FRANCIS S. TSE
University of Cincinnati
IVAN E. MORSE
University of Cincinnati
T. HINKLE
Michigan State University
Mechanical Vibrations
Theory and Applications
SECOND EDITION
Allyn and Bacon,
Boston
Sydney
Toronto
Copyright
470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210.
1978, 1%3 by
and Bacon, Inc.
rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Tse, Francis Sing Mechanical vibrations.
(Allyn and Bacon series in Mechanical engineering and applied mechanics) Includes index.
1. Vibrations.
author. Hinkle,
author. Title.
1978
I.
Morse, Ivan E., joint Theodore, joint
7720933
620.3
ISBN
ISBN
(International)
Preface
xi
CHAPTER 1
Contents
INTRODUCTION
1 1 
Primary Objective 1 

12 
Elements of a Vibratory System 
2 

13 
Examples of Vibratory Motions 
5 

14 
Simple Harmonic Motion 

15 
Vectorial Representation of Harmonic Motions _{1}_{1} 

1 6 
Units 
16 

17 
Summary 
19 

Problems 
20 
CHAPTER 2
SYSTEMS WITH ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM THEORY
21 Introduction 23
2 2 
Degrees of Freedom 25 

2 3 
Equation of Motion Energy Method 
27 
24 
Equation of Motion Newton's Law of Motion 33 
25 General Solution
34
Complementary Function 34 Particular Integral 38 General Solution 42
vi
Contents
2 6 Frequency Response Method 45
27 
Impedance Method 45 Transfer Function 49 Resonance, Damping, and Bandwidth 51 Transient Vibration 52 Impulse Response 53 
28 
Convolution Integral 55 Indicia1 Response 57 Comparison of Rectilinear 
2 9 
and Rotational Systems _{5}_{8} Summary 58 
Problems
62
CHAPTER 3
SYSTEMS WITH ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM APPLICATIONS
Introduction 69 Undamped Free Vibration 70 Damped Free Vibration 77 Undamped Forced Vibration Harmonic Excitation 80
Damped Forced Vibration Harmonic Excitation 86 Rotating and Reciprocating
Unbalance
_{8}_{7}
Critical Speed of Rotating Shafts 89 Vibration Isolation and
Transmissibility
_{9}_{4}
Systems Attached to Moving Support 98 Seismic Instruments 101 Elastically Supported Damped
Systems
Damped Forced Vibration
_{1}_{0}_{6}
Periodic Excitation
109
Equivalent Viscous Damping Summary 129
Transient Vibration Shock Spectrum
122
Problems
131
116
_{C}_{H}_{A}_{P}_{T}_{E}_{R} _{4}
SYSTEMS WITH MORE THAN ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM
41 
Introduction 
142 
42 
Equations of Motion: 
Newton's Second Law
_{1}_{4}_{3}
_{1}_{4}_{2}
43 Undamped Free Vibration: Principal Modes
44
and
45
46
47
48
49
Generalized Coupling Principal Coordinates Modal Analysis:
of Undamped S Systems
Forced Vibration Harmonic Excitation
Influence Coefficients
158
ient Vibration
_{1}_{6}_{0}
165
175
169
410 

180 

Problems 
181 

CHAPTER 5 METHODS FOR 

NATURAL 


51 
Introduction 
190 

52 

Equation 190 

53 
Rayleigh Method 
193 

54 
Method 
197 

55 
Transfer Matrix 
202 
MyklestadProhl Method
213
Problems
CHAPTER 6
DISCRETESYSTEMS
61 Introduction 218 62 Equations of Motion Undamped Systems 63 Undamped Vibration Principal Modes 223
64 Orthogonality and Principal Coordinates 226 65 Coordinates 229 66 Expansion Theorem 230
67 
Quotient 231 
68 
Semidefinite Systems 232 
69 Matrix Iteration 234
610 Undamped Forced Vibration Modal Analysis 611 Systems with Proportional
612
Systems 241 613 Damped Forced Vibration Modal Analysis
238
Orthogonality of Modes of Damped
243
Contents
6 14 Summary 
245 

Problems 
246 

CHAPTER 7 CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 


71 
Introduction 253 

72 
Continuous 

73 
A Simple Exposition 253 Separation of the Time 

74 
and Space Variables 256 Problems Governed by 

the Wave Equation 258 Longitudinal Vibration of Rods 
258 

Torsional Vibration of Shafts 
261 

75 
Lateral Vibration of Beams 262 

76 
Rotary Inertia and Other Effects 265 Shear Deformation and Rotary 

Inertia Effects 
266 

77 
Effect of Axial Loading The Eigenvalue Problem 270 
268 

78 
Orthogonality 272 

Boundary Conditions Independent of _{A} 
273 

Boundary Conditions Dependent 

on 
A 275 

79 
Lagrange's Equations 280 

710 Undamped Forced Vibration Modal Analysis 285 711 Rayleigh's Quotient 288 

712 
Rayleigh Ritz Method 290 

713 Summary 
294 

Problems 
295 

CHAPTER 8 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS 

81 
Introduction 
300 

_{8}_{}_{2} 
Stability and Examples of Nonlinear 

83 
Systems 301 The Phase Plane 
303 

84 
Stability of Equilibrium 
306 

85 
Graphical Methods 
316 
Isocline Method 317 Pell's Method 319 86 Selfexcited Oscillations 87 Analytical Methods 323
321
Contents
88 
Free Vibration 
323 

