


Angles may be entered in percent (%), decimal degrees (dd), degrees.minutes.seconds
(dms) or in gradients (grad). If the input point is to be at a specified screen angle, then
the Angle field must be filled out.
Check Enter distance to control distances between a reference point and the new point.
The specified distance can be either positive or negative. Distance direction is defined by
looking at the point order of the reference line. Travelling from point one to point two, to
the direction to the right is positive; to the left is negative.
Before Angle Input can be used, a reference line must be selected. If no reference line
has been selected, a default reference line with zero azimuth is used.To select a
reference line, click Get line and select the line segment. Both the origin and direction of
the line are stored in memory for as long as the current session of Vulcan is open or until
another reference line is chosen.

Directional Digitise Tools

At specified screen angle creates a new point at an angle entered in the panel.
The angle is measured clockwise from the location of the reference line.
Perpendicular to given line on screen creates a new point 90 degrees to the
right of the original direction of the reference segment.
Parallel to given line on screen and Parallel to given line in 3D create a new
point in the same direction as the reference segment.

51

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 4-6
Use Bearing Input, Angle Input and Keyboard Input dialog boxes to draw the purple
shape shown below in the CAD_INPUTS layer.

Tutorial 4-7
1. Create a new layer named BOUNDARY.
2. Digitise a point: X:77802, Y:4958, Z:200
3. Draw the polygon shown below.

52

Chapter 4 Create Design Data

Track Section of Existing Line

Figure 4-9 Track Section of Existing Line icon


Track Section of Existing Line traces portions of objects quickly. This is helpful when
tracing contours or pit strings. This option only works in an active digitising mode such as
Design > Create > Polygon or Design > Create > Line.
Tip:

If the track section is tracing the line or polygon the wrong way, press the space bar to
trace the opposite way.

Figure 4-10 Trace a contour line

Tutorial 4-8
1. Load layer TRACK_SECTION on-screen.
2. Create a single polygon that traces around all four lines in the loaded layer.
3. Click Design > Layer Edit > Copy to create a copy of the polygon to a new
layer named TRACK_SECTION_POLYGON.

Directional Digitise Tools

53

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Text
Using Fonts
There are two types of text in Vulcan: 2D text and 3D text. 2D text is always oriented in
Plan view. 3D text can be created in any plane.

Figure 4-11 3D text example


Text fonts are stored in the Resources area as .font files. If the files are missing, the text
does not appear. Furthermore, if the environment variables TEMP and TMP are not set up
correctly, the text drop-down lists are blank. 2D and 3D text defaults can be set in Tools >
Preferences > Envisage > Defaults. For more information on the resources area, TEMP,
or TMP, refer to Environment Variables on page 3.

Tutorial 4-9
Click Tools > Preferences and turn off text defaults for both 2D and 3D text.

2D Text
There are two basic types of 2D text:

Fixed Fonts remain the same size in Envisage and are always horizontal and
legible, no matter how the screen is rotated or zoomed. These fonts are ideal for
drillhole labelling. Do not use for plotting as it is difficult to determine the text size
on the actual plot. The fixed fonts are: SMALL, NORMAL, MEDIUM and LARGE.
Scaled Fonts resize with zooming. Text size is set a particular scale. The text is
only legible in plan view.

Note:

54

Vector Fonts are supplied with Vulcan and are available to every Vulcan
user. SCALED, TIMES+ or SCRIPT are all vector fonts.
True Type Fonts are loaded on an individual computer independent of
Vulcan. To create a True Type font, right-click on any 2D text object and
select True Type Font.
A True Type Font can be applied to any 2D text object, but fixed text must
be converted to scaled text before the True Type font can be applied.
Envisage converts the text automatically when choosing to apply a True
Type Font.

Chapter 4 Create Design Data

To create 2D text:
1. Click Design > Create > Create Text.
2. When prompted, indicate the direction of the text.
3. Click Design > Text Edit to edit text and text attributes.

Right-click on text and select Edit Text to change text content.


Right-click on text and select Properties to alter text attributes.

Tutorial 4-10
1. Create a new layer: PRACTICE_TEXT.
2. Add three separate 2D text objects using:
a. A fixed font.
b. A scaled font.
c. A vector font.
3. Apply a True Type font to the scaled text.
4. Load the BOUNDARY layer and label the boundary polygon with your name and
todays date. Ensure the text is a reasonable size and is easy to read.

Figure 4-12 Boundary polygon labelled with text

3D Text
Unlike 2D text, 3D text can be used in any plane. There are no different types of 3D text.
All available fonts are listed, and you may not apply a True Type font after creation. The
fonts provided are similar to the vector fonts of 2D text. 3D text is a particular size at a
particular scale, and therefore becomes larger and smaller with zooming.

Text

55

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 4-13 3D Text Attributes dialog box


To create 3D text:
1. Click Design > Create > Create 3D Text.
2. When prompted, indicate text origin and direction.
3. Click Design > Text 3D Edit to edit the text or its attributes.

Tip:

Right-click the text and select Edit Text to change text content.
Right-click the text and select Properties to alter text attributes.
Choose to mirror text in the Horizontal plane or the Vertical plane.
3D text can mirror in horizontal and vertical planes to obtain correct text
facing.
The limits for 3D text are 132 characters per line with a maximum of 60
lines.

Create a Section view in the plane where text should appear before creating text. Manual
rotations may not be exact, which may cause improper text placement.

Tutorial 4-11
1. Create 3D text in the PRACTICE_TEXT layer using various rotations to
experiment with how 3D text works.
2. Set up 2D and 3D text defaults in Tools > Preferences.

56

Chapter 4 Create Design Data

Label Design Data


Analyse Tools
The Analyse > Label menu contains several options for labelling data in Envisage. The
Analyse options are broken down into the following main functions:

Point Labels
Point Labels to Text
Object Labels
Object Labels to Text

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : Analyse : Label : Contents

Menu Options
Label Colour
By default, label colour is defined by a colour choice made in Tools > Preferences >
Envisage > Graphics > Colours. Click Analyse > Label > Underlay Label Colour to
override a default colour choice.
For details see related help topic(s):
The Vulcan Workbench : Preferences : Envisage : Graphics : Colours
Envisage : Analyse : Label : Underlay Label Colour

Analyse Tools

57

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Point Labels
Analyse > Label > Point Label displays as fixed font, which means labels remain the
same size in Envisage regardless of the current zoom and are always legible regardless
of screen orientation. Analyse > Label > Point Label to Text described later in this
section allows control over text properties.
1. Click Analyse > Label > Point Label.
2. Select a label method. Attributes vary with the label method chosen.

Figure 5-1 Label Object Point(s) dialog box


Point Label allows one set of labels to be displayed at any given time.
Load data to be labelled in Envisage, then select data with an appropriate method.

Figure 5-2 Selection panel menu


Table 5-1 Select By menu
Command

Tip:

Definition

Object

Selects one object at a time.

Group and Layer

Selects all objects within a specific group and layer.

Feature and Layer

Selects objects with common features in a single layer.

Layer

Selects all objects within a chosen layer.

Group

Selects all objects within a specified group.

Feature

Selects all objects within a desired feature.

Name

Selects objects entered by name rather than picking on-screen.

To label the points using a context menu, right-click on an object and select the
appropriate label method.
To remove labels click Analyse > Label > Remove.

58

Chapter 5 Label Design Data

Tutorial 5-1
1. Close all open layers.
2. Load my_label.arch_d using File > Load Archive.
3. Click Analyse > Label > Underlay Label Colour and select Use Object
Colour.
4. Label the points in the triangle by Name.
5. Label the points in the hexagon by ZValue with 0 Decimals.
6. Label the points in the square by Wtag with 2 Decimals.
7. Label the points in the curved line by Sequence. Select All points.
8. Click Analyse > Label > Remove and select Layer. Choose any object to
remove points from all objects in the MY_LABEL layer.
9. Click Analyse > Label > Underlay Label Colour and select Use colour from
colour table. Choose a colour from the Colours table which contrasts with the
loaded layer.
10. Choose to label all Points in every object in the MY_LABEL layer.

Point Labels to Text


Click Analyse > Label > Point Label to Text to place point labels in a layer as printable
text objects. Converted labels can be saved with other design data. If labels are saved to
a layer, more than one type of label may be displayed simultaneously.

Figure 5-3 Convert point data to text objects

Settings options control data type and format.

Menu Options

Control label colour with Colour options.


Decimal options are usable when numerical labels are selected.
Display Style properties can be specified when multiple label types are
chosen.

Font Settings configure the size and type of text used for labels.

59

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 5-2
1. Load the MY_LABEL layer.
2. Ensure no object is labelled.
3. Click Analyse > Label > Point Label to Text.
4. Select MY_LABEL from the Layer drop-down list.
5. Check Name and W.
6. Change the TrueType font to SCALED.
7. The text should be 2 cm at a Drafting angle of 45 decimal degrees.

Object Label
Clicking Analyse > Label > Object Label displays as fixed font, which means labels
remain the same size in Envisage regardless of the current zoom and are always legible
regardless of screen orientation. Click Analyse > Label > Object Label to Text to control
font type or size.
Select a label type. Attributes vary with the label method chosen.

Figure 5-4 Select object labels


To remove the object label click Analyse > Label > Remove.

Tutorial 5-3
1. Load the MY_LABEL layer. Ensure no object is labelled.
2. Click Analyse > Label > Object Label.
3. Label every object in MY_LABEL with its corresponding Name displayed in the
Centre of each object.
4. Label every object in MY_LABEL with its corresponding Value displayed with 2
Decimals.
5. Label every object in MY_LABEL with its corresponding Group.

60

Chapter 5 Label Design Data

Object Label to Text


Analyse > Label > Object Label to Text generates printable object labels in a layer. The
converted labels can be saved with other design data. Use options in Design > Text Edit
to manipulate existing text positions.

Figure 5-5 Convert object data to text objects

Tutorial 5-4
1. Load the MY_LABEL layer. Ensure no object is labelled.
2. Click Analyse > Label > Object Label to Text.
3. Select MY_LABEL from the Layer drop-down list.
4. Set up the Settings tab so that each objects Name appears in the Centre of the
object.
5. Change the TrueType font to SCALED.
6. The text should be 4 cm at a Drafting angle of 45 decimal degrees.
7. When prompted, Select by Group and click the triangle.
8. Append the resulting text to MY_LABEL.
9. Right-click on a label and select Move to reposition it.

Tutorial 5-5
1. Load the REFERENCE_POINT layer.
2. Label the start point of the boundary polygon with X and Y coordinates.
3. Save the labels to a layer named REFERENCE_POINT_LABEL.
4. Label the gradient of the RAMP layer.

Menu Options

61

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

62

Chapter 5 Label Design Data

Edit Design Data


Edit Tools
Many Vulcan data editing options are grouped together based on function:

Layers: Design > Layer Edit


Objects: Design > Object Edit
Points: Design > Point Edit

Other edit options are designed to work at object and point levels:

Design > Polygon Edit

Design > Text Edit

Design > Text 3D Edit

Design > Arrow Edit

Design > Line Style Edit


Design > Feature Edit
Design > Point Insert
Design > Attribute Edit

Layer Edits
To modify layers, select options in Design > Layer Edit.
Table 6-1 Layer Edit commands
Command

Edit Tools

Definition

Identify

Displays information on a selected object in the Report window.

Name

Modify layer name or description.

Copy

Copies information from one layer to another. An existing layer


may be chosen, or enter a unique name to create a new layer.
Select CAD data to be copied. Data becomes shadowed (grey)
when selected.

Delete

Deletes layers from a list or by object selection in Envisage.

Transfer

Moves data from one layer to another. An existing layer may be


chosen, or enter a unique name to create a new layer.

63

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : Design : Layer Edit : Contents
Tip:

All options in Vulcan prompt in the lower left hand corner (as well as the top of the screen)
for selections and actions. Follow the prompts when learning a new menu option.
To change a layer name:
1. Load a layer. Click Design > Layer Edit > Name.
2. When prompted, select an object in the layer.
3. Enter a new Layer name and/or Description. Click OK.
4. Select another object or right-click to exit the command.
5. Click File > Save to update the Explorer window.

Figure 6-1 Layer Name and Description dialog box

Tutorial 6-1
Transfer the boundary polygon from the REFERENCE_POINT layer into a layer named
BOUNDARY.

Object Edits
Use tools in Design > Object Edit to modify objects loaded in Envisage.
Table 6-2 Object Editing tools
Command

64

Definition

Identify

Displays information on a selected object in the Report window.

Delete

Deletes objects.

Delete By Poly

Deletes points outside or inside selected polygons. Lines, which


connect points, may not be flush with the selected polygon.

Clip by Poly

Deletes points outside or inside selected polygons and relimits


lines to the edge of the polygon. Resulting object lines are flush
with the selected polygon.

Trim

Cuts lines to a nominated object so that they are flush with the
object. This is similar to the AutoCAD trim function.

Drag

Interactively move or copy selected objects.

Split

Splits an object based upon point location, existing segments, or


disconnections.

Chapter 6 Edit Design Data

Table 6-2 Object Editing tools (Continued)


Command

Definition

Join Lines

Combines objects at end point locations to create one object.

Coalesce

Combines multiple objects into a single object without physically


connecting them.

Reverse

Reverses an objects point sequence. Vulcan recognises the


order in which objects are drawn for applying other functions.
This is useful when digitising pits, dumps and fault strings.

Consistent

Makes point order within each selected object either consistently


clockwise or counterclockwise.

Connection

Connects or disconnects points. Disconnected points do not


have line segments between them.

Filter

Filters out unnecessary points in either 2D or 3D space based on


an entered tolerance. Use filtering where detail is not required, or
automatically-generated data contains too many points. Fewer
points can reduce display and processing time.

Register

Changes the Z elevation of an object to correspond with Z values


of a triangulation.

Z Value

Assigns a Z value to all points in a selected object.

Grade

Changes the grade of an entire object, or part of an object. The


applied grade can be a specific number, or the object can grade
between two existing points.

Explode

Splits an object so that each individual line segment or point


becomes an unique object.

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : Design : Object Edit : Contents
Several examples of how the Object Edit functions work are provided below. The options
are easy to understand by following the prompts and reading the associated dialog boxes.
To register an object:
1. Load layers TOP_PIT and topo.00t triangulation on-screen.
Hover the cursor over the TOP_PIT layer. Notice that the elevation displayed at
the bottom of the Vulcan screen is zero. If the triangulation is solid shaded and you
are in plan view, you will not be able to see the layer without rotating the display or
making the triangulation transparent.

Figure 6-2 Pit string before registration


2. Click Design > Object Edit > Register.

Object Edits

65

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

3. As only one triangulation is loaded in Envisage, it is automatically selected. If more


than one triangulation is loaded, select a surface to register the string to when
prompted.
4. Select Object in the Select By menu.
5. When prompted to Select Object to register, select the polygon in the TOP_PIT
layer.
2D registration changes the Z elevation of the polygon to drape it onto the
triangulation. Interpolate inserts extra points into the polygon to allow it to better
follow triangulation contours.
Click OK.
6. Select Register to confirm the polygons registration.
Rotate the display to view the changes. The polygon should conform with the triangulation
surface.

Figure 6-3 Pit string after registration

Tutorial 6-2
Register the polygon in the BOUNDARY layer to the topo.00t triangulation as shown
in Figure 6-4.

Figure 6-4 Registered BOUNDARY polygon


To change the grade of an object:
1. Load the GRADE_LINE layer and rotate the layer into full view.
2. Click Analyse > Label > Point Label, and label the point sequence of the layer.
3. Click Design > Object Edit > Grade.
4. Select Specify grade manually.

66

Chapter 6 Edit Design Data

Figure 6-5 Grading Method menu


5. When prompted to select object, choose the line on the upper left.
6. Pick point 1 as the start point and point 2 as the end point.
7. Enter a Gradient of 20. Uncheck Grade with constant length. Click OK.
8. You are prompted to Retain or Reject graded object. Select to Retain the grade.
You can continue selecting objects for editing. Pick the upper middle line.
9. Pick point 2 as the start point and point 3 as the end point.
10. Enter a Gradient of 20. Check Grade with constant length.
11. Select Move points following end point, which assigns new X, Y and Z
coordinates to all points following the end point, in such a way that the gradients
following the end point are not changed.
12. Select to Retain the grade.
13. Pick the upper right line.
14. Pick point 2 as the start point and point 3 as the end point.
15. Enter a gradient of 20.
16. The Confirm menu is displayed. Select the Do not move following points option.
17. Select to Retain the grade. The objects should look like those shown in Figure 6-6.

Figure 6-6 Objects with grade applied


To filter unnecessary points:
1. Load the FILTER layer.
2. The majority of the points in the circle could be filtered without affecting the shape.
3. Click Design > Object Edit > Filter to remove points. Select by Object, then
choose the circle. Right-click twice to access the Filter panel.
4. Filtering occurs when the specified perpendicular distance between a point and
the theoretical line between the points on either side of it is less than the deviation
specified in the panel as illustrated in Figure 6-7.

Object Edits

67

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 6-7 Effect of deviation entry on filtering process


5. Apply a 2D Filter with a Minimum deviation from the line of 0.1. The filtered line
is displayed in grey, and you are prompted to Retain or Reject the filter.
6. Zoom in close enough to view the filtered points. If the new object is acceptable,
select Retain filter. Output from the filtering process is displayed in the Report
window.
Note:

If an object is designed in 3D, such as triangulation profiles, select the 3D Filter


option. This option allows you to specify the deviation from the line and filters X, Y,
Z values, whereas the 2D Filter does not change the Z value. If filtering contour
lines, a 3D filter does not affect the Z values as each object has only one unique Z
value.

Tutorial 6-3
1. Close all open layers.
2. Load my_split.arch_d using File > Load Archive.
3. Right-click the green line, then click Label > Point Sequence. Choose to label
All Points.
4. Click Design > Object Edit > Split and select Split by point. Follow the
prompts to split the green line at points 4 and 8.
5. Click Design > Object Edit > Join Lines. Join both sides of the solid green line
with the ends of the dashed blue line.
6. Repeat steps 3-5 to join the solid red line with the dashed purple line.
7. Delete the two remaining solid inner strings.

Tutorial 6-4
Load the layer named 50_METER_LINES. Use options in Design > Object Edit to cut
the lines so they exist only within the boundary polygon as shown in Figure 6-8.

68

Chapter 6 Edit Design Data

Figure 6-8 Lines trimmed to a polygon

Point Edits
Design > Point Edit tools modify points, or points in objects, loaded in Envisage.
Table 6-3 Point Edit Tools
Command

Definition

Move

Moves a point to a new location.

Move to
Intersection

Moves a point to a position defined by two intersecting lines. If


two chosen lines do not intersect, then the point is moved to the
point of the projected intersection.

Name

Names and labels one or more points in an object.

Z Edit

Changes a points Z value.

Delete

Removes individual points from an object.

Disconnect

Removes a line which connects two points.

Connect

Connects a nominated point to adjacent points in the same


object. Adjacent points are those that precede or follow the
nominated point in a digitised sequence. Start and end points of
a string are considered adjacent.

Cut

Deletes a section from a string of points.

Append

Adds extra points to either the start or end of a string.

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : Design : Point Edit : Contents
Note:

Point Edits

To ensure accurate point selection, click the line near the point, not on the point.

69

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

To move a point(s) to a new location:


1. Click Design > Point Edit > Move.
2. When prompted, select an object.
3. When prompted, select the point to move.
The selected point is highlighted. As you move the mouse, a rubber band line
extends from the point to the cursor.
4. When prompted, click to indicate a new point location.
5. Select another point or right-click twice to exit the command.
All snap modes can be used when moving points. If in Indicate mode, then the Z elevation
of the moved point changes to the default Z elevation. Options in Tools > Preferences >
Envisage > Graphics > Input control new elevations of moved points.
Tip:

Hold the [Shift] key while moving a point in Indicate mode to toggle the choice made in
Tools > Preferences > Envisage > Graphics> Input.

Tutorial 6-5
1. Load the MY_POINTS layer.
2. Click Design > Point Edit > Move and move one of the points in the hexagon.
3. Click Design > Point Edit > Move To Intersection and move one of the points
in the line to a corner of the square.
4. Click Design > Point Edit > Append and to extend one end of the line.
To change the Z value of a point:
1. Click Design > Point Edit > Z Edit.
2. Select an object, then a point in the object.
3. Enter a new point elevation. Click OK.

Tutorial 6-6
1. Load the RAMP layer.
2. Change the Z elevation of the uppermost point to an elevation of 100 to match
topo_countours.00t.
3. Apply -8% grade to the ramp. Ensure the first and last points do not move.

70

Chapter 6 Edit Design Data

Point Insert
Use tools in Design > Point Insert to add points to objects.
Table 6-4 Point Insert Tools
Command

Definition

Insert

Inserts points between two existing points.

Replace String

Define, then re-digitise part of a polygon string.

Interpolate

Inserts points to divides a single line segment into multiple line


segments. Enter a desired distance between points or a number
of resulting line segments to control segmentation.

Apply Curve

Creates a smooth curve based on an entered radius.

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : Design : Point Insert : Contents
To replace a string:
1. Draw a polygon on-screen (Design > Create > Polygon).
2. Right-click twice to exit the command.
3. Click Design > Point Insert > Replace String.
4. When prompted, select the object, then click on a start and end point.
5. Select to replace the highlighted or not highlighted portion.

Figure 6-9 Use Replace String on an existing polygon


6. Re-digitise new point locations for the chosen segment. Begin at the point labelled
S (start) and work toward the point labelled E (End).
7. Right-click when the string is re-created.
8. Select Interpolate to alter digitised Z values, or Do not interpolate to retain
digitised point elevations.
9. Observe the preview, and choose to Retain or Reject replacement.
10. Right-click to exit the command.

