Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 201

FRANCIS S. TSE

University of Cincinnati

IVAN E. MORSE

University of Cincinnati

of Cincinnati I VA N E. M ORSE University of Cincinnati T. H INKLE Michigan State

T. HINKLE

Michigan State University

Mechanical Vibrations

Theory and Applications

SECOND EDITION

Allyn and Bacon,

Boston

State University Mechanical Vibrations Theory and Applications SECOND EDITION Allyn and Bacon, Boston Sydney Toronto

Sydney

State University Mechanical Vibrations Theory and Applications SECOND EDITION Allyn and Bacon, Boston Sydney Toronto

Toronto

Copyright

470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210.

1978, 1%3 byCopyright 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210. and Bacon, Inc. rights reserved. Printed in the United

Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210. 1978, 1%3 by and Bacon, Inc. rights reserved. Printed in the

and Bacon, Inc.

rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner.

system, without written permission from the copyright owner. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Tse,
system, without written permission from the copyright owner. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Tse,
system, without written permission from the copyright owner. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Tse,

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Tse, Francis Sing Mechanical vibrations.

(Allyn and Bacon series in Mechanical engineering and applied mechanics) Includes index.

1. Vibrations.

author. Hinkle,

mechanics) Includes index. 1. Vibrations. author. Hinkle, author. Title. 1978 I. Morse, Ivan E., joint Theodore,

author. Title.

1978

I.

Morse, Ivan E., joint Theodore, joint

77-20933

author. Hinkle, author. Title. 1978 I. Morse, Ivan E., joint Theodore, joint 77-20933 620.3 ISBN ISBN

620.3

ISBN

ISBN

author. Hinkle, author. Title. 1978 I. Morse, Ivan E., joint Theodore, joint 77-20933 620.3 ISBN ISBN

(International)1. Vibrations. author. Hinkle, author. Title. 1978 I. Morse, Ivan E., joint Theodore, joint 77-20933 620.3

Preface

xi

CHAPTER 1

Contents

INTRODUCTION

1- 1

Primary Objective 1

Primary Objective 1
 

1-2

Elements of a Vibratory System

2

1-3

Examples of Vibratory Motions

5

1-4

Simple Harmonic Motion

1-5

Vectorial Representation of Harmonic Motions 11

1- 6

Units

16

1-7

Summary

19

Problems

20

CHAPTER 2

SYSTEMS WITH ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM- THEORY

2-1 Introduction 23

WITH ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM- THEORY 2-1 Introduction 23 2- 2 Degrees of Freedom 25 2-

2- 2

Degrees of Freedom 25

2- 3

Equation of Motion- Energy Method

27

2-4

Equation of Motion- Newton's Law of Motion 33

2-5 General Solution

34

Complementary Function 34 Particular Integral 38 General Solution 42

vi

Contents

2- 6 Frequency Response Method 45

2-7

Impedance Method 45 Transfer Function 49 Resonance, Damping, and Bandwidth 51 Transient Vibration 52 Impulse Response 53

2-8

Convolution Integral 55 Indicia1 Response 57 Comparison of Rectilinear

2- 9

and Rotational Systems 58 Summary 58

Problems

62

CHAPTER 3

SYSTEMS WITH ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM- APPLICATIONS

Introduction 69 Introduction Undamped Free Vibration 70 Damped- Free Vibration 77 Undamped Forced Vibration- Harmonic Excitation 80 Undamped Free Vibration 70 Damped- Free Vibration 77 Undamped Forced Vibration- Harmonic Excitation 80

Damped Forced Vibration- Harmonic Excitation 86 Rotating and Reciprocating 86 Rotating and Reciprocating

Unbalance

87

Critical Speed of Rotating Shafts 89 Vibration Isolation and

Transmissibility

94

Shafts 89 Vibration Isolation and Transmissibility 9 4 Systems Attached to Moving Support 98 Seismic Instruments

Systems Attached to Moving Support 98 Seismic Instruments 101 Elastically Supported Damped

Systems

Damped Forced Vibration-Instruments 101 Elastically Supported Damped Systems 1 0 6 Periodic Excitation 109 Equivalent Viscous Damping

106

Periodic Excitation

109

Equivalent Viscous Damping Summary 129 129

Transient Vibration- Shock Spectrum

122

Problems

131

116

CHAPTER 4

SYSTEMS WITH MORE THAN ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM

4-1

Introduction

142

4-2

Equations of Motion:

Newton's Second Law

143

142

4-3 Undamped Free Vibration: Principal Modes 4-4 and 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 Generalized Coupling

4-3 Undamped Free Vibration: Principal Modes

4-4

4-3 Undamped Free Vibration: Principal Modes 4-4 and 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 Generalized Coupling Principal

and

4-5

4-6

4-7

4-8

4-9

Free Vibration: Principal Modes 4-4 and 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 Generalized Coupling Principal Coordinates Modal
Free Vibration: Principal Modes 4-4 and 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 Generalized Coupling Principal Coordinates Modal

Generalized Coupling Principal Coordinates Modal Analysis:

of Undamped S Systems

Forced Vibration- Harmonic Excitation

Influence Coefficients

Forced Vibration- Harmonic Excitation Influence Coefficients 158 ient Vibration 1 6 0 165 175 169 4-10

158

ient Vibration

160

165

175

169

4-10

4-10 180

180

Problems

181

CHAPTER 5

METHODS FOR

 

NATURAL

  NATURAL

5-1

Introduction

190

5-2

5-2 Equation 190

Equation

190

5-3

Rayleigh Method

193

5-4

Method

Method

197

5-5

Transfer Matrix

202

5-7
5-7

Myklestad-Prohl Method

213

Problems

Matrix 202 5-7 Myklestad-Prohl Method 213 Problems CHAPTER 6 DISCRETESYSTEMS 6-1 Introduction 218 6-2
Matrix 202 5-7 Myklestad-Prohl Method 213 Problems CHAPTER 6 DISCRETESYSTEMS 6-1 Introduction 218 6-2

CHAPTER 6

DISCRETESYSTEMS

6-1 Introduction 218 6-2 Equations of Motion- Undamped Systems 6-3 Undamped Vibration- Principal Modes 223

6-4 Orthogonality and Principal Coordinates 226 6-5 Coordinates 229 6-6 Expansion Theorem 230

226 6-5 Coordinates 229 6-6 Expansion Theorem 230 6-7 Quotient 23 1 6-8 Semidefinite Systems 232
226 6-5 Coordinates 229 6-6 Expansion Theorem 230 6-7 Quotient 23 1 6-8 Semidefinite Systems 232

6-7

Quotient 23 1

Quotient 231

6-8

Semidefinite Systems 232

6-9 Matrix Iteration 234

6-10 Undamped Forced Vibration- Modal Analysis 6-11 Systems with Proportional

6-12

Systems 241 6-13 Damped Forced Vibration- Modal Analysis

238

Proportional 6-12 Systems 241 6-13 Damped Forced Vibration- Modal Analysis 238 Orthogonality of Modes of Damped

Orthogonality of Modes of Damped

243

Proportional 6-12 Systems 241 6-13 Damped Forced Vibration- Modal Analysis 238 Orthogonality of Modes of Damped
Proportional 6-12 Systems 241 6-13 Damped Forced Vibration- Modal Analysis 238 Orthogonality of Modes of Damped
Contents 6- 14 Summary 245   Problems 246 CHAPTER 7 CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS   7-1

Contents

6- 14 Summary

245

 

Problems

246

CHAPTER 7

CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS

 
CHAPTER 7 CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS  

7-1

Introduction

253

 

7-2

Continuous

Continuous
 

7-3

A Simple Exposition 253 Separation of the Time

7-4

and Space Variables 256 Problems Governed by

the Wave Equation 258 Longitudinal Vibration of Rods

258

Torsional Vibration of Shafts

261

7-5

Lateral Vibration of Beams 262

7-6

Rotary Inertia and Other Effects 265 Shear Deformation and Rotary

Inertia Effects

266

7-7

Effect of Axial Loading The Eigenvalue Problem 270

268

7-8

Orthogonality

272

 

Boundary Conditions Independent of A

273

Boundary Conditions Dependent

 

on

A

275

7-9

Lagrange's Equations 280

 

7-10 Undamped Forced Vibration- Modal Analysis 285 7-11 Rayleigh's Quotient 288

 

7-12

Rayleigh- Ritz Method 290

 

7-13 Summary

294

 

Problems

295

CHAPTER 8

NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

 
CHAPTER 8 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS  

8-1

Introduction

300

8-2

Stability and Examples of Nonlinear

8-3

Systems 301 The Phase Plane

303

 

8-4

Stability of Equilibrium

 

306

8-5

Graphical Methods

316

Isocline Method 317 Pell's Method 319 8-6 Self-excited Oscillations 8-7 Analytical Methods 323

321

Contents

8-8

Free Vibration

323

Perturbation Method 323 Variation of Parameter Method 325

Balance 327

Balance

327

8-9

Forced Vibration

328

Jump Phenomenon 328 Subharmonic Oscillation 332

8-10 Summary

334

 

Problems

335

CHAPTER 9

SOLUTIONS BY DIGITAL COMPUTERS

C H A P T E R 9 SOLUTIONS BY DIGITAL COMPUTERS

9-1

Introduction

339

9-2

One- degree-of- freedom

 

Systems- Transient Response 341

9-3

Program- TRESP1

342

9-4

Program- TKESPSUB 346

 

9-5

9-5 349

349

9-6

One- degree- of- freedom

 

Systems- Harmonic Response

352

9-7

N--degree- of- freedom

Systems- Harmonic Response

356

9-8

Transient Response of Undamped

Discrete Systems 360 9-9 Rayleigh's Method- Undamped

9-10

Multirotor Systems 365 Myklestad- Prohl Method- Transfer

Matrix Technique 369 9-11 Matrix Iteration- Undamped Discrete Systems 371

9-12 Transient Response of Damped Systems 376

 