Perturbation Method 323 Variation of Parameter Method 325 


Balance 
327 

89 
Forced Vibration 328 
Jump Phenomenon 328 Subharmonic Oscillation 332
810 Summary 
334 

Problems 
335 

_{C}_{H}_{A}_{P}_{T}_{E}_{R} _{9} SOLUTIONS BY DIGITAL COMPUTERS 


91 
Introduction 
339 

92 
One degreeof freedom 

Systems Transient Response 341 

93 
Program TRESP1 
342 

94 
Program TKESPSUB 346 

95 

349 

96 
One degree of freedom 

Systems Harmonic Response 
352 

97 
Ndegree of freedom 

Systems Harmonic Response 
356 

98 
Transient Response of Undamped 

Discrete Systems 360 99 Rayleigh's Method Undamped 

910 
Multirotor Systems 365 Myklestad Prohl Method Transfer 

Matrix Technique 369 911 Matrix Iteration Undamped Discrete Systems 371 

912 Transient Response of Damped Systems 376 

913 Summary 
380 

Problems 
385 

A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C Elements of Matrix Algebra 


Lagrange's Equations 

Subroutines 

D Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients 

Index
Preface
Vibration is study of oscillatory motions. The ultimate goals of this study are to determine the effect of vibration on the performance and safety of systems, and to control its effects. With the advent of high per formance machines and environmental control, this study has become a part of most engineering curricula. text presents the fundamentals and applications of vibration theory. It is intended for students taking either a first course or a oneyear sequence in the subject at the junior or senior level. The student is assumed to have an elementary knowledge of dynamics, strength of materials, and differential equations, although summaries of several topics are included in the appendices for review purposes. The format of its predecessor is re tained, but the text material has been substantially rewritten. In view of the widespread adoption of the International System of Units (SI) by the indus trial world, SI units are used in the problems. The objectives of the text are first, to establish a sense of engineering reality, second, to provide adequate basic theory, and finally, to generalize these concepts for wider applications: The primary focus of the text is on the engineering significance of the physical quantities, with the mathemat ical structure providing a supporting role. Throughout the text, examples of applications are given before the generalization to give the student a frame of reference, and to avoid the pitfall of overgeneralization. To further enhance engineering reality, detailed digital computations for discrete sys tems are presented so that the student can solve meaningful numerical prob lems.
The first three chapters examine systems with one degree of freedom. General concepts of vibration are described in Chapter _{1}_{.} The theory of
xii
Preface
time and frequency domain analysis is introduced in Chapter 2 through the study of a generalized model, consisting of the mass, spring, damper, and excitation elements. This provides the basis for modal analyses in subse quent chapters. The applications in Chapter 3 demonstrate that the ele ments of the model are, in effect, equivalent quantities. Although the same theory is used, the appearance of a system in an engineering problem may differ greatly from that of the model. The emphasis of Chapter 3 is on prob lem formulation. Through the generalization and classification of problems in the chapter, a new encounter will not appear as a stranger. Discrete systems are introduced in Chapter _{4} using systems with two degrees of freedom. Coordinate coupling is treated in detail. Common methods of finding natural frequencies are described in Chapter 5. The material in these chapters is further developed in Chapter 6 using matrix techniques and relating the matrices to energy quantities. Thus, the student would not feel the artificiality in the numerous coordinate transformations in the study. The onedimensional wave equation and beam equation of continu ous systems are discussed in Chapter 7. The material is organized to show the similarities between continuous and discrete systems. Chapter 8, on nonlinear systems, explains certain common phenomena that cannot be pre dicted by linear theory. The chapter consists of two main parts, conforming to the geometric and analytical approaches to studies. The digital computation in Chapter 9 is organized to follow the sequence of topics presented in the prior chapters and can be assigned con currently with the text material. The programs listed in Table 91 are suffi cient for the computation and plotting of results for either damped or undamped discrete systems. Detailed explanations are given to aid the stu dent in executing the programs. The programs are almost conversational and only a minimal knowledge of FORTRAN is necessary for their execu tion.
The first five chapters constitute the core of an elementary, quarter terminal course at the junior level. Depending on the purpose of the
particular course, parts of Section 35 can be used as assigned reading. Sec
tions 3 6 through 38,
omitted without loss of continuity. For a onesemester senior or duallevel course, the instructor may wish to use Chapters 1 through 4, Chapter 6, and portions of Chapter 7 or 8. Some topics, such as equivalent viscous damping, may be omitted. Alternatively, the text has sufficient material for a oneyear sequence at the junior or senior level. Generally, the first course in mechanical vibra tions is required and the second is an elective. The material covered will give the student a good background for more advanced studies.
We would like to acknowledge our indebtedness to many friends, students, and colleagues for their suggestions, to the numerous writers who
Section 49, and Sections 54 through 56 may be
SEC. 15
Vectorial Representation of Harmonic Motions
13
(a)
representation
Harmonic motions
FIG. 18.
Displacement, velocity, and acceleration vectors.
Thus, each differentiation is equivalent to the multiplication of the vector by Since X is the magnitude of the vector X, is real, = 1, each differentiation changes the magnitude by a factor _{o}_{f} Since the multipli  cation of a vector by is equivalent to advancing it by a phase angle of each differentiation also advances a vector by 90". If a given harmonic displacement is = cos the relations be tween the displacement and its velocity and acceleration are
Displacement
Velocity
Acceleration
These relations are identical to those shown in (14) to (16). The representation of displacement, velocity, and acceleration by rotating vectors is illustrated in Fig. 18. Since the given displacement is a cosine function, or along the real axis, the velocity and acceleration must be along the real axis. Hence the real parts of the respective vectors give the physical quantities at the given time Harmonic functions can be added graphically be means of vector addition. The vectors and representing the motions cos wt and + a), respectively, are added graphically as shown in Fig. The resultant vector X has a magnitude
and a phase angle
Introduction
11
PRIMARY
The subject of vibration deals with the oscillatory motion of dynamic systems. A dynamic system is a combination of matter which possesses mass and whose parts are capable of relative motion. All bodies posses sing mass and elasticity are capable of vibration. The mass is inherent of the body, and the elasticity is due to the relative motion of the parts of the body. The system considered may be very simple or complex. _{I}_{t} may be in the form of a structure, a machine or its components, or a group of machines. The oscillatory motion of the system may be objectionable, trivial, or necessary for performing a task. The objective of the designer is to control the vibration when it is objectionable and to enhance the vibration when it useful, although vibrations in general are undesirable. Objectionable vibrations in a machine cause the loosening of parts, its malfunctioning, or its eventual failure. On the other hand, shakers in foundries and vibrators in testing machines require vibration. The performance of many instruments depends on the proper control of the vibrational characteristics of the devices. The primary objective of our study is to analyze the oscillatory motion of dynamic systems and the forces associated with the motion. The ultimate goal in the study of vibration is to determine its effect on the performance and safety of the system under consideration. The analysis of the oscillatory motion is an important step towards this goal. Our study begins with the description of the elements in a vibratory system, the introduction of some terminology and concepts, and the discussion of simple harmonic motion. These will be used throughout the text. Other concepts and terminology will be introduced in the appro priate places as needed.