Point Insert

71

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 6-7
1. Load the MY_POINTS layer.
2. Click Design > Point Insert > Insert to change a section of the hexagon. Do
not interpolate Z values.
3. Click Design > Point Insert > Interpolate. Select the square and one of its
sides. Choose Equal parts, then enter 4.
4. Interpolate 4 points into another side of the square which is perpendicular to the
side chosen in step 3.
5. Click Design > Point Insert > Apply Curve and apply a curve with a radius of
50 to the corner between the two sides of the square modified in steps 3 and 4.

Tutorial 6-8
1. Load layer TRACK_SECTION_POLYGON created in Tutorial 4-8 and the
EXTENSION layer.
2. Modify the polygon in the TRACK_SECTION_POLYGON layer to include the
object in the extension layer. See Figure 6-10.

Figure 6-10 Modify TRACK_SECTION_POLYGON

Polygon Edit
Design > Polygon Edit options alter existing polygon objects.
Table 6-5 Polygon Edit Tools
Command

Definition

Area

Adjust an existing polygon area to meet a target.

Expand

Proportionately increases (expands) or decreases (shrinks) the


size of an existing polygon.

Merge

Merges two existing polygons.

Build

Generates polygons from existing objects.

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : Design : Polygon Edit : Contents

72

Chapter 6 Edit Design Data

Tutorial 6-9
1. Close all open layers.
2. Load the MY_DELETE layer.
3. Click Design > Polygon Edit > Merge, select Union, then select the circle.
4. Select by Object and choose the hexagon. Select Retain to merge the
hexagon and circle.
5. Click Design > Polygon Edit > Merge, select Intersect, then choose the
shape just created.
6. Select by Object, choose the triangle, then click Retain to create an
intersection the two shapes.

Tutorial 6-10
1. Close all open layers.
2. Load my_build.arch_d using File > Load Archive.
3. Click Design > Polygon Edit > Build.
4. Enter MY_POLYS as the Polygons layer name and click OK.
5. Select by Layer, and choose any object in MY_BUILD.
6. Confirm Build polygons and Retain polygons.
7. Remove the MY_BUILD layer to view resulting polygons.

Tutorial 6-11
1. Using various CAD tools of your choice, draw a polygon as outlined below with
reference to the boundary polygon. This serves as the base of our warehouse.
Ensure this polygon is in a new layer named WAREHOUSE.

Figure 6-11 Polygon


2. Register this polygon onto the topo.00t triangulation. Use a lowest point
registration so that the base of the polygon is flat.

Polygon Edit

73

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Move Data
The Move toolbar contains various tools to change the position of objects. Click Tools >
Toolbar Visibility and check Move to enable the toolbar. The Move toolbar is a
subtoolbar (child) of the Modify toolbar.

Figure 6-12 Move subtoolbar

Translate
The most common move command is Design > Transformation > Translate. It is used
to specify a reference point (start point) for the movement and then the destination point
(translation point). The selected objects are moved along a vector between the reference
point and destination point. Since object movement is based solely on distance and
direction between the reference and destination points, these points can be specified
anywhere in Envisage. It is not necessary to snap to data when creating reference and
destination points.
Tip:

Use the Input options (keyboard, bearing, and angle) in the Digitise toolbar to specify
exact point coordinates when moving objects.
To use Design > Transformation > Translate, load the CAD_INPUTS layer on-screen
and follow the instructions below to create a copy of the purple box as shown in Figure 613.

Figure 6-13 Copying an object


1. Click Design > Transformation > Translate.
2. When prompted, indicate the translation reference point. As a reference point, use
Snap To Points mode and snap to the top left corner of the original, purple box.
3. When prompted, indicate the destination of the point. Use Snap To Point mode
and click on the lower right hand corner of the green box.
4. On the Translation Option menu, select Create copy.

74

Chapter 6 Edit Design Data

5. Select by Object and pick the original purple polygon.


6. On the Confirm menu, select Translate.

Tutorial 6-12
Create a copy of the WAREHOUSE polygon ten metres directly above it. See Figure 614. The new polygon is used to design the warehouse roof.

Figure 6-14 Duplicated WAREHOUSE polygons

Drag
Design > Object Edit > Drag quickly moves or creates a copy of an object loaded in
Envisage. Left-click and hold the object, then drag it to a new location. Release the
mouse, then choose to Move or Copy the object.
Tip:

Design > Object Edit > Drag moves or copies 2D text, but does not work with 3D text.
Right-click on a loaded design object and choose Move to quickly move the object. Move
the mouse to preview the new location position. Left-click once to place the object in the
desired location.

Tutorial 6-13
1. Create crest line for the warehouse roof as shown below. The line should divide
the roof into two equal parts.

Figure 6-15 Roof crest line


2. Change the Z elevation of the roof crest line so it is three metres higher than the
roof polygon.

Figure 6-16 Roof crest line moved 3 metres

Move Data

75

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

76

Chapter 6 Edit Design Data

CAD Introduction
Data Attributes
In addition to the hierarchy for .dgd, layers and objects, each object has associated
attributes to: classify, group information or simplify data selection.

Layer Name
Layer Description
Object Name
Object Description

Value
Group
Primitive
Feature

Report Attributes
Use the information icon located on the Status toolbar to quickly obtain properties for any
object loaded in Envisage.

Figure 7-1 Status toolbar Information icon


Object details are generated to the Report window.

Figure 7-2 Object Attribute Report


Information in parentheses ( ) provides layer and object descriptions.
Note:

Data Attributes

Right-click any object and choose Report Details to view robust object information.
Alternately, click Analyse > Details > List. For more details, see Table 9-1 on page 89.

77

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Change Attributes
To change a layer name or description, use Design > Layer Edit > Name.
Manipulate other object attributes through options in Design > Attribute Edit.

Groups
Utilize groups to work with a number of otherwise un-related objects simultaneously. To
group objects together, select desired objects and set the group attribute to a common
value. Select object within a single layer, or across multiple layers.
To group data together manually:
1. Click Design > Attribute Edit > Group.
2. Select the data to be grouped.
3. Enter a Group name.
Design > Attribute Edit > Group by Attribute groups different objects by graphical
attributes such as colour, line type, pattern or object value. Check grouping with the
Information icon.

Figure 7-3 Assign groups by object attributes

Tutorial 7-1
1. Load the CONTOURS layer on-screen.
2. Group the contour lines into MINOR and MAJOR groups. Major contours are at 5
meter intervals (100,105). All other contour lines are in the Minor group.
3. Use View > Visibility > Design Visibility to hide all minor contours and show
only major contours in Envisage.

78

Chapter 7 CAD Introduction

Tutorial 7-2
1. Close all open layers.
2. Load my_attribute.arch_d using File > Load Archive.
3. Click Design > Attribute Edit > Apply Spline and select the hexagon.
4. Label the point sequence in the new shape which was formerly a hexagon.
5. Click Design > Attribute Edit > Insert Points on Spline, and Set the step to
20. Apply these parameters to the new shape which was formerly a hexagon.
6. Right-click on the shape which was formerly a hexagon, and Label > Point
sequence. Be sure to label All points in the sequence.

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : Design : Attribute Edit : Apply Spline
Envisage : Design : Attribute Edit : Remove Spline
Envisage : Design : Attribute Edit : Insert Points on Spline

Features
A feature is a predetermined set of attributes, such as colour, line type or pattern.
Features require set up before they can be applied to data.

Setting up Features
Design > Feature Edit > Create configures feature sets. Up to 512 features can be
created and stored in a <project_prefix>.ftd file in the current working folder.
Note:

When specifying a feature name, the word SYMBOL can not be used.
Each type of attribute defined in a feature can be applied one of three ways:
Table 7-1 Attributes for features
Attribute

Change Attributes

Definition

Current

Uses the current default Envisage properties.

Prompt

Asks for attribute choices during object creation. Text entered


when the feature was created appears as a prompt for the
person using the feature. For example, if the feature should
prompt for the name of an object, enter Surveyor Name as the
prompt. When someone uses the feature, he or she is asked to
enter Surveyor Name as the object name.

Force

Automatically forces the properties defined in the feature code.

79

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

The following dialog boxes show some properties that can be set for a feature.

Figure 7-4 Define Layer/object names

Figure 7-5 Establish object attributes

Figure 7-6 Control prompts while digitising

80

Chapter 7 CAD Introduction

Tutorial 7-3
Set up two features, one for toe lines and one for crest lines using the following
guidelines.

Table 7-2 Set up guidelines


Toe

Crest

Layer Name

Prompt for survey number/date

Prompt for survey number/date

Object Name

Prompt for Surveyor name

Prompt for Surveyor name

Colour

Green

Red

Group

Toe

Crest

Using Features
After features have been set up, they can be applied to existing data or to new objects.
Features can not be assigned to text objects or symbols.
Design > Attribute Edit > Feature applies features to existing data.

Tutorial 7-4
Load the TOES_AND_CRESTS layer. Assign the TOE feature to the toe strings, and the
CREST feature to the crest strings.

Figure 7-7 Application of features to original (orange) strings


Design > Create > Feature applies features to data upon creation. Select the feature and
digitise objects in Envisage. Objects express attributes defined in the feature selected.

Tutorial 7-5
Create a new layer named SURVEY and using the features created, draw a toe and a
crest line.
Features can be applied to data imported from CSV or ASCII files.

Change Attributes

81

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Objects which share a common feature can be made visible, invisible or shadowed. The
Visibility toolbar contains the feature visibility icons:

Visible by Feature
Shadow by Feature
Invisible by Feature

The same visibility settings can be found under View > Visibility.

Figure 7-8 Feature visibility tools on

Tutorial 7-6
Practise using the visibility settings using both features and groups.

82

Chapter 7 CAD Introduction

Data Import and Export


There are various ways to transfer data in and out of Vulcan. Direct import and export
options between Vulcan and other software packages such as AutoCAD, Datamine,
Micromine and Surpac are located in File > Import and File > Export.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : File : Import
Envisage : File : Export

File Selection
In general, there are two ways Vulcan prompts for file selection. The desired file is either
moved from the left side of a panel to the right side, or it is chosen from a drop down list.
Both panels usually include functionality to Browse to a folder other than the current
working directory.

Figure 8-1 Select files by moving within panel

Figure 8-2 Select files from drop down

File Selection

83

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Import AutoCAD Files


Use File > Import to import design data, grids and triangulations from AutoCAD files.
The methodology changes slightly with each import method.

Figure 8-3 Import AutoCAD files

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : File : Import : Import DXF Data
Envisage : File : Import : Import Data From DWG
Envisage : File : Import : Configure ICF Tables
Envisage : File : Import : Import DXF Triangulations

Export AutoCAD Files


Load data in Envisage, then click File > Export. Some export options allow triangulations
and grids to be selected from a drop down list, but others require that data is selected
from Envisage. Panels and options change with the method chosen.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : File : Export : Export Data To DXF
Envisage : File : Export : Export Data To AutoCAD
Envisage : File : Import : Configure ICF Tables

Import ASCII Data Files


Always open the ASCII file in a text editor to understand the import data. Formatting,
location of specific data, and position of data fields are needed upon import. Panels and
options change depending on the data imported.
ASCII import settings may be saved in specification files and used for future imports.
Settings are saved to an asciiread.spc filed stored in the Resources area. See
ENVIS_RESO on page 4.
Note:

84

Import .csv files with File > Import > ASCII. Do not use File > Import > CSV as this
imports .csv files into an Isis database.

Chapter 8 Data Import and Export

Tip:

Fields in the panel populate with data from the last import as long as Vulcan has not been
restarted. A specification file is not required for this functionality.

Figure 8-4 Import ASCII or CSV file

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : File : Import : Import ASCII Data
Envisage : File : Import : Import Vulcan ASCII Triangualtions

Tutorial 8-1
Import the import.asc file into a layer named POINT_IMPORT. Ensure the objects
imported are points instead of lines.

Tip:

ASCII imports can utilize feature codes. The field which contains a feature code is defined
on the Object Records tab. See Features on page 79.

Export ASCII Files


Load data to export in Envisage, then click File > Export. Use panel selections to create
either a .csv file or an .asc file. Panels and methodology change for each file type.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : File : Export : Export Data to ASCII/CSV

Tutorial 8-2
Export a .csv file of the boundary polygon named boundary. Include X, Y and Z and
Point Number in the file.

Export ASCII Files

85

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Import Shape Files


Import ESRI shape files with File > Import. The panels and options change slightly
depending upon the import method chosen.

Figure 8-5 Import ESRI file types

Note:

Shape files require a data file (.shp), an index file, (.shx) and a database table (.dbf)
located in the same directory. Each of these files contain the same prefix.
ESRI shape files contain attribute information for the objects which may vary from the
individual object ID to large sets of data describing that object. Limited shape file
attributes may be imported with design strings. Use the Options and Metadata Options
tabs.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : File : Import : Import ESRI Shape File Data
Envisage : File : Import : Import ESRI Grids
Envisage : File : Import : Import ESRI TIN Triangulations

Export Shape Files


File > Export - ESRI (shape,grid,tin) creates three files (.shp, .shx, and .dbf) for each
exported shape file. The file type chosen controls the export options available.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : File : Export : Export Data To ESRI Shape File
Envisage : File : Export : Export Grids To ESRI
Envisage : File : Export : Export Triangulations to TIN

86

Chapter 8 Data Import and Export

Analyse Data
Analyse Toolbar
Use the Analyse toolbar to gather object details such as point coordinates or a distance
along a line. These tools are also found in Analyse > Details.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : Toolbars : Analyse Toolbar
Distance Along Line
Layer Range
Curvature
Coordinate

Distance Between Points

Angle
Distance

Polygon
Area

Area

Strike
& Dip

Centroid

List Multiple Object Headers


Legends

Find Objects

Full

List Object Details


Remove Labels

Figure 9-1 Analyse toolbar

Coordinate
Use Analyse > Details > Coordinate to display the easting, northing and elevation of a
point in the Report window. To ensure accurate results, use Snap To Points mode to query
points or Snap To Object to query a string.

Distance Between Points


Analyse > Details > Distance measures linear distance, gradient and bearing between
two points; 3D and plan distance results are displayed in the Report window.

Analyse Toolbar

87

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Distance Along Line


Analyse > Details > Along String sums line segment lengths between nominated start
and end points; 2D and 3D distance results are displayed in the Report window.

Tutorial 9-1
1. Close all open layers.
2. Load my_analyse.arch_d using File > Load Archive.
3. Click Analyse > Details > Coordinate. Ensure you are in Snap To Points
mode, and select the six points of the hexagon.
4. Click Analyse > Details > Distance. Ensure you are in Snap To Points mode,
and select two points of the hexagon.
5. Click Analyse > Details > Along String. Ensure you are in Snap To Points
mode, and select two points on opposite sides of the hexagon.

Area
Analyse > Details > Area reports an area of an interactively digitised polygon, results are
displayed in the Report window. Use appropriate snapping modes to increase accuracy.

Tip:

If the polygon is not drawn in Plan view, click View > Create Section to align Envisage
with the desired plane. This ensures that area is reported accurately.

Polygon Area
Analyse > Details > Polygon Area measures planar areas and projected volumes of
existing polygons. This option can also calculate the area of doughnut polygons (i.e.
polygons within polygons). Results are generated to the Report window.
Tip:

Polygons must be loaded into Envisage before attempting to calculate area.


Use Design > Object Edit > Coalesce to combine two polygons which define a doughnut
into one object using before calculating doughnut areas.
To calculate volume, enter an assumed thickness in the panel.

88

Chapter 9 Analyse Data

Tutorial 9-2
1. Close all open layers.
2. Load the MY_ANALYSE layer.
3. Click Analyse > Details > Area. Ensure you are in Snap to Points mode, and
digitize a polygon on top of the hexagon.
4. Click Analyse > Details > Polygon Area. When prompted, select the hexagon
and the triangle.

Table 9-1 Other Analyse Options


Command

Definition

Centroid

Finds coordinates of the gravitational centre point of closed


polygons or solid triangulations. Centroid coordinates are
shown in the Report window.

Full

Gathers detailed information from objects or individual strings


within objects. Information such as enclosed area of an object
or segment grades can be found.

Strike/Dip

Calculates strike and dip for a plane containing three selected


points.
Possible uses:

Obtain strike/dip for any rotated view.


Report strike/dip of a plane in a triangulation.

Gathers detailed information on objects, including layer and


object name, feature, value, and colour. Coordinates of all the
object points generate to the Report window.

List

Tutorial 9-3
1. Close all open layers.
2. Load the MY_ANALYSE layer.
3. Click Analyse > Details > Centroid and display the hexagons centre point.
When prompted, select Keep Underlay.
4. Click Analyse > Details > Strike/Dip. Ensure you are in Snap To Points mode,
and select the triangles vertices. When prompted, select Keep Underlay.
5. Click File > Underlays > Convert to Object. Enter UNDERLAYS for the Layer
name. Click the hexagons centroid point and the triangles strike/dip symbol.
6. Click File > Underlays > Remove All to remove underlays from MY_ANALYSE
and view the design data saved in the UNDERLAYS layer.
7. Click Analyse > Details > List and select any object.

Tutorial 9-4
1. Find the dip of a slope defined by the CONTOUR layer.
2. Find the number of points in the boundary polygon.

Polygon Area

89

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : Analyse : Contents
Envisage : File : Underlays : Remove All Underlays

90

Chapter 9 Analyse Data

Create a Database
Database Overview
Isis and Vulcan recognise two different database styles:

Header style
ODBC style

ODBC databases make it possible for Vulcan software to read information from a external
database such as Microsoft Access or acQuire.
Every database is comprised of two entities:

The database design


The database itself

A database design is a single file (<name>.dsf)that describes and enforces the


structure of the database. The design specifies how many tables the database contains,
the names of those tables, and the number and type of fields contained within each table.
To import raw data files and create a headered database, structure the design to
correspond to the raw data. Columns in the data file correspond to fields in the design.
Raw data files (typically in ASCII/CSV format) import using the design, which controls
the final database structure.
Vulcan databases require two files:

The database file <optional_project_prefix><name>.<design>.isis


The index file <optional_project_prefix><name>.<design>.isix

The index file is created automatically. To re-create an index file, compress and rebuild
the database.
Design creation, as well as database viewing and manipulation, are performed in Isis
while Envisage is used to display numerical information graphically.
Tip:

Database Overview

When closing Vulcan, there is an option to compress and rebuild design databases
automatically however this option does not include Isis databases. It is good practice to
periodically compress and rebuild Isis databases manually.

91

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Design File Creation


Use Isis to create design (.dsf) files. Upon launching Isis, there is a prompt to open an
existing database. Click Cancel to exit this option.
Note:

To open/close databases and .dsf files, select the File menu in Isis.
To create a new design click File > New Design. By default, design files are created in
the local working directory.
DSF file names are limited to three characters in length. General naming conventions for
different types of databases include:

.dhd drillhole database


.cmp composite database
.smp samples database
.tek geotech database

Figure 10-1 Create a new database design

Tutorial 10-1
Open Isis and create a new .dsf named DHD.

Figure 10-2 Establish design properties


Enter a Description for the design (.dsf).
Click Attributes to define a database Type. Select Drilling and choose a Desurvey Style,
which defines how a curve is applied to non-vertical drillholes.
The Data source is Isis, a standard Vulcan database which contains imported data. Click
Configure to change the Data source if an ODBC link to an external database such as
Microsoft Access is required.

Tutorial 10-2
Complete the following to continue design file creation:
1. Enter a description.
2. Select a Drilling Type database.
3. Select a Tangent Desurvey Style.
4. Ensure the data source is Isis.

92

Chapter 10 Create a Database

The .dsf set up needs to be similar to the data to be imported. Become familiar with the
data and think about any calculated fields which may be necessary.
Note:

The Key Field is of special importance as it correlates data between all tables and .csv
files. In a drillhole database this is the collar name field.

Tutorial 10-3
Examine the data in the five .csv files provided (collar, assay, survey, geology,
and structure). Think about the tables and fields required in the design.
To create tables in the design file that correspond with each .csv file, click Table > Insert
or Table > Append which adds tables into the .dsf file. Table > Insert places a new
table to the left of the active table, whereas Table > Append places a new table to the
right.
Note:

The first table in the .dsf must contain the Key Field.

Tutorial 10-4
Create five tables and name them collar, survey, assay, geo and struct, with
collar being the left most table.

Choose a synonym set to


populate field synonyms

Figure 10-3 Isis table setup


Each table contains fields that correspond with columns of data in the .csv files. For
example, a collar table generally contains Hole ID, Easting, Northing, and Elevation fields,
which also exist as columns in the .csv file.
Certain fields contain critical information which allows Envisage to display numerical
information graphically. Synonyms are used to define these fields.
Choose appropriate Synonyms from a drop-down list in Table Properties for each table.
The field Synonyms drop-down list for each table is populated from the synonym set
chosen for a table.
Each field is associated to several columns which define data properties:

Design File Creation

Name of the field.


Description of the field.

93

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Type of data to be stored in the field.

Tip:

Integer values are stored as Text in an Isis database. Store a number with
no decimals as a Single precision variable to save space.

Tip:

Text - Alphanumeric value (example ROCK = GRANITE).


Integer - Numeric value with no decimals (example ROCK = 1).
Single - Numeric value < 7 significant figures
(example DEPTH = 123.567).
Double - Numeric value > 7 significant figures
(example EAST = 12345.6789).

Length: Maximum length of a field including decimal places.


Synonyms are very important. Vulcan typically uses synonyms instead of field
names to understand data contained in the field.
Not every field needs a Synonym. In a drillhole database, Synonyms must be
defined for collar and downhole survey information. Define as many synonyms as
possible, but do not force synonyms in fields where they do not belong.

Tutorial 10-5
Enter the information for the COLLAR table as shown below.

Tip:

To reduce error, select from drop-down lists instead of entering values into fields.

