Lab1 and 2

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Lab1 and 2

© All Rights Reserved

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Anatomy of a Breadboard:

The breadboard is where you will be assembling your circuits. The

breadboard is composed of rows and columns of metal clips. These

clips are housed in a plastic covering with holes that allow for pin

connections.

Each row of 5 pinholes is electrically isolated from all

other rows.

Pinholes are electrically connected in these columns

Each column of pin holes is electrically isolated from all other

columns.

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row set, are electrically connected. Therefore,

in the figure to the left, components 1 and 2

are electrically connected. Current flowing

through component 1 will flow through

component 2 as well.

However, Components 3 and 4 are not placed

in the same row set, therefore current flowing

through component 3 will not flow through

component 4.

the same column, so they are electrically

connected, while component 7 is placed in an isolated column and is

not electrically connected to components 5 or 6.

If however, a wire is placed between

components 3 and 4, an electric connection

is made between the two isolated rows of

pins, and now components 3 and 4 are

electrically connected.

In order to provide power to your circuit, connections to the power

supply should be made. Banana plug cables can be used to form

connections between the power supply and the three voltage source

connections at the far end of the breadboard, as seen in the

illustration on the bottom right. The three necessary connections are

V+ and V- which provide positive and negative voltage levels to the

breadboard, as well as ground ( ) which provides a common

reference for the voltage potential.

Note that according to convention, leads used to

connect to ground are black, while those used to supply

a +/- voltage from the power supply are red.

In order to supply these voltages to the entire

breadboard, wires should be used to connect the source

connection at the far end of the breadboard, to the

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the breadboard schematic below. With this, Hi and Lo voltage levels

are easily accessible along the entire breadboard.

Depending on the type of connection that needs to be made between

lab equipment and the protoboard, different leads can be used.

Always use the appropriate lead when making connections. The

following is an illustration of the various types:

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cables can carry two signals. The center pin is used to carry a signal

of interest (such as a waveform from the breadboard) and is

surrounded by an outer sheath that is at ground voltage (the sheath is

covered by wire insulation except at the ends where the metal

connectors are exposed).

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Resistors A resistor is an electronic component that resists

electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals.

The value of the resistance is equal to the voltage drop across the

resistor divided by the current through the resistor. This is also known

as Ohms Law, given by:

tolerance. The first two bands are a numerical value, the third band is

a power of ten multiplier and the fourth band indicates the tolerance

within which the actual resistance is given.

For example, a resistor with color code red, violet, yellow gold is a

resistor with a value of 270k and a 5% tolerance. Thus the actual

value of the resistor is between 256.5k and 283.5k. More

expensive resistors have lower tolerance.

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the properties of resistors when placed in series or parallel with each

other.

Series and Parallel Resistor Circuits:

Resistors in parallel have the same voltage across them. To find the

equivalent value of several parallel resistors the following expression

is used:

A shortcut for two resistors in parallel is:

the same though the voltage across each resistor can be different.

However, the voltage drop across all of the resistors is equal to the

sum of the voltage drops across each of the resistors.

Capacitors

A capacitor is an electrical device that stores

the energy in the electric field between a pair

of conductive plates. Charges of equal

magnitude but opposite polarity build up on

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capacitors are used as energy-storage devices in circuits. Capacitors

are also useful in making electronic filters. Simple filter designs will

be discussed later.

Note that capacitors in series are summed up in the same manner as

resistors in parallel, while the expression for capacitors in parallel is

similar to that for resistors in series.

Capacitors in parallel each have the same

voltage drop across them, therefore total

capacitance for several capacitors in parallel

is given by the following expression:

across it. Therefore the current through series capacitors stays the

same. Total capacitance for a set of series capacitors is given by:

Capacitor behavior is related to the frequency at which the signal

flows through. For very high-frequency alternating current, the

capacitor behaves as a wire or short. On the other hand, for very low

frequency alternating currents, the capacitor approximately behaves

as an open circuit. This property of capacitors is what makes them a

fundamental component of filter design. Further details on the impact

of these characteristics on filter type will be discussed in a later

section.

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Diode

A diode is an electronic component that

restricts the direction of movement of

charge. Therefore, it allows current to

flow in only one direction, and blocks it

in the opposite direction.

A first order model for diode behavior is illustrated in the plot below.

If the voltage across the diode is less than a threshold voltage VF,

which is usually 0.7V for silicon junction diodes, then the diode is

considered off and no current flows through it. In the event that the

voltage across the diode reaches Vf, the diode turns on and current

flows through the diode in the specified direction (A C).

Note that the magnitude of the current is not defined by the diode,

but rather by the rest of the circuit, which the diode is a part of. Also,

since current can only flow in one direction, the current can only be

zero or any positive value, but not negative. Finally, because an

unlimited amount of current could flow though the diode, the circuit

the diode is a part of cannot cause VAC to become larger than Vf. Thus,

the diode clamps VAC to VF and no higher.

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A unique type of diodes made from materials other than silicon, and

that typically have a VF of 1.0 to 2.0V, dissipate power in the form of

light. These diodes are known as Light Emitting Diodes, or LEDs, and

are available in red, yellow, green and blue. These diodes are useful to

use as indicators in electronic circuits.

Making Measurements

Multimeters:

A multimeter is a device that is able to measure

current (ammeter), potential difference between two

locations (voltmeter), and resistance (ohmmeter)

amongst other things.

The purpose for which you are using the multimeter (i.e to measure

current, voltage, or resistance) dictates the method in which you

connect it to the rest of your circuit.

Ammeter

To measure current, the multimeter should

be connected in series with the rest of the

components in your circuit. This allows the

current flowing through the circuit to pass

through the ammeter as well. However,

meters should not alter the behavior of the

circuit whose current they are measuring,

and

thus, to avoid causing a voltage drop

across them, ammeter should have very low resistance.