9-13 Summary

380

 

Problems

385

A

APPENDIX B

APPENDIX C

A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C Elements of Matrix Algebra

Elements of Matrix Algebra

 
A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C Elements of Matrix Algebra  

Lagrange's Equations

Subroutines

D Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients

D

Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients

D Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients

Index

Preface

Vibration is study of oscillatory motions. The ultimate goals of this study are to determine the effect of vibration on the performance and safety of systems, and to control its effects. With the advent of high per- formance machines and environmental control, this study has become a part of most engineering curricula. text presents the fundamentals and applications of vibration theory. It is intended for students taking either a first course or a one-year sequence in the subject at the junior or senior level. The student is assumed to have an elementary knowledge of dynamics, strength of materials, and differential equations, although summaries of several topics are included in the appendices for review purposes. The format of its predecessor is re- tained, but the text material has been substantially rewritten. In view of the widespread adoption of the International System of Units (SI) by the indus- trial world, SI units are used in the problems. The objectives of the text are first, to establish a sense of engineering reality, second, to provide adequate basic theory, and finally, to generalize these concepts for wider applications: The primary focus of the text is on the engineering significance of the physical quantities, with the mathemat- ical structure providing a supporting role. Throughout the text, examples of applications are given before the generalization to give the student a frame of reference, and to avoid the pitfall of overgeneralization. To further enhance engineering reality, detailed digital computations for discrete sys- tems are presented so that the student can solve meaningful numerical prob- lems.

The first three chapters examine systems with one degree of freedom. General concepts of vibration are described in Chapter 1. The theory of

examine systems with one degree of freedom. General concepts of vibration are described in Chapter 1
examine systems with one degree of freedom. General concepts of vibration are described in Chapter 1

xii

Preface

time and frequency domain analysis is introduced in Chapter 2 through the study of a generalized model, consisting of the mass, spring, damper, and excitation elements. This provides the basis for modal analyses in subse- quent chapters. The applications in Chapter 3 demonstrate that the ele- ments of the model are, in effect, equivalent quantities. Although the same theory is used, the appearance of a system in an engineering problem may differ greatly from that of the model. The emphasis of Chapter 3 is on prob- lem formulation. Through the generalization and classification of problems in the chapter, a new encounter will not appear as a stranger. Discrete systems are introduced in Chapter 4 using systems with two degrees of freedom. Coordinate coupling is treated in detail. Common methods of finding natural frequencies are described in Chapter 5. The material in these chapters is further developed in Chapter 6 using matrix techniques and relating the matrices to energy quantities. Thus, the student would not feel the artificiality in the numerous coordinate transformations in the study. The one-dimensional wave equation and beam equation of continu- ous systems are discussed in Chapter 7. The material is organized to show the similarities between continuous and discrete systems. Chapter 8, on nonlinear systems, explains certain common phenomena that cannot be pre- dicted by linear theory. The chapter consists of two main parts, conforming to the geometric and analytical approaches to studies. The digital computation in Chapter 9 is organized to follow the sequence of topics presented in the prior chapters and can be assigned con- currently with the text material. The programs listed in Table 9-1 are suffi- cient for the computation and plotting of results for either damped or undamped discrete systems. Detailed explanations are given to aid the stu- dent in executing the programs. The programs are almost conversational and only a minimal knowledge of FORTRAN is necessary for their execu- tion.

The first five chapters constitute the core of an elementary, quarter terminal course at the junior level. Depending on the purpose of the

particular course, parts of Section 3-5 can be used as assigned reading. Sec-

tions 3- 6 through 3-8,

omitted without loss of continuity. For a one-semester senior or dual-level course, the instructor may wish to use Chapters 1 through 4, Chapter 6, and portions of Chapter 7 or 8. Some topics, such as equivalent viscous damping, may be omitted. Alternatively, the text has sufficient material for a one-year sequence at the junior or senior level. Generally, the first course in mechanical vibra- tions is required and the second is an elective. The material covered will give the student a good background for more advanced studies.

We would like to acknowledge our indebtedness to many friends, students, and colleagues for their suggestions, to the numerous writers who

and colleagues for their suggestions, to the numerous writers who Section 4-9, and Sections 5-4 through
and colleagues for their suggestions, to the numerous writers who Section 4-9, and Sections 5-4 through

Section 4-9, and Sections 5-4 through 5-6 may be

SEC. 1-5

Vectorial Representation of Harmonic Motions

13

SEC. 1-5 Vectorial Representation of Harmonic Motions 13 (a) representation wr Harmonic motions F I G

(a)

representationSEC. 1-5 Vectorial Representation of Harmonic Motions 13 (a) wr Harmonic motions F I G .

wr
wr
Representation of Harmonic Motions 13 (a) representation wr Harmonic motions F I G . 1-8. Displacement,

Harmonic motions

FIG. 1-8.

Displacement, velocity, and acceleration vectors.

Thus, each differentiation is equivalent to the multiplication of the vector by Since X is the magnitude of the vector X, is real, = 1, each differentiation changes the magnitude by a factor of Since the multipli - cation of a vector by is equivalent to advancing it by a phase angle of each differentiation also advances a vector by 90". If a given harmonic displacement is = cos the relations be- tween the displacement and its velocity and acceleration are

tween the displacement and its velocity and acceleration are Displacement Velocity Acceleration = = X cos
tween the displacement and its velocity and acceleration are Displacement Velocity Acceleration = = X cos
tween the displacement and its velocity and acceleration are Displacement Velocity Acceleration = = X cos
tween the displacement and its velocity and acceleration are Displacement Velocity Acceleration = = X cos
tween the displacement and its velocity and acceleration are Displacement Velocity Acceleration = = X cos

Displacement

Velocity

Acceleration

= = X cos = = - sin = = - + =
=
= X cos
=
= -
sin
=
= -
+
=
Velocity Acceleration = = X cos = = - sin = = - + = These

These relations are identical to those shown in (1-4) to (1-6). The representation of displacement, velocity, and acceleration by rotating vectors is illustrated in Fig. 1-8. Since the given displacement is a cosine function, or along the real axis, the velocity and acceleration must be along the real axis. Hence the real parts of the respective vectors give the physical quantities at the given time Harmonic functions can be added graphically be means of vector addition. The vectors and representing the motions cos wt and + a), respectively, are added graphically as shown in Fig. The resultant vector X has a magnitude

graphically as shown in Fig. The resultant vector X has a magnitude + = cos sin
graphically as shown in Fig. The resultant vector X has a magnitude + = cos sin
graphically as shown in Fig. The resultant vector X has a magnitude + = cos sin
graphically as shown in Fig. The resultant vector X has a magnitude + = cos sin
graphically as shown in Fig. The resultant vector X has a magnitude + = cos sin
graphically as shown in Fig. The resultant vector X has a magnitude + = cos sin
+ = cos sin
+
=
cos
sin

and a phase angle

sin = X, cos
sin
=
X,
cos
Introduction 1-1 PRIMARY The subject of vibration deals with the oscillatory motion of dynamic systems.

Introduction

1-1

PRIMARY

Introduction 1-1 PRIMARY The subject of vibration deals with the oscillatory motion of dynamic systems. A

The subject of vibration deals with the oscillatory motion of dynamic systems. A dynamic system is a combination of matter which possesses mass and whose parts are capable of relative motion. All bodies posses- sing mass and elasticity are capable of vibration. The mass is inherent of the body, and the elasticity is due to the relative motion of the parts of the body. The system considered may be very simple or complex. It may be in the form of a structure, a machine or its components, or a group of machines. The oscillatory motion of the system may be objectionable, trivial, or necessary for performing a task. The objective of the designer is to control the vibration when it is objectionable and to enhance the vibration when it useful, although vibrations in general are undesirable. Objectionable vibrations in a machine cause the loosening of parts, its malfunctioning, or its eventual failure. On the other hand, shakers in foundries and vibrators in testing machines require vibration. The performance of many instruments depends on the proper control of the vibrational characteristics of the devices. The primary objective of our study is to analyze the oscillatory motion of dynamic systems and the forces associated with the motion. The ultimate goal in the study of vibration is to determine its effect on the performance and safety of the system under consideration. The analysis of the oscillatory motion is an important step towards this goal. Our study begins with the description of the elements in a vibratory system, the introduction of some terminology and concepts, and the discussion of simple harmonic motion. These will be used throughout the text. Other concepts and terminology will be introduced in the appro- priate places as needed.

will be used throughout the text. Other concepts and terminology will be introduced in the appro-
will be used throughout the text. Other concepts and terminology will be introduced in the appro-
Introduction CHAP. 1 1-2 ELEMENTS OF A VIBRATORY SYSTEM The elements that constitute a vibratory

Introduction

CHAP. 1

1-2

ELEMENTS OF A VIBRATORY SYSTEM

The elements that constitute a vibratory system are illustrated in Fig. 1-1. They are idealized and called (1) the mass, (2) the spring, (3) the damper, and (4) the excitation. The first three elements describe the physical system. For example, it can be said that a given system consists of a mass, a spring, and a damper arranged as shown in the figure. Energy may be stored in the mass and the spring and dissipated in the damper in the form of heat. Energy enters the system through the application of an excitation. As shown in Fig. 1-1, an excitation force is applied to the mass m of the system. The mass m is assumed to be a rigid body. It executes the vibrations and can gain or lose kinetic energy in accordance with the velocity change of the body. From Newton's law of motion, the product of the mass and its acceleration is equal to the force applied to the mass, and the acceleration takes place in the direction in which the force acts. Work is force times displacement in the direction of the force. The work is transformed into the kinetic energy of the mass. The kinetic energy increases if work is positive and decreases if work is negative. Th spring k possesses elasticity and is assumed to be of negligible mass. spring force exists if the spring is deformed, such as the extension or the compression of a coil spring. Therefore the spring force exists only if there is a relative displacement between the two ends of the spring. The work done in deforming a spring is transformed into potential energy, that is, the strain energy stored in the spring. A linear spring is one that obeys Hooke's law, that is, the spring force is proportional to the spring deformation. The constant of proportionality, measured in force per unit deformation, is called the stiffness, or the spring constant k. The damper c has neither mass nor elasticity. Damping force exists only if there is relative motion between the two ends of the damper. The work or the energy input to a damper is converted into heat. Hence the damping element is nonconservatiue. Viscous damping, in which the damping force is proportional to the velocity, is called linear damping. Viscous damping, or its equivalent, is generally assumed in engineering.

or its equivalent, is generally assumed in engineering. Static equilibrium position t Displacement X Excitation
or its equivalent, is generally assumed in engineering. Static equilibrium position t Displacement X Excitation

Static

equilibrium

position

assumed in engineering. Static equilibrium position t Displacement X Excitation force 1 - 1. Elements of

t

Displacement

X

Excitation

force

in engineering. Static equilibrium position t Displacement X Excitation force 1 - 1. Elements of a
in engineering. Static equilibrium position t Displacement X Excitation force 1 - 1. Elements of a

1 - 1. Elements of a vibratory system.