Key Fields
A Key Field must be defined to tell the database which field ties data across all tables
together. To define a Key Field, right-click in the gray area to the left of the field name and
select Primary Key. Note that the Primary Key must be defined on the first, or left-most,
table.

Tutorial 10-6
Define the HOLEID field as the Primary Key.

94

Chapter 10 Create a Database

Note:

Do not include the field defined as the Primary Key on any other table in the design. Do
not enter HOLEID as a field on any other table, although it should exist as a column in
every .csv file.
After a Primary Key is defined, click File > Save to save the .dsf.

Tutorial 10-7
1. Use the .csv files to complete fields for the following tables: SURVEY,
ASSAY, GEO, AND STRUCT.
2. Save the .dsf and exit out of Isis.

Import Data into a Database


To create an Isis Database, import data using the database design (.dsf). Either
Envisage or Isis can be used to import data. Both methods are covered in this section.
To use Vulcan Envisage to import drill data:
1. Click File > Import.
2. Select the CSV (Databases) file format.

Figure 10-4 Import data into a new database


3. Select the Databases file type. Click OK.
4. Specify the data file extension, the rows which contain field names, and the row
where records start.

Design File Creation

The Isis database name is based upon the Filename entered. The final
database name has the following naming convention:
<Filename>.<dsn>.isis.
Click Select to choose a design file, which controls the database header
format.

95

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 10-5 CSV Load - Data Files and Database dialog box

Tip:

Some Vulcan menu options require that a database contain a project prefix. To ensure
that the database can be used by all Vulcan menus, enter the project prefix as the first
part of a file name. Example: thordrillholes.

Tutorial 10-8
Click File > Import and complete the CSV Load - Data Files and Database dialog box.
Name the database thordrill.dhd.isis.
The next dialog box connects design tables to .csv files.

Figure 10-6 Connect design file to CSV files


Field Connections connect database fields to columns in .csv files. This must be done
for each table before proceeding. The first Field Connections dialog box looks slightly
different than the others.

96

Chapter 10 Create a Database

Figure 10-7 Collar field connections


All subsequent dialog boxes require that an index field be chosen. An index field is
whichever field was defined as the Primary Key in the design, for example HOLEID.

Figure 10-8 Select an index field

Note:

Datafile fields populate automatically if the column name in the CSV file matches the field
name in the design. If names do not match exactly, connections must be made manually
by selecting appropriate CSV column names from the drop down list.

Tutorial 10-9
Complete field connections for each table in the design.

Figure 10-9 Save import specification file


A specification file saves the defined field connections for future use. To activate this
option, check Save the specifications and enter a Specification name.The specification
is saved in a file named csv_specs in the \csv_load_specs folder of the Vulcan
Resources area.
Click Finish to import data. Any errors in the data file, such as overlapping intervals,
generate to the Report window.
Any errors should always be investigated and corrected before using the database in
other parts of Vulcan.

Design File Creation

97

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 10-10
Import the files and ensure there are no errors. If there are errors, fix the errors in the
.csv files and re-import the data.
To use Vulcan Isis to import drill data:
1. Click Utilities > Import > Tables.
2. Choose New Database and click Next.
3. Select a design and enter a Filename similar to the Vulcan Envisage import
process. The database is named <Filename>.<dsn>.isis.

Figure 10-10 Create a


New Database
Figure 10-11 New Database name and design

Tip:

Some Vulcan menu options require that a database contain a project prefix. To ensure
that the database can be used by all Vulcan menus, enter the project prefix as the first
part of a file name. Example: thordrillholes.

Use the Import Tables dialog box to make connections between tables and fields in the
database design, and the columns in the data files. Choose a data file for each table in the
design. If a table is not linked with an appropriate data file, the import process fails.
Columns in the data files must follow the sequence of the fields in the design file. If a
column is not found at the position expected by the design, then Isis imports incorrect
contents into database fields.
Click the Save icon to save import specifications. An Isis Import ASCII specification file
follows the convention <name>.iia. Use this file to quickly import data files using the
design, without re-creating connections at a later stage.

98

Chapter 10 Create a Database

Folder icon
Save icon

Figure 10-12 Import Tables dialog box


To use an existing specification file, click the Folder icon and select the appropriate .iia
file from the displayed list of files.
A message shows the total number of objects (drillholes) in the new database.

Tutorial 10-11
1. Import a second database using Isis menu options.
2. Name the database thortables.dhd.isis.

ODBC Database Creation


Vulcan can link to most standard database packages via an ODBC connection.
Information can be viewed straight from Microsoft Access, acQuire or Oracle.
1. An initial ODBC link is set up using standard Windows tools.
2. The .dsf is configured to access the Windows link.
3. Data import is not necessary, as a Vulcan database is created via the link.
ODBC databases appear in Vulcan Explorer under User Databases. Once created, they
are used the same way as a header database.

Link to Microsoft Access Database


To access information from a database, configure a Windows ODBC link. Follow
instructions for: setting up the link in Windows 32-bit or 64-bit, in a DSF, and confirming
the connection.
To set up an ODBC link in Windows 32-bit:
1. Click Start and then click Control Panel.
2. Double-click Administrative Tools. If the Administrative Tools icon is not
available, switch to Classic View (Vista) or choose to View by either Small icons
or Large icons (Windows 7).

ODBC Database Creation

99

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

3. Double-click Data Sources (ODBC).


ODBC links can be created either per user or per system.
4. On the ODBC Data Source Administrator dialog box, click the User DSN tab and
click Add.

Figure 10-13 ODBC Data Source Administrator dialog box


5. On the Create New Data Source dialog box, select Driver do Microsoft Access
(*mdb). Click Finish.

Figure 10-14 Create New Data Source dialog box


6. On the ODBC Microsoft Access Setup dialog box, enter a Data Source Name.
The maximum length of the Data Source Name is eight characters.
7. Add a Description.

100

Chapter 10 Create a Database

8. Click Select and browse to the correct .mdb file.

Figure 10-15 Select database for the data source


9. Click OK to both panels to exit database source setup.
To set up an ODBC link in Windows 64-bit:
1. Navigate to C:\Windows\SysWOW64.
2. Double-click odbcad32.exe.
3. On the ODBC Data Source Administrator dialog box, click the User DSN tab and
click the Add button.

Figure 10-16 ODBC Data Source Administrator dialog box

ODBC Database Creation

101

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

4. On the Create New Data Source dialog box, select Driver do Microsoft Access
(*mdb). Click Finish.

Figure 10-17 Create New Data Source dialog box


5. On the ODBC Microsoft Access Setup dialog box, enter a Data Source Name.
The maximum length of the Data Source Name is eight characters.
6. Add a Description.
7. Click Select and browse to the correct .mdb file.

Figure 10-18 Select database for the data source


8. Click OK to both panels to exit database source setup.

Tutorial 10-12
Set up a ODBC link to the drillholes.mdb MS Access database.
To set an ODBC link in the DSF:
1. Open Isis. Click File > New Design.
2. In the Design Properties click the Configure button.

102

Chapter 10 Create a Database

3. In the Data Source Setup, select ODBC from the Source drop-down list box.

Figure 10-19 Data Source Setup dialog box


4. Choose the Data source created in Windows. Enter a User name and Password
if these exist for the database. If the database is not password protected, leave
these blank.
5. Click Configure to link a table in the database Source to the design table.

Figure 10-20 Configure database source for a table


6. Click the Source Information button
in the Source column to link fields in the
design, to columns in the ODBC database.
Source
Information

Figure 10-21 Source information button and dialog box


7. After all fields in each table are connected, click File > Save to save the design.
To confirm the ODBC connection:
1. Click File > Open Database.
2. Select ODBC Link, then select the ODBC-linked design from the drop-down list.
Click OK.

Figure 10-22 Open a database via ODBC windows connection

ODBC Database Creation

103

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

AcQuire
The acQuire interface in Vulcan creates a link to an acQuire database containing drillhole
or composite data. The link is saved as a file in the working directory with the convention
<project_prefix><link_name>.acq.isis. Once the link is in place, the interface
performs like acQuire, with dialog boxes to control which data displays.
A .dsf file is not necessary, but a data source in Windows is required.
Note:

To set up a data source and configure the link between Vulcan and an acQuire database,
you need to have access to an acQuire database server.
To set up an acQuire/SQL Data Source connection in Windows 32-bit:
1. Click Start and then click Control Panel.
2. Double-click Administrative Tools. If the Administrative Tools icon is not
available, switch to Classic View (Vista) or choose to View by either Small icons
or Large icons (Windows 7).
3. Click Add button to create a new data source.
4. Select SQL Server. Click Finish.

Figure 10-23 Create a new SQL data source


5. Name the data source and give it a Description. The Server to connect to should
be the name of the computer where the database is stored. Click Next.

Figure 10-24 Configure a new SQL/acQuire data source

104

Chapter 10 Create a Database

6. Check Connect to SQL Server to obtain default settings for the additional
configuration options. Click Next.

Figure 10-25 Verification settings for new SQL/acQuire data source


7. Select Change the default database to and select the desired database from the
drop-down list. Click Next.
8. Accept the defaults and click Finish.
9. The ODBC Microsoft SQL Server Setup dialog box displays the settings for the
newly created link. To verify the connection click Test Data Source.
10. Verify that the TESTS COMPLETED SUCCESSFULLY! and click OK.

Figure 10-26 Successful connectivity message


11. Click OK on all panels to exit data source configuration.
To set up an acQuire/SQL Data Source connection in Windows 64-bit:
1. Navigate to C:\Windows\SysWOW64.
2. Double-click odbcad32.exe.
3. Click the Add button to create a new data source.

AcQuire

105

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

4. Select SQL Server. Click Finish.

Figure 10-27 Create a new SQL data source


5. Name the data source and give it a Description. The Server to connect to should
be the name of the computer where the database is stored. Click Next.

Figure 10-28 Configure a new SQL/acQuire data source


6. Check Connect to SQL Server to obtain default settings for the additional
configuration options. Click Next.

Figure 10-29 Verification settings for new SQL/acQuire data source


7. Select option Change the default database to and select the desired database
from the drop-down list. Click Next.
8. Accept the defaults and click Finish.
9. The ODBC Microsoft SQL Server Setup dialog box displays the settings for the
newly created link. To verify the connection click Test Data Source.

106

Chapter 10 Create a Database

10. Verify that the TESTS COMPLETED SUCCESSFULLY! and click OK.

Figure 10-30 Successful connectivity message


11. Click OK on all panels to exit data source configuration.

Tutorial 10-13
If you have access to a server, set up a data source to the acQuire database provided
in the accompanying course data set.
After a data source is set up through Windows, access the source using Vulcan Isis. To
connect to an acQuire database in Vulcan Isis:
1. Open Isis.
2. Click File > AcQuire.
3. Select Setup a new acQuire database link, and enter a name for the link. Click
OK.

Figure 10-31 Name an acQuire link


4. Choose the type of caching required and click OK.

AcQuire

107

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

5. Select the data source from the ODBC Name list and click CONNECT.

Figure 10-32 Select data source for connection


6. If required, enter your the user name and password for the database.
The dialog box is the same as that displayed by acQuire.

Figure 10-33 Select data from acQuire dialog box


The following tutorials show how to configure the acQuire database for use in Vulcan
using the most popular acQuire panel options.

108

Chapter 10 Create a Database

Tutorial 10-14
1. Click the Select Holes tab and expand the Export list.
2. Click on Collar to load collar data.
3. Click Preview to view the selected drillholes.
4. Click the Filter button to limit the drillholes by a specific field.

Figure 10-34 Filter acQuire data

Tutorial 10-15
1. Click the Assay tab and expand the Export list.
2. Select all the fields in the Best Assays directory.
3. Click OK to accept the settings.

Figure 10-35 Select Assay data


Click OK to display a new dialog box where Vulcan abbreviations can be managed. By
default, Vulcan field names are shortened versions of an acQuire field name.The default
field name can be altered. Customised field names are limited to six characters. Duplicate
field names within a table are not allowed.

AcQuire

109

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 10-36 Define Vulcan field alias


Click OK to complete field configuration and continue to down hole survey definition.

Tutorial 10-16
Verify or change the Vulcan field names and click OK.
The down hole survey Style controls how holes are displayed in Envisage. The most
common style is Tangent.

Figure 10-37 Configure down hole survey

Tutorial 10-17
Choose a survey style and click OK.
When the link to an acQuire database is complete, the Isis database functions like any
other Vulcan database.The name of the database is <LinkName>.acq.isis.

Figure 10-38 Open acQuire database

110

Chapter 10 Create a Database

View a Database in Isis


Open Databases
To open or close an Isis database:
1. Open Isis.
2. Click File > Open Database. Select ISIS File to open a headered database, or
ODBC Link to open a connection to an external source.
Click Open as read-only to prevent accidental changes to the database.
Tip:

Double-click a database name in Vulcan Explorer to open an existing database


quickly.

Figure 11-1 Open an Isis database

Tip:

Click Isis
and Envisage
between utilities.

icons next to the Vulcan Start menu to toggle

3. Click File > Close or File > Quit Isis to close the database.

Tutorial 11-1
Open thordrill.dhd.isis. Ensure everything looks correct and that each table is
populated with data.

Open Databases

111

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Vulcan Explorer
The User Database folder at the bottom of Vulcan Explorers folder tree classifies all
databases into two categories: Headered and ODBC. The actual database files are
shown as containers within the appropriate folder. Each database container contains two
groups of information:

The Objects sub-folder lists every drillhole record in the database.


The Design container lists every table and field in the database.

Notebook/Multiple Window
Views
There are two ways to display the database in Isis:

Notebooks
Multiple Windows

Notebooks
Notebook is the default view that displays databases as a single window with database
tables shown as tabs. Each tab is made up of rows and columns. The columns
correspond to the database fields, and the rows correspond to field data entries.
To view information for a specific record (drillhole) choose the drillhole name from the
drop-down list located in the top left corner. Alternately, enter a drillhole name and press
[Enter].
Tip:

Drillhole names are case sensitive. Drillholes named AB1, ab1, Ab1 and aB1 are all
treated as unique drillholes. Avoid using spaces or special characters (such as %, $, |) in
drillhole names.
The contents of the rows and columns in each tables tab vary as different drillholes are
selected. Select a tables tab to view its contents
Right-click a row number in a table to open a context menu of edit options.
Right-click a column name in a table for sort options.

Figure 11-2 Notebooks view

112

Chapter 11 View a Database in Isis

Multiple Windows
The multiple windows display tables in separate windows. To change from the default
Notebook view, use Edit > Preferences and select Multiple windows. Close and reopen
the database to apply changes made to Edit > Preferences.

Figure 11-3 Preferences dialog box

Tutorial 11-2
Open the database in a Multiple Windows view.
Initially, a database opens in a single window. This is an index table which lists the tables
contained within the database. The drop-down list box in the top left corner of the index
table lists all the database records (drillholes) for the database.

Figure 11-4 Database records


Double-click on a table name to display the table in a separate window. Windows may be
launched for each table. Windows can be resized or positioned with standard Microsoft
Windows resizing and positioning techniques.
Tip:

The Window menu in Isis quickly arranges table windows.

Notebook/Multiple Window Views

113

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 11-5 Multiple Windows View

Tutorial 11-3
Select the view you prefer.

114

Chapter 11 View a Database in Isis

View a Database
in Envisage
Use the Geology menu to query Drillhole databases in Vulcan Envisage. Geology >
Drilling options displays drilling data in several ways. Create a colour legend to view
drillholes in Envisage.

Legends
Legends are saved the scheme file (.scd). The file is stored in the current working
directory unless the corporate standards environment variable is enabled. The Scheme
file naming convention is <project_code>.scd or corpstd.scd.
Legend options are found under Analyse > Legend Edit. To build a legend, select
Analyse > Legend Edit > Legend Editor.
A list of schemes appears; DRILL and SCALE schemes apply to drillholes.
A DRILL scheme provides standard colours for drillhole traces. SCALE schemes make
display discs on intervals of interest to make them more obvious.

Legends

115

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 12-1 Legend Editor Panel - Drill Legend

Note:

Entries in Legend Editor must match the database table and field names exactly. If
incorrect, the drillholes either load with incorrect colours or they do not load at all.
To create a legend, double-click [*] New Legend in the desired folder. Right-click the
untitled legend, choose Rename, and enter a new title.
Consider the following options when creating a DRILL legend:

116

Scheme Type: Type of data for the legend to show, either Alpha or Numeric.
Use Database: Choose an existing database to help fill out panel fields. Database
fields populate drop down lists to help avoid error.
Record (Table): Enter or choose the table where data of interest exists. For
example, to display gold values, choose ASSAY.
Field Name: Enter or choose the field where data of interest exists. For example,
AU.
To/From: Instructs how to draw intervals downhole. Most often, the value is TO
and FROM, respectively.
Unassigned: Enter a default value which exists in the selected field. The value is
ignored when colour ranges are built. This option is only available for Numeric
legends.
Data Range: When a database is specified, click Get Range to build ranges based
upon values in the Field Name. The Interval value defines the Colour Ranges bin

Chapter 12 View a Database in Envisage

size when Build Colour Ranges is selected. This option is only available for
Numeric legends.
Range Mode: Defines how Colour Ranges apply Greater Than, Less Than, or
Equal To arguments. This option is only available for Numeric legends.
For example, if GELT were applied to intervals shown in Table 12-1:
Values greater than or equal to 0 and less than 1 would be green.
Values greater than or equal to 1 and less than 2, would be orange.
Table 12-1 Intervals

Note:

Green

Orange

Use Null values and non-logged intervals colour controls how a hole trace
displays when loaded into Envisage.
Build Colour Ranges: Populates Colour Ranges intervals automatically based
upon data and entries in Data range.
Colour Ranges: Select a colour for each interval. Alternately, right-click the Colour
column header and select Colour Range from the context menu.
Data can be copied and pasted between columns and rows.
Right click an interval row number to insert or delete rows.

Tutorial 12-1
Create a drillhole legend to display the gold values in the database. Use intervals
shown in Figure 12-2.

Figure 12-2 Gold colour ranges

Legends

117

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Alpha legends are case sensitive. TQ1, tq1, Tq1 and tQ1 are all unique entries.

Tutorial 12-2
Create a legend to display the different rock types shown.

Figure 12-3 Colour Ranges for Alpha legend

Load Drillholes
To load drillholes:
1. Click Geology > Drilling > Open Database.

Figure 12-4 Open Geological Database dialog box


2. Click Geology > Drilling > Load Drillholes. The data can be loaded in a variety of
ways as shown in Figure 12-5.

118

Chapter 12 View a Database in Envisage

Figure 12-5 Load Drillholes dialog box

Name: Loads holes based on drillhole name. Wildcards may be used.


Section: Loads holes within a specified distance from a displayed line.
Polygon: Loads all drilling within the boundaries of a displayed polygon.
Selection File: Loads holes which match names listed in a selection file.
Extent: Loads holes within a a cube defined by minimum and maximum X,
Y, and Z ranges.
Triangulation: Loads holes that intersect loaded triangulation.
Filter: Loads subsets of drillholes using a selection filter set up under
Geology > Drilling > Selection Filter.

Tip:

If a legend name is not specified, several panels display which configure a temporary
legend. The legend is only available until the drillholes are removed, and cannot be saved
or reused. It is advisable to create an appropriate legend before loading drillholes via
Analyse > Legend Edit > Legend Editor. See Legends on page 115.

Note:

Drillholes that display as all one colour or are not visible indicate a problem within the
legend database fields.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : Geology : Drilling : Load Drillholes

Tutorial 12-3
Load the drillholes using the gold legend created in Tutorial 12-1. Ensure that the
drillhole traces are curved and multi-coloured.

Load Drillholes

119

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Label Drillholes
Geology > Drilling > Label On or Geology > Drilling > Multi Label
On labels loaded drillholes. Note that Label On only labels a single
field and the labels are displayed with a single colour. Multi Label On
can display several labels, and label properties can be controlled.
Geology > Drilling > Label On prompts for drillhole selection using
standard criteria. To load a single drillhole, choose Object and click
on the desired drillhole. To label all drillholes, select Layer and then
click on any drillhole. Confirm layer DIG$DRILL, as this is the
temporary layer drillholes are loaded into. When prompted, select
which field to label on the selected drillholes.
Geology > Drilling > Label Off removes drillhole labels.
Geology > Drilling > Multi Label On has robust label colour and
decimal place control. Tick marks can define intervals. Multiple label
types can display on the left and right of the trace.
Click Geology > Drilling > Multi Label Properties to change label
font properties.

Tutorial 12-4
Label the gold grade values on-screen using the Geology > Drilling > Label On.

Figure 12-6 Drillhole Multi Label options

Tutorial 12-5
1. Remove the labels created in Tutorial 12-4.
2. Use Geology > Drilling > Multi Label On to label the gold values on the left
and the copper values and lithology on the right.
3. Select a font style and size that works best with your data.

120

Chapter 12 View a Database in Envisage

To display discs around portions of drillhole:


1. Create a SCALE legend using Analyse > Legend Edit > Legend Editor.
2. Manually enter disc width or import it from a database column.
3. Select a Drill Legend to link with the scale legend. Disc widths are displayed disc
diameters in project units. Drill Legend drop-downs populate with either Alpha or
Numeric legends based upon the Scheme Type selected.

Figure 12-7 Legend Editor New Scale Legend

Tutorial 12-6
Create a scale legend associated with the Gold drill legend created in Tutorial 12-1
using disc widths in Figure 12-8.

Figure 12-8 Scale legend disc widths

Label Drillholes

121

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 12-7
Create a scale legend to easily identify the TQ1 lithological unit.
To display only collar points without drillhole traces:
1. Click Geology > Drilling > Load Drillholes.
2. Check Display drillhole location only.
Note:

No legend is required when displaying only collars.

Figure 12-9 Load Drillholes panel - Collar location only

Tutorial 12-8
Load only the drillhole collar points and save these points to a layer named
DRILLHOLE_COLLARS.