Introduction
CHAP. 1
12
ELEMENTS OF A VIBRATORY SYSTEM
The elements that constitute a vibratory system are illustrated in Fig. 11. They are idealized and called (1) the mass, (2) the spring, (3) the damper, and (4) the excitation. The first three elements describe the physical system. For example, it can be said that a given system consists of a mass, a spring, and a damper arranged as shown in the figure. Energy may be stored in the mass and the spring and dissipated in the damper in the form of heat. Energy enters the system through the application of an excitation. As shown in Fig. 11, an excitation force is applied to the mass m of the system. The mass m is assumed to be a rigid body. It executes the vibrations and can gain or lose kinetic energy in accordance with the velocity change of the body. From Newton's law of motion, the product of the mass and its acceleration is equal to the force applied _{t}_{o} the mass, and the acceleration takes place in the direction in which the force acts. Work is force times displacement in the direction of the force. The work is transformed into the kinetic energy of the mass. The kinetic energy increases if work is positive and decreases if work is negative. Th spring k possesses elasticity and is assumed to be of negligible mass. spring force exists if the spring is deformed, such as the extension or the compression of a coil spring. Therefore the spring force exists only if there is a relative displacement between the two ends of the spring. The work done in deforming a spring is transformed into potential energy, that is, the strain energy stored in the spring. A linear spring is one that obeys Hooke's law, that is, the spring force is proportional to the spring deformation. The constant of proportionality, measured in force per unit deformation, is called the stiffness, or the spring constant k. The damper c has neither mass nor elasticity. Damping force exists only if there is relative motion between the two ends of the damper. The work or the energy input to a damper is converted into heat. Hence the damping element is nonconservatiue. Viscous damping, in which the damping force is proportional to the velocity, is called linear damping. Viscous damping, or its equivalent, is generally assumed in engineering.
Static
equilibrium
position
t
Displacement
X
Excitation
force
1  1. Elements of a vibratory system.
_{S}_{E}_{C}_{.} _{1}_{}_{2}
Elements of a Vibratory System
FIG. 12.
A periodic motion.
viscous damping
c
is measured in force per unit velocity.
Many types of nonlinear damping are commonly encountered. For exam  ple, the frictional drag of a body moving in a fluid is approximately proportional to the velocity squared, but the exact value of the exponent is dependent on many variables. Energy enters a system through the application of an excitation. An excitation force may be applied to the mass and/or an excitation motion applied to the spring and the damper. An excitation force applied to the mass m is illustrated in Fig. The excitation varies in accordance with a prescribed function of time. Hence the excitation is always known at a given Alternatively, if the system is suspended a support, excitation may be applied to the system through imparting a prescribed motion to support. In machinery, excitation often arises from the unbalance of the moving components. The vibrations of dynamic systems under the influence of an excitation is called forced vibrations. Forced vibrations, however, are often defined as the vibrations that are caused and maintained by a periodic excitation. If the vibratory motion is periodic, the system repeats its motion at equal time intervals as shown in Fig. 12. The minimum time required for the system to repeat its motion is called a period which is the time to complete one cycle of motion. Frequency is the number of times that the motion repeats itself per unit time. A motion that does not repeat itself at equal time intervals is called an aperiodic motion. A dynamic system can be set into motion by some initial conditions, or disturbances at time equal to zero. If no disturbance or excitation is applied after the zero time, the oscillatory motions of the system are called free vibrations. Hence free vibrations describe the natural behavior or the natural modes of vibration of a system. The initial condition is an energy input. If a spring is deformed, the input is potential energy. If a mass is given an initial velocity, the input is kinetic energy. Hence initial conditions are due to the energy initially stored in the system. If the system does not possess damping, there is no energy dissipation. Initial conditions would cause the system to vibrate and the free vibration of an undamped system will not diminish with time. If a system possesses
Introduction
CHAP.
damping, energy will be dissipated in the damper. Hence the free vibra tions will eventually die out and the system then remain at its static equilibrium position. Since the energy stored is due to the initial conditions, free vibrations also describe the natural behavior of the system as it relaxes from the initial state to its static equilibrium. For simplicity, lumped masses, linear springs, and viscous dampers will be assumed unless otherwise stated. Systems possessing these characteris tics are called linear systems. An important property of linear systems is that they follow the principle of superposition. For example, the resultant motion of the system due to the simultaneous application of two excita tions is a linear combination of the motions due to each of the excitations acting separately. The values of m, c, and k of the elements in Fig. 11 are often referred to as the system parameters. For a given problem, these values are assumed time invariant. Hence the coefficients or the parame ters in the equations are constants. The equation of motion of the system becomes a linear ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients, which can be solved readily. Note that the idealized elements in Fig. 11 form a model of a vibratory system which in reality can be quite complex. For example, a coil spring possesses both mass and elasticity. In order to consider it as an idealized spring, either its mass is assumed negligible or an appropriate portion of its mass is lumped together with the other masses of the system. The resultant model is a lumpedparameter, or discrete, system. For example, a beam has its mass and elasticity inseparably distributed along its length. The vibrational characteristics of a beam, or more generally of an elastic body or a continuous system, can be studied by this approach if the continuous system is approximated by a finite number of lumped parame ters. This method is a practical approach to the study of some very complicated structures, such as an aircraft. In spite of the limitations, the lumped parameter approach to the study of vibration problems is well justified for the following reasons. (1) Many physical systems are essentially discrete systems. (2) The concepts can be extended to analyze the vibration of continuous systems. (3) Many physical systems are too complex to be investigated analytically as elastic bodies. These are often studied through the use of their equivalent discrete systems. (4) The assumption of lumped parameters is not to replace the basic understanding of a problem, but it simplifies the analyti cal effort and renders a technique for the computer solution. So far, we have discussed only systems with rectilinear motion. For systems with rotational motions, the elements are (1) the mass moment of inertia of the body J, (2) the torsional spring with spring constant and (3) the torsional damper with torsional damping coefficient An angular displacement is analogous to a rectilinear displacement x, and an excitation torque is analogous to an excitation force The two types of systems are compared as shown in Table 1 1. The comparison is