SEC. 1-2

Elements of a Vibratory System

S E C . 1 - 2 Elements of a Vibratory System F I G .

FIG. 1-2.

A periodic motion.

of a Vibratory System F I G . 1-2. A periodic motion. viscous damping c is

viscous damping

System F I G . 1-2. A periodic motion. viscous damping c is measured in force

c

is measured in force per unit velocity.

Many types of nonlinear damping are commonly encountered. For exam - ple, the frictional drag of a body moving in a fluid is approximately proportional to the velocity squared, but the exact value of the exponent is dependent on many variables. Energy enters a system through the application of an excitation. An excitation force may be applied to the mass and/or an excitation motion applied to the spring and the damper. An excitation force applied to the mass m is illustrated in Fig. The excitation varies in accordance with a prescribed function of time. Hence the excitation is always known at a given Alternatively, if the system is suspended a support, excitation may be applied to the system through imparting a prescribed motion to support. In machinery, excitation often arises from the unbalance of the moving components. The vibrations of dynamic systems under the influence of an excitation is called forced vibrations. Forced vibrations, however, are often defined as the vibrations that are caused and maintained by a periodic excitation. If the vibratory motion is periodic, the system repeats its motion at equal time intervals as shown in Fig. 1-2. The minimum time required for the system to repeat its motion is called a period which is the time to complete one cycle of motion. Frequency is the number of times that the motion repeats itself per unit time. A motion that does not repeat itself at equal time intervals is called an aperiodic motion. A dynamic system can be set into motion by some initial conditions, or disturbances at time equal to zero. If no disturbance or excitation is applied after the zero time, the oscillatory motions of the system are called free vibrations. Hence free vibrations describe the natural behavior or the natural modes of vibration of a system. The initial condition is an energy input. If a spring is deformed, the input is potential energy. If a mass is given an initial velocity, the input is kinetic energy. Hence initial conditions are due to the energy initially stored in the system. If the system does not possess damping, there is no energy dissipation. Initial conditions would cause the system to vibrate and the free vibration of an undamped system will not diminish with time. If a system possesses

the system to vibrate and the free vibration of an undamped system will not diminish with
the system to vibrate and the free vibration of an undamped system will not diminish with
the system to vibrate and the free vibration of an undamped system will not diminish with
the system to vibrate and the free vibration of an undamped system will not diminish with
the system to vibrate and the free vibration of an undamped system will not diminish with
the system to vibrate and the free vibration of an undamped system will not diminish with
the system to vibrate and the free vibration of an undamped system will not diminish with
Introduction CHAP. damping, energy will be dissipated in the damper. Hence the free vibra- tions

Introduction

CHAP.

Introduction CHAP. damping, energy will be dissipated in the damper. Hence the free vibra- tions will

damping, energy will be dissipated in the damper. Hence the free vibra- tions will eventually die out and the system then remain at its static equilibrium position. Since the energy stored is due to the initial conditions, free vibrations also describe the natural behavior of the system as it relaxes from the initial state to its static equilibrium. For simplicity, lumped masses, linear springs, and viscous dampers will be assumed unless otherwise stated. Systems possessing these characteris- tics are called linear systems. An important property of linear systems is that they follow the principle of superposition. For example, the resultant motion of the system due to the simultaneous application of two excita- tions is a linear combination of the motions due to each of the excitations acting separately. The values of m, c, and k of the elements in Fig. 1-1 are often referred to as the system parameters. For a given problem, these values are assumed time invariant. Hence the coefficients or the parame- ters in the equations are constants. The equation of motion of the system becomes a linear ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients, which can be solved readily. Note that the idealized elements in Fig. 1-1 form a model of a vibratory system which in reality can be quite complex. For example, a coil spring possesses both mass and elasticity. In order to consider it as an idealized spring, either its mass is assumed negligible or an appropriate portion of its mass is lumped together with the other masses of the system. The resultant model is a lumped-parameter, or discrete, system. For example, a beam has its mass and elasticity inseparably distributed along its length. The vibrational characteristics of a beam, or more generally of an elastic body or a continuous system, can be studied by this approach if the continuous system is approximated by a finite number of lumped parame- ters. This method is a practical approach to the study of some very complicated structures, such as an aircraft. In spite of the limitations, the lumped- parameter approach to the study of vibration problems is well justified for the following reasons. (1) Many physical systems are essentially discrete systems. (2) The concepts can be extended to analyze the vibration of continuous systems. (3) Many physical systems are too complex to be investigated analytically as elastic bodies. These are often studied through the use of their equivalent discrete systems. (4) The assumption of lumped parameters is not to replace the basic understanding of a problem, but it simplifies the analyti- cal effort and renders a technique for the computer solution. So far, we have discussed only systems with rectilinear motion. For systems with rotational motions, the elements are (1) the mass moment of inertia of the body J, (2) the torsional spring with spring constant and (3) the torsional damper with torsional damping coefficient An angular displacement is analogous to a rectilinear displacement x, and an excitation torque is analogous to an excitation force The two types of systems are compared as shown in Table 1- 1. The comparison is

torque is analogous to an excitation force The two types of systems are compared as shown
torque is analogous to an excitation force The two types of systems are compared as shown
torque is analogous to an excitation force The two types of systems are compared as shown
torque is analogous to an excitation force The two types of systems are compared as shown

SEC. 1-3

Examples of Vibratory Motions

TA BLE

E C . 1 - 3 Examples of Vibratory Motions T A B LE Comparison of

Comparison

of

Rotational Systems

Rectilinear

and

RECTILINEAR ROTATIONAL Spring force= kx Spring torque = dx Damping force= c- . Damping torque
RECTILINEAR
ROTATIONAL
Spring force= kx
Spring torque =
dx
Damping force= c-
.
Damping torque = c,- dt
Inertia force=
Inertia
=
dt
dt

shown in greater detail in Tables 2-2 and 2-3. It is apparent from the comparison that thp concept of systems can be extended easily systems.

that thp concept of systems can be extended easily systems. 1-3 OF MOTIONS To illustrate different
that thp concept of systems can be extended easily systems. 1-3 OF MOTIONS To illustrate different

1-3

thp concept of systems can be extended easily systems. 1-3 OF MOTIONS To illustrate different types

OF

MOTIONSconcept of systems can be extended easily systems. 1-3 OF To illustrate different types of vibratory

To illustrate different types of vibratory motion, let us choose various combinations of the four elements shown in Fig. 1 -1 to form - simple dynamic systems. The spring - mass system of Fig. serves to illustrate the case of undamped free vibration. The mass is initially at rest at its static equilibrium position. It is acted upon by two equal and opposite forces, namely, the force, which is equal to the product of the spring constant k and the static deflection of the spring, and the gravitational force mg due to the weight of the mass m. Now assume that the mass is displaced from equilibrium by an amount and then released with zero initial velocity. As shown in the free-body sketch, at the time the mass is released, the spring force is equal to This is greater than the gravitational force on the mass by the amount Upon being released, the mass will move toward the equilibrium position. Since the spring is initially deformed by from equilibrium, the corresponding potential energy is stored in the spring. The system is conservative because there is no damper to dissipate the energy. When the mass moves upward and passes through equilibrium, the potential energy of the system Thus, the potential energy is transformed to become the kinetic energy of the mass. As the mass moves above the equilibrium position, the spring is compressed and thereby gaining poten- tial energy'from the kinetic energy of the mass. When the mass is at its uppermost position, its velocity is zero. All the kinetic energy of the mass has been transformed to become potential energy. Through the exchange of potential and kinetic energies between the spring and the mass, the system oscillates periodically at its natural frequency about its static

energies between the spring and the mass, the system oscillates periodically at its natural frequency about
energies between the spring and the mass, the system oscillates periodically at its natural frequency about
energies between the spring and the mass, the system oscillates periodically at its natural frequency about
energies between the spring and the mass, the system oscillates periodically at its natural frequency about
energies between the spring and the mass, the system oscillates periodically at its natural frequency about
energies between the spring and the mass, the system oscillates periodically at its natural frequency about
energies between the spring and the mass, the system oscillates periodically at its natural frequency about
Free length of spring Static Static 0 position (a) Undamped free vibration Free-body sketch t
Free length of spring Static Static 0 position (a) Undamped free vibration Free-body sketch t

Free length

of spring Static
of spring
Static
Static 0 position
Static
0
position

(a) Undamped free vibration

Free-body

sketch

t
t
0 position (a) Undamped free vibration Free-body sketch t (b) Damped free vibration Forced vibration F

(b) Damped free vibration

free vibration Free-body sketch t (b) Damped free vibration Forced vibration F I G . 1-3.
free vibration Free-body sketch t (b) Damped free vibration Forced vibration F I G . 1-3.