122

Chapter 12 View a Database in Envisage

Database Maintenance
Edit the Database Structure
A headered database structure is controlled by header information contained in the
database, which mirrors the design file used when the database was initially created.
Note:

An Isis design file is used to import data into a Vulcan headered database and to establish
a database header. After the database is created, an Isis design file has no connection to
the newly-created headered database. Altering an Isis design source file used to create
the database does not affect the structure of an existing Vulcan headered database.
An ODBC-linked database structure is controlled by the design used to access the
external database.

Note:

An ODBC design file is used to access data which exists in an external database. Altering
an ODBC design file affects the structure of an ODBC-linked Vulcan database.
The following actions change the database structure: add or delete tables and/or fields,
rename tables and/or fields, change field character types, alter field lengths, change
decimal places, and change table and/or field synonyms.

Note:

When a field name is changed, any legends associated with that field need to be modified
to reflect the change.

Caution:

Corruption may occur if changes are not made carefully when altering database headers.
Make a backup copy of the database before altering its structure.

Edit the Database Structure

Only add fields to the bottom of a table.


Do not delete fields from a table.
Do not change the length of a Text or Integer field.
Do not change existing field order within a table.
Do not change field types (Text, Integer, Single, Double)

123

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 13-1
1. Open Isis. Click File > Open Design.
2. Select Headered template (.dsf) and choose odb.dsf design file. Click OK.
3. Click the GEO tab, rename the LITH name field to GEOL.
4. Change the length of the FROM and TO fields to 10.
5. Reduce the decimals on the width field to 2.

Figure 13-1 Alter a design file


6. Click File > Save.
7. Open a database in Isis using odb.dsf and note the changes to the GEO table.

Tutorial 13-2
Modify the LITH field in the alpha legend so it can be used to display drillhole
information accessed with the odb.dsf design.

Tutorial 13-3
1. Click File > Open Design.
2. Select Header of Headered template (.isis) and choose
thordrill.dhd.isis. Click OK.

Figure 13-2 Select database header

124

Chapter 13 Database Maintenance

Tutorial 13-3 (Continued)


3. Click the GEO tab, rename the LITH name field to GEOL.
4. Change the length of the FROM and TO fields to 10.
5. Reduce the decimals on the width field to 2.
6. Add a field to the bottom of the GEO table as illustrated in Figure 13-3.

Figure 13-3 Alter a database header


7. Click File > Save.
8. A warning displays. Click OK.

Figure 13-4 Save altered headered database warning


9. Open the database and note the changes to the GEO table.

Edit Existing Values


Values in database fields can be manually edited. With the database open, select the hole
to edit and type a value in the desired cell.

Figure 13-5 Change a field value

Edit Existing Values

125

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tip:

Select Edit instead of View when opening a database via Vulcan Explorer context
menus.
To save changes, you must have write permissions to the database, and the folder
in which it resides.

Tutorial 13-4
Change the AU ASSAY value for the second sample interval of hole L11 to .5. Save
your changes.

Insert/Delete Objects
To insert a new hole/object into an open database, click Object > Insert from the Isis
menu. Enter necessary information into the tables.

Figure 13-6 COLLAR table

Tip:

If only a collar location is specified with no downhole information, the drillhole does not
display in Envisage.
To delete a drillhole from the database, navigate to the drillhole and click Object > Delete.

Tutorial 13-5
1. Insert a drillhole with the following properties into thordrill.dhd.isis:

HoleID: H99
Easting: 78260
Northing: 4650
Elevation: 180
Depth: 100

2. Save the changes to the database.


3. In Envisage, display the collar of only hole H99. Do not display any other
collars.

126

Chapter 13 Database Maintenance

Find Values
Click Edit > Find to locate specific values within a database. There are two ways to
search for information:

Use Text to locate specific values.


Use Equation to locate values which satisfy a condition.

Text
Text is used to locate specific database entries. You can search for both numeric and
alphanumeric characters.

Figure 13-7 Find text with advanced search options

Tip:

Click More to enable advanced searching options such as the ability to use wildcards and
control over case sensitivity.
If an entry that meets the parameters is located, that field is highlighted. Click Find Next
or [CTRL+G] to keep searching with the same parameters. Click Cancel to exit the option.

Equation
Equation is used to locate database entries which meet certain conditions or criteria.
Select the table upon which the condition is based from the Table drop-down list, then
enter a condition or conditions in the Condition field. Both numeric and alphanumeric
characters can be used in conditional searches. One or more conditions can be applied to
a search on a single nominated table.
Tip:

Find Values

Click More to enable expanded options such as display of located data and search
direction.

127

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 13-8 Find data using expanded options

Field Calculations
Field calculations may be performed between existing fields on the same table in a
database. Examples include converting an imperial unit to a metric unit, or calculating
metal equivalent grades.
Click Utilities > Field Calculation. A field must exist in the database to which results can
be written. If the specified field already contains data, existing data is overwritten.

Tip:

Include extra blank fields in a table when your database is first created, in case you want
to perform a calculation later. If a database is already created, alter the database structure
to append additional fields as you need them. Refer to Edit the Database Structure on
page 123 for information.
The Field Calculation dialog box is divided into several sections. Each row populates one
field with values based on entered conditions and equations.
Which drillhole? Which table?

Save calculation to a
<name>.fcl file

Which restrictions?

Load existing
calculation file

Which field for the result?

Which calculation?

Evaluate and
execute calculation

Figure 13-9 Field Calculation dialog box

128

Chapter 13 Database Maintenance

Key patterns defines which drillhole(s) should have a calculation applied. Standard
wildcard characters can be used:

Note:

An asterisk (*) means that all drillholes are considered in subsequent


equations.
AB* Only drillholes starting with AB are considered in subsequent
equations.
AB? Only drillholes AB1 through to AB9 (maximum three characters) are
considered in subsequent equations.
AB1 Only drillhole AB1 is considered in subsequent equations.

Table: Select the table which the fields for the calculation reside from the dropdown list. Calculations can only be performed between fields in the same table.
Condition: Specify field restrictions on calculations. Conditions are useful when a
field does not have a legitimate value for use in the calculation. For example,
division by zero. Both alphanumeric and numeric characters can be used in
conditions.
Alphanumeric characters need to be in double quotes. For example:
LITH == TQ1

Multiple conditions can also be applied to several fields in the same table.
Field nominates the field where results of the calculation are stored.
Equation defines what is written into the Field if the calculation Condition evaluates
as true. Equations can be a constant value, character, or calculation. Calculations
can be an interaction between the values or characters in two existing separate
fields, or they can be the interaction between an existing field value, and a
constant. Equations can also incorporate alphanumeric characters.

Figure 13-10 Example of categorizing material based on a value.

For details see related help topic(s):


Isis : Utilities : Field Calculation (under Database Management)

Database Validation
Click Utilities > Validate to check an existing database for accuracy. The Validate option
creates a specification file of parameters which may be used to run a defined set of
validation checks on imported data. The specification file has an extension of.dbv and is
stored in the current working directory. A specification file name and database on which to
run the validation are required.

Database Validation

129

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 13-11 Database Validation dialog box

Note:

By default, validation options use database synonyms to select fields on which to perform
checks. To specify alternate database fields, select Override database synonyms and
select the desired fields.

Collar Checks

Unique Collar Location checks for duplicate collars. Select 2D check only to
discount elevation values when locating duplicate collars
Collar on Surface compares collar locations to the position of a nominated
triangulation or grid surface.

Downhole Checks

130

Empty Table ensures that selected tables contain records.


Total Depth compares the Collar table depth against the logged depth of the
Assay and Geology tables. Select Override database synonyms to change
compared tables.
Overlapping Intervals reports occurrences where logged intervals within the
Assay and Geology tables overlap.
Increasing and Decreasing ensures that values in nominated fields increase or
decrease downhole.
Maximum Variation ensures consecutive intervals are similar within a defined
tolerance.
Unique Values searches for identical values within nominated fields.
Sequence compares downhole information to a defined sequence
Derived Value checks that the value in a nominated field is derived from another
field as specified.

Chapter 13 Database Maintenance

Along Record Checks


Field sum assures nominated fields add up to a specified value.

Individual Field Checks

Minimum and Maximum Values reports when values in nominated fields fall
outside a specified range.
Translations checks that all values have translations.
Case Of compares values within a single field to a specified list. The check is
case-sensitive, so typographical errors related to capitalization are reported.
Mandatory assures there are values within the nominated tables and fields.
Expression checks that all characters within a chosen field match a defined
pattern. The definition can include a number, letter, space or character.

Report
Use Report to designate the name and location of the error report and whether the format
of the report is CSV or Standard. Select View report in, then choose Excel to open the
error report in an Excel window.

Save and Run


The name of the specification file may be changed. If no errors were found, a dialog box
indicates that all tests passed.

Tutorial 13-6
Use the Utilities > Validate to ensure the integrity of thordrill.dhd.isis.
1. Name the specification Intro_Test.
2. Use the Unique Collar Location panel to specify a 3D check.
3. Check for Overlapping Intervals on the ASSAY table, select Compare To and
From fields.
4. Click Case Of to check all lithology in the database to ensure that all entries are
upper case. Enter the following lithology values: TQ1, TQ2, TQ3, TQ4, TQ5, TQ6,
TQ7, TQ8, TQ9, TQ10, TQ11, TQ12, TQ13.
5. Click Report to generate a file named failed_tests in CSV format. Choose
to view the report in Excel.
6. Click Save to save the specification file and then Run to check the database.
7. Use the error report to handle discrepancies in the database.

Database Validation

131

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 13-12 Validation Error Report

Export Data
You can export all or part of a database to ASCII file(s). Isis allows for export to two ASCII
formats:

Database Listing format (.dbl).


Standard ASCII format (includes .csv).

Both options are accessed from the Utilities menu.

Database List format


The Utilities > Export > Database option exports a database to a database list format.
The entire database is exported. It is not possible to export only certain records from the
database. The resultant file name is <name>.dbl.

Figure 13-13 Export Database

132

Chapter 13 Database Maintenance

Figure 13-14 Exported database in ASCII .dbl format

Tip:

Export an Isis database in .dbl format to create a backup of the database quickly. Click
Utilities > Import > Database to import data into a database.

Standard ASCII format


Use Utilities > Export > Tables to export a database to one or more standard ASCII
format files. The number of resulting files depends on the database structure and the
export parameters specified.
The entire database or parts can be exported as either:

Character separated value (.csv) format, in which commas or other characters


are specified as the delimiting characters.
Delimited format, in which a space or number of spaces is used to arrange the
data into columns.

Any file extension can be specified with either format. Resultant files are saved to the
current working folder, with the naming convention <name>.<extension>. Isis uses
database and table names to construct a <name>. Files can be renamed if required.

Figure 13-15 Export Tables dialog box

Export Data

133

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Choose to export All Tables, a single table, or choose the information to export with a
condition. Select Condition and click Define to enter desired condition(s).

Figure 13-16 Export tables with a condition

Whole object: exports all the tables from the database when the condition is
satisfied. In Figure 13-16 all data (COLLAR, SURVEY, GEO, ASSAY and STRUCT)
would export for drillholes whose HOLEID starts with LK.
Matching records only exports records from the chosen table. In Figure 13-16
only COLLAR entries for drillholes whose HOLEID starts with LK would export.

The disk icon saves the conditions to a specification file. The naming convention of this
file is <name>.tbe.

Tutorial 13-7
1. Export the LK* holes to .csv files.
2. Open the thordrill_dhd_collar.csv file.
3. Ensure only LK holes exist.

Updating an Existing Database


An existing database may be updated with new information. It is helpful if the new
information is in the same format as the existing database, but this is not necessary.
1. Choose File > Import > CSV (Databases).
2. Select Databases (update) and click OK.
The panel used to update an existing database is similar to the panel used to
import CSV data (see Import Data into a Database on page 95). When updating
a database, there is an option to Add new data records found in CSV table.
Saved specifications can be used to make field connections as long as the new
.csv files are structured the same as those used when the specification file was
created.

134

Chapter 13 Database Maintenance

Figure 13-17 Update existing database with CSV files


3. Field connections made during an update are similar to when performing an import
with one exception. When updating a database, specify a Field on which to
match/sort this records. This unique field is used to determine which records
within an existing drillhole already exist and should be replaced. The TO or FROM
field generally works well.

Figure 13-18 Choose a unique field to sort records

Tutorial 13-8
1. Make a backup copy of thordrill.dhd.isis.
2. Open collar.csv.
3. Save the newly changed file with a new name: collar2.csv.
4. Change the name of the LK* drillholes to TK*.
5. Repeat the procedure for survey, assay, structure and geology CSV
files.
6. Update thordrill.dhd.isis with the new CSV files.

Updating an Existing Database

135

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

136

Chapter 13 Database Maintenance

Drilling Utilities
The most commonly-used tools in Geology > Drilling Utilities are used to check drillhole
intervals, locate holes of interest on-screen, create selection files, and generate MAP files.

Database Record Definition


Complete Geology > Drilling Utilities > Database Record Definition to use most
Geology > Drilling Utilities options. Database definitions are stored in the
<prefix>.gute_spec file.
Define FROM and TO intervals for each database table. Horizons should be defined when
working with stratified deposits such as coal.

Figure 14-1 Set up Database Definitions

Tutorial 14-1
Complete the Database Record Definition dialog box for ASSAY, GEO and STRUCT.

Database Record Definition

137

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Horizon Lists
If working with stratigraphic data, Geology > Drilling Utilities > Horizon List defines
depositional seams in descending order. Horizon lists are used for stratigraphic options
such as grid models or drilling sections. You can create a Horizon list manually or
automatically.
Tip:

A Horizon must be defined in Database Record Definitions before automatically


generating Horizons.

1. Click Geology > Drilling Utilities > Horizon List.


Note:

The horizon list is stored in a .gdc_glob file. If this file does not already exist in
the working directory, you are prompted to create one. Click Yes when prompted,
and Vulcan automatically creates the .gdc_glob file.
2. Click Load Glob File to import horizons from an existing .gdc_glob file. As a
horizon list does not exist for this project, ignore this panel and click Horizon List
from the panel tree.
3. Enter horizons into Horizon List fields or click Build Horizon List to generate
fields automatically from the field defined in Geology > Drilling Utilities >
Database Record Definition.

Tip:

Build Horizon List can help find erroneous entries in the database.

Figure 14-2 Populated Horizon List

Tip:

138

To create a legend with all Horizons, copy and paste the Horizons into an
appropriate dialog box in the Analyse > Legend Edit > Create menu.

Chapter 14 Drilling Utilities

4. Splits List defines the splitting relationship of seams. Seams with no splits are
listed under the Child Split column. Seams with splitting should be defined with the
smallest degree of splitting in the Child Split column, merging with bigger seams to
the right. The parent seam should be the last seam merged into on the right.

Figure 14-3 Populated Splits List

Work with Drillholes


Check Holes
Geology > Drilling Utilities > Check Drillholes performs simple checks on drillholes.
Although drillhole checks in Envisage are not as robust as Isis checks, Envisage
graphically highlights holes that fail simple tests.

Check each table in the database individually.


Horizons are checked based on the Horizon List.
A polygon is drawn around holes which fail the check with the defined colour and
size. The size of the polygon is a radius with the drillhole collar as the centre point;
therefore an entry of 50 draws a 100 x 100 square.

Figure 14-4 Check Drillholes dialog box

Tip:

Work with Drillholes

Horizon options only work on stratigraphic data sets.

139

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Information for failed holes display in the Report window.

Figure 14-5 Example Check Drillholes Report


To remove highlighted polygons, select Geology > Drilling Utilities > Clear Located.

Locate Holes
Envisage can graphically locate drillholes which meet a set of criteria such as specific
lithology or desired grade. To locate holes:
1. Select Geology > Drilling Utilities > Create/Modify Locate.
2. Choose a Spec file to store location parameter files (Locate id files). The spec file
is unique to a project and is named <prefix>.gute_spec.

Figure 14-6 Locate - ID dialog box


Enter the name of the parameter in Locate id. Several different locate IDs can be
saved to the Spec file and run at a later date.

Figure 14-7 Define location parameters


3. Save definition specifies the name of the Locate id to be saved into
<prefix>.gute_spec. Enter a name or choose one from the drop-down list.

140

Chapter 14 Drilling Utilities

4. Locate holes based upon alphanumeric or numeric fields in the database. Choose
a table and field to use to locate drillholes. Enter a value in the contents column if
the selected field is alphanumeric, or enter minimum and maximum values if the
selected field is numeric.
Tip:

Values entered for Character variables are case-sensitive (e.g. a8 differs from A8).
5. Choose how the defined location conditions are applied to the database.
6. Select which Hole(s) the condition applies to. Use located applies the defined
conditions to holes already located in Envisage.
7. Choose a colour and size for the polygon which highlights all drillholes meeting the
defined location criteria.

Tutorial 14-2
Locate the holes where at least one gold value within the TQ1 lithology has a gold
value greater than 0.3.

Set Visibility of Located Holes


Located or non-located holes can be set to visible/invisible with Geology > Drilling
Utilities > Set Visibility of Located. If multiple locate IDs have been run, the Last
located invisible or All located invisible options are available.

Figure 14-8 Location Visibility Menu

Extract Located Holes to CSV/Database


Click Geology > Drilling Utilities > Extract Located To DB or CSV to extract located
holes to a database or .csv file. To write to a database, enter a database name when
prompted. CSV files are named <Table_Name>.csv.
To remove located drillhole polygons click Geology > Drilling Utilities > Clear located.
This clears the locate square, but the located drillhole remains loaded.

Tutorial 14-3
Export located holes into a new database named thorhighgrade.

Work with Drillholes

141

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Create a selection file from located holes


A selection file is list of drillhole collars saved with the convention <name>.sel. Several
Vulcan operations such as drillhole loads, database composites, block model estimation,
and advanced statistics have the ability to use selection files to restrict operations to only
those holes defined in a selection file.

Figure 14-9 Restrict drillhole load with a selection file

Tutorial 14-4
Create a selection file from located holes.

Mapfile Overview
Mapfiles are text files that represent drillhole data in a spatial X,Y, Z format, as opposed to
the relative depth from collar representation found in a drillhole database. They are similar
to a straight composite database as they record the top, bottom, and midpoint locations in
a single intercept as well as the quality values of that intercept. Mapfiles are used in
stratigraphic modelling.
Mapfiles consist of two parts; a header and a body. The header defines columns that exist
in the mapfile, while the body contains data broken into columns. Mapfiles can vary in size
and data composition. Use Geology > Drilling > Mapfile to load points in Envisage.

142

Chapter 14 Drilling Utilities

Figure 14-10 Load mapfiles in Envisage


Select a Mapfile, then click OK.
Choose which variable from the mapfile to load into Envisage.

Figure 14-11 Mapfile points displayed in Envisage

Mapfile Overview

143

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

144

Chapter 14 Drilling Utilities

Triangulation Models
Introduction to Triangulations
Triangulations are highly accurate mathematical representations of data in three
dimensions. A series of 3D coordinate points, and the linkages between them, form a set
of triangulated planes that define a surface or enclose a volume.

Figure 15-1 Triangulated planes


Triangulations are stored as individual files which may be copied, renamed and deleted
through Vulcan Explorer or Windows Explorer. Triangulations in Vulcan are saved with the
file extension .00t.

Tip:

Avoid using spaces or special characters in triangulation names as this causes some
Vulcan options to fail.
Vulcan categorises triangulations into two types:

Surface triangulation models are 3D representations of data which do not enclose


a volume. Surface triangulations have distinct edges.
Solid triangulations represent a closed volume in 3D space, therefore they do not
have distinct edges.

Triangulation models honour all data points from which they are created. Unless
smoothed, they do not interpolate intermediate points. The resulting triangulation is
coarse where data is sparse and detailed where data is dense. Some examples of data
which can be modelled include: topography or digital terrain models (DTM), fault surfaces,
pit shells, or ore bodies.

Introduction to Triangulations

145

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Advantages of Triangulations
Vulcan triangulations are powerful display and analysis tools.

Diverse surface or solid shapes may be modelled with triangulations. Examples


include: topography, mine excavations, geological surfaces, ore bodies,
underground development, underground stopes, arbitrary attribute models, and
groundwater levels.
Volumes obtained from triangulations are more accurate than those obtained using
more traditional polygonal or end-area volumetric methods.
Cut-and-fill volumes can be easily calculated.
The 3D nature of triangulations coupled with Vulcans powerful graphical tools
enable high quality visualisation that can rapidly convey the concepts of a
geological model or engineering design.

Figure 15-2 Examples of triangulation models

Disadvantages of
Triangulations

146

The complex nature of some triangulations requires that considerable care be


taken during their construction. Processing time is directly proportional to the
number of data points considered.
Sometimes triangulation algorithms create shapes which do not match the shape
that experience and knowledge of the data would expect. Several techniques are
available to help create expected shapes.
Triangulation modelling methods may not be ideal for modelling sparse data, as
resulting large, flat triangles provide coarse resolution. Vulcans grid modelling
program estimates values in the gaps between the raw data points to provide a
smoother surface.

Chapter 15 Triangulation Models

Load Triangulations
Options for loading triangulations into the Envisage window include:

Double-click on a triangulation name in Vulcan Explorer.


Right-click on a triangulation name in Vulcan Explorer and select Load.
To select multiple triangulations to load, hold either the [SHIFT] or [CTRL] key, and
left-click triangulation names.
Drag-and-drop a triangulation from Vulcan Explorer into Envisage.
To select multiple triangulations to drag-and-drop, hold the [SHIFT] to select the
first and last triangulation in a group or hold the [CTRL] key and left-click individual
triangulation names.
Click Model > Triangle Utility > Load and select a triangulation from the dropdown list.
Click Model > Triangle Utility > List or click List Triangulations on the Open
toolbar.