_{S}_{E}_{C}_{.} _{1}_{}_{3}
Examples of Vibratory Motions
TA BLE
Comparison
of
Rotational Systems
Rectilinear
and
shown in greater detail in Tables 22 and 23. It is apparent from the comparison that thp concept of systems can be extended easily systems.
13
OF
MOTIONS
To illustrate different types of vibratory motion, let us choose various combinations of the four elements shown in Fig. 1 1 to form  simple dynamic systems. The spring  mass system of Fig. serves to illustrate the case of undamped free vibration. The mass is initially at rest at its static equilibrium position. It is acted upon by two equal and opposite forces, namely, the force, which is equal to the product of the spring constant k and the static deflection of the spring, and the gravitational force mg due to the weight of the mass _{m}_{.} Now assume that the mass is displaced from equilibrium by an amount and then released with zero initial velocity. As shown in the freebody sketch, at the time the mass is released, the spring force is equal to This is greater than the gravitational force on the mass by the amount Upon being released, the mass will move toward the equilibrium position. Since the spring is initially deformed by from equilibrium, the corresponding potential energy is stored in the spring. The system is conservative because there is no damper to dissipate the energy. When the mass moves upward and passes through equilibrium, the potential energy of the system Thus, the potential energy is transformed to become the kinetic energy of the mass. As the mass moves above the equilibrium position, the spring is compressed and thereby gaining poten tial energy'from the kinetic energy of the mass. When the mass is at its uppermost position, its velocity is zero. All the kinetic energy of the mass has been transformed to become potential energy. Through the exchange of potential and kinetic energies between the spring and the mass, the system oscillates periodically at its natural frequency about its static
Free length
(a) Undamped free vibration
Freebody
sketch
(b) Damped free vibration
Forced vibration
FIG. 13. Simple vibratory systems.
equilibrium position. Hence natural frequency describes the rate of energy exchange between two types of energy storage elements, namely, the mass and the spring.
It will be shown in Chap. 2 that this periodic motion is sinusoidal or
simple harmonic. Since the system is conservative, the maximum displace ment of the mass from equilibrium, or the of vibration, will not diminish 'from cycle to cycle. It is implicit in this discussion that the natural frequency is a property of the system, depending on the values of
m and k. It is independent of the initial conditions or the amplitude of the oscillation.
massspring system with damping is shown in Fig. The mass
at rest is under the influence of the spring force and the gravitational force, since the damping force is proportional to velocity. Now, if the mass is displaced by an amount from its static equilibrium position and then released with zero initial velocity, the spring force will tend to restore the mass to equilibrium as before. In addition to the spring force, however, the mass is also acted upon by the damping force which opposes its motion. resultant motion depends on the amount of damping in the system. If the damping is light, the system is said to be underdamped the motion is oscillatory. The presence of damping will cause (1) the eventual dying out of the oscillation and (2) the system to oscillate more slowly than without damping. In other words, the amplitude
A
SEC. 13
Examples of Vibratory Motions
with each subsequent cycle of oscillation, and the frequency of vibration with viscous damping is lower than the undamped natural frequency. If the damping is heavy, the motion is nonoscillatory, and the system is said to be The mass, upon being released, will simply tend to return to its static equilibrium position. The system is said to be critically damped if the amount of damping is such that the resultant motion is on the border line between the two cases enumerated. The free vibrations of the systems shown in Figs. and (b) are illustrated in Fig. 14. Ail physical systems possess damping to a greater or a lesser degree. When there is very 'little damping in a system, such as a steel structure or a simple pendulum, the damping may be negligibly small. Most mechanical systems possess little damping and can be approximated as undamped systems. Damping is often built into a system to obtain the desired performance. For example, vibrationmeasuring instruments are often built with damping corresponding to 70 percent of the critically damped value. If an excitation force is applied to the mass of the system as shown in Fig. the resultant motion depends on the initial conditions as well as the excitation. In other words, the motion depends on the manner by which the energy is applied to the system. Let us assume that the excitation is sinusoidal for this discussion. Once the system is set into motion, it will tend to vibrate at its natural frequency as well as to follow the of the excitation. If the system possesses damping, the part of the motion not sustained by the sinusoidal excitation will eventually die out. This is the transient motion, which is at the natural frequency of the system, that is, the oscillation under free vibrations. The motion sustained by the sinusoidal excitation is called the steady state or the steadystate response. Hence the steadystate re sponse must be at the excitation frequency regardless of the initial
F I G . 1  4.
Free vibration of systems shown in Figs.
displacement =
initial velocity = 0.
and (b).
8
conditions or the natural frequency of the system. It will be shown in
described by the particular
integral and the transient motion by the complementary function of the differential equation of the system. Resonance occurs when the excitation frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the system. No energy input is needed to maintain the vibrations of an undamped system at its natural frequency. Thus, any energy input will be used to build up the amplitude of the vibration, and the amplitude at resonance of an undamped system increase without limit. In a system with damping, the energy input is dissipated in the damper. Under steady state condition, the net energy input per cycle is
equal to the energy dissipation per cycle. Hence the _{o}_{f} vibration at resonance for systems with damping is Mite, and it is determined by the amount of damping in the system.
Chap. 2 that the steady state response is
14
SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
Simple harmonic motion is the simplest form of periodic motion. It will be shown in later chapters that (1) harmonic motion is also the basis for more complex analysis using Fourier technique, and (2) steadystate analysis can be greatly simplified using vectors to represent harmonic motions. We shall discuss simple harmonic motions and the manipulation of vectors in some detail in this section.
A simple harmonic motion is a reciprocating motion. It can be rep
resented by the circular functions, sine or cosine. Consider the motion of the point P on the horizontal axis of Fig. If the distance OP is
OP =
= X cos
where t = time, = constant, and X = constant, the motion of P about the origin is sinusoidal or simple harmonic.* Since the circular function repeats itself in radians, a cycle of motion is completed when =
* A sine, a cosine, or their combination can be used to represent a simple harmonic motion. For example, let
=
wt cos a
w s
sin a)
+ a)
where X =
and, therefore, simple harmonic. For simplicity, we shall confine our discussion to _{a} cosine function.
It is apparent that the motion is sinusoidal
and a =
In Eq.
indicates that
is a function of time
Since this is implicit in the
equation, we shall omit (t) in all subsequent equations.
_{1}_{}_{4}
Harmonic Motion
that is,
FIG. 15.
Simple harmonic motion:
X cos
Period
Frequency
= 
or Hz*
is called the circular frequency measured in
represents the displacement of a mass in a vibratory system, the
velocity and the acceleration are the first and the second time derivatives the displacement,? that is,
Displacement x = X cos
Velocity 
x = 
 
