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Report 185

ISSN: 0889-3144

Epoxy Composites:
Impact Resistance and
Flame Retardancy

Debdatta Ratna

Volume 16, Number 5, 2005

Expert overviews covering the


science and technology of rubber
and plastics

RAPRA REVIEW REPORTS


A Rapra Review Report comprises three sections, as follows:
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Source of
original article
Title

Item 1
Macromolecules

33, No.6, 21st March 2000, p.2171-83


EFFECT OF THERMAL HISTORY ON THE RHEOLOGICAL
BEHAVIOR OF THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES
Pil Joong Yoon; Chang Dae Han
Akron,University
The effect of thermal history on the rheological behaviour of ester- and etherbased commercial thermoplastic PUs (Estane 5701, 5707 and 5714 from
B.F.Goodrich) was investigated. It was found that the injection moulding
temp. used for specimen preparation had a marked effect on the variations
of dynamic storage and loss moduli of specimens with time observed
during isothermal annealing. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that
variations in hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing very
much resembled variations of dynamic storage modulus with time during
isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiments indicated
that the thermoplastic PUs exhibited a hysteresis effect in the heating and
cooling processes. It was concluded that the microphase separation transition
or order-disorder transition in thermoplastic PUs could not be determined
from the isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiment. The plots of log
dynamic storage modulus versus log loss modulus varied with temp. over
the entire range of temps. (110-190C) investigated. 57 refs.
GOODRICH B.F.

Location

USA

Authors and
affiliation

Abstract

Companies or
organisations
mentioned

Accession no.771897

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Offshore Applications of Polymers, J.W.Brockbank,


Avon Industrial Polymers Ltd.

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Polymer Supported Chemical Reactions, P. Hodge,


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R.A. Roberts, Pira Packaging Division.

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Weathering of Polymers, S.M. Halliwell, Building


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Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry, A.R. Nutt,


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Computer Modelling of Polymer Processing,


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Polymers and Structural Composites in Civil


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Plastics in High Temperature Applications,


J. Maxwell, Consultant.

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Injection Moulding of Rubber, M.A. Wheelans,


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Joining of Plastics, K.W. Allen, City University.


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Adhesives for Structural and Engineering


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Silicone Rubbers, B.R. Trego and H.W.Winnan,


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Fluoroelastomers - Properties and Applications,


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Polyamides, R.S. Williams and T. Daniels,


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Report 61

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Recent Developments in Epoxy Resins, I. Hamerton,


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International Automotive Design.

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Reinforced Thermoplastics - Composition, Processing


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Report 92

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Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine.

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Report 70

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymers,
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Masch Manufacturing Co.

Report 96

Polymeric Seals and Sealing Technology, J.A. Hickman,


St Clair (Polymers) Ltd.

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Rotational Moulding, R.J. Crawford, The Queens


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Volume 7
Report 73

Reactive Processing of Polymers, M.W.R. Brown,


P.D. Coates and A.F. Johnson, IRC in Polymer Science
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Speciality Rubbers, J.A. Brydson.

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Plastics and the Environment, I. Boustead, Boustead


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Polymeric Precursors for Ceramic Materials,


R.C.P. Cubbon.

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Goodyear Technical Center.

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Report 97

Rubber Compounding Ingredients - Need, Theory


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Advances in Biodegradable Polymers, G.F. Moore &


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PVC - Compounds, Processing and Applications,


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Rubber Compounding Ingredients - Need, Theory


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Anti-Corrosion Polymers: PEEK, PEKK and Other


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Report 107 High Performance Polymer Fibres, P.R. Lewis,


The Open University.

Report 81

Thermoplastic Elastomers - Properties and


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Report 108 Chemical Characterisation of Polyurethanes,


M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd.

Report 82

Advances in Blow Moulding Process Optimization,


Andres Garcia-Rejon,Industrial Materials Institute,
National Research Council Canada.

Volume 10

Report 83

Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic


Polymers, S.R. Holding and E.Meehan, Rapra
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Report 84

Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing,


P. Prentice, The Nottingham Trent University.

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Report 85

Ring Opening Polymerisation, N. Spassky, Universit


Pierre et Marie Curie.

Report 86

High Performance Engineering Plastics,


D.J. Kemmish, Victrex Ltd.

Report 87

Rubber to Metal Bonding, B.G. Crowther, Rapra


Technology Ltd.

Report 88

Plasticisers - Selection, Applications and Implications,


A.S. Wilson.

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Polymer Membranes - Materials, Structures and


Separation Performance, T. deV. Naylor, The Smart
Chemical Company.

Report 106 Properties and Applications of Elastomeric


Polysulfides, T.C.P. Lee, Oxford Brookes University.

Report 109 Rubber Injection Moulding - A Practical Guide,


J.A. Lindsay.
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R.P. Brown, M.J. Forrest and G. Soulagnet,
Rapra Technology Ltd.
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The Open University.
Report 112 Polystyrene - Synthesis, Production and Applications,
J.R. Wnsch, BASF AG.
Report 113 Rubber-Modified Thermoplastics, H. Keskkula,
University of Texas at Austin.
Report 114 Developments in Polyacetylene - Nanopolyacetylene,
V.M. Kobryanskii, Russian Academy of Sciences.
Report 115 Metallocene-Catalysed Polymerisation, W. Kaminsky,
University of Hamburg.
Report 116 Compounding in Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruders,
Y. Wang, Tunghai University.
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Hague and P.E.Reeves, Edward Mackenzie Consulting.