Figure 15-3 Open toolbar - List Triangulations

Figure 15-4 Windows open dialog box

Load Triangulations

This is a common open dialog box used by Windows programs. Selections are
made from the list of files displayed on the left side of the dialog box, then moved
to the right side of the box with arrow buttons in the centre.
Model > Triangle Utility > Load by Location narrows down triangulation pick
lists. Choose a group of triangulations, then define the extents which restrict the
load.

147

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Unload Triangulations

Right-click on a loaded triangulation and select Remove.


Right-click on a triangulation file name in Vulcan Explorer and select Remove.
Model > Triangle Utility > Remove prompts for selection of a loaded
triangulation.
Model > Triangle Utility > Remove by Name removes triangulations based upon
the triangulations name.
Model > Triangle Utility > Remove by Location removes triangulations based
upon geographic location.

Tutorial 15-1
Load triangulations into Envisage, then remove them.
1. Open a design database.
2. In the Vulcan Explorer window, click the plus (+) symbol to expand the
Triangulations folder.
3. Double-click topo.00t. Use the rotation tools to view the triangulation in 3D.
4. Right-click the surface topography in Envisage and select Remove.
5. Select pit.00t and topo.00t in Vulcan Explorer.
6. Right-click on either file and choose Load.
7. Right-click on one of the triangulations Envisage and select Remove All.

Triangle Attributes (Properties)


Triangle attributes, such as colour, can be set upon creation. To change attributes of an
existing triangulation, click Model > Triangle Utility > Attributes or right-click on a
loaded triangulation and select Properties.
The triangulation properties dialog box has two tabs; Shading and Advanced. Both tabs
control triangulation appearance.
There are two options for shading; Solid shade triangulation or Draw as wireframe.

Figure 15-5 Solid shade triangulation

148

Chapter 15 Triangulation Models

Figure 15-6 Wireframe triangulation


There are three options for solid shaded triangulations.

Draw wireframe mesh over surface displays individual triangles used to


construct the model, which helps visualise complicated triangulations.
Ensure triangulation is not striped removes strange lighting effects when
overlaying images onto surfaces.
Smooth shading is a visual effect. The true surface does not change, therefore
surface areas and volumes remain intact.

Surface definition angle is an angle required between triangle normals for


the surface to be considered continuous. If an angle is less than this value,
then the triangles are considered to be on different surfaces. If you set this
angle to 0, then all triangles are considered to be on different surfaces.
If you set the angle to 180, then all of the triangles are considered to be on
one surface, and colours blend over the whole model.
Use load time shading uses whichever light direction is active when the
triangulation is loaded. If light direction is changed, the triangulation has to
be reloaded before the change is recognised.

Two options are available when Draw as Wireframe is selected.

Fill triangles with pattern, applies a pattern to a wireframe mesh.


Display simple contours displays contour lines at a defined interval.

Figure 15-7 Simple contours at 10 unit intervals.


There are two different ways to colour a triangulation.

Triangle Attributes (Properties)

Use RGB colour: Select a colour not defined on the Vulcan colour palette.
Use Colour index: Select from one of 32 colours on the Vulcan colour palette.

149

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Select the preferred colour method, then click the box below the chosen option to display
a colour palette.

Figure 15-8 Vulcan colour palette


The Advanced tab contains options to enhance visual effects on triangulations.

Axis Colouring options are enabled if Solid shade triangulation is chosen on the
Shading tab.
Check Colour by axis to control different X, Y or Z colour options.

Figure 15-9 Colour topography by z axis

150

Equalise range ensures the entire spectrum is used across the axis range.
Spectrum applies a rainbow Colour scheme to a range of values along the
specified axis.
Click Modify to use alternative axis colouring options.

Chapter 15 Triangulation Models

Figure 15-10 Surface coloured by Z-axis with Spectrum scheme


Texture resource drapes a triangulation with an image, for example an image of an aerial
photograph or a satellite image. An example of the use of textures is in pit or face
mapping, where a digital image of the rock face can be draped onto a pit or stope design.

To apply an image to a triangulation, select Texture resource and pick the image
file from the drop-down list.

Note:

Before loading an image, it must be registered to the triangulation with Image


Registration tools found in the Model > Image Registration menu.

Check Blend texture with triangulation colour to view both the draped image
and applied lighting.

Figure 15-11 Image draped on a topography triangulation

Check Translucent triangulation to control triangulation visibility. Set the value to


100 for a completely translucent triangulation, or 0 for a completely opaque
triangulation.

Tutorial 15-2
Changing triangulation attributes:
1. Load the topo.00t surface triangulation.
2. Change the colour of the triangulation.
3. Draw a wireframe mesh over the solid-shaded triangulation.
4. Colour by the Z axis using a Spectrum scheme.
5. Change the translucency to 75%.

Triangle Attributes (Properties)

151

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

152

Chapter 15 Triangulation Models

Triangulation Surfaces
Create a Surface
Any object data, such as points, lines, or polygons, may be used to create surface
triangulation models.
Tip:

Load all data to triangulate, including limiting polygons, in Envisage before entering the
triangulation creation option.
Click Model > Triangle Surface > Create.

Figure 16-1 Create triangulation surface - Data Tab


For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : Model : Triangle Surface : Create

Create a Surface

153

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Data Tab

The Data tab controls how data is projected and where it is located after creation.
Triangulate data in plan view creates horizontal and sub-horizontal surface
triangulations. For triangulations in other orientations, use Triangulate data
projected against a plane or Triangulate data projected against a sphere.
Check Use W tag in place of Z value if a triangulation representing W tag values
is desired.
Use Breaklines if data being digitised crosses in Plan view. Points will be
interpreted at crossing points in an attempt to respect all data. Breakline
tolerance stops formation of long, narrow triangles.

Boundary Tab

Figure 16-2 Create triangulation surface - Boundary Tab


Boundary options define how to use polygons which limit triangulation extents.

Use boundary polygon as part of triangulation data includes data points from
the polygon when creating the surface.

Figure 16-3 Include polygon points in triangulation

Exclude boundary polygon from data uses the polygon to restrict data, but does
not use polygon points during triangulation construction.

Figure 16-4 Exclude boundary polygon from triangulation

154

Chapter 16 Triangulation Surfaces

Relimit triangulation with boundary polygon excludes polygon points when


triangulating, and clips the resulting triangulation with the polygon.

Figure 16-5 Polygon relimits triangulation

Trending Tab

Figure 16-6 Create triangulation surface - Trending Tab


Trending options apply a geological trend to the surface upon creation. Trending uses a
best-fit mathematical model to estimate the surface shape between data points.

Apply polynomial trending applies a regional trend to the surface. Specify a


trend order which relates to the complexity of the surface to be modelled.
Table 16-1 Surface Variations
Order

Create a Surface

Surface

Plane surface

Dome or simple syncline (parabolic)

Folded surface (anticline and syncline)

Check Return only trend model values as results to generate the trend surface
as the triangulation without including raw data.

155

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Spurs Tab

Figure 16-7 Create triangulation surface - Spurs Tab


The Generate spur strings on the Spurs tab generates lines which control flat ridge
crests and valleys when triangulating between contour lines of the same elevation.

Select or enter a Layer name to save strings to an existing or new layer.


Check Incorporate spurs in triangulation to use spur strings during surface
generation.

Tip:

If the layer name is blank, spur strings are created as an underlay.

Note:

Do not use the spur creation options if triangulating a pit design as crest/bench definition
may be lost.

Condition Tab

Figure 16-8 Create triangulation surface - Condition Tab


The Condition tab provides control on individual triangles.

156

Prevent the formation of flat triangles where possible distorts triangles that
have all vertices on the same contour.
Trim the edge triangles restricts triangle size around triangulation edges.

Chapter 16 Triangulation Surfaces

Click OK to create a surface. If a boundary polygon is used, select the polygon when
prompted. If the wrong polygon is selected, choose Pick again and select the correct
polygon.
When prompted, use the best selection option to choose data to triangulate; selected data
turns gray. When all data is chosen, right-click to exit the selection command.
Enter a name for the new triangulation. Set properties for the triangulation now, or return
later to change attributes.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : Model : Triangle Surface : Create
Note:

Do not uses spaces or special characters in the triangulation name. Vulcan automatically
adds the file extension .00t to the name entered in the panel.

Tutorial 16-1
1. Load the CONTOURS and BOUND layers.
2. Click Model > Triangle Surface > Create.
3. Leave Data, Trending and Condition tabs set to default.
4. Triangulate data inside the boundary polygon. Use the polygon to relimit the
resulting triangulation.
5. Generate spur strings, and save them to a layer named SPURS. Ensure that
the spurs are not flat, and choose to use them when creating the surface.
6. When prompted, select the boundary polygon and confirm the correct object.
7. Select data to triangulate by Layer, click any object in the CONTOURS layer, and
confirm the layer was chosen correctly. Right-click to exit data-selection mode.
8. Name the triangulation topo_contours. Click OK.
9. Rotate and zoom in on the triangulation to inspect the spur strings. Change the
triangulation translucency to see the spur strings more clearly. Remove the
CONTOURS layer if desired.

Figure 16-9 BOUND and CONTOURS layers

Create a Surface

157

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Two Polygons
Model > Triangle Surface > Two Polygons creates a surface triangulation between two
polygons which define internal and external boundaries. The boundary polygon is used as
part of the triangulation. An example of this is to triangulate between contour lines to
create contour rings.

Grid Mesh
Model > Triangle Surface > Grid Mesh creates a simple grid over an existing
triangulated surface. Extents are determined interactively.

Image Registration
Model > Image Registration options drape images onto triangulations.
Select Model > Image Registration > Create Or Open to access an existing .ireg file
or create a new file. An .ireg file stores registration specifications such as correlations
between image coordinates and real world coordinates or the path to a registered image.
Choose an .ireg file or enter a name for a new one, then choose an Image file name on
the Image Registration Properties dialog box. The following files are compatible with
image registration:

JPEG (.jpg or .jpeg)


tagged image file format (.tif or .tiff)
CompuServe GIF (.gif) files
ER Mapped ECW images (.ecw)

Use automatically generated triangulation creates an underlay which covers mapping


extents. This option works best if only two or three control points are used. To specify an
existing triangulation on which to overlay the image, select Use specified triangulation,
and choose the desired triangulation from the drop down list.

Figure 16-10 Image Registration Properties

158

Chapter 16 Triangulation Surfaces

The check box for Sharp pixel boundaries makes pixels larger instead of smoothed
under strong magnification.
Tip:

Choose bright, contrasting and unique colours for the points.


Specify an Image Width in real world units if one control point is used.
Click OK to open a new Image Registration window. Click Window > Tile Vertically to
see both windows simultaneously. This makes point correlation easier.

Figure 16-11 Tile windows to make correlation easier


Click Model > Image Registration > Add Point to define points which associate points
on the image (image coordinates) to points on the existing triangulation (real world
coordinates). Vulcan prompts for an image coordinate, followed by a real world
coordinate. Right-click to exit the command.
Tip:

The more points added to correlate the image with the triangulation, the more accurate
the registration is. Use Indicate mode to select image coordinates and Snap to Objects
mode to select real world coordinates. Note that each window has a unique set of
snapping tools.
If a point is in the wrong place, use Model > Image Registration > Move Point.
However, it is typically easier to use Model > Image Registration > Delete Point, and
then add points again. Model > Image Registration > Clear All Points deletes all added
points.

Tip:

Click Model > Image Registration > Properties to alter properties of an existing image
registration.
After adding all points, click Model > Image Registration > Close to close the Image
Registration window and save an .ireg file.

Image Registration

159

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

To apply the.ireg to an existing triangulation, load the triangulation into Envisage. Right
click on the triangulation and choose Properties. Click Advanced, and check Texture
resource. Choose the .ireg file as the Texture name. Click OK to display the image on
the triangulation.
Tip:

If the image is distorted, click Model > Image Registration > Create or Open to modify
the .ireg. Replace existing points, or add more points to clarify the image.

Tutorial 16-2
1. Load image_topo.00t.
2. Create an .ireg file to associate topoThor.jpg to image_topo.00t.
3. Display topoThor.jpg on image_topo.00t via the .ireg file created.
4. Remove the .ireg from image_topo.00t.
5. Apply topo.pexel to this triangulation instead of the .ireg file.

Figure 16-12 Image registration

160

Chapter 16 Triangulation Surfaces

Solid Triangulations
A solid triangulation model is a closed 3D representation of data. The model has no
distinct edges and encompasses a volume.
Of several different solid modelling techniques, the two most common use either polygons
or Boolean operations.
Solid triangulations are commonly used to represent geological features and structures or
for underground mine development planning.
Other Vulcan modules such as Block Modelling, iGantt and Chronos use triangulations.

Create Solids
Use Model > Triangle Solid > Create to build continuous solid triangulations from design
strings representing a solid body, such as an ore body, dump, or stope. This option builds
triangulations between chosen polygons or lines.

Figure 17-1 Build a triangulation solid from polygons


To ensure valid and accurate solids, check the following:

Create Solids

Polygon points order in the same direction: either clockwise or counter-clockwise.


No duplicate points exist in the polygon.
No overturns (bowties) exist in the polygon.

161

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Note:

Closed polygons are not required; however the open portion is not triangulated.
Click Model > Triangle Solid > Create.

Figure 17-2 Create 3D Solid options


For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : Model : Triangle Solid : Create
To build a solid triangulation:
1. Click Model > Triangle Solid > Create.
2. Specify creation parameters.
Click OK.
3. When prompted, pick the first string.
4. Choose the second string to triangulate.
5. Select a colour for the triangulation.
A triangulation between the first two strings is generated.
6. When prompted, pick the next string(s) to triangulate.
7. When finished, choose Save from the Triangulation Solid Create
menu.
8. Enter a triangulation name and Click OK.
Figure 17-3
Save Solid

162

Chapter 17 Solid Triangulations

The Triangulation Solid Create Menu is broken into 2 sections: 3D Picking and 3D Create.
3D Create appears after the first string is chosen.

Table 17-1 3D Picking Options


Command

Definition

Complete

Uses the entire string or polygon to create the triangulation.

Polygon

Interactively creates a polygon used as the next string.

Partial

Uses part of a string or polygon for triangulation creation.


Partial polygons are used when modelling splitting
triangulations.

Line

Interactively creates a line, which Vulcan uses to continue the


triangulation. Lines are used to pinch-off solid triangulations.

Multiple

Specifies multiple objects using the standard criteria


selection.Vulcan connects all selected polygons to create a
solid triangulation.

Point

Interactively selects a point to triangulate.

Translate

Copies and moves existing polygons.

Table 17-2 3D Create Options


Command

Create Solids

Definition

Save

Saves the triangulation.

Reverse

Reverses the direction of the last selected string and then retriangulates between the last two strings.

Split

Stops the progression of the triangulation so a new start


string can be chosen. If constructing automatic end plates,
the last string chosen receives an end plate. If this string is in
the middle of a solid, internal walls are formed.

Undo

Removes the last section of the triangulation. Do not use any


other Undo shortcut options while creating a solid.

Edit

Interactively inserts, deletes, moves or filters points during


triangulation creation. The option can also delete strings.

Ties

Can select existing tie strings or interactively digitise tie lines


during triangulation construction.

Delete

Deletes triangles which are connected to a chosen polygon.


Does not delete triangles associated with an active polygon.

Cancel

Cancels the triangulation process. If triangles have been


created, a prompt to either Save edits or Dont Save
appears.

163

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 17-1
Create a simple solid from polygons:
1. Load the SIMPLE_SOLID layer.
2. Click Model > Triangle Solid > Create.
3. Leave the Create 3D Solid panel as default and click OK.
4. When prompted, pick the first string.
5. When prompted, pick the next string.
6. Select a colour for the triangulation.
7. Continue selecting all subsequent polygons. Once all polygons are selected,
right-click twice and choose Save edits.
8. Name the triangulation simple. Note that the triangulation is not a solid, but
more of a tunnel. This is because Construct first end plate and Construct
last end plate were not selected in the Create 3D Solid panel.
9. Click Model > Triangle Solid > Close Solid.
10. Choose Remove Flaps.
11. Name the triangulation simple_closed.

Tutorial 17-2
Create a splitting solid triangulation:
1. Load the PANT_LEG layer.
2. Click Model > Triangle Solid > Create. Accept panel defaults and click OK.
3. Beginning at the top where there is one polygon and working down, pick strings
until reaching the polygon where the triangulation splits into legs.

Figure 17-4 Split solid triangulation - top of the pants


4. Select Split to choose a new start point in step 6.
5. Click Partial to define part of a larger polygon.
6. When prompted, pick the lowest, large polygon in the pants.
7. Click two points to divide the larger polygon into two pieces.
8. Choose This part or Other part to define which half of the polygon to continue
with one leg of the pants.
9. Choose to Close String.

164

Chapter 17 Solid Triangulations

Tutorial 17-2 (Continued)

Figure 17-5 Define where to divide polygon


10. Click Complete so the first complete polygon defining the top of a single pant
leg can be chosen.

Figure 17-6 Select first polygon of pant leg 1


11. Continue to the end of the leg.
12. Select Split to choose a continuation point in step 14.
13. Click Partial.
14. Return to the large polygon which was divided and select the same two points
chosen previously.

Figure 17-7 Return to divided polygon and choose the remaining half

Create Solids

165

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 17-2 (Continued)


15. Select Complete, and triangulate the remaining pant leg. Click Save.
16. Name the triangulation Pant_Leg.

Figure 17-8 Split solid triangulation - complete

Tip:

If something goes wrong when creating complex triangulations, do not right-click or


Cancel the operation. Instead, click Undo on the Triangulation Solid Create menu.

Tutorial 17-3
1. Load the WAREHOUSE layer.
2. Create a solid triangulation of the warehouse building and name it
warehouse.00t.
3. Use Snap to Object mode to place a BIG_TRUCK symbol in the warehouse.
4. Make the warehouse invisible so you can see the haul truck.

Figure 17-9 Warehouse building

Tutorial 17-4
1. Load the POLY_1 layer.
2. Create a solid triangulation from these strings and name it tq1.00t.
3. Load the POLY_2 layer.
4. Create a solid triangulation from these strings and name it tq2.00t.
5. Load the POLY_3 layer.
6. Create a solid triangulation from these strings and name it
tq3_interpret.00t.

166

Chapter 17 Solid Triangulations

End Plates
Use Model > Triangle Solid > End Plate to create a flat surface triangulation from a
polygon. End plates can be used to close existing solids.

Figure 17-10 Construct end plate dialog box

Construct new triangulation: Creates a flat surface triangulation from a selected


polygon. The triangulation will exist as its own file in the Triangulations folder.
Append resulting triangulation: Appends end plates to a loaded triangulation.

Figure 17-11 Open solid triangulation

Figure 17-12 Closed solid triangulation

When prompted, select a loaded string which defines the end plate. Multiple polygons can
be selected to create multiple end plates, though each polygon must be selected
individually in Envisage.

Tutorial 17-5
Use Model > Triangle Solid > End Plate to close the Pant_Leg triangulation.

Tri Polygons
Model > Triangle Solid > Tri Polygons is similar to Model > Triangle Solid > End Plate,
except selection criteria are used to select multiple polygons. In addition, resulting end
plates will be appended into a single triangulation.
The Tri Polygons option is useful for imported design strings as other software packages
sometimes represent a solid as a group of connected polygons.
Note:

End Plates

No topological corrections are performed. If the polygons do not meet properly or have
trifurcation, then this is reflected in the resulting triangulation.

167

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 17-6
1. Load layer TRI_POLYS_TQ3.
2. Create a triangulation using Model > Triangle Solid > Tri Polygons.
3. Name the triangulation tq3.

168

Chapter 17 Solid Triangulations

Manipulate
Triangulations
Many Vulcan tools make creating new triangulations from existing triangulations quick
and easy. Applications include:

Obtaining a pit solid from a pit design and topography.


Creating pit bench shells.
Determining the common volume of two intersecting solids.

Boolean

Model > Triangle Utility > Boolean splits two, loaded triangulations based upon
overlapping sections. The resulting pieces may be used to build a third
triangulation.

Note:

The loaded triangulations must fully intersect as Boolean does not work well if
triangulations share points. If the triangulations touch, but do not intersect, Boolean may
not produce reliable results.

Tip:

When the Boolean option does not perform as expected due to shared points or lack of
intersection, move one of the triangulations slightly. Click Model > Triangle Utility >
Translate to move a triangulation.

Boolean

169

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 18-1 Two triangulations loaded in Envisage


Selected triangulations, are split based upon intersection points. A bold line indicates
points of intersection.

Figure 18-2 Intersecting triangulations


Individual pieces are excluded to create various triangulations such as pit material or a pit
topography.

Figure 18-3 New pit topography triangulation

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : Model : Triangle Utility : Boolean

170

Chapter 18 Manipulate Triangulations

Tutorial 18-1
1. Load topo_contours.00t and pit.00t in Envisage.
2. Use Model > Triangle Utility > Boolean to create a solid triangulation of the
material to be mined from the pit.
3. Name this triangulation pit_material.

Boolean

171

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Shells
Use Model > Triangle Solid > Shells to quickly cut a solid into pieces. This leaves the
original triangulation intact, and creates new triangulations based on input parameters.

Figure 18-4 Create Shells dialog box


New triangulations display in Envisage along with the original.

Tutorial 18-2
1. Load pit_material.00t.
2. Select Model > Triangle Solid > Shells.
3. Set options on the Naming tab to name shells PIT1_<elevation>.
4. Create bench solids that are 10 metres starting at an elevation of 0. To enable
this functionality, select Calculate fixed width shells on the Parameters tab.
Click OK, then Select by grid coordinate and enter an RL of 0.

Figure 18-5 Pit solid triangulation shelled into 10 metre benches

Tutorial 18-3
1. Create a triangulation directory named benches.tri.
2. Move all of the pit bench triangulations to the new directory.