Acceleration 
=  
_{(}_{1}_{}_{6}_{)}
These equations indicate that the velocity and acceleration of a harmonic displacement are also harmonic of the same frequency. Each differentia tion changes the amplitude of the motion by a factor of and the phase angle of the circular function by The phase angle of the velocity is 90" leading the displacement and the acceleration is leading the displacement. Simple harmonic motion can be defined by combining Eqs. (14) and
(16).
where a constant. When the acceleration of a particle with recti  linear motion is always proportional to its displacement from a fixed point on the path and is directed towards the fixed point, the particle is said to have simple harmonic motion. It can be shown that the solution of Eq. (1 7) has the form of a sine and a cosine function with circular frequency equal to w.
* In 1965, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) adopted new standards for symbols and abbreviation (IEEE Standard No. 260). The unit :hertz (Hz) replaces (cps) for frequency. Hz is now commonly used in vibration studies.
symbols x and
represent the first and second time derivatives of the function
respectively. This notation is used throughout the text unless ambiguity may arise.
CHAP. 1
The sum of two harmonic functions of the same frequency but with different phase angles is also a harmonic function of the same frequency. For example, the sum of the harmonic motions _{=} cos and
+ a ) is
sin a )
where X =
harmonic motion and = sin + cos a ) is its phase
angle. The sum of
harmonic. A special case of interest is when the frequencies are slightly
different frequencies is not
is the amplitude of the resultant
cos
two harmonic motions of
different. Let the sum of the motions and
be
= 2X cos t cos
2
where The resultant motion may be considered as a cosine wave with the circular frequency + which is approximately equal to and with a varying amplitude [2X The resultant motion is
illustrated in Fig. 16. Every time the amplitude reaches a maximum,
as determined by two
there is said to be a beat. The beat frequency
_{F} _{I} _{G} _{.} _{1} _{} _{6}_{.}
Graphical representation of beats.
_{1}_{}_{5}
Motions
consecutive maximum amplitudes, is
where and are the frequencies of the constituting motions. The more general case, for which the amplitudes of and are unequal, is left as an exercise. The phenomenon of beats is common in engineering. Evidently beating can be a useful technique in frequency measurement in which an un known frequency is compared with a standard frequency.
REPRESENTATION OF HARMONIC MOTIONS
It is convenient to represent a harmonic motion by means of a rotating vector X of constant magnitude* X at a constant angular velocity o. In Fig. 17, the displacement of from the center along the x axis
(a) Vectorial representation
FIG . 17.
(b) Harmonic motions
Harmonic
motions represented by rotating vector.
* In complex variables, the length of a vector is called the absolute value or modulus, and the phase angle is called the argument or amplitude. The length of the vector in this discussion is the amplitude of the motion. To avoid confusion, we shall use magnitude to denote the length of the vector.
cos ot. This is the projection of the rotating vector X on
the diameter along the axis. Similarly, the projection of X on the y axis is OQ = = X sin Naming the x axis as the " real" axis and the y axis as the " imaginary" one, the rotating vector X is represented by the equation*
X = X cos o t+
sin
= Xe ^{i} ^{u} '
where X is the length of the vector or its magnitude and = is called the imaginary unit. If a harmonic function is given as = X cos it can be expressed as where the symbol Re denotes the real part of the function Similarly, the function = X sin wt can be expressed as y(t)=Im[Xe J ^{u} '], where the symbol Im denotes the imaginary part of It should be remembered that a harmonic motion is a reciprocating motion. Its representation by means of a rotating vector is only a convenience. This enables the exponential function to be used in equations involving harmonic functions. The use of complex functions and complex numbers greatly simplifies the mathematical manipulations of this type of equations. In reality, all physical quantities, whether they are displacement, velocity, acceleration, or force, must be real quantities. The differentiation of a harmonic function can be carried out in its vectorial form. The differentiation of a vector _{X} is
y the
and y are
numbers and can be treated as a complex number. Let X in Fig. be a complex number. The vector X is
* A complex number
imaginary part of
Both
is
of
the form
where
is the real part and
and y may be time dependent. For a specific time,
where
sine and cosine functions by Maclaurin's series, we obtain
and expanding the
The equation
= cos 0
j sin 0 is called Euler's formula.
Preface
contributed to this field of study, and to the authors listed in the references.