Forced vibration

FIG. 1-3. Simple vibratory systems.

equilibrium position. Hence natural frequency describes the rate of energy exchange between two types of energy storage elements, namely, the mass and the spring.

It will be shown in Chap. 2 that this periodic motion is sinusoidal or

simple harmonic. Since the system is conservative, the maximum displace- ment of the mass from equilibrium, or the of vibration, will not diminish 'from cycle to cycle. It is implicit in this discussion that the natural frequency is a property of the system, depending on the values of

m and k. It is independent of the initial conditions or the amplitude of the oscillation.

mass-spring system with damping is shown in Fig. The mass

at rest is under the influence of the spring force and the gravitational force, since the damping force is proportional to velocity. Now, if the mass is displaced by an amount from its static equilibrium position and then released with zero initial velocity, the spring force will tend to restore the mass to equilibrium as before. In addition to the spring force, however, the mass is also acted upon by the damping force which opposes its motion. resultant motion depends on the amount of damping in the system. If the damping is light, the system is said to be underdamped the motion is oscillatory. The presence of damping will cause (1) the eventual dying out of the oscillation and (2) the system to oscillate more slowly than without damping. In other words, the amplitude

out of the oscillation and (2) the system to oscillate more slowly than without damping. In

A

out of the oscillation and (2) the system to oscillate more slowly than without damping. In
out of the oscillation and (2) the system to oscillate more slowly than without damping. In
out of the oscillation and (2) the system to oscillate more slowly than without damping. In
out of the oscillation and (2) the system to oscillate more slowly than without damping. In
out of the oscillation and (2) the system to oscillate more slowly than without damping. In

SEC. 1-3

Examples of Vibratory Motions

SEC. 1-3 Examples of Vibratory Motions with each subsequent cycle of oscillation, and the frequency of

with each subsequent cycle of oscillation, and the frequency of vibration with viscous damping is lower than the undamped natural frequency. If the damping is heavy, the motion is nonoscillatory, and the system is said to be The mass, upon being released, will simply tend to return to its static equilibrium position. The system is said to be critically damped if the amount of damping is such that the resultant motion is on the border line between the two cases enumerated. The free vibrations of the systems shown in Figs. and (b) are illustrated in Fig. 1-4. Ail physical systems possess damping to a greater or a lesser degree. When there is very 'little damping in a system, such as a steel structure or a simple pendulum, the damping may be negligibly small. Most mechanical systems possess little damping and can be approximated as undamped systems. Damping is often built into a system to obtain the desired performance. For example, vibration-measuring instruments are often built with damping corresponding to 70 percent of the critically damped value. If an excitation force is applied to the mass of the system as shown in Fig. the resultant motion depends on the initial conditions as well as the excitation. In other words, the motion depends on the manner by which the energy is applied to the system. Let us assume that the excitation is sinusoidal for this discussion. Once the system is set into motion, it will tend to vibrate at its natural frequency as well as to follow the of the excitation. If the system possesses damping, the part of the motion not sustained by the sinusoidal excitation will eventually die out. This is the transient motion, which is at the natural frequency of the system, that is, the oscillation under free vibrations. The motion sustained by the sinusoidal excitation is called the steady- state or the steady-state response. Hence the steady-state re- sponse must be at the excitation frequency regardless of the initial

be at the excitation frequency regardless of the initial F I G . 1 - 4.
be at the excitation frequency regardless of the initial F I G . 1 - 4.
be at the excitation frequency regardless of the initial F I G . 1 - 4.
be at the excitation frequency regardless of the initial F I G . 1 - 4.
be at the excitation frequency regardless of the initial F I G . 1 - 4.
be at the excitation frequency regardless of the initial F I G . 1 - 4.

F I G . 1 - 4.

Free vibration of systems shown in Figs.

displacement =

of the initial F I G . 1 - 4. Free vibration of systems shown in

initial velocity = 0.

of the initial F I G . 1 - 4. Free vibration of systems shown in

and (b).

of the initial F I G . 1 - 4. Free vibration of systems shown in

8

8 conditions or the natural frequency of the system. It will be shown in described by

conditions or the natural frequency of the system. It will be shown in

described by the particular

integral and the transient motion by the complementary function of the differential equation of the system. Resonance occurs when the excitation frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the system. No energy input is needed to maintain the vibrations of an undamped system at its natural frequency. Thus, any energy input will be used to build up the amplitude of the vibration, and the amplitude at resonance of an undamped system increase without limit. In a system with damping, the energy input is dissipated in the damper. Under steady- state condition, the net energy- input per cycle is

equal to the energy dissipation per cycle. Hence the of vibration at resonance for systems with damping is Mite, and it is determined by the amount of damping in the system.

Chap. 2 that the steady- state response is

in the system. Chap. 2 that the steady- state response is 1-4 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION Simple
in the system. Chap. 2 that the steady- state response is 1-4 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION Simple

1-4

SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION

Simple harmonic motion is the simplest form of periodic motion. It will be shown in later chapters that (1) harmonic motion is also the basis for more complex analysis using Fourier technique, and (2) steady-state analysis can be greatly simplified using vectors to represent harmonic motions. We shall discuss simple harmonic motions and the manipulation of vectors in some detail in this section.

A simple harmonic motion is a reciprocating motion. It can be rep-

resented by the circular functions, sine or cosine. Consider the motion of the point P on the horizontal axis of Fig. If the distance OP is

P on the horizontal axis of Fig. If the distance OP is OP = = X

OP =

= X cos X cos

axis of Fig. If the distance OP is OP = = X cos where t =

where t = time, = constant, and X = constant, the motion of P about the origin is sinusoidal or simple harmonic.* Since the circular function repeats itself in radians, a cycle of motion is completed when =

itself in radians, a cycle of motion is completed when = * A sine, a cosine,
itself in radians, a cycle of motion is completed when = * A sine, a cosine,
itself in radians, a cycle of motion is completed when = * A sine, a cosine,
itself in radians, a cycle of motion is completed when = * A sine, a cosine,

* A sine, a cosine, or their combination can be used to represent a simple harmonic motion. For example, let

to represent a simple harmonic motion. For example, let = wt cos a w s sin

=

to represent a simple harmonic motion. For example, let = wt cos a w s sin

wt cos a

a simple harmonic motion. For example, let = wt cos a w s sin a) X

w s

a simple harmonic motion. For example, let = wt cos a w s sin a) X

sin a)

X
X

+ a)

where X =

and, therefore, simple harmonic. For simplicity, we shall confine our discussion to a cosine function.

It is apparent that the motion is sinusoidal

and a = a =

It is apparent that the motion is sinusoidal and a = In Eq. indicates that is
It is apparent that the motion is sinusoidal and a = In Eq. indicates that is

In Eq.

indicates thatis apparent that the motion is sinusoidal and a = In Eq. is a function of

the motion is sinusoidal and a = In Eq. indicates that is a function of time

is a function of time

and a = In Eq. indicates that is a function of time Since this is implicit

Since this is implicit in the

equation, we shall omit (t) in all subsequent equations.

1 - 4 Harmonic Motion that is, F I G . 1-5. Simple harmonic motion:

1-4

1 - 4 Harmonic Motion that is, F I G . 1-5. Simple harmonic motion: X

Harmonic Motion

1 - 4 Harmonic Motion that is, F I G . 1-5. Simple harmonic motion: X

that is,

FIG. 1-5.

Simple harmonic motion:

Motion that is, F I G . 1-5. Simple harmonic motion: X cos Period Frequency =

X cos

Period

Frequency

=- -

1 - - 7
1
-
-
7

or Hz*

motion: X cos Period Frequency = - 1 - - 7 or Hz* If is called
If
If
motion: X cos Period Frequency = - 1 - - 7 or Hz* If is called

is called the circular frequency measured in

- 7 or Hz* If is called the circular frequency measured in represents the displacement of

represents the displacement of a mass in a vibratory system, the

velocity and the acceleration are the first and the second time derivatives the displacement,? that is,

Displacement x = X cos

Velocity

x =

-

Acceleration

= -

= -

x = X cos Velocity x = - Acceleration = - ( 1 - 6 )

(1-6)

sin = +90") cos + =
sin
=
+90")
cos
+
=

These equations indicate that the velocity and acceleration of a harmonic displacement are also harmonic of the same frequency. Each differentia- tion changes the amplitude of the motion by a factor of and the phase angle of the circular function by The phase angle of the velocity is 90" leading the displacement and the acceleration is leading the displacement. Simple harmonic motion can be defined by combining Eqs. (1-4) and

harmonic motion can be defined by combining Eqs. (1-4) and (1-6). - where a constant. When
harmonic motion can be defined by combining Eqs. (1-4) and (1-6). - where a constant. When
harmonic motion can be defined by combining Eqs. (1-4) and (1-6). - where a constant. When

(1-6).

-
-
motion can be defined by combining Eqs. (1-4) and (1-6). - where a constant. When the

where a constant. When the acceleration of a particle with recti - linear motion is always proportional to its displacement from a fixed point on the path and is directed towards the fixed point, the particle is said to have simple harmonic motion. It can be shown that the solution of Eq. (1- 7) has the form of a sine and a cosine function with circular frequency equal to w.

* In 1965, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) adopted new standards for symbols and abbreviation (IEEE Standard No. 260). The unit :hertz (Hz) replaces (cps) for frequency. Hz is now commonly used in vibration studies.

for frequency. Hz is now commonly used in vibration studies. symbols x and represent the first

symbols x and

is now commonly used in vibration studies. symbols x and represent the first and second time

represent the first and second time derivatives of the function

the first and second time derivatives of the function respectively. This notation is used throughout the

respectively. This notation is used throughout the text unless ambiguity may arise.