172

Chapter 18 Manipulate Triangulations

Relimit
There are three relimiting options:

Tip:

Model > Triangle Surface > Relimit by Polygon creates a new triangulation from
an existing triangulation surface and one or more nominated polygons. Data inside
the polygons may be retained or deleted. This option is useful when removing the
topography within a pit crest string.
Model > Triangle Surface > Relimit by Polygon only works in Plan view.

Use Model > Triangle Utility > Relimit creates a new triangulation from an
existing triangulation surface or solid and a nominated polygon.
Model > Triangle Surface > Relimit by Solid relimits a surface triangulation
against a solid triangulation to create a new triangulation surface.
Solid triangulation

Surface triangulation

Figure 18-6 Relimit triangulation surface with a solid

Tutorial 18-4
Relimit surface triangulations:
1. Ensure no triangulations or layers are loaded.
2. Load the RELIMIT layer and topo.00t.
3. Click Model > Triangle Surface > Relimit by Polygon.
4. The topo.00t is automatically selected as it is the only triangulation loaded.
Now select the polygon from the RELIMIT layer. Choose Keep Inside and
confirm Relimit.

Relimit

173

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 18-4 (Continued)


5. Name the new triangulation topo_relimit.
6. Remove the RELIMIT layer and topo_relimit.00t.
7. Load triangulation solid_1.00t.

Figure 18-7 Relimit triangulation surface by polygon

Tutorial 18-5
Relimit solid triangulations:
1. Click Model > Triangle Surface > Relimit by Solid.
2. First select the topo.00t triangulation, then select the solid_1.00t
triangulation. Choose Keep Inside. Name the resulting triangulation
topo_relimit_2.
3. Remove all triangulations except topo_relimit_2.

174

Chapter 18 Manipulate Triangulations

Analyse Triangulations
Areas and Volumes
Area
Model > Triangle Surface > Surface Area computes the total surface area of all
triangles for a selected triangulation.

Tutorial 19-1
1. Ensure the only triangulation loaded is topo.00t.
2. Click Model > Triangle Surface > Surface Area.
3. On the Triangle surface dialog select Square metres.
4. Click OK. The triangulation is automatically selected if it is the only one loaded.

Solid Volumes
Model > Triangle Solid > Volume calculates solid triangulation volumes, and can also
estimate tonnage using an average density value. If volumes are needed for multiple
triangulations, choose Select solids by name to choose triangulations from a Windows
browser instead of Envisage.
Tip:

Right-click on a loaded triangulation choose Volume to quickly calculate the volume of a


single solid. If multiple triangulations are highlighted on-screen, the volume option is not
available in context menus

Tutorial 19-2
Determine the volume of tq1.00t.

Areas and Volumes

175

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 19-3
Generate a .txt file which contains volumes for each bench of the pit triangulation
shelled earlier.

Surface Volumes
Model > Triangle Surface > Volume calculates the volume between two triangulated
surfaces using relative vertical positions of the two surfaces. Vulcan will prompt for the
original and new triangulation.
If triangulations overlap, cut and fill volumes are reported. Triangulation selection order is
vital, as cut and fill volumes are classified by triangulation picking order.

Figure 19-1 Cut and fill volumes


Results can be saved to a report file, but they will also display on-screen and in the
Envisage tab of the Report window. A report file extension may be specified. By default,
a.txt file is generated.
Model > Triangle Surface > Polygons Volumes calculates the volume between two
triangulated surfaces within a set of polygons.

Tutorial 19-4
1. Load topo.00t and pit.00t.
2. Click Model > Triangle Surface > Volume.
3. First select the topo triangulation, and then select the pit projection
triangulation.
4. The cut volume is the volume of the pit below the topo. The fill is the volume
above the topo and below the pit projection.
5. Click OK to exit the command.

176

Chapter 19 Analyse Triangulations

Repair Triangulations
Triangulations are the foundation for many Vulcan utilities. Poorly-constructed
triangulations result in errors or lack of functionality. Tools to check validity or help
improve triangulation quality are outlined below.

Check Triangulations
Use Model > Triangle Solid > Check or Model > Triangle Utility > Check to validate
triangulations.
If a triangulation does not pass all validity tests, operations which use the triangulation
may not produce correct results. This is of particular concern when running reserves.
Triangulations which pass validation tests, but fail stability tests, still provide accurate
results. However, precision limitations in some algorithms may produce errors when
triangulations contain small triangles. New triangulations created from a triangulation
which fails stability are more likely to have errors.
Passing triangulation validity tests is required.

Check Triangulations

Test for Closure checks for openings, or holes in the triangulation. A triangulation
surface always fails closure along the edges of the surface. As long as this is the
only location of failure, it may still be used as a valid triangulation.
Test for Consistency fails if a single edge is shared between more than two
triangles. Failure may indicate internal walls.
Test for Self Intersection checks for crossing triangles.

177

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 20-1 Check Triangulation Validity dialog box


Strings which indicate failure locations may be saved as an Underlay or Layer. To save a
string to a layer, enter the name of a new or existing layer.
Tip:

Change string colour to contrast with the triangulation and apply a thick line style to make
strings stand out.
Triangulation stability can also be checked using the Check Triangulation Stability panel.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : Model : Triangle Edit : Check
Nearly all triangulations that fail a validity check do so because of problems associated
with design data or triangulations used for creation. In most cases it is quicker and simpler
to correct raw data rather than the triangulation.

Tutorial 20-1
Check topo_contours.00t and Pant_Leg.oot to ensure they are valid.

Quick Repair Options


The Model > Triangle Solid and Model > Triangle Surface menus contain commands to
help with triangulation repair. Some of the most commonly used commands are discussed
below.
Caution:

Create a copy of a triangulation prior to manipulation as many tools do not offer an


opportunity to save the altered triangulation with a new name.

Close Solid
Model > Triangle Solid > Close Solid automatically closes all the holes in a loaded solid.
This is effective for simple closures, but if a triangulation has multiple open areas or
requires complex closure this may not work correctly.

178

Chapter 20 Repair Triangulations

Figure 20-2 Removing flaps when closing a triangulation

Tutorial 20-2
Re-create the Pant_Leg solid triangulation without end plates. Use Model > Triangle
Solid > Close Solid to close the resulting triangulation.

Tip:

Always provide a new name for an altered triangulation. This preserves the original in
case the changes provide undesirable results.

Split
Model > Triangle Solid > Split creates individual triangulations from disjointed parts of a
single triangulation. Parts of interest are chosen and a new triangulation is created. This
option can also be used to eliminate undesirable pieces.

Figure 20-3 Split a triangulation to eliminate small pieces

Quick Repair Options

179

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Options available when choosing pieces are similar to the options within the Boolean
command.
An additional command, By Volume, allows for easy elimination of pieces which are less
than a specified volume.

Tutorial 20-3
Load the split_pit.00t on-screen. Remove the outlying pieces and save.

Cut
Model > Triangle Utility > Cut cuts a triangulation into two pieces by interactively
digitising a cut line. Small problem areas around edges can be removed to fix the
triangulation. This option can also be used to quickly cut large triangulations into smaller
pieces.

Tip:

Exaggerate the ends of the cut line to ensure a clean cut. See Figure 20-4. Lines which, if
continued, would intersect the triangulation again can cause errors. See Figure 20-5.

Figure 20-4 Correct cut line

Figure 20-5 Incorrect cut line

Tutorial 20-4
1. Load split_pit.00t.
2. Check the triangulation to locate an inconsistency along an edge.
3. Remove the inconsistency using Model > Triangle Utility > Cut.

Delete Crossing Triangles


Model > Triangle Edit > Delete Crossing Triangles removes crossing triangles to fix
self-intersection problems.The triangulation can be saved as a new triangulation or the
input triangulation can be updated.

180

Chapter 20 Repair Triangulations

Tip:

It is good practice to Save as new triangulation, so the original triangulation remains as


a backup in case unexpected results occur.

General Repair Guidelines


To repair a triangulation, use the following general steps:
1. Check the triangulation.
2. If it fails consistency or crossing, check again and save the problem areas to a
layer. Try to identify the problems with the original data.
3. If the problem area is around an edge and is very small, use Model > Triangle
Utility > Cut to remove it.
4. If crossing is still an issue, click Model > Triangle Edit > Delete Crossing
Triangles.
5. Model > Triangle Edit > Snap Vertices may resolve consistency issues
6. To quickly close a solid, click Model > Triangle Solid > Close Solid.
Tip:

When repairing a triangulation, first fix crossing triangles, then consistency issues, and
finally closure.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : Model : Triangle Surface : Contents
Envisage : Model : Triangle Solid : Contents

Tutorial 20-5
Load fix_1.00t and repair the problem area shown.

Figure 20-6 fix_1.00t problem area

General Repair Guidelines

181

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

182

Chapter 20 Repair Triangulations

Primitives
Primitives apply a defined shape to an object. Primitives are useful when repeatedly using
3D designs of the same shape. Instead of re-designing the shape each time, it can be
designated as a primitive and applied to objects. Primitives are often applied to
centrelines to model roads or underground workings. Resulting shapes can be saved as
an object attribute or as a triangulation.

Figure 21-1 Primitive applied to a centre line

Apply Primitives
Click Model > Primitives > Create/Edit Primitives to define or apply a primitive shape.
There are several predefined primitives of common shapes that can be applied at a
defined size and alignment. The Alignment option determines where on the selected
object the primitive is located. For example, if the chosen object is a centreline and Top is
selected, then the centreline runs along the top of the primitive.

Apply Primitives

183

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 21-2 Predefined primitive options


Primitives can be saved as triangulations, object attributes or both.

Tip:

Attributes look similar to triangulations, but they are saved in a layer.


Triangulations save to .00t files; therefore triangulation properties may be
defined.

Ensure objects are correct and clean before creating a triangulation. Some examples of
things to check include: duplicate points, overlapping lines, and naming convention.

Figure 21-3 Define primitive format


To apply a primitive to an object, click Select Objects and choose an object loaded in
Envisage.

184

Chapter 21 Primitives

Tutorial 21-1
1. Load the RAMP layer.
2. Apply a predefined primitive shape to the ramp.
3. The primitive should measure 15 units wide x 10 units high.
4. Assume the ramp centreline runs along the floor.
5. Save the primitive as a triangulation named RAMP.00t.

Custom Primitives
The User Primitives of the Primitives dialog box can be used to design a new shape. The
red point on-screen is the alignment point. When applying a primitive to a line, this point is
aligned with the object selected.
Tip:

If these tools are not sufficient, Map Object allows selection of an object loaded in
Envisage. Any of the standard CAD tools may be used to create a shape. The shape
should be drawn in Plan view.

Figure 21-4 Design a custom primitive shape


Click Save or Save As to store the primitive for future use. Custom primitives are stored
in a Primitives specification file (<proj>.pgd) in the current working folder.
To apply a custom primitive, click Original Primitives in the navigation tree, select Use a
cross-sectional primitive, and choose a saved, custom Primitive from the drop-down
list. Rectangles or circles with custom dimensions can also be selected and sized.

Custom Primitives

185

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 21-2
1. Load the PRIMITIVE layer.
2. Import the primitive using Map Object.
3. Change the alignment of the primitive from centre to top.
4. Name the new primitive STOPE1.

Figure 21-5 Map Object and adjust alignment point

186

Chapter 21 Primitives

Tutorial 21-3
1. Load the CROSS_CUT layer.
2. Apply a 5 x 5 square primitive to the drifts. Align the primitive along the Bottom
of the centreline. Create a triangulation named Drifts.
3. Apply a 5 x 5 square primitive to cross cuts. Align the primitive along the
Bottom of the centreline. Create triangulations named <Group>_<Object>,
where <Group> is the design objects assigned group and <Object> is the
design objects name.
4. Apply the STOPE1 primitive to the uppermost set of cross cut lines. Create
triangulations named ST_<Object>, where <Object> is the design objects
name.

Figure 21-6 Triangulations created from primitives

Tools
The Primitives toolbar is a useful tool when working with primitives. Click Tools > Toolbar
Visibility and check Primitives.
Remove Primitive
Create/Edit Primitives
Triangulate Primitive

Primitive Visibility

Toggle Primitive

Figure 21-7 Primitives toolbar


Other useful options for working with primitives include:

Tools

Model > Primitives > Create/Edit Primitives or Design > Attribute Edit >
Create/Edit Primitives opens the Primitives dialog box.
Design > Attribute Edit > Primitive Visibility hides or shows primitives saved as
object attributes. Standard visibility tools should be used for triangulations.
Design > Attribute Edit > Remove Primitive deletes a primitive saved as an
object attribute.
Toggle Primitives reverses the visibility setting of a chosen primitive.
Model > Primitives > Triangulate Primitive converts primitives saved as
attributes to a triangulations.

187

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 21-4
1. Create a triangulation directory named underground.tri.
2. Put the cross cut, stope, drift and ramp triangulations into the folder.

188

Chapter 21 Primitives

Introduction to Grids
Grid Mesh Surfaces
Grid modelling is used for modelling stratigraphic deposits. Grid models represent
surfaces with a regular pattern of nodes. The fixed distance between nodes is called the
grid size, or grid cell size. Values for grids are stored at the grid nodes where grid lines
cross. Each node has a X and Y values which represent a location in space, with a Z
value that varies depending on what is being modelled.

Figure 22-1 Grid mesh elements


The standard grid filename has the following format <proj><gfi>.<mv>g.

<proj> = Project code (maximum of four characters).


<gfi> = Grid file identifier.
<mv> = Mapping variable name; a two letter code indicates model variable.
g = Standard suffix on the file extension, used to represent a grid file.

Grids can generally be divided into two types: structure grids and quality grids.

Grid Mesh Surfaces

Structure grids represent geological contact surfaces. The Z value is an elevation.


Examples include topography, structure roof, or structure floor grids.
Quality grids represent qualities at a particular X and Y location. The Z value
represents a quality value. Examples include sulphur, thickness, or density grids.

189

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Common grid file extensions are:

sr structure roof
sf structure floor
tk thickness
st structure thickness
pt - parting thickness
tp - topography

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : Grid Calc : Introduction : Mapfiles
Note:

Grid model surface representations respect 3D data, and are usually not planar.

Figure 22-2 Plan view and isometric view of a grid model


Grids can be mathematically manipulated to derive new grids. For example grids can be
added and subtracted, or a constant value can be added to a grid.
Grids can not represent structures where more than one Z value exists for a particular X
and Y location. Examples of structures that can not be modelled by grids include reverse
faults and recumbent folds.

Load and Remove Grids


Existing grids can be loaded and unloaded in several ways:

Double-click the grid name in Vulcan Explorer.

Click Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Load.

190

Drag and drop the grid name from Vulcan Explorer into Envisage.

Right-click the grid name in Vulcan Explorer and select Load.

Chapter 22 Introduction to Grids

Tip:

If grids do not display under the Grids folder in Vulcan Explorer, ensure extensions are
chosen in Tools > Preferences> Workbench > Vulcan Explorer > File Types > Grids.
To remove a grid, right-click on the grid and select Remove or click Model > Grid Mesh.
Surfaces > Remove By Name. Alternatively, click Remove Underlay

on the

Standard toolbar.

Tutorial 22-1
A grid named thorgrid.tpg was created from the design layer CONTOURS.

Load the CONTOURS layer.


Double-click thorgrid.tpg to load it into Envisage.

Use the rotation tools to see how the grid conforms to the CONTOURS layer.

Create Grids
The two primary methods for creating grids in Vulcan are found under Model > Grid
Mesh Surfaces and the Grid Calc menu.
Use the modelling methods under Grid Mesh Surfaces to create simple grids from
loaded design data. Grid Calc has the added ability to create and manipulate grids using
sophisticated modelling algorithms, making it a powerful tool.
The grid extents must be divisible by the grid cell size. Grids which exceed 300,000 cells
can be difficult to view.

Simple Grids from Object Data


Use Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Create Simple to create simple grid models or
triangulations from displayed coordinate data such as points, lines and polygons. A
minimum of three data points are required to create a model.

Tutorial 22-2
1. Load the CONTOURS layer.
2. Click Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Create Simple.
3. On the Model Create dialog box, set the X and Y Mesh Size to 25.
4. Choose to Generate mesh from point Z elevations.
5. Enter topo.tp as the surface name. The grid resulting from this exercise has
the name thortopo.tpg where thor is the project prefix and g is the grid
suffix.
6. Accept all panel defaults.

Create Grids

191

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 22-2 (Continued)


7. Preserve strings and Points only options determine how points are
connected during triangulation. Preserve strings prohibits triangle facets from
crossing digitised strings. Points only connects points regardless of digitised
strings.

Figure 22-3 Preserve strings and Points only options


8. Regularise grid area to grid size ensures that the maximum and minimum
coordinates of the grid are multiples of the mesh size. Click OK.
9. When prompted define model extents.
10. Select By Layer and choose the CONTOURS layer.
11. Click Cancel on the Select By menu.
12. Confirm to create the Model.
13. Name the triangulation thortopo.00t. Click OK.

Interpolated Grids
Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Vulcan Grid Model creates grids with interpolation and
smoothing algorithms. This option uses mapfiles to create grids. If a mapfile does not
already exist, it must be created from a design or geological database.
The parameters of the grid (such as size and modelling method) are stored in a
specification file. The grids created from this specification have the standard grid file
name format.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : Model : Grid Mesh Surfaces : Vulcan Grid Model
Envisage : Geology : Drilling Utilities : Mapfile Build Macro

Create Grids from Triangulations


To create a simple grid from an existing triangulation:
1. Load a triangulation.
2. Click Model > Triangle Surface > Grid Mesh.

192

Chapter 22 Introduction to Grids

Figure 22-4 Grid parameters dialog box

Tip:

If more than one triangulation is loaded, select the desired triangulation to display
the Grid parameters dialog box.
3. Enter an X Mesh Size and Y Mesh Size and a Grid model name. Click OK.
4. When prompted, define the model extents. A grid of the triangulation is created.

Grid Masking
Each grid occupies the full rectangular area defined in the grid creation process, but the
whole grid may not be visible. In addition to each node having a Z value, it also has a
mask value, which can be set to 1 or 0. If it is set to 0, the node is invisible. If it is set to 1
the node is visible. This is useful if the grid is not valid over the entire defined extents. This
would be true if data was not available for the whole area, or there is uncertainty about
what happens geologically beyond some extent.
Note:

Masking or unmasking never affects Z values

Figure 22-5 Unmasked grid

Figure 22-6 Grid masked by polygon

Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Mask sets mask values based upon existing polygons.
Use Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Unmask to reset all mask values to 1.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : Model : Grid Mesh Surfaces : Mask

Grid Masking

193

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Colour and Contour Grids


Contour
Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Contour creates contour lines on a loaded grid.

Normal contouring displays each contour in 3D at its elevation value.


Fixed Contour Level displays contours at an entered elevation.
Drape with surface model displays a chosen Surface over the contoured grid.
For example, drape an ash grid over structure roof contours to reveal any
relationship between ash and seam level.
Intersection with surface displays a line at points where the grid model meets a
specified Surface model.

Four options are available for the contour colours. Existing colour legends are used for
default colour scheme and alternative colour scheme name. To select colours without
a legend choose manually entered colour scheme. To colour contours with a range,
choose selected colour sequence.

Tutorial 22-3
1. Open a design database and load thortopo.tpg. See Tutorial 22-2.
2. Click Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Contour.
3. Under Grid mesh model to be contoured, select TOPO.TP.
4. Select Normal then click OK.
5. Choose appropriate From, To and Interval values. Suggested values are 0.0,
600, and 25. Click OK.
6. Click Cancel when the Contour dialog box reappears.
7. Rotate to see how the contour lines conform to the grid.
8. Click File > Underlays > Remove to remove the contour strings.
9. Click Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Contour to save the design strings as a
layer. In addition to the previously selected options check Save design strings
and enter a layer name.

Colour
By default, grids are displayed with one colour. This can make it difficult to distinguish
trends in the grid model unless the model is rotated. Click Model > Grid Mesh Surface >
Drape to control grid colour based on Z values.
For further control of grid colours, click Analyse > Legend Edit > Create to specify colour
intervals on a CONTOUR legend.

194

Chapter 22 Introduction to Grids

Tutorial 22-4
1. Click Analyse > Legend Edit > Legend Editor. See Legends on page 115.
2. Create a CONTOUR legend with the colour ranges in Figure 22-7.

Figure 22-7 Colour ranges for contour legend


3. Right-click on thortopo.tpg and select Load.
4. Click Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Drape.
5. Enter ITSELF as the Drape mesh name. Drape with an alternative colour
scheme and select the legend created earlier in this tutorial.
6. Click OK to colour thortopo.tpg with the chosen legend.

Edit Nodes
Grid node values are generated through mathematical interpolation and extrapolation. If
desired values are not produced, it may be necessary to alter grid node values. Grid
nodes can be edited using one of the following options:

Edit Nodes

Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Node Edit modifies individual nodes.
Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Set Value alters multiple nodes inside or outside
a given polygon.
Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Patch option can copy values from an existing
grid into a second grid. To use this option the grids must have the same cell size
and extent.

195

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 22-5
1. Right-click on thortopo.tpg and select Load.
2. Click Design > Create > Layer and name the new layer NODE_POLY.
3. Click Design > Create > Polygon to draw a polygon around a portion of the
grid.

Figure 22-8 Node-defining polygon


4. Click Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Set Value.
5. Select the polygon and choose Set inside values.

Figure 22-9 Enter grid node calculation parameters


6. Select Relative to node and Enter grid mesh value of 50. Clear Clip grid
mesh to current window and click OK.
7. Click Save. Each of the nodes inside the polygon have shifted 50 units.

Figure 22-10 Updated grid nodes

196

Chapter 22 Introduction to Grids

Create a Mapfile from a Grid


Use Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Create Mapfile to generate either a mapfile or a
database that can be used for grade estimation.