Report 118 Liquid Crystal Polymers - Synthesis, Properties and


Applications, D. Coates, CRL Ltd.
Report 119 Rubbers in Contact with Food, M.J. Forrest and
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Report 120 Electronics Applications of Polymers II, M.T. Goosey,
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Report 145 Multi-Material Injection Moulding, V. Goodship and
J.C.Love, The University of Warwick.
Report 146 In-Mould Decoration of Plastics, J.C. Love and
V.Goodship, The University of Warwick.
Report 147 Rubber Product Failure, Roger P. Brown.

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Report 148 Plastics Waste Feedstock Recycling, Chemical


Recycling and Incineration, A. Tukker, TNO.

Report 121 Polyamides as Engineering Thermoplastic Materials,


I.B. Page, BIP Ltd.

Report 149 Analysis of Plastics, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology


Ltd.

Report 122 Flexible Packaging - Adhesives, Coatings and


Processes, T.E. Rolando, H.B. Fuller Company.
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Canada.
Report 124 Sorting of Waste Plastics for Recycling, R.D. Pascoe,
University of Exeter.
Report 125 Structural Studies of Polymers by Solution NMR,
H.N. Cheng, Hercules Incorporated.
Report 126 Composites for Automotive Applications, C.D. Rudd,
University of Nottingham.

Report 150 Mould Sticking, Fouling and Cleaning, D.E. Packham,


Materials Research Centre, University of Bath.
Report 151 Rigid Plastics Packaging - Materials, Processes and
Applications, F. Hannay, Nampak Group Research &
Development.
Report 152 Natural and Wood Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers,
A.K. Bledzki, V.E. Sperber and O. Faruk, University of
Kassel.
Report 153 Polymers in Telecommunication Devices, G.H. Cross,
University of Durham.
Report 154 Polymers in Building and Construction, S.M. Halliwell,
BRE.

Report 127 Polymers in Medical Applications, B.J. Lambert and


F.-W. Tang, Guidant Corp., and W.J. Rogers, Consultant.

Report 155 Styrenic Copolymers, Andreas Chrisochoou and


DanielDufour, Bayer AG.

Report 128 Solid State NMR of Polymers, P.A. Mirau,


Lucent Technologies.

Report 156 Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact


of Polymeric Products, T.J. ONeill, Polymeron
Consultancy Network.

Report 129 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Photo-oxidation,


D.C. Wright.
Report 130 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Chemical Attack,
D.C. Wright.
Report 131 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Thermo-oxidation,
D.C. Wright.
Report 132 Stabilisers for Polyolefins, C. Krhnke and F. Werner,
Clariant Huningue SA.

Volume 12
Report 133 Advances in Automation for Plastics Injection
Moulding, J. Mallon, Yushin Inc.

Volume 14
Report 157 Developments in Colorants for Plastics,
Ian N. Christensen.
Report 158 Geosynthetics, David I. Cook.
Report 159 Biopolymers, R.M. Johnson, L.Y. Mwaikambo and
N. Tucker, Warwick Manufacturing Group.
Report 160 Emulsion Polymerisation and Applications of Latex,
Christopher D. Anderson and Eric S. Daniels, Emulsion
Polymers Institute.
Report 161 Emissions from Plastics, C. Henneuse-Boxus and
T. Pacary, Certech.
Report 162 Analysis of Thermoset Materials, Precursors and
Products, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd.

Report 134 Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Polymers,


J.L. Koenig, Case Western Reserve University.

Report 163 Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites, Masami


Okamoto, Toyota Technological Institute.

Report 135 Polymers in Sport and Leisure, R.P. Brown.

Report 164 Cure Monitoring for Composites and Adhesives, David


R. Mulligan, NPL.

Report 136 Radiation Curing, R.S. Davidson, DavRad Services.


Report 137 Silicone Elastomers, P. Jerschow, Wacker-Chemie GmbH.
Report 138 Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry, N. Chaiear,
Khon Kaen University.
Report 139 Rubber Analysis - Polymers, Compounds and
Products, M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd.
Report 140 Tyre Compounding for Improved Performance,
M.S. Evans, Kumho European Technical Centre.
Report 141 Particulate Fillers for Polymers, Professor R.N. Rothon,
Rothon Consultants and Manchester Metropolitan
University.
Report 142 Blowing Agents for Polyurethane Foams, S.N. Singh,
Huntsman Polyurethanes.
Report 143 Adhesion and Bonding to Polyolefins, D.M. Brewis and
I. Mathieson, Institute of Surface Science & Technology,
Loughborough University.
Report 144 Rubber Curing Systems, R.N. Datta, Flexsys BV.

Report 165 Polymer Enhancement of Technical Textiles,


Roy W. Buckley.
Report 166 Developments in Thermoplastic Elastomers,
K.E. Kear
Report 167 Polyolefin Foams, N.J. Mills, Metallurgy and Materials,
University of Birmingham.
Report 168 Plastic Flame Retardants: Technology and Current
Developments, J. Innes and