CHAP. 1 The sum of two harmonic functions of the same frequency but with different

CHAP. 1

The sum of two harmonic functions of the same frequency but with different phase angles is also a harmonic function of the same frequency. For example, the sum of the harmonic motions = cos and

+a ) is a ) is

the sum of the harmonic motions = cos and + a ) is + = cos
the sum of the harmonic motions = cos and + a ) is + = cos
the sum of the harmonic motions = cos and + a ) is + = cos
+ = cos wt cos a - sin = + cos - sin a sin
+
= cos
wt cos a - sin
= +
cos
-
sin a sin
= - sin
sin
= X
+

sin a )

where X =

harmonic motion and = sin + cos a ) is its phase

angle. The sum of

harmonic. A special case of interest is when the frequencies are slightly

different frequencies is not

is the amplitude of the resultant

+
+

cos

sin
sin

two harmonic motions of

different. Let the sum of the motions and

motions of different. Let the sum of the motions and be = 2X cos- t cos
motions of different. Let the sum of the motions and be = 2X cos- t cos

be

motions of different. Let the sum of the motions and be = 2X cos- t cos

= 2X cos- t cos

2

+-
+-

where The resultant motion may be considered as a cosine wave with the circular frequency + which is approximately equal to and with a varying amplitude [2X The resultant motion is

illustrated in Fig. 1-6. Every time the amplitude reaches a maximum,

as determined by two

there is said to be a beat. The beat frequency

by two there is said to be a beat. The beat frequency F I G .
by two there is said to be a beat. The beat frequency F I G .
by two there is said to be a beat. The beat frequency F I G .
by two there is said to be a beat. The beat frequency F I G .
by two there is said to be a beat. The beat frequency F I G .

F I G . 1 - 6.

Graphical representation of beats.

1 - 5 of Motions consecutive maximum amplitudes, is where and are the frequencies of

1-5

of
of

Motions

consecutive maximum amplitudes, is

1 - 5 of Motions consecutive maximum amplitudes, is where and are the frequencies of the
1 - 5 of Motions consecutive maximum amplitudes, is where and are the frequencies of the
1 - 5 of Motions consecutive maximum amplitudes, is where and are the frequencies of the

where and are the frequencies of the constituting motions. The more general case, for which the amplitudes of and are unequal, is left as an exercise. The phenomenon of beats is common in engineering. Evidently beating can be a useful technique in frequency measurement in which an un- known frequency is compared with a standard frequency.

un- known frequency is compared with a standard frequency. REPRESENTATION OF HARMONIC MOTIONS It is convenient
un- known frequency is compared with a standard frequency. REPRESENTATION OF HARMONIC MOTIONS It is convenient
un- known frequency is compared with a standard frequency. REPRESENTATION OF HARMONIC MOTIONS It is convenient

REPRESENTATION OF HARMONIC MOTIONS

It is convenient to represent a harmonic motion by means of a rotating vector X of constant magnitude* X at a constant angular velocity o. In Fig. 1-7, the displacement of from the center along the x axis

1-7, the displacement of from the center along the x axis (a) Vectorial representation F I
1-7, the displacement of from the center along the x axis (a) Vectorial representation F I
1-7, the displacement of from the center along the x axis (a) Vectorial representation F I

(a) Vectorial representation

the center along the x axis (a) Vectorial representation F I G . 1-7. (b) Harmonic

FIG . 1-7.

(b) Harmonic motions

Harmonic

motions represented by rotating vector.

* In complex variables, the length of a vector is called the absolute value or modulus, and the phase angle is called the argument or amplitude. The length of the vector in this discussion is the amplitude of the motion. To avoid confusion, we shall use magnitude to denote the length of the vector.

is the amplitude of the motion. To avoid confusion, we shall use magnitude to denote the
is = cos ot. This is the projection of the rotating vector X on the
is =
is
=

cos ot. This is the projection of the rotating vector X on

the diameter along the axis. Similarly, the projection of X on the y axis is OQ = = X sin Naming the x axis as the " real" axis and the y axis as the " imaginary" one, the rotating vector X is represented by the equation*

one, the rotating vector X is represented by the equation* X = X cos o t

X = X cos o t+

sinvector X is represented by the equation* X = X cos o t + = Xe

X is represented by the equation* X = X cos o t + sin = Xe

= Xe i u '

the equation* X = X cos o t + sin = Xe i u ' where
the equation* X = X cos o t + sin = Xe i u ' where

where X is the length of the vector or its magnitude and = is called the imaginary unit. If a harmonic function is given as = X cos it can be expressed as where the symbol Re denotes the real part of the function Similarly, the function = X sin wt can be expressed as y(t)=Im[Xe J u '], where the symbol Im denotes the imaginary part of It should be remembered that a harmonic motion is a reciprocating motion. Its representation by means of a rotating vector is only a convenience. This enables the exponential function to be used in equations involving harmonic functions. The use of complex functions and complex numbers greatly simplifies the mathematical manipulations of this type of equations. In reality, all physical quantities, whether they are displacement, velocity, acceleration, or force, must be real quantities. The differentiation of a harmonic function can be carried out in its vectorial form. The differentiation of a vector X is

its vectorial form. The differentiation of a vector X is y the and y are numbers
its vectorial form. The differentiation of a vector X is y the and y are numbers
its vectorial form. The differentiation of a vector X is y the and y are numbers
its vectorial form. The differentiation of a vector X is y the and y are numbers
its vectorial form. The differentiation of a vector X is y the and y are numbers
its vectorial form. The differentiation of a vector X is y the and y are numbers
its vectorial form. The differentiation of a vector X is y the and y are numbers

y the

and y are

numbers and can be treated as a complex number. Let X in Fig. be a complex number. The vector X is

* A complex number

imaginary part of

The vector X is * A complex number imaginary part of Both is of the form
The vector X is * A complex number imaginary part of Both is of the form

Both

is

of

the form

whereis * A complex number imaginary part of Both is of the form is the real

complex number imaginary part of Both is of the form where is the real part and

is the real part and

and y may be time dependent. For a specific time,

part and and y may be time dependent. For a specific time, jy = sin is
jy = sin is the magnitude of the vector X. Defining =
jy
=
sin
is the magnitude of the vector X. Defining
=

where

sine and cosine functions by Maclaurin's series, we obtain

and expanding the

by Maclaurin's series, we obtain and expanding the The equation = cos 0 j sin 0

The equation

by Maclaurin's series, we obtain and expanding the The equation = cos 0 j sin 0

= cos 0

j sin 0 is called Euler's formula. sin 0 is called Euler's formula.

Preface

Preface contributed to this field of study, and to the authors listed in the references. We

contributed to this field of study, and to the authors listed in the references.

We are especially grateful to Dr. James L.

Chapter 9, and to K. G. Mani for his contribution of the subroutine in Appendix C.

for his suggestions in

K. G. Mani for his contribution of the subroutine in Appendix C. for his suggestions in
K. G. Mani for his contribution of the subroutine in Appendix C. for his suggestions in

Francis S. Ivan E. Morse

K. G. Mani for his contribution of the subroutine in Appendix C. for his suggestions in
K. G. Mani for his contribution of the subroutine in Appendix C. for his suggestions in

T.

K. G. Mani for his contribution of the subroutine in Appendix C. for his suggestions in
CHAP. 1 (a) Vector addition (b) Vector addition with phasor notation (wt F I G

CHAP. 1

CHAP. 1 (a) Vector addition (b) Vector addition with phasor notation (wt F I G .

(a)

Vector addition

(b) Vector addition with phasor notation (wt

F I G . 1 - 9.

Addition of harmonic functions: vectorial method.

. 1 - 9. Addition of harmonic functions: vectorial method. 0) with respect to Since the

0)

with respect to Since the original motions are given along the real axis, the sum of the harmonic motions is = X + The

axis, the sum of the harmonic motions is = X + The addition operation can readily
axis, the sum of the harmonic motions is = X + The addition operation can readily
axis, the sum of the harmonic motions is = X + The addition operation can readily

addition operation can readily be extended to include the subtraction operation.

Since both

andbe extended to include the subtraction operation. Since both are rotating with the same angular only

to include the subtraction operation. Since both and are rotating with the same angular only the

are rotating with the same angular

operation. Since both and are rotating with the same angular only the relative phase angle of

only the relative phase angle of the vectors is of interest. It is convenient

to assign arbitrarily wt = as a datum of The vector Note that the vector
to assign arbitrarily wt = as a datum of
The vector
Note that the vector
- =

measurement of phase angles.

and their sum X are plotted in this manner in Fig.

sin

and their sum X are plotted in this manner in Fig. sin can be expressed as

can be expressed as

cos

+
+
plotted in this manner in Fig. sin can be expressed as cos + The quantity =

The quantity = is a complex number and is called the complex amplitude or phasor of the vector X,. Similarly, = in Fig. is the phasor of the vector X.

Harmonic functions can be added algebraically by means of vector

+a),

addition. Using the their vector sum is

of vector + a ) , addition. Using the their vector sum is same functions cos
of vector + a ) , addition. Using the their vector sum is same functions cos
of vector + a ) , addition. Using the their vector sum is same functions cos

same functions

) , addition. Using the their vector sum is same functions cos w t and =

cos wt and

the their vector sum is same functions cos w t and = , + = +

=

,

+ = + = (X, + cos a + sin
+ =
+
= (X, +
cos a +
sin

where

= + cos a + sin a
= +
cos a
+
sin a

and

= +
=
+

sin a

cos a

SEC. 1- 5

Vectorial Representation of Harmonic Motions

SEC. 1- 5 Vectorial Representation of Harmonic Motions Since the given harmonic motions are along the

Since the given harmonic motions are along the real their sum is

the given harmonic motions are along the real their sum is = = = X In
= =
= =

= X

harmonic motions are along the real their sum is = = = X In representing harmonic

In representing harmonic motions by rotating vectors, it is often necessary to determine the product of complex numbers. The product can be found by expressing the complex numbers in the exponential form. For example, the product of the complex numbers and is

form. For example, the product of the complex numbers and is = (a, + jb,) and
form. For example, the product of the complex numbers and is = (a, + jb,) and
form. For example, the product of the complex numbers and is = (a, + jb,) and

= (a,

example, the product of the complex numbers and is = (a, + jb,) and B =

+jb,)

and B = and
and
B =
and

(1-13)

are the magnitudes of the numbers are their phase angles. Equation

where A and (1-13) indicates that

Magnitude of

Phase of

=r e A and (1-13) indicates that Magnitude of Phase of (magnitude of + (phase of

(magnitude of

+ (phase of
+ (phase of

= (phase of (phase of

of

( 1 - 1 4 ) (1 - 14)

Obviously, the multiplication operation can be generalized to include the division operation.