Figure 22-11 Generate mapfiles or databases from grids


In addition to structure surface models, existing quality models can be selected.
Note:

If the mapfile or database is used for grade estimation, generate files from quality grids.

Export Grids
Grids can be exported into other formats including triangulations, points and .dxf.

Note:

Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > To Object converts grid mesh data that is
bounded by a polygon to points.
Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > Triangulate creates a triangulation from a loaded
grid model. Only visible nodes are exported to the triangulation.
File > Export > Export DXF exports grids to a DXF file.
File > Export > Export Grid exports grids to an ESRI ASCII grid file. This menu
option can be used to export numerous grids simultaneously.

ESRI 10.0 or later must be installed on the machine to export ESRI grids.

Create a Mapfile from a Grid

197

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Tutorial 22-6
1. Right-click on thortopo.tpg and select Load.
2. Click Design > Create > Layer and create a layer named EXPORT_POLY.
3. Draw a polygon inside the grid extents using Design > Create > Polygon.

Figure 22-12 Polygon inside grid extents


4. Click Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces > To Object.
5. Choose EXPORT_POLY and click OK.
6. When prompted, select the boundary polygon.
7. The nodes bounded by the polygon have been converted into point objects. To
view the points remove thortopo.tpg.

Introduction to Grid Calc


Grids can be the basis for powerful modelling options, especially in the application of Grid
Calc, Vulcans Grid Calculator Utility. The Grid Calc module offers significantly more
complex modelling and manipulation abilities than Model > Grid Mesh Surfaces.
Grid Calcs ability to perform arithmetic to build new grid models is its key functionality.
Grid Calc can also be driven with macros, which record and replay command sequences.
Note:

Grid Calc operates as a separate entity from other Envisage modules. It uses a memory
buffer to store and manipulate data. Grid Calc menu options must be used to control data
within the memory buffer.

Create a Specification File


Most Grid Calc modelling commands require that grids be the same size and extent. To
ensure this, a specification file must be produced. Click Grid Calc > Edit Modelling
Defaults > Create Grid Specifications to create a specification file. Specification files
are saved through Grid Calc > Edit Modelling Defaults > Save Grid Specifications.

198

Chapter 22 Introduction to Grids

Tutorial 22-7
1. Click File > New and create a design database named grids.
2. Click Grid Calc > Edit Modelling Defaults > Create Grid Specifications. If
this is the first time the Grid Calc module has been opened in the current
session of Vulcan the Access Specs dialog box is displayed. Click Cancel to
create a new specification file.
3. Name the model area all.
4. Click OK. The Grid Area Specs dialog box is displayed.

Figure 22-13 Grid Calc Specification


5. Fill in the coordinates for the grid extents as shown. The grid extents must be
divisible by the grid cell size. Click OK.
6. Click Grid Calc > Edit Modelling Defaults > Save Grid Specifications.

Load Data
As Grid Calc operates within its own buffer, data must be loaded into the buffer using
options in Grid Calc > Data or Grid Calc > Grids. Design data, triangulations, mapfiles,
and grids can all be loaded into Grid Calc.

Tutorial 22-8
1. Open thorgrids.dgd.isis.
2. Click Grid Calc > Grids > Load/Calculate Grid.
3. Select topo.tp from the drop-down list. Click OK.
The grid has been loaded in Grid Calc, but it must be displayed before it becomes
visible.

Introduction to Grid Calc

199

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Display Loaded Data


Click Grid Calc > Display to display data that has been loaded. Click Grid Calc >
Display > Remove Underlay to remove data from Envisage.

Tutorial 22-9
1. Click Grid Calc > Display > Static Display Grid.
2. Z Mapping options allow grids to be displayed using a combination of
exaggeration and offset. Display Z= 1 x Grid Value + 0 yields a display of real
world Z values. Display Z= 1 x Grid Value + 100 yields a grid display offset in
the Z direction by 100 units.

Figure 22-14 Z mapping display options


3. Accept panel defaults and click OK to display thortopo.tpg.

Grid Calc Preferences


Click Grid Calc > Display > Preferences to set default display preferences to
automatically display loaded data. Click Grid Calc > Edit Modelling Defaults > Save
Grid Specifications to save preferences so they do not need to be reset with each new
session of Grid Calc.

Model Data
Use Grid Calc > Model > Grid Model to model data loaded into Grid Calcs buffer.
Numerous modelling methods can be used, including triangulation, inverse distance, and
kriging. Custom modelling methods may also be defined and applied.
Click Grid Calc > Grids > Save Grid to save new models.
If grids are created through Grid Calc, existence polygons used to mask grid nodes are
automatically created.

200

Chapter 22 Introduction to Grids

Tutorial 22-10
1. Click Grid Calc > Grids > Close All Grids to remove any loaded grids from the
Grid Calc buffer.
2. Click Grid Calc > Data > Clear Data to remove any loaded data from the Grid
Calc Buffer.
3. Open thordesign.dgd.isis.
4. Click Grid Calc Edit Modelling Default > Access Grid Specification. Choose
the all specification and click OK.
5. Click Grid Calc > Data > Load Design.
6. Complete the Source tab as shown to select the CONTOURS layer. from
thordesign.dgd.isis.

Figure 22-15 Load CONTOURS into Grid Calc


Click OK.
7. Click Grid Calc > Model > Grid Model.
8. Select Triangulation and click OK.
9. Leave all tabs set at the default values and click OK.
10. Click Grid Calc > Grids > Save Grid. Name the grid file contours.tp. Click
OK.

Introduction to Grid Calc

201

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Grid Arithmetic
Grid Calc > Grids > Load/Calculate Grid can also be used to perform grid arithmetic.
Simple (+,-,*,/) or complex functions may be performed.

Tutorial 22-11
1. Click Grid Calc > Grids > Close All Grids to remove any loaded grids from the
Grid Calc buffer.
2. Click Grid Calc > Data > Clear Data to remove any loaded data from the Grid
Calc Buffer.
3. Click Grid Calc > Grids > Load/Calculate Grid.
4. Select a contours.tp from the drop down list, and enter -150 after the grid
name. Click OK.

Figure 22-16 Reduce contour grid elevation


This creates a new grid where all the nodes in thorcontours.tpg have been
shifted in the negative direction by 150 units.
5. Click Grid Calc > Grids > Save Grid and name the new grid contlow.tp.

Contour
Click Grid Calc > Contour and Limit Generation > Contour to contour grid models. The
contour lines generated using this menu are closed and can be to mask grids or define
reserve limits.

Tutorial 22-12
1. Click Grid Calc > Grids > Close All Grids to remove any loaded grids from the
Grid Calc buffer.
2. Click Grid Calc > Data > Clear Data to remove any loaded data from the Grid
Calc Buffer.
3. Open thorgrids.dgd.isis.
4. Click Grid Calc > Grids > Load/Calculate Grid and select contours.tp from
the drop down list. Click OK.
5. Click Grid Calc > Contour and Limit Generation > Contour.
6. On the Levels tab, select Range Selection. Enter From 0.0, To 700.0 and
an Interval of 25.0.
7. On the Save tab, check Save to database. Select grids as the Database
name, and enter CONTOUR as the Layer.
8. On the Advanced tab, select Less than. Click OK.
9. Several layers containing contours are generated in thorgrids.dgd.isis.

202

Chapter 22 Introduction to Grids

Macros
Macros record and replay a series of command sequences to make future model
reproduction easy.
All commands used while navigating Grid Calc are automatically saved in a file named
replay.gdc_cmnd. The..gdc_cmnd file is overwritten with each new session of Grid
Calc. To save commands in replay.gdc_cmnd click Grid Calc > Macros > Save
Macro and enter a new file name. To use a saved macro, click Grid Calc > Macros >
Invoke Macro.

Introduction to Grid Calc

203

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

204

Chapter 22 Introduction to Grids

Data Organisation
.TRI Folders
Vulcan recognises .00t files as triangulations and places them into the
Triangulations folder in Vulcan Explorer. Over time, the list of triangulations in the
folder can become quite large. Place .00t files into folders named with a .tri extension
to organise files.
Vulcan explorer recognizes subfolders inside .tri folders without a .tri extension. To
create the .tri folder, right-click the Triangulations folder in Vulcan Explorer and
select Create Directory.

Tutorial 23-1
Move all PIT1_<elevation>.00t files into a .tri folder named bench.tri.

Remote Directories
Remote directories are typically used to display data in Vulcan Explorer which is in a
location other than the working directory. However, the option may be used to access data
contained in subfolders in the current working directory.
1. Click Tools > Preferences > Workbench > Vulcan Explorer.
2. In the Remote Directory column, left-click in the blank cell. Click the ellipsis button
to browse to the desired data.

.TRI Folders

205

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

3. Enter a Display Name, to label the remote directory folder in Vulcan Explorer. If a
display name is not entered, Vulcan applies the full file path name as the folder
name in Vulcan Explorer.
4. The various check boxes determine which Vulcan files are listed in Vulcan
Explorer. Multiple remote directories can be added in subsequent rows. When
finished adding the required directories, click OK.
The location of remote directory folders in Vulcan Explorer corresponds to the type of data
chosen for display in Tools > Preferences. Files an be loaded directly from Vulcan
Explorer into Envisage.

Figure 23-1 Establish Remote Directories

Note:

If colour schemes in the .scd file differ from the schemes in the remote directory,
drillholes and block model blocks may display differently, or not at all.

Caution:

Load screen files or lava scripts which call for data using a file path which differs from that
specified by the remote directory may malfunction.

When a folder has been set up as a remote directory, it should appear in Vulcan Explorer
under each folder which contains the file types selected. Files may be used as if they
existed in the current working directory.

Network Structure
If more than one person is working in the same data area, it is useful to create a master
and a working directory. The master is the final data set whereas draft data is stored in a
working directory.

206

Chapter 23 Data Organisation

To create multiple directories on a network, file management and administration privileges


are necessary.
An example of how to set up multiple directories on a network:
1. In a place accessible to all Vulcan users, create a new folder named Vulcan.
2. Inside the Vulcan folder, create four subfolders named Master, Geology,
Survey, and Engineering.
3. The Master folder contains final data, which is the best representation of the
mine.

Create four master subfolders, Geology, Engineering, Survey, and


Documentation.
Ensure each master subfolder is set to read-only for anyone that is not in
the corresponding department. For example: Geologists can view and write
data to the Geology master subfolder, but have read-only access to the
Engineering folder.
The Documentation folder should hold procedural information such as
model update details.
Add clean, accurate, verified data to each departments subfolder. As this
represents a master data set, it should not include duplicate data.
Data in the Master folder should not be edited directly in the folder. It
should be copied to a working folder, edited, then copied back to the
Master folder.

4. Geology, Survey, and Engineering are Working Folders. Each folder contains
subfolders named for the employees in that department. For example, if there are
three engineering employees using Vulcan, there should be three subfolders in the
Engineering folder.

Data can be copied from the Master folder into Working Folders as
needed.
Each folder should contain a project .dg1 file. If the deposit is
stratigraphic, also copy the gdc_glob and gdc_spec files.
If corporate standards are not being used, other useful files include the
.scd Colour Scheme file and the .ftd Feature Code file.

Access Master Data


Each users Vulcan workspace requires remote directory configuration to access the
master data. See Remote Directories on page 205.

Post Data to a Master Folder


There are two methods for posting or saving data to a master folder.

Network Structure

Copy files from a working directory into a master folder using Windows.
Use File > Save Layer To to save loaded layers directly to a closed design
database which exists in any directory.

207

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

a. Click File > Save Layer To.

Figure 23-2 Choose close design database folder.

Use environment variable - Use for environment variables that point to


the data area. Type the environment variable. Make sure to add a forward
slash (/) to the end of the environment name.
Use absolute/relative path - Select this option to specify the path (relative
or full) to the data area.
Filter by project code - Tick this box if you want to list all of the design
databases that have the same project code as your project file (.dg1).
Load when starting Vulcan - Tick this box if you want to force Envisage to
start with the chosen design file. It is also possible to specify a design file to
open when Envisage starts by editing the project file.
Click OK.

Figure 23-3 Design Files dialog box


All design database files found within the specified data area are listed. An
arrow will be used to indicate the currently open design database.
b. Left-click on the required design database and click OK.
c. All loaded layers are displayed. Left-click on the required layer and select
OK.
You use the Pattern field, the Apply Pattern button, and wildcards (*
multi-character and ? single character) to highlight the layers that begin or
end with certain characters.
If you wanted to highlight all layers that begin with S, then type S* into the
pattern field and click the Apply Pattern button. Once selected, all
matching layers are highlighted.
After the desired layer has been chosen, you may be required to confirm
that you wish to overwrite its contents.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : File : Save Layer To

208

Chapter 23 Data Organisation

Figure 23-4 Vulcan Explorer with Remote Directories

Network Structure

209

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

210

Chapter 23 Data Organisation

Plotting
Plot All Wizard
File > Plot > Plot All Wizard creates professional plots quickly and easily. The wizard
plots data loaded in Envisage.

Specify Filenames
Enter a Plot filename and optional Specification filename.

Plot All Wizard plot files have a .vpgz file extension.


Check Create or Load specification file to save the plotting specifications.
Specifications allow for easy reproduction of existing plots.
Plot All Wizard specification files have a .pasf file extension.

Figure 24-1 Specify plot and specification names

Caution:

The panel remembers the most recent plot filename entered during the current Vulcan
session. To avoid accidentally overwriting an existing plot file, change the file name each
time a plot is generated. No warning is given before overwriting a file.

Note:

If an existing specification file is chosen, the Specification File panel appears.

Plot All Wizard

Select Edit specifications to change the existing specifications before using them
to create a plot.
Select Run to quickly regenerate any plot using the saved specifications.

211

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Specify Plot Format

Figure 24-2 Define basic plot format

Use Default Template: Uses a dynamic template which will work for any paper
size in either landscape or portrait. If the default template does not meet the
required plotting needs, a drafting sheet should be used.
Use Drafting Sheet: Picks a drafting sheet from a drafting sheet database
(drafting.dgd.isis) located in the Resources folder. Vulcan provides
several drafting sheets, but customised drafting sheets may be created through
options in File > Drafting Sheets.
The Plot Render Method controls how different data types appear in the resulting
plot.

Note:

If Render non-CAD data is chosen, underlays will not show up on plots


altered with File > Plot Edit.

Tip:

212

Render plot elements by a pre-defined type sequence generates design


data on the plot according to a hard-coded sequence.
Render plot elements in their CAD sequence generates design data on
the plot in the order in which it was loaded into Envisage.
Check Render non-CAD data to draw underlays, such as triangulations,
before CAD data in the plot. This results in CAD data plotting on top of
underlays.

Render as WYSIWYG plot generates a What You See Is What You Get
plot, which is a screen capture of loaded data. Data elevations and
positions in space are honoured.
If WYSIWYG plotting causes Vulcan to crash, click Tools > Preferences >
Envisage > Video Capture and check Use software rendering for single
frame and WYSIWYG capturing to change how the graphics card and
drivers are used.

Chapter 24 Plotting

Note:

WYSIWYG plots cannot be altered using File > Plot Edit functionality.

Note:

Image resolution should be between 100 and 300. Resolutions greater


than 300 create large plot files without any improvement in plot
appearance.
Drillholes are rendered as CAD data unless a triangulation is plotted.
Drillhole traces will plot under triangulations at intersection locations.

Default Template

Figure 24-3 Define default template sheet size and orientation

Choose the required Sheet Size from the drop down list. If the required sheet size
is not available, a Custom size may be specified.
The printer selection automatically populates margin values. It is not advisable to
change the margin values.
Select Landscape or Portrait to control plot orientation.

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : File : Plot : Plot All Wizard : Using a Default Template

Drafting Sheet
Plotting with a drafting sheet eliminates the need to define plot attributes via plotting
panels or as design data loaded in Envisage layers. Plot aspects such as borders, data
location and scale bar location are hard-coded into the drafting sheet. Custom logos and
text can also be included.
Select Use Drafting Sheet and choose an appropriate Drafting sheet from the drop
down list.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : File : Plot : Plot All Wizard : Using an Existing Drafting Sheet

Plot All Wizard

213

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Title Blocks
There are two ways to access the Title Block panel:

Use Default Temple was selected and the Title block and border option was
enabled.
The selected Drafting sheet has a title block and fields defined.

Figure 24-4 Title Block Values


Enter appropriate values for each field name listed.
Variables can be used to automatically plot values such as todays date, average
elevation or scale. Enter a variable name as the Field Value. Plotting variables are case
sensitive.
For details see related help topic(s):
Envisage : File : Plot : Plot All Wizard : Using a Default Template
Envisage : File : Plot : Plot All Wizard : Using an Existing Drafting Sheet

Plot Grids

Figure 24-5 Specify grid and grid annotation attributes

214

Plot Grid (XYZ) Annotation: Annotates plot edge with X, Y or Z values at defined
spacing. Grid lines can be plotted as complete lines or as crosses at grid line
intersections.
Draw Dynamic Grid: Plots the grid displayed in Envisage.

Chapter 24 Plotting

No Plot Grid Annotation: No grid appears in resulting plot.

Plot Scale

Figure 24-6 Plot scale control

There are two options for setting the scale:

Tip:

Plotter units set upon install can be changed in Tools >


Preferences > Envisage > Miscellaneous under Plot All Scale
Factor Input Style.

Note:

The extent rectangle represents the selected template or drafting sheets data
area. Resizing the rectangle will not alter the page size, but rather the scale of the
plot. The scale is displayed in the lower left corner of the extents rectangle.

Check Remember extent settings to store selected plot extents.

Plot All Wizard

Allow dynamic scale adjustment allows for interactive extent control. Plot
scale will vary dynamically as the size of the extent box alters.
Manual scale adjustment is used when a set scale is desired. The size of
the extent box will not change, so the entered scale is preserved. There are
two acceptable formats for scale entries:
- Enter a ratio such as 1:1500. This indicates that one plotter unit
equals 1500 real-world units. If plotting with imperial units, this ratio
needs to be entered as inches. For example, if 1 inch equals 100
feet, then the ratio entered would be 1:1200.
- Enter a whole number such as 100. This means that 1 plotter unit
equals 100 real-world units. If plotting with imperial units, the
number entered will be converted to an inches ratio. For example, if
200 is entered, then the ratio which will automatically appear in the
box will be 1:2400.

If creating a specification file, extents are stored in the .pasf file.


If not creating a specification file, extents will be remembered for the
current Envisage session.

Click Digitise Origin to indicate the location of the lower left-hand corner of the
plot in Envisage.
Click Adjust Extents to adjust the plotting extents box displayed in Envisage.
Click and drag any edge to move the box. If Allow dynamic scale adjustment
was selected, click and drag any corner to adjust the size of the box.

215

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Figure 24-7 Plotting extents box elements and control

Tutorial 24-1
Create a simple plot using File > Plot > Plot All Wizard.
1. Load the CONTOURS layer and tq1.00t.
2. Reset the view to Plan view.
3. Click File > Plot > Plot All Wizard.
4. Name the plot plot1.
5. Create a specification file named plot1spec. Click Next.
6. Select Use Default Template and select Title block and border, North point
and Bar scale.
7. Select Render as WYSIWYG plot. Leave resolution at 300 and select Use
alternative colour set for the plot. Click Next.
8. Accept all the defaults for page and printer selection. If you wish you may select
an alternative printer.
9. Fill in a Title for the plot in the Title Block panel. Click Next.
10. Choose to plot a 50 x 50 grid. Select Draw Grid with crosses. Click Next.
11. Select Allow dynamic scale adjustment. Indicate an origin, and adjust the
plot extents to contain desired data.
12. Click Finish.

216

Chapter 24 Plotting

Plot Utility
The Plot Utility is a separate program in Vulcan which can open concurrently with other
Vulcan programs such as Envisage or Isis. To open Plot Utility, either double-click on any
plot file or click on the Vulcan Start button and click Plotting Utility.

Figure 24-8 Application bar and Vulcan Start

Figure 24-9 Plot Utility Interface


Plot Utility has its own specialised toolbars.
Use Printer Controls to choose a printer, paper size, or paper orientation. A white sheet
box displays to represent the selected sheet size and orientation.

Figure 24-10 Printer Controls toolbar

Plot Utility

217

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

The Plot Utility Application toolbar includes options to print a plot, setup the printer,
examine plot file properties, and change viewing modes.

Figure 24-11 Plot Utility Application toolbar


The plotter can also be changed via File > Page Setup.
Use the Page Drag Mode icon on the Plot Utility Application toolbar to drag the white,
page size preview box. If the plot file is too large for the page size, the printer, page size,
and orientation of the paper will need to be changed. Ensure there is ample room for
margins as well.
Click the Print Vulcan Plotfile printer icon or File > Print to send the plot to the printer. If
the plot was larger than the paper in the plot utility, check Fit to Page on the Print dialog
box. This will scale the plot to the page size selected.
Note:

Fit to Page will change the plot scale. This means that any scale bar displayed on the plot
is no longer accurate.

Figure 24-12 Fit to Page option

Tutorial 24-2
1. Load the BOUNDARY layer, warehouse.00t, and topo_contours.00t.
2. Create an 11X17 plot showing the data.
3. Name the plot Facilities1.vpgz.

218

Chapter 24 Plotting

Presentation
There are multiple ways to present data electronically.

Save a Screen dump to capture still images.


Record a video to produce an Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) file.
Export to NGRAIN to imbed 3D interactive images into Microsoft Office products
or a Printer Data File (.pdf).

Screen Dumps
Left-click the Screen Dump icon on the Graphics toolbar to access Screen Dump options.

Figure 25-1 Graphics toolbar - Screen Dump icon

Figure 25-2 Screen Dump toolbar


Screen Dump only represents data displayed in Envisages Primary Window. Data can be
saved to the following outputs:

Screen Dumps

.png Portable Network Graphics is a bit mapped image format.