Voltmeter

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given component in your circuit, the

voltmeter is connected in parallel to

that component. Because the voltmeter

provides a parallel pathway, it should

pass as little current as possible, so as

not to short circuit the component

across which it is measuring. That

being said, a voltmeter should have very high resistance.

Ohmmeter

Unlike ammeters and

voltmeters, ohmmeters cannot

function if the circuit is

connected to a power supply.

In order to measure the

resistance of a given circuit

component, it must be

removed from the circuit and

probed independently. The

ohmmeter then passes a small current through the circuit component

of interest and subsequently measures the voltage produced, and

using principles based on Ohms law, displays the resistance of the

component. Probing a powered circuit with an ohmmeter will likely

damage the meter.

Generally multimeters have a central knob with

various positions to which it can be rotated. Where you

position the knob will be dependent on the purpose for

which you will use it. If you circuit is operating from a

constant voltage source such as a battery, current flow

will always be in the same direction, and thus it is

referred to as direct current or DC.

In this case,

you could set the meter to 10V DC, and with this the

maximum voltage that can be measured at this setting

is 10V. If you know that the measurement you will be

making is in the millivolt range, then you will achieve

more accuracy if you set the multimeter to make

measurements in the 10V to 100mV range. If the

current you have flowing through the circuit

periodically switches direction from positive to negative, then you are

dealing with an alternating current or AC power supply, and you

should adjust your multimeter knob to take AC measurements.

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The multimeter will display the RMS, or root mean square, voltage of

the AC signal.

Measurements Practice:

For the following 3 steps, use a 12 V DC source voltage from the

power supply, then repeat with a 12 V AC source voltage from the

function generator.

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Voltage Divider

In electronics, the voltage divider rule is a very useful design

technique used to supply a voltage that is a fraction of that provided

by the power supply.

Build the following circuit and use the following equations to

determine the voltage across Resistor 2, for some power supply

voltage V1.

Note that if the voltage divider is supplying a load resistance RL, the

output voltage you detect would be different than a setup in which

there is no load hooked up to the divider circuit.

Current Divider

If two or more impedances are in parallel, the current that enters

them will be split between them in inverse proportion to their

resistance. As we have seen, if the impedances that are in parallel are

equal, then the incoming current will be evenly split across each

resistor.

Build the following circuit and determine the current across each of

the three resistors:

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Note that since R1 is half of R3, the current through R1 will be twice

that through R3.

Since the voltage across all the components in a parallel circuit are

the same, we can calculate the current through each branch using

Ohms law (I=V/R).

Then, knowing that in parallel circuits, branch currents add up to

equal the total current, you can determine the total current for the

circuit using the branch currents previously calculated.

Finally, knowing the power supply voltage, and having just determined

the total current, the total resistance for this circuit can be

determined, again using Ohms law.

Use the following table to help guide you through the above calculations:

R1

R2

R3

Total

V

I

V

A

R

Remember:

Current through any resistor: I//=V///R//

Voltage in parallel circuit: Vtotal=V//=ItotalRtotal

So, substituting ItotalRtotal for V// in the first equation gives the current

through any parallel resistor:

I//=Itotal(Rtotal/R//)

This equation is the current divider formula.

Since Rtotal/R// will always be a number less than one, you can see that

this parallel circuit is able to proportion, or divide, the total current

into fractional parts through the parallel resistors, hence the term

current divider.

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Review:

Voltage divider: V//=Vtotal(R///Rtotal)

Current divider: I//=Itotal(Rtotal/R//)

Remember that in a series circuit, the

current flowing is the same all

throughout. Build the following circuit

and verify the values of voltage and

current across each resistor.

Important expressions to remember: Rtotal

= R1 + R2

Here, Rtotal = 1+1=2k

Using Ohms Law, I=V/R, the current I

flowing through this circuit, given a

power supply providing 6V is, I=6V/2 k

= 3mA. This current flows through each of the two resistors.

Since R2=R1, the voltage across R2 is also 3V. Note that the voltage

supplied to the circuit is equal to the sum of the voltages across the

two components of the circuit. This follows in line with the law of

conservation of energy.

resistors in parallel:

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Probe this circuit and verify the voltages and currents across the two

resistors.

Calculate the total resistance in this circuit using the expression for

Rtotal for parallel resistors.

Using this value, compute the total current for this circuit using

Ohms Law.

Note that the current calculated for this parallel resistor set up is

greater than that for the series circuit because in this case,

connecting the resistors in parallel provides alternative pathways for

the current and makes its flow easier. The current that goes through

each resistor is equal since they have the same resistance value.

Therefore, the Itotal you computed gets evenly split between the two

resistors.

Finally, compute the voltage across each resistor. This voltage value

should be equal to the voltage provided by the power supply.

Conceptually, this makes sense since the top of R1 is connected to the

positive terminal of the battery while the bottom end of the resistor is

connected to the negative terminal, with no other circuit components

in the way. Following the same logic, the voltage across R2 is equal to

that across R1 and to that provided by the power supply.

Remember that components in parallel have the same voltage across

them.

Consider the following circuit with both series and parallel parts.

First, determine the total

resistance of the entire circuit by

adding the combined resistance of

the parallel setup to the resistor

R1 in series. Then, determine the

current through this Rtotal. This

current is the I that flows through

R1. Since R2 and R3 have the same

magnitude, this Itotal value is evenly

split between the two resistors.

Use Ohms law to determine the

voltage across R1. The difference

between the power supply voltage

and the voltage drop across R1

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gives the voltage difference across R2, which is the same as that

across R3, thus Vtotal-V1= V23.

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