Example 1.

Manipulation of Complex Numbers

(a)

The symbol is a convenient way of writing

Numbers (a) The symbol is a convenient way of writing = 1 + = j sin

= 1+

=
=

j sin 60") =

=
=

vector of magnitude of

two units and

a phase angle of

It represents a

60 " or

two units and a phase angle of It represents a 60 " or rad counter-clockwise to

rad

counter-clockwise to the reference axis. (c) ( +j3) = =
counter-clockwise to the reference axis.
(c) (
+j3) =
=
(e)
(e)
A = +j = = 2/90"+60" - (g)
A = +j
=
= 2/90"+60"
-
(g)

The last two examples indicate that the multiplication of a vector by j advances the vector counter-clockwise by a phase angle of 90" and a division by retards it by

of a vector by j advances the vector counter-clockwise by a phase angle of 90" and
CHAP. 1 Since there will be a change from the English engineering (customary) to the

CHAP. 1

Since there will be a change from the English engineering (customary) to the International System of Units (SI), the two systems of units will co-exist for years. The student and the practicing engineer will need to know both systems. We shall briefly discuss the English units and then the SI units in some detai; in this section. Newton's law of motion may be expressed as

this section. Newton's law of motion may be expressed as Force = (1-16) Dimensional homogeneity of

Force =

Newton's law of motion may be expressed as Force = (1-16) Dimensional homogeneity of the equation

(1-16)

Dimensional homogeneity of the equation is obtained when the force is in pounds the mass in slugs, and the acceleration in ft/sec 2 . This is the English system in which the mass has the unit of A body falling under the influence of gravitation has an acceleration of g ft/sec 2 , where 32.2 is the gravitational acceleration. Hence one pound - mass exerts one pound - force under the gravitational pull of the earth. In other words, 1 lb, weighs one pound on a spring scale. If a mass is given in pounds, or weight, it must be divided by g to obtain dimensional homogeneity in Eq. (1-16). The system is generally used in the study of vibrations. The gravitational acceleration is = 386 in./sec 2 . Hence the weight is divided by 386 in order to obtain dimensional homogeneity in Eq. (1-16). We assume that the gravitational acceleration is constant unless otherwise stated. In the derivation of equations, the mass m is assumed to have the proper units. The International System of Units (SI) is the modernized version of the metric system.* - SI consists of (1) seven well- defined base units, (2) derived units, and (3) supplementary units. The base units are regarded as dimensionally independent. Those of interest in this study are the meter, the kilogram, and the second. The meter m is the unit of length. It is defined in terms of the wave - length of a krypton-85 lamp as " the length equal to 1650 763.73 wave-lengths in vacuum of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the levels and of the krypton- 86 atom." The kilogram kg is the unit

of the krypton- 86 atom." The kilogram kg is the unit in the literature. A kit,
of the krypton- 86 atom." The kilogram kg is the unit in the literature. A kit,
of the krypton- 86 atom." The kilogram kg is the unit in the literature. A kit,
of the krypton- 86 atom." The kilogram kg is the unit in the literature. A kit,
of the krypton- 86 atom." The kilogram kg is the unit in the literature. A kit,
of the krypton- 86 atom." The kilogram kg is the unit in the literature. A kit,
of the krypton- 86 atom." The kilogram kg is the unit in the literature. A kit,
of the krypton- 86 atom." The kilogram kg is the unit in the literature. A kit,
of the krypton- 86 atom." The kilogram kg is the unit in the literature. A kit,

in the literature. A kit,

containing the above and several other publications, is obtainable from the American

Society of Engineering Education:

* A description of SI and a brief bibliography can be

* A description of SI and a brief bibliography can be International System of Units National

International System of Units* A description of SI and a brief bibliography can be National Bureau of Standards, Special

National Bureau of Standards, Special Publication 330, Revised 1974.

GuideBureau of Standards, Special Publication 330, Revised 1974. United Engineering Center, 345 E. 47th St., New

United Engineering Center, 345 E. 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017, 1975.

Center, 345 E. 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017, 1975. Edited by C. H. Page and

Edited by C. H. Page and P. Vigoureux, US

of

10017, 1975. Edited by C. H. Page and P. Vigoureux, US of (Metric) Units, 6th ed.,

(Metric) Units, 6th ed.,

H. Page and P. Vigoureux, US of (Metric) Units, 6th ed., Orientation and Guide Some References
H. Page and P. Vigoureux, US of (Metric) Units, 6th ed., Orientation and Guide Some References

Orientation and Guide

Some References on Information, US National Bureau of Standards, Special Publication 389, Revised 1974.

ASEE Metric (SI) Resource Kit Project, One Dupont Circle, Suite 400, Washington, DC

20036.

Publication 389, Revised 1974. ASEE Metric (SI) Resource Kit Project, One Dupont Circle, Suite 400, Washington,
, Units 17 Examples of Derived Units SI UNIT QUANTITY NAME IN TERMS IN T

,

Units

17

Examples of Derived Units
Examples of
Derived Units

SI UNIT

QUANTITY

NAME

IN TERMS

IN TERMS

OF

OF OF OTHER

OF OTHER

SYMBOL

BASE UNITS

UNITS

Area

square meter

Area square meter

Volume

Volume meter m 3

meter

m 3

Speed, velocity

meter per second

Speed, velocity meter per second

Acceleration

meter

per second

Density, mass

squared kilogram per cubic

m/s 2

density

Specific volume

meter cubic meter per kilogram hertz newton pascal joule watt meter newton

per kilogram hertz newton pascal joule watt meter newton Frequency Force Pressure, stress Energy, work Power
Frequency Force Pressure, stress Energy, work Power Moment of force Hz N kg . Pa
Frequency
Force
Pressure, stress
Energy, work
Power
Moment of force
Hz
N
kg .
Pa
.
W
N . m
m 2 . kg
m 2 .
kg
Supplementary Units TABLE
Supplementary Units
TABLE

SI UNIT

QUANTITY

NAME

SYMBOL

kg Supplementary Units TABLE SI UNIT QUANTITY NAME SYMBOL Plane angle radian rad Solid steradian of

Plane angle

radian

rad

Solid steradian
Solid
steradian

of mass. The standard is a cylinder of platinum - iridium, called the

is

International Standard, kept in a vault at France. The

the unit of time. It is defined in terms of the frequency of atomic

resonators. " The second is the duration

radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium- 133 atom." * The derived units are formed from the base units according to the algebraic relations linking the corresponding quantities. Several derived units are given special names and symbols. The supplementary units form a third class of SI units. Examples of derived units and the supplementary units are shown in Tables and respectively.

units are shown in Tables and respectively. second of 9 192 631 770 periods of the

second

units are shown in Tables and respectively. second of 9 192 631 770 periods of the

of 9 192 631 770 periods of the

units are shown in Tables and respectively. second of 9 192 631 770 periods of the
units are shown in Tables and respectively. second of 9 192 631 770 periods of the

*Page and Vigoureux,

units are shown in Tables and respectively. second of 9 192 631 770 periods of the

p. 3.

T A B L E 1-3. Prefixes for Multiples and Submultiples of SI Units CHAP.

T A B L E 1-3.

Prefixes for Multiples and Submultiples of SI Units

CHAP. 1

 

I

MULTIPLE

PREFIX

SYMBOL

SUBMULTIPLE

PREFIX

SYMBOL

1
1

10

tera

T

deci1 10 tera T d

d

G centi c

G

centiG c

c

mega

mega milli m

millimega m

m

kilo

k

micro

kilo k micro

hecto

deca

h

dc

femtohecto deca h dc n P f

femto
femto

n

P

f

 

a

The common prefixes for multiples and submultiples of SI units are shown in Table 1-3. Examples of conversion from the English to the SI units are given in Table 1-4. Note that a common error in conversion is to become ensnared in too many decimal places. The result of a computa- tion cannot have any more significant numbers than that in the original data. For uniformity in the use of SI units, the recommeiidations* are: (1) In numbers, a period (dot) is used only to separate the integral part of numbers from the decimal part. Numbers are divided into groups of three to facilitate reading. For example, in defining the meter above, we

equal to 1 650 763.73 wave-lengths 1 650 763.73 wave-lengths

symbols is illustrated in Table 1-2. The lower case roman type is generally

used. If the symbol is derived from a proper name, capital roman type is

(2) The type used for The type used for

T A B LE 1- 4.