We are especially grateful to Dr. James _{L}_{.}
Chapter 9, and to K. G. Mani for his contribution of the subroutine in Appendix C.
for his suggestions in
Francis S. Ivan E. Morse
T.
CHAP. 1
(a)
Vector addition
(b) Vector addition with phasor notation (wt
F I G . 1  9.
Addition of harmonic functions: vectorial method.
0)
with respect to Since the original motions are given along the real axis, the sum of the harmonic motions is _{=} X _{+} The
addition operation can readily be extended to include the subtraction operation.
Since both
and
are rotating with the same angular
only the relative phase angle of the vectors is of interest. It is convenient
measurement of phase angles.
and their sum X are plotted in this manner in Fig.
sin
can be expressed as
cos
The quantity = is a complex number and is called the complex amplitude or phasor of the vector _{X}_{,}_{.} Similarly, _{=} in Fig. is the phasor of the vector X.
Harmonic functions can be added algebraically by means of vector
_{+}_{a}_{)}_{,}
addition. Using the their vector sum is
same functions
cos _{w}_{t} and
_{=}
,
where
and
sin a
cos a
SEC. 1 5
Vectorial Representation of Harmonic Motions
Since the given harmonic motions are along the real their sum is
= X
In representing harmonic motions by rotating vectors, it is often necessary to determine the product of complex numbers. The product can be found by expressing the complex numbers in the exponential form. For example, the product of the complex numbers and is
= (a,
+jb,)
(113)
are the magnitudes of the numbers are their phase angles. Equation
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{A} and (113) indicates that
Magnitude of
Phase of
=
(magnitude of
= (phase of
of
_{(}_{1} _{} _{1}_{4}_{)}
Obviously, the multiplication operation can be generalized to include the division operation.
_{E}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e} _{1}_{.}
Manipulation of Complex Numbers
(a)
The symbol is a convenient way of writing
= 1+
j sin 60") =
vector of magnitude of
two units and
a phase angle of
It represents a
60 " or
rad
The last two examples indicate that the multiplication of a vector by j advances the vector counterclockwise by a phase angle of 90" and a division by retards it by
CHAP. 1
Since there will be a change from the English engineering (customary) to the International System of Units (SI), the two systems of units will coexist for years. The student and the practicing engineer will need to know both systems. We shall briefly discuss the English units and then the SI units in some detai; in this section. Newton's law of motion may be expressed as
Force =
(116)
Dimensional homogeneity of the equation is obtained when the force is in pounds the mass in slugs, and the acceleration in ft/sec ^{2} . This is the English system in which the mass has the unit of A body falling under the influence of gravitation has an acceleration of g ft/sec ^{2} , where 32.2 is the gravitational acceleration. Hence one pound  mass exerts one pound  force under the gravitational pull of the earth. In other words, 1 lb, weighs one pound on a spring scale. If a mass is given in pounds, or weight, it must be divided by g to obtain dimensional homogeneity in Eq. (116). The system is generally used in the study of vibrations. The gravitational acceleration is = 386 in./sec ^{2} . Hence the weight is divided by 386 in order to obtain dimensional homogeneity in Eq. (116). We assume that the gravitational acceleration is constant unless otherwise stated. In the derivation of equations, the mass m is assumed to have the proper units. The International System of Units (SI) is the modernized version of the metric system.*  SI consists of (1) seven well defined base units, (2) derived units, and (3) supplementary units. The base units are regarded as dimensionally independent. Those of interest in this study are the meter, the kilogram, and the second. The meter m is the unit of length. It is defined in terms of the wave  length of a krypton85 lamp as " the length equal to 1650 763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the levels and of the krypton 86 atom." The kilogram kg is the unit
in the literature. A kit,
containing the above and several other publications, is obtainable from the American
Society of Engineering Education:
* A description of SI and a brief bibliography can be
International System of Units
National Bureau of Standards, Special Publication 330, Revised 1974.
Guide
United Engineering Center, 345 E. 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017, 1975.
Edited by C. H. Page and P. Vigoureux, US
of
(Metric) Units, 6th ed.,
Orientation and Guide
Some References on Information, US National Bureau of Standards, Special Publication 389, Revised 1974.
ASEE Metric (SI) Resource Kit Project, One Dupont Circle, Suite 400, Washington, DC
20036.
,
Units
17
SI UNIT
QUANTITY
NAME
IN TERMS 
IN _{T}_{E}_{R}_{M}_{S} 