.jpg Commonly used standard method to compress photographic images.
.bmp Bit mapped graphics format used by Microsoft Windows. BMP files are
usually not compressed, so they are much larger than corresponding compressed
image files.
.rgb Image has three channels: red, green and blue. RGB files are used in
computer display and image scanners.
.ireg Vulcan image registration file both an image (.jpg) and ireg file are
captured. These can then be image textured onto a triangulation.

219

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Select the drop-down list to name the screen dump and define an output format.

Figure 25-3 Screen Dump - file outputs


Images can also be saved in different resolutions as indicated in the drop-down list box.

Figure 25-4 Screen Dump resolution size

Tip:

Resolutions at Screen and higher are preferred where the screen captures are
used for printing at large scales, such as posters.
1024 x 768 is the resolution of many projectors.
Smaller resolutions are suitable for use in reports.
When using numerical resolutions, a blue box appears showing the extent at the
resolution chosen.

To remove the blue extents box from Envisage, set the resolution back to Screen.
To save a screen dump to a file in the current working directory, click Save. Use Copy To
Clipboard to copy screen dump contents to the Windows clipboard.

Copy To Clipboard

Save

Figure 25-5 Save or Copy data


Screen dumps can be pasted into other software, such as Microsoft Word.

Tutorial 25-1
1. Load topo_contours.00t and drillholes with gold grade (Geology > Drilling
> Load Drillholes).
2. Rotate the view so both the drillholes and topography are visible.
3. Use Screen Dump to create an image with 320 x 280 resolution named
drill.jpg.
4. View drill.jpg in Windows.
Remember to reset the resolution back Screen.

220

Chapter 25 Presentation

AVI Video
Videos of data loaded in Envisage are easily created in Vulcan.
Tip:

Audio video files can become large very quickly.

Note:

The speed at which the objects move during the recording process is not the playback
speed. Playback is much faster.
1. On the Screen Dump toolbar, save the image as an AVI format. A new AVI file
name can also be entered manually.
2. Choose the desired video resolution.
3. Click the Save Screen Dump icon to begin saving a file.
4. Click the Enable recording AVI icon to start recording.

Enable recording AVI will capture one frame each time the view changes.
Click the [D] key to add single frames to the file.
Deselect the Enable recording AVI icon to pause recording.
Save Screen Dump

Enable recording AVI

Figure 25-6 Create video from Screen Dump toolbar


5. Deselect Enable recording AVI and then the Save Screen Dump icon to stop
recording and save the final file. The file will be closed, which is necessary before
viewing the file externally.

Tutorial 25-2
1. Load topo_contours.00t and drillholes with gold grade (Geology > Drilling
> Load Drillholes).
2. Left-click the Screen Dump icon and open the Screen Dump toolbar.
3. Create a new audio video file named drill.avi.
4. Set the screen resolution and click Save Screen Dump.
5. Click the Enable recording AVI icon.
6. Select a rotate mode and free rotate the data.
7. Load tq1.00t.
8. Zoom in on the tq1 ore body while in free rotate mode.
9. Deselect the Enable recording AVI and the Save Screen Dump icon to stop
recording.

AVI Video

221

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

NGRAIN
NGRAIN is an interactive 3D viewer that can be embedded in electronic documents such
as Microsoft Word and PowerPoint. Design data, triangulations, grids, and block models
can be exported to the NGRAIN format. Anyone can download a free NGRAIN viewer.
NGRAIN provides the opportunity to view and rotate 3D data in space without having a
Vulcan licence or Vulcan software.

Export Data to NGRAIN


If exporting design data, triangulations or grids, Vulcan prompts for triangulations or grids
to export. If only one grid or triangulation is loaded, Vulcan automatically selects the
loaded triangulation or grid.
1. Click File > Export.
2. Select Ngrain and the File Type then click OK.

Figure 25-7 Export NGRAIN files


3. Select the File Type and individual files to export. Click OK.

Figure 25-8 Select export file type and files to export.

222

Chapter 25 Presentation

4. When all desired data are selected, click OK.


5. Enter the name of the NGRAIN file, which stores exported data. Enter a resolution
or control resolution with the slider bar. Click OK.

Figure 25-9 Enter Ngrain file name and resolution


6. Click OK when the Export successful message is displayed.
7. Click Cancel to exit the Export panel.

Note:

To export a selection of blocks in a block model, use standard block model conditions.

For details see related help topic(s):


Envisage : File : Export : Export Data to Ngrain : Block Model

Insert and View NGRAIN Models


Download NGRAIN Viewer
To use an NGRAIN model, download and install the latest viewer and plug-ins from the
internet. The NGRAIN viewer appears in the Windows Start menu under NGRAIN. It can
be used to view and manipulate NGRAIN models at any time.

Set up Word or PowerPoint


Once an NGRAIN viewer and plug-ins are installed, enable ActiveX controls and ensure
macros run within Microsoft Word or Microsoft PowerPoint.
1. In Word 2007, click the Office button.
2. Click Word Options or PowerPoint Options.
3. Select Trust Center.
4. Click Trust Center Settings. In the Macro Settings section, select Enable all
macros. Click OK.
5. Select Popular in the Word Options dialog box. Check Show Developer tab in
the Ribbon. Click OK.
6. Click the Developer tab. In the Controls group, click Legacy Tools. Select More
Controls.
Select NGRAIN Mobilizer from the list.

NGRAIN

223

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

Developer tab

Controls
group

Legacy
Tools

More Controls

Figure 25-10 Set up Microsoft Office to interact with NGRAIN files

Inserting an NGRAIN file into Word or PowerPoint


1. In the Add-Ins tab, click NGRAIN 3KO

2. Browse and select the desired .3ko file. Choose to embed or link to it.
3. In the Developer tab click Design Mode to view the NGRAIN model. Manipulate
the model in the viewer.
Tip:

To change the viewer size:


1. Disable Design Mode.
2. Resize the box.
3. Enable Design Mode again.

Figure 25-11 Example of NGRAIN model


Each person who views a document with an NGRAIN insert needs to download and install
the NGRAIN viewer.

Tutorial 25-3
Export topo.00t to an NGRAIN file and insert the file into a Word document.

224

Chapter 25 Presentation

VRML
Export Data to VRML exports block models, design data, grids, and triangulations to a
.wrz (compressed) or .wrl (uncompressed) file. Once exported, the resulting file can be
viewed with a VRML viewer. Use a VRML plug-in to insert the file into a variety of
applications such as Microsoft Word or Powerpoint, or a website.

Export Data to VRML


If exporting design data, triangulations or grids, Vulcan prompts for triangulations or grids
to export. If only one grid or triangulation is loaded, Vulcan automatically selects the
loaded triangulation or grid.
1. Click File > Export.
2. Select VRML and the File Type. Click OK.
3. Select the File Type and individual files to export. Click OK.
4. When all desired items are selected, click OK.

Figure 25-12 Enter VRML name and choose file type


5. Enter the name of the VRML file which stores exported data. Select Compressed
or ASCII (uncompressed). Click OK.

Insert and View VRML Models


1. Download and install a VRML viewer.
For demonstration purposes, the Cortona 3D Viewer(TM) is used in the following
instructions. Cortona 3D Viewer is a VRML plug-in for popular Internet browsers
(e.g. Internet Explorer or Firefox) and office applications (e.g. Microsoft
PowerPoint or Microsoft Word).
2. Open the VRML file exported from Vulcan. It is automatically loaded in the browser
selected when Cortona 3D Viewer was installed.

VRML

225

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

226

Chapter 25 Presentation

Index
Symbols

.TRI Folders, 205

CAD
create arcs, circles, 46
create points, lines, polygons,

Numerics
2D Filter with a Minimum deviation,

68
2D Text, 54
3D Text, 55

A
About this manual, iii
acQuire, 104
connection, 32-bit, 104
connection, 64-bit, 105
connection, Isis, 107
Align view, 41
Align View With Current Slicing
Plane, 43
All located invisible, 141
Along Record Checks, 131
Analyse, 87
Analyse menu, 57
Angle Input, 51
anticlockwise, iv
application bar, 21
Area, 88, 175
arrow, 47
ASCII
export, 85
import, 84
At specified screen angle, 51
attributes
changing, 78
data, 77
features, 79
reporting, 77
triangle, 148
AutoCAD
export, 84
import, 84
AVI, 221

B
Bearing Input, 50
boolean, 169
borrow
licence, 8
MAPTEK_BORROW, 8
boundary tab, 154

Index

46
Centroid, 89
check, iv
solid, 177
surface, 177
triangulation, 177
triangulation stability, 178
Check Drillholes, 139
choose, iv
clear, iv
click, iv
Client windows
see also window, 18
Clip, 43
Clip Translucent Solids, 43
close
solid, 178
Coalesce, 88
Collar Checks, 130
colour
custom, 27
grid, 194
label, 57
Colour Table, 27
condition tab, 156
context menu, iv
contour
grid, 194
Grid Calc, 202
conventions used, iii
Coordinate, 87
Corporate Standards, 6
counterclockwise, iv
create
grid, 191
shells, 172
solid, 161, 166, 169
surface, 153, 157
triangulation, 153, 157, 166,
169, 172, 173
Create Line At Given Angle, 51
Create Point, 49
Create Section View, 40
crossing triangles
delete, 180
solid, 180
surface, 180
custom
primitives, 185

Custom Cursor, 48
customising, 24
colours, 27
context menus, 27
cursor, 48
favourites, 26
keyboard shortcut, 26
preferences, 24
toolbar, 25
cut
solid, 180
surface, 180
cut and fill volume, 176

D
data
attributes, 77
display, 200
import using Envisage, 95
import using Isis, 98
load, 33, 199
modelling, 200
moving, 74
post, 207
remove, 33
save, 207
structure, 15
data tab, 154
database
accessing, 111
along record check, 131
collar check, 130
create ODBC, 99
delete objects, 126
design, 15, 91
design file, 92
downhole check, 130
edit existing values, 125
edit structure, 123
export, 132
field calculations, 128
file, 91
find values, 127
headered, 123
index, 91
individual field check, 131
insert objects, 126
key field, 94
lock, 29
multiple windows, 113
notebook, 112
overview, 91

227

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

primary key, 94
recovery, 29
repair, 30
report, 131
restore, 31
update, 134
validation, 129
Vulcan Explorer, 112
Database Record Definition, 137
default template, 213
delete crossing triangles, 180
design
database, 15
new, 92
Design menu, 63
Design toolbar, 45
dialog box
see Panel
Digitise toolbar, 47, 49
Digitise Tools, 49
directory, iv
see also folder
HOME, 4
multiple user, 206
TEMP, 4
TMP, 4
Display, 43
display data, 200
Display simple contours, 149
Distance Along Line, 88
Distance Between Points, 87
Docked windows
see also window, 18
Downhole Checks, 130
drafting sheet, 213
Drag, 75
Drape, 194
Draw as wireframe, 148
Draw wireframe mesh over
surface, 149
drillhole, 139
check, 139
extract to CSV or database, 141
label, 120
load, 118
locate, 140
set visibility, 141
drilling
Database Record Definition,

137
Horizon Lists, 138
dynamic arrays, 11

228

edit
database existing values, 125
database structure, 123
Editing Tools, 63
end plate, 167
Ensure triangulation is not striped,

favourites, 26
feature, 16, 79
field
calculations, 128
connections, 96
edit, 125
file
scheme, 27, 115
window, 39
file extension
plot all wizard file, 211
plot all wizard specification, 211
Fill triangles with pattern, 149
Filter, 67
Fit Layer, 39
FLEXnet, 8
floating licence, 7
Floating windows
see also window, 18
folder, iv
.TRI, 205
see also directory
corporate standards, 6
master, 207
saving data, 207
font
fixed, 54
scaled, 54
True Type, 54
vector, 54
fonts, 54
Free snap mode, 47
Full, 89

149
environment variable, 3, 4
ENVIS_RESO, 4
HOME, 4
TEMP, 4
TMP, 4
ENVIS_RESO, 4
ESRI
export, 86
import, 86
Exercise, 2, 3, 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 23,
30, 32, 34, 36, 37, 38, 42,
43, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53,
54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 61, 64,
66, 68, 70, 72, 73, 75, 78,
79, 81, 82, 85, 88, 89, 92,
93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99,
102, 107, 109, 110, 111,
113, 114, 117, 118, 119,
120, 121, 122, 124, 126,
131, 134, 135, 137, 141,
142, 148, 151, 164, 166,
167, 168, 171, 172, 173,
174, 175, 176, 178, 179,
180, 181, 185, 186, 187,
191, 194, 195, 196, 198,
199, 200, 201, 202, 205,
216, 218, 220, 221, 224
see also Tutorial
exercise, 157, 160, 166, 172, 188
export, 83
ASCII, 85, 133
AutoCAD, 84
data, 132
database, 132
ESRI, 86
grid, 197
NGRAIN, 222, 223
shape file, 86
tables, 133
VRML, 225
extents, 14

G
Get Point, 49
grade
changing, 66
graphics cards, 2
Graphics toolbar, 219
grid
colour, 194
contour, 194
create Mapfile, 197
creating, 191
export, 197
file extensions, 190
from object data, 191
from triangulations, 192
interpolated, 192
load, 190

Index

masking, 193
mesh surfaces, 189
node editing, 195
plot, 214
quality, 189
remove, 190
specification, 198
structure, 189
Grid Calc, 198
arithmetic, 202
contour, 202
display data, 200
load data, 199
macros, 203
model, 200
preferences, 200
Grid Calculator Utility, 198
grid mesh, 158
group, 16, 78
guidelines
repair, 181

H
Help, 32
Hidden windows
see window
Highlight Intersections, 43
HOME
directory, 4
Horizon List, 138

I
image registration, 158, 160
import, 83
ASCII, 84
AutoCAD, 84
data using Envisage, 95
data using Isis, 98
ESRI, 86
shape file, 86
Indicate, 47
Individual Field Checks, 131
insert
NGRAIN, 223
VRML, 225
installation, 5

K
key field, 93, 94
Key In Point Data, 49

Index

L
label
colour, 57
drillhole, 120
object, 60
point, 58
Label On, 120
Last located invisible, 141
layer, 15
Layer Edit menu, 63
legend, 115
contour, 194
drill, 116
new, 116
scale, 121
scheme, 115
Legend Editor, 116
licence
borrow, 8
floating, 7
node-locked, 7
licencing, 7
List, 89
LM Tools, 8
load
data, 33
drillhole, 118
grid, 190
triangulation, 147
lock
database, 29
green, 29
orange, 29
red, 30

M
macro
Grid Calc, 203
main menu, 18
map object, 185
Mapfile
create from grid, 197
overview, 142
MAPTEK_BORROW, 8
memory settings, 11
menu, iv
Analyse, 57
context, custom, 27
Design, 45, 63
Layer Edit, 63
Object Edit, 64
Point Edit, 69
Point Insert, 71
Polygon Edit, 72
Select By, 58
Start, 21
mode

Free snap, 47
Indicate, 47
Snap to Grid, 48
Snap to Objects, 48
Snap to Points, 48
Move Slicing Plane, 43
Moving Data, 74
Multi Label On, 120

N
navigation pane, iv
Nearly, 178
network structure, 206
NGRAIN, 222
export block models, 223
export design data,
triangulations, grids, 222
insert, 223
view, 223
No Clipping, 42, 43
Node Edit, 195
nodelocked, 7
nominate, iv

O
object, 15
Object Edit menu, 64
Object Label, 60
Object Label to Text, 61
ODBC
create database, 99
design file, 123
link in DSF, 102
link to Microsoft Access, 99
option, iv
options, iv
Ortho Rotation, 36
Ortho Sphere Rotation, 36
Overview Window, 37
Own windows
see also window, 18

P
Pack & Go, 8
pan, 35
Pane, iv
Panel, iv
see also Subpanel
see also Tab
Parallel to given line in 3D, 51
Parallel to given line on screen, 51
Perpendicular to given line on
screen, 51
Perspective View, 37

229

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

pick, iv
Plot
format, 212
Title Block, 214
plot
default template, 213
drafting sheet, 213
grid, 214
scale, 215
scale units, 12
Plot All Wizard, 211
Plot Utility Application toolbar, 218
Plotting, 211
Plotting Utility, 217
point, 15
change Z value, 70
move, 70
Point Edit menu, 69
Point Insert menu, 71
Point Labels, 58
Point Labels to Text, 59
Polygon Area, 88
Polygon Edit menu, 72
post data, 207
preferences, 24
grid calc, 200
plotter units, 215
rotation, 36
Vulcan Explorer, 205
primary key, 94
primitives
apply, 183
custom, 185
map object, 185
tools, 187
visibility, 187
Printer Controls toolbar, 217
project
coordinate extents, 14
details, 13
properties
section view, 43
triangle, 148

R
register
image, 158, 160
object, 65
registration, 158, 160
relimit, 173
remove
data, 33
grid, 190
triangulation, 148
repair
guidelines, 181
quick, 178

230

Replace String, 71
Report, 131
Requirements, 1
restrictions
administrative, 207
right-click menu, iv
rotate, 36

S
Save and Run, 131
scale
adjustment, 215
plot, 215
units, 12
scheme
files, 27, 115
spectrum, 150
Screen Dump, 219
Screen Dump toolbar, 219
video, 221
section view, 40
Section View Properties, 43
select, iv
Select By menu, 58
Service packs, 7
Set View, 39
Set Visibility of Located, 141
setup, 12
shading, 148
shape file
export, 86
import, 86
shells
create, 172
shortcut
custom, 26
keyboard, 26
shortcut menu, iv
Slice Backwards, 43
Slice Forward, 43
Slice toolbar, 43
Smooth shading, 149
snap modes, 47
Snap to Grid, 48
Snap to Objects, 48
Snap to Points, 48
solid
boolean, 169
check, 177
close, 178
create, 161, 166, 169
menu, 163
shells, 172
crossing triangles, 180
cut, 180
end plate, 167

relimit, 173
shells, 172
split, 179
volumes, 175
Solid shade triangulation, 148
specification
grid, 198
Plot All Wizard, 211
system, 2
split
solid, 179
Splits List, 139
spur strings, 157
spurs tab, 156
SQL
connection, 32-bit, 104
connection, 64-bit, 105
standard shapes
see also primitives
Start menu, 21
starting Vulcan, 10
status bar, 21
Strike/Dip, 89
string
replace, 71
Subpanel, iv
see also Panel
see also Tab
surface
boolean, 169
check, 177
create, 153, 157
crossing triangles, 180
cut, 180
grid mesh, 189
relimit, 173
surface area, 175
Surface definition angle, 149
symbol, 47
synonyms, 93

T
Tab, iv
see also Panel
see also Subpanel
tab
boundary, 154
condition, 156
data, 154
spurs, 156
trending, 155
TEMP
directory, 4
template
default, 213
terminology, iv
Test for Closure, 177
Test for Conistency, 177

Index

Test for Self Intersection, 177


text, 54
2D, 54
3D, 55
texture
blend, 151
resource, 151, 160
tick, iv
Title Block
Plot All Wizard, 214
TMP
directory, 4
Toggle Sliced View, 41, 43
toolbar
Analyse, 87
child, 23
custom, 25
Design, 45
Digitise, 47, 49
Graphics, 34, 219
menu, 21
moving, 23
parent, 22
Plot Utility Application, 218
PRIMARY:Visibility, 40
printer controls, 217
Screen Dump, 219
Slice, 43
visibility, 22
window, 21
Track Section of Existing Line, 53
Translate, 74
tree navigation, iv
tree pane, iv
trending tab, 155
tri polygons, 167
triangulation
advantages, 146
boolean, 169
check, 177
close, 178
colour, 149
create, 153, 157, 166, 169,
172, 173
solid, 161
create from polygons, 164
cut, 180
disadvantages, 146
end plate, 167
load, 147
manipulate
boolean, 169
polygons, 167
relimit, 173
remove, 148
shading, 148
solid see solid
split, 179
split solid, 164

Index

surface, 153
translucent, 151
types, 145
triangulation directory, 172
trifurcation, 167
troubleshoot
closure, 178
crossing triangles, 180
edge problems, 180
repair, 178, 181
satellite solids, 179
Tutorial, 2, 3, 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 23,
30, 32, 34, 36, 37, 38, 42,
43, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53,
54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 61, 64,
66, 68, 70, 72, 73, 75, 78,
79, 81, 82, 85, 88, 89, 92,
93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99,
102, 107, 109, 110, 111,
113, 114, 117, 118, 119,
120, 121, 122, 124, 126,
131, 134, 135, 137, 141,
142, 148, 151, 164, 166,
167, 168, 171, 172, 173,
174, 175, 176, 178, 179,
180, 181, 185, 186, 187,
191, 194, 195, 196, 198,
199, 200, 201, 202, 205,
216, 218, 220, 221, 224
see also Exercise
tutorial, 157, 160, 166, 172, 188
two polygons, 158

View Ports, 37
Virtual Sphere Rotation, 36
visibility, 39
primitives, 187
vlaunchpref, 10
volume, 175
cut and fill, 176
solid, 175
surface, 176
VRML, 225
export data, 225
insert, 225
view, 225
Vulcan Explorer, 112
VULCAN_CORPORATE, 6

W
window, 18
overview, 37
Primary, 19
Report, 20
Vulcan Explorer, 19
window files, 39

Z
zoom, 34
Zoom Data Extents, 35
Zoom To Toolbar, 35
Z-Up Rotation, 36

U
uncheck, iv
update
database, 134
Use Default Template, 212
Use Drafting Sheet, 212
Use load time shading, 149

V
Validate, 129
variables
environment, 3
Vertical Exaggeration, 39
video, 221
requirements, 1
view
NGRAIN, 223
other, 39
perspective, 37
section, 40
VRML, 225

231

Introduction to Vulcan | Maptek Vulcan 8.1

232

Index