Examples

of English Units to SI Conversion a

TO CONVERT FROM

TO

MULTIPLY BY

2.540 000 E- 02 4.535 924 E- 01 2.767 990 E+04
2.540 000 E- 02
4.535
924 E- 01
2.767 990 E+04

Inch Pound-mass Pound-mass/inch 3 (lb Slug Pound-force Pound-force-inch

meter (m) kilogram (kg) kilogram/meter 3 (kg/m 3 ) kilogram (kg) newton (N) newton-meter (N . m)

1.459 4.448 390 E +01 222 E+ 1.751 pascal (Pa) 6.894 757 03 Horsepower (550
1.459
4.448
390 E +01
222 E+
1.751
pascal (Pa)
6.894 757
03
Horsepower (550
watt (W)
7.456 999
02

"The table gives the conversion from the

radian are

damping

by 175.1 to obtain the value of c in

radian are damping by 175.1 to obtain the value of c in units to the SI
radian are damping by 175.1 to obtain the value of c in units to the SI

units to the SI units. The second and

For example, the

The value of c is multiplied c is multiplied

used in both systems and no conversions are needed.

c from Table 2-2 has the units of

used in both systems and no conversions are needed. c from Table 2-2 has the units

*Page and Vigoureux, op.

used in both systems and no conversions are needed. c from Table 2-2 has the units

p. 10.

19 symbols are not followed by a period. (3) The . m shown in Table

19

symbols are not followed by a period. (3) The19 . m shown in Table 1 - 2. dot may be omitted if there is

. m shown in Table 1 - 2.

dot may be omitted if there is no risk of confusion with another unit

symbol, such as m but not (4) The of units may be

a horizontal tine, or a negative power. For

example, velocity in Table 1-2 can be expressed as

The

must not be repeated on the same line unless ambiguity is avoided by parentheses. For example, acceleration may be expressed as m/s 2 or

used for the first letter.

product of units

m/s 2 or used for the first letter. product of units indicated by a is denoted

indicated by a

used for the first letter. product of units indicated by a is denoted by a dot,

is denoted by a dot, such as

of units indicated by a is denoted by a dot, such as m - , or
of units indicated by a is denoted by a dot, such as m - , or
of units indicated by a is denoted by a dot, such as m - , or
of units indicated by a is denoted by a dot, such as m - , or

m

of units indicated by a is denoted by a dot, such as m - , or

-, or m .

by a is denoted by a dot, such as m - , or m . m

m . but not

used without spacing between the prefix symbol and the unit symbol, such as in mm. Compound prefixes by the use of two or more SI prefixes are not used.

prefix symbols illustrated in Table 1-3 are

not used. prefix symbols illustrated in Table 1-3 are (5) The 1-7 Some basic concepts and

(5) The The

prefix symbols illustrated in Table 1-3 are (5) The 1-7 Some basic concepts and commonly used

1-7

prefix symbols illustrated in Table 1-3 are (5) The 1-7 Some basic concepts and commonly used

Some basic concepts and commonly used vibration are described in this chapter. The idealized model of a simple vibratory system in Fig. 1 - 1 consists of

a rigid mass, (2) a linear spring, (3) a viscous damper, and (4) an excitation. The inertia force is equal to the product of the mass and its acceleration as defined by Newton's law of motion. The spring force is proportional to the spring deformation, that is, the relative displacement between the two ends of the spring. The damping force is proportional to the relative velocity the two ends of the damper. An excitation

relative velocity the two ends of the damper. An excitation be applied to the mass other
relative velocity the two ends of the damper. An excitation be applied to the mass other
relative velocity the two ends of the damper. An excitation be applied to the mass other
relative velocity the two ends of the damper. An excitation be applied to the mass other
relative velocity the two ends of the damper. An excitation be applied to the mass other

be applied to the mass

other parts of the system.

If a system is the energy stored due to the initial conditions will cause it to vibrate about its static equilibrium position. If damping is zero. the system will oscillate at its natural frequency without diminishing in amplitude. If the system is underdamped. the amplitude of oscillation will diminish with each cycle and the frequency is lower that without damping. If a periodic excitation is applied to a system. the vibration consists of a steady-state response and (2) a transient motion. 'The former is being sustained by the excitation and is therefore at the excitation frequency. The latter is due to the initial energy stored in the system and

is at its damped natural frequency. Resonance occurs when the system is

excited at its natural frequency. The amplitude at resonance is limited only by the damping in the system. A simple harmonic motion is a reciprocating motion as shown in Fig. 1 - 5. Alternatively, it can be represented by means of a sinusoidal wave or

it can be represented by means of a sinusoidal wave or rotating vector as in Figs.
it can be represented by means of a sinusoidal wave or rotating vector as in Figs.

rotating vector as in Figs. 1-7 and 1-8. These representations are artifices for the convenience of visualization and manipulation only. Using

a

1-7 and 1-8. These representations are artifices for the convenience of visualization and manipulation only. Using
Introduction CHAP. 1 these representations, it can be shown that the velocity leads the displace-

Introduction

CHAP. 1

these representations, it can be shown that the velocity leads the displace- ment by and the acceleration leads the velocity by 90". A complex amplitude, shown in Fig. 1-9, is called a phasor. It has a magnitude and a phase angle relative to the reference vector. A complex number has magnitude and direction. It can be added (subtracted) by adding (subtracting) the real and imaginary parts sepa- rately. The product (quotient) of complex numbers is determined by Eqs.

andproduct (quotient) of complex numbers is determined by Eqs. Magnitude of = (magnitude of of Phase

(quotient) of complex numbers is determined by Eqs. and Magnitude of = (magnitude of of Phase
(quotient) of complex numbers is determined by Eqs. and Magnitude of = (magnitude of of Phase

Magnitude of

= (magnitude of (magnitude of

Magnitude of = (magnitude of of

of

Phase of

= (phase of I?) + (phase of B ) (phase of I?)+ (phase of B)

of Phase of = (phase of I?) + (phase of B ) The system is generally

The system is generally used in vibration. The gravitational constant is 386 in./sec 2 . There will be a change to the International Systems of Units (SI). The gravitational constant in SI units is

Examples of SI units and the conversion from the English to

the SI units are given in Tables 1-2 and 1-4, respectively.

SI units are given in Tables 1-2 and 1-4, respectively. 9.81 PROBLEMS 1-1 Describe, with the
SI units are given in Tables 1-2 and 1-4, respectively. 9.81 PROBLEMS 1-1 Describe, with the
SI units are given in Tables 1-2 and 1-4, respectively. 9.81 PROBLEMS 1-1 Describe, with the

9.81

PROBLEMS

1-1 Describe, with the aid of a sketch when necessary, each of the following:

(a) Spring force, damping force, inertia force, excitation.

(b) Kinetic energy, potential energy.

(c) Free vibration, forced vibration, a conservative system.

(d) Steady-state response, transient motion.

continuous system.system. (d) Steady-state response, transient motion. (f) Natural frequency, resonance. (g) Initial conditions,

(f) Natural frequency, resonance.

(g) Initial conditions, static equilibrium position.

(h) Rectilinear motion, rotational motion.

(i) Periodic motion, frequency, period, beat frequency.

(i) Periodic motion, frequency, period, beat frequency. Superposition. (k) Underdamped system, critically damped

Superposition.

(k) Underdamped system, critically damped system.

(I) Amplitude, phasor, phase angle

1-2 A harmonic displacement is

t is in sec-

onds and the phase angle in radians. Find (a) the frequency and the period

of the motion, (b) the maximum displacement, velocity, and acceleration, and (c) the displacement, velocity, and acceleration at t = Repeat part

and (c) the displacement, velocity, and acceleration at t = Repeat part = 10 - mm,

= 10

-
-

mm, where

and (c) the displacement, velocity, and acceleration at t = Repeat part = 10 - mm,

(c)

for

t = 1.2 s.

Problems

Problems 1-3 Repeat Prob. 1- 2 if the harmonic velocity is = 150 + 1-4 An

1-3 Repeat Prob. 1- 2 if the harmonic velocity is = 150 +

1-4 An accelerometer indicates that the acceleration of a body is sinusoidal at a

the

frequency of 40 Hz. If the maximum acceleration is 100 find amplitudes of the displacement and the velocity.

1-5 Repeat Prob.

What is the

displacement and the velocity. 1-5 Repeat Prob. What is the if the acceleration lags the excitation
displacement and the velocity. 1-5 Repeat Prob. What is the if the acceleration lags the excitation
displacement and the velocity. 1-5 Repeat Prob. What is the if the acceleration lags the excitation
displacement and the velocity. 1-5 Repeat Prob. What is the if the acceleration lags the excitation
displacement and the velocity. 1-5 Repeat Prob. What is the if the acceleration lags the excitation

if the acceleration lags the excitation by

excitation frequency?

1-6

A harmonic motion is described as

= X + = 1.0
= X
+
= 1.0

mm. The initial

conditions are

conditions are = 4.0 mm and  

= 4.0 mm and

 

(a) Find the constants

(a) Find the constants and

and

(a) Find the constants and

(b) Expressing

(b) Expressing in the form  

in the form

 
 
   
 
 

and find the constants A and B.

 

1-7

Given

X +
X
+

= A cos

1-7 Given X + = A cos + B sin find A, B, and

+ B sin

find A, B,

find A, B,

1-7 Given X + = A cos + B sin find A, B, and

and

1-7 Given X + = A cos + B sin find A, B, and

for each set of the following conditions:

(a)

= - 8.796 - 8.796

mm

and

= 10.762 mm 10.762 mm

 

(b)

= - 8.796 - 8.796

mm

and

= - 621.5 - 621.5

(b) = - 8.796 mm and = - 621.5
= - 8.796

= - 8.796

mm

and

= - -

10.76

= - 8.796 mm and = - 10.76 mm/s 2

mm/s 2

(d)

= 4.0 4.0

mm and

= - 10.76 6 - 10.76 6

= - 10.76 mm/s 2 (d) = 4.0 mm and = - 10.76 6 1-8 A

1-8 A table has a vertical

motion with constant frequency. What is(d) = 4.0 mm and = - 10.76 6 1-8 A table has a vertical the

the largest amplitude that the table can if an object on the table is to remain in contact?

table can if an object on the table is to remain in contact? 1-9 Find the

1-9 Find the algebraic sum of the harmonic motions

andcontact? 1-9 Find the algebraic sum of the harmonic motions Find X and a. Check the

1-9 Find the algebraic sum of the harmonic motions and Find X and a. Check the
1-9 Find the algebraic sum of the harmonic motions and Find X and a. Check the

Find X and a. Check the addition graphically.