OF 

OF OTHER 
SYMBOL
BASE UNITS
UNITS
Area 
square meter 


Volume 

meter 
m ^{3} 
Speed, velocity 
meter per second 


Acceleration 
meter 
per second 

Density, mass 
squared kilogram per cubic 
m/s ^{2} 
density
Specific volume
meter cubic meter per kilogram hertz newton pascal joule watt meter newton
SI UNIT
QUANTITY
NAME
SYMBOL
Plane angle
radian
rad
of mass. The standard is a cylinder of platinum  iridium, called the
is
International Standard, kept in a vault at France. The
the unit of time. It is defined in terms of the frequency of atomic
resonators. " The second is the duration
radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom." * The derived units are formed from the base units according to the algebraic relations linking the corresponding quantities. Several derived units are given special names and symbols. The _{s}_{u}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{u}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{s} form a third class of SI units. Examples of derived units and the supplementary units are shown in Tables and respectively.
second
of 9 192 631 770 periods of the
*Page and Vigoureux,
p. 3.
T A B L E 13.
Prefixes for Multiples and Submultiples of SI Units
CHAP. 1
I 

MULTIPLE 
PREFIX 
SYMBOL 
SUBMULTIPLE PREFIX 
SYMBOL 
1
10 
tera 
T 
deci 
d 

G 
centi 
c 

mega 

milli 
m 

kilo 
k 
micro 


hecto deca 
h dc 
femto 
n P f 

a 
The common prefixes for multiples and submultiples of SI units are shown in Table 13. Examples of conversion from the English to the SI units are given in Table 14. Note that a common error in conversion is to become ensnared in too many decimal places. The result of a computa tion cannot have any more significant numbers than that in the original data. For uniformity in the use of SI units, the recommeiidations* are: _{(}_{1}_{)} In numbers, a period (dot) is used only to separate the integral part of numbers from the decimal part. Numbers are divided into groups of three to facilitate reading. For example, in defining the meter above, we
equal to 1 650 763.73 wavelengths
symbols is illustrated in Table 12. The lower case roman type is generally
used. If the symbol is derived from a proper name, capital roman type is
(2) The type used for
T A B LE 1 4.
Examples
of English Units to SI Conversion ^{a}
TO CONVERT FROM
TO
MULTIPLY BY
Inch Poundmass Poundmass/inch ^{3} (lb Slug Poundforce Poundforceinch
meter (m) kilogram (kg) kilogram/meter ^{3} (kg/m ^{3} ) kilogram (kg) _{n}_{e}_{w}_{t}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{N}_{)} newtonmeter (N . m)
"The table gives the conversion from the
radian are
damping
by 175.1 to obtain the value of c in
units to the SI units. The second and
For example, the
The value of c is multiplied
used in both systems and no conversions are needed.
c from Table 22 has the units of
*Page and Vigoureux, op.
p. 10.
19
symbols are not followed by a period. (3) The
. m shown in Table 1  2.
dot may be omitted if there is no risk of confusion with another unit
symbol, such as m but not (4) The of units may be
a horizontal tine, or a negative power. For
example, velocity in Table 12 can be expressed as
The
must not be repeated on the same line unless ambiguity is avoided by parentheses. For example, acceleration may be expressed _{a}_{s} m/s ^{2} or
used for the first letter.
product of units
indicated by a
is denoted by a dot, such as
m
_{}_{,} or m _{.}
m . but not
used without spacing between the prefix symbol and the unit symbol, such as in mm. Compound prefixes by the use of two or more _{S}_{I} prefixes are not used.
prefix symbols illustrated in Table 13 are
(5) The
17
Some basic concepts and commonly used vibration are described in this chapter. The idealized model of a simple vibratory system in Fig. 1  1 consists of
a rigid mass, (2) a linear spring, (3) a viscous damper, and (4) an excitation. The inertia force is equal to the product of the mass and its acceleration as defined by Newton's law of motion. The spring force is proportional to the spring deformation, that is, the relative displacement between the two ends of the spring. The damping force is proportional to the relative velocity the two ends of the damper. An excitation
be applied to the mass
other parts of the system.
If a system is the energy stored due to the initial conditions will cause it to vibrate about its static equilibrium position. If damping is zero. the system will oscillate at its natural frequency without diminishing in amplitude. If the system is underdamped. the amplitude of oscillation will diminish with each cycle and the frequency is lower that without damping. If a periodic excitation is applied to a system. the vibration consists of a steadystate response and (2) a transient motion. 'The former is being sustained by the excitation and is therefore at the excitation frequency. The latter is due to the initial energy stored in the system and
is at its damped natural frequency. Resonance occurs when the system is
excited at its natural frequency. The amplitude at resonance is limited only by the damping in the system. A simple harmonic motion is a reciprocating motion as shown in Fig. 1  5. Alternatively, it can be represented by means of a sinusoidal wave or
rotating vector as in Figs. 17 and 18. These representations are artifices for the convenience of visualization and manipulation only. Using
a
Introduction
CHAP. 1
these representations, it can be shown that the velocity leads the displace ment by and the acceleration leads the velocity by 90". A complex amplitude, shown in Fig. 19, is called a phasor. It has a magnitude and a phase angle relative to the reference vector. A complex number has magnitude and direction. It can be added (subtracted) by adding (subtracting) the real and imaginary parts sepa rately. The product (quotient) of complex numbers is determined by Eqs.
and
Magnitude of 
= (magnitude of 

of 
Phase of 
= (phase of I?)+ (phase of B) 
The system is generally used in vibration. The gravitational constant is 386 in./sec ^{2} . There will be a change to the International Systems of Units (SI). The gravitational constant in SI units is
Examples of SI units and the conversion from the English to
the SI units are given in Tables 12 and 14, respectively.
9.81
PROBLEMS
11 Describe, with the aid of a sketch when necessary, each of the following:
(a) Spring force, damping force, inertia force, excitation.
(b) Kinetic energy, potential energy.
(c) Free vibration, forced vibration, a conservative system.
(d) Steadystate response, transient motion.
continuous system.
(f) Natural frequency, resonance.
(g) Initial conditions, static equilibrium position.
(h) Rectilinear motion, rotational motion.
(i) Periodic motion, frequency, period, beat frequency.
Superposition.
(k) Underdamped system, critically damped system.
(I) Amplitude, phasor, phase angle
12 A harmonic displacement is
t is in sec
onds and the phase angle in radians. Find (a) the frequency and the period
of the motion, (b) the maximum displacement, velocity, and acceleration, and (c) the displacement, velocity, and acceleration at t = Repeat part
= 10
mm, where
(c)
for
t = 1.2 s.
Problems
13 Repeat Prob. 1 2 if the harmonic velocity is = 150 +
14 An accelerometer indicates that the acceleration of a body is sinusoidal at a
the
frequency of 40 Hz. If the maximum acceleration is 100 find amplitudes of the displacement and the velocity.
15 Repeat Prob.
What is the
if the acceleration lags the excitation by
excitation frequency?
16 
A harmonic motion is described as
= X
+
= 1.0
mm. The initial 

conditions are 

= 4.0 mm and 

(a) Find the constants and 


(b) Expressing 

in the form 



and find the constants A and B. 