The motion of a particle is described asand Find X and a. Check the addition graphically. two harmonic component. components, one of which

two

harmonic component.

components, one of which is x, = 2

= 4
= 4

If the motion has determine the other

In a sketch of x versus x versus

the equations:

of

3

the other In a sketch of x versus the equations: of 3 - for x, =

-

for x, = 5 sin

0.4 s, plot the = 4 +
0.4 s, plot the
= 4
+

described by each

=for x, = 5 sin 0.4 s, plot the = 4 + described by each 1-12

1-12 A periodic motion is described by the equation

x versus

1-13 Repeat Prob. 1 - 12 if

In a

plot of

equation x versus 1-13 Repeat Prob. 1 - 12 if In a plot of x =

x = 5 sin

1-13 Repeat Prob. 1 - 12 if In a plot of x = 5 sin +

+3 sin

Repeat Prob. 1 - 12 if In a plot of x = 5 sin + 3

sketch the motion for

if In a plot of x = 5 sin + 3 sin sketch the motion for

(a) x = 5

x = 5

(b)

+ 3 +
+
3
+
if In a plot of x = 5 sin + 3 sin sketch the motion for

+90")

+180") 180")

1.5 s.

Introduction CHAP. 1 1-14 = cos 1-15 Find the period of the functions Is the

Introduction

CHAP. 1

1-14

= cos 1-15 Find the period of the functions

Is the motion

= cos 1-15 Find the period of the functions Is the motion + 3 + (a)
= cos 1-15 Find the period of the functions Is the motion + 3 + (a)

+3

+
+

(a)

= 3 sin 3t + 5 sin 4t 3 sin 3t+5 sin 4t

(b)

= 7 cos Z 3t 7 cos Z 3t

periodic?

1-16 Determine

the

sum

where

+
+

of

the

harmonic

motions

wt1-16 Determine the sum where + of the harmonic motions and w. If beating should occur,

and

Determine the sum where + of the harmonic motions wt and w. If beating should occur,

w. If beating should occur, find the amplitude and If beating should occur, find the amplitude and

the beat frequency. 1-17 Sketch the motion described by each of the following equations:

(a)

(b)

+ = + =
+
=
+
=

+7 sin

each of the following equations: (a) (b) + = + = + 7 sin for 1-18

for 1-18 Express the following complex numbers in the exponential form

the following complex numbers in the exponential form (a) 1-19 The motion of a particle vibrating

(a)

the following complex numbers in the exponential form (a) 1-19 The motion of a particle vibrating
the following complex numbers in the exponential form (a) 1-19 The motion of a particle vibrating
the following complex numbers in the exponential form (a) 1-19 The motion of a particle vibrating

1-19 The

motion

of

a

particle

vibrating

in

harmonic components:

motion of the particle graphically.

= 2 2

+
+

a

plane has two perpendicular

and = 3 sin Determine the

= 2 + a plane has two perpendicular and = 3 sin Determine the 1-20 Repeat
= 2 + a plane has two perpendicular and = 3 sin Determine the 1-20 Repeat

1-20 Repeat Prob. 1-19 using

= 2 + a plane has two perpendicular and = 3 sin Determine the 1-20 Repeat

= 2

+

= 2 + a plane has two perpendicular and = 3 sin Determine the 1-20 Repeat

and

= 2 + a plane has two perpendicular and = 3 sin Determine the 1-20 Repeat

= 3 sin wt.

Systems with One Degree of Freedom- Theory 2-1 INTRODUCTION The one-degree-of-freedom system is the keystone

Systems with One Degree of Freedom- Theory

2-1

INTRODUCTION

The one-degree-of-freedom system is the keystone for more advanced studies in vibrations. The system is represented by means of a generalized model shown in Fig. 1-1. The common techniques for the analysis are discussed in this chapter.

shown in Fig. 2 - 1.

Though such systems differ in appearance, they all can be represented by the same generalized model in Fig. 1-1. The model serves (1) to unify a class of problems commonly encountered, and (2) to bring into focus the concepts of vibration. The applications to different types of problem will be discussed in the next chapter. Four mathematical techniques are examined. These are (1) the energy method, (2) Newton's law of motion, (3) the frequency response method, and (4) the superposition theorem. Our emphasis is on concepts rather than on mathematical manipulations. Since vibration is an energy exchange phenomenon, the simple energy method is first presented. In applying Newton's second law, the system is described by a second - order differential equation of motion. If, the excitation is an analytical expression, the equation can be solved readily by the " classical" method. If the excitation is an arbitrary function, the motion can be found using the superposition theorem. The frequency response method assumes that the excitation is sinusoidal and examines the system behavior over a frequency range of interest. Note that a system will vibrate in its own way regardless of the method of analysis. The purpose of different techniques is to find the most convenient method to characterize the system and to describe its be- havior. We treat Newton's second law and the superposition theorem as

Examples of one - degree - of - freedom systems are

We treat Newton's second law and the superposition theorem as Examples of one - degree -

Systems with One Degree of Freedom- Theory

Systems with One Degree of Freedom- Theory Static equilibrium Spring-mass system (c) Equivalent spring I governor

Static

equilibrium

Spring-mass systemwith One Degree of Freedom- Theory Static equilibrium (c) Equivalent spring I governor Torsional pendulum Pulley

of Freedom- Theory Static equilibrium Spring-mass system (c) Equivalent spring I governor Torsional pendulum Pulley

(c) Equivalent spring

I

equilibrium Spring-mass system (c) Equivalent spring I governor Torsional pendulum Pulley Mass-pulley-spring

governorequilibrium Spring-mass system (c) Equivalent spring I Torsional pendulum Pulley Mass-pulley-spring system Simple

Spring-mass system (c) Equivalent spring I governor Torsional pendulum Pulley Mass-pulley-spring system Simple

Torsional pendulum

system (c) Equivalent spring I governor Torsional pendulum Pulley Mass-pulley-spring system Simple pendulum F I G
Pulley Mass-pulley-spring system
Pulley
Mass-pulley-spring system
Torsional pendulum Pulley Mass-pulley-spring system Simple pendulum F I G . 2 - 1. Examples of

Simple pendulum

F I G . 2 - 1.

Examples of systems with one degree of freedom.

CHAP. 2

time domain analysis, since the motion of the mass is a time function, such as the solution of a differential equation with time as the independ- ent variable. The frequency response method assumes that both the excitation and the system response are sinusoidal and of the same frequency. Hence it is a frequency domain analysis. Note that time response is intuitive but it is more convenient to describe a system in the frequency domain.

SEC. 2 -2

SEC. 2 -2 Degrees of Freedom 25 It should be remarked that there must be a

Degrees of Freedom

25

It should be remarked that there must be a correlation between the time and the frequency domain analyses, since they are different methods to consider the same problem. In fact, superposition, which is treated as a time domain technique, is the basis for the study of systems. The convolution integral derived from superposition can be applied in the time or 'the frequency domain. We are presenting only one aspect of this very important theorem and shall not discuss methods of correlation. The mathematical of the time and frequency analyses is not new. Its implementation, however, was not practical until the advent of compu- ters, instrumentation, and testing techniques in recent years.

instrumentation, and testing techniques in recent years. 2-2 DEGREES OF FREEDOM The number of degrees of
instrumentation, and testing techniques in recent years. 2-2 DEGREES OF FREEDOM The number of degrees of

2-2

DEGREES OF FREEDOM

The number of degrees of freedom of a vibratory system is the number of independent spatial coordinates necessary to define its configuration. A is defined as the geometric location of all the masses of the system. If the inter- relationship of the masses is such that only one spatial coordinate is required to define the configuration, the system is said to

possess one degree of freedom.

A rigid body in space requires six coordinates for its complete identifi- cation, namely, three coordinates to define the rectilinear positions and three to define the angular rotations. Ordinarily, however, the masses in a system are constrained to move only in a certain manner. Thus, the

are constrained to move only in a certain manner. Thus, the constraints limit the of freedom

constraints limit the of freedom

certain manner. Thus, the constraints limit the of freedom to a much smaller number. Alternatively, the

to a much smaller number.

Alternatively, the number of degrees of freedom of a system can be defined as the number of spatial coordinates required to specify its configuration minus the number of equations of constraint." We shall illustrate these definitions with a number of examples.

The one-degree-of-freedom systems shown in Fig. 2-1 are briefly discussed as follows:

1.

2.

The spring-mass system in Fig. has a rnass suspended from a coil spring with a spring constant k. If m is constrained to move only in the vertical direction about its static equilibrium position only one spatial coordinate is required to define its configuration. Hence it is said possess one degree of freedom.

consists of a heavy disk and a

The torsional

shaft of negligible mass with a torsional spring constant If the system is constrained to oscillate about the longitudinal axis of the

the system can be specified by a single

axis of the the system can be specified by a single in Fig. shaft, the configuration
axis of the the system can be specified by a single in Fig. shaft, the configuration
axis of the the system can be specified by a single in Fig. shaft, the configuration
axis of the the system can be specified by a single in Fig. shaft, the configuration
axis of the the system can be specified by a single in Fig. shaft, the configuration
axis of the the system can be specified by a single in Fig. shaft, the configuration
axis of the the system can be specified by a single in Fig. shaft, the configuration

in Fig.

axis of the the system can be specified by a single in Fig. shaft, the configuration

shaft, the configuration of coordinate

by a single in Fig. shaft, the configuration of coordinate system considered in this text. For

system considered in

this text. For a discussion on holonomic and nonholonomic see, for Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, Addison-Wesley Publishing Inc., Mass,

1957, pp. 11- 14.

*Such a system is called a holonomic system; it is the only type