17 
Given
X
+
= A cos 

+ B sin 
find A, B, 

and 

for each set of the following conditions:
(a) 
=  8.796 
mm 
and 
= 10.762 mm 

(b) 
=  8.796 
mm 
and 
=  621.5 


=  8.796 
mm 
and 
=  
10.76 

mm/s ^{2} 
(d)
= 4.0
mm and
=  10.76 6
18 A table has a vertical
motion with constant frequency. What is
the largest amplitude that the table can if an object on the table is to remain in contact?
19 Find the algebraic sum of the harmonic motions
and
Find X and a. Check the addition graphically.
The motion of a particle is described as
two
harmonic component.
components, one of which is x, = 2
If the motion has determine the other
In a sketch of x versus
the equations:
of
3

for x, = 5 sin
described by each
=
112 A periodic motion is described by the equation
x versus
113 Repeat Prob. 1  12 if
In a
plot of
x = 5 sin
+3 sin
sketch the motion for
(a) x = 5
x = 5
(b)
+90")
+ 180")
1.5 s.
Introduction
CHAP. 1
114
= cos 115 Find the period of the functions
Is the motion
+3
(a) 
= 3 sin 3t+5 sin 4t 
(b) 
= 7 cos ^{Z} 3t 
periodic?
116 Determine
the
sum
where
of
the
harmonic
motions
wt
and
w. If beating should occur, find the amplitude and
the beat frequency. 117 Sketch the motion described by each of the following equations:
(a)
(b)
+7 sin
for 118 Express the following complex numbers in the exponential form
(a)
119 The
motion
of
a
particle
vibrating
in
harmonic components:
motion of the particle graphically.
= 2
a
plane has two perpendicular
and = 3 sin Determine the
120 Repeat Prob. 119 using
= 2
+
and
= 3 sin wt.
Systems with One Degree of Freedom Theory
21
INTRODUCTION
The onedegreeoffreedom system is the keystone for more advanced studies in vibrations. The system is represented by means of a generalized model shown in Fig. 11. The common techniques for the analysis are discussed in this chapter.
shown in Fig. 2  1.
Though such systems differ in appearance, they all can be represented by the same generalized model in Fig. _{1}_{}_{1}_{.} The model serves _{(}_{1}_{)} to unify a class of problems commonly encountered, and (2) to bring into focus the concepts of vibration. The applications to different types of problem will be discussed in the next chapter. Four mathematical techniques are examined. These are (1) the energy method, (2) Newton's law of motion, (3) the frequency response method, and (4) the superposition theorem. Our emphasis is on concepts rather than on mathematical manipulations. Since vibration is an energy exchange phenomenon, the simple energy method is first presented. In applying Newton's second law, the system is described by a second  order differential equation of motion. If, the excitation is an analytical expression, the equation can be solved readily by the " classical" method. If the excitation is an arbitrary function, the motion can be found using the superposition theorem. The frequency response method assumes that the excitation is sinusoidal and examines the system behavior over a frequency range of interest. Note that a system will vibrate in its own way regardless of the method of analysis. The purpose of different techniques is to find the most convenient method to characterize the system and to describe its be havior. We treat Newton's second law and the superposition theorem as
Examples of one  degree  of  freedom systems are
Systems with One Degree of Freedom Theory
Static
equilibrium
Springmass system
(c) Equivalent spring
I
governor
Torsional pendulum
Simple pendulum
F I G . 2  1.
Examples of systems with one degree of freedom.
_{C}_{H}_{A}_{P}_{.} _{2}
time domain analysis, since the motion of the mass is a time function, such as the solution of a differential equation with time as the independ ent variable. The frequency response method assumes that both the excitation and the system response are sinusoidal and of the same frequency. Hence it is a frequency domain analysis. Note that time response is intuitive but it is more convenient to describe a system in the frequency domain.
SEC. 2 2
Degrees of Freedom
25
It should be remarked that there must be a correlation between the time and the frequency domain analyses, since they are different methods to consider the same problem. In fact, superposition, which is treated as a time domain technique, is the basis for the study of systems. The convolution integral derived from superposition can be applied in the time or 'the frequency domain. We are presenting only one aspect of this very important theorem and shall not discuss methods of correlation. The mathematical of the time and frequency analyses is not new. Its implementation, however, was not practical until the advent of compu ters, instrumentation, and testing techniques in recent years.
22
DEGREES OF FREEDOM
The number of degrees of freedom of a vibratory system is the number of independent spatial coordinates necessary to define its configuration. A is defined as the geometric location of all the masses of the system. If the inter relationship of the masses is such that only one spatial coordinate is required to define the configuration, the system is said to
_{p}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s}_{s} one degree of freedom.
A rigid body in space requires six coordinates for its complete identifi cation, namely, three coordinates to define the rectilinear positions and three to define the angular rotations. Ordinarily, however, the masses in a system are constrained to move only in a certain manner. Thus, the
constraints limit the of freedom
to a much smaller number.
Alternatively, the number of degrees of freedom of a system can be defined as the number of spatial coordinates required to specify its configuration minus the number of equations of constraint." We shall illustrate these definitions with a number of examples.
The onedegreeoffreedom systems shown in Fig. _{2}_{}_{1} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{b}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{f}_{l}_{y} discussed as follows:
1.
2.
The springmass system in Fig. has a rnass suspended from a coil spring with a spring constant k. If m _{i}_{s} constrained to move only in the vertical direction about its static equilibrium position only one spatial coordinate is required to define its configuration. Hence it is said possess one degree of freedom.
consists of a heavy disk and a
The torsional
shaft of negligible mass with a torsional spring constant If the system is constrained to oscillate about the longitudinal axis of the
the system can be specified by a single
in Fig.
shaft, the configuration of coordinate
system considered in
this text. For a discussion on holonomic and nonholonomic see, for Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, AddisonWesley Publishing Inc., Mass,
1957, pp. 11 14.
*Such a system is called a holonomic system; it is the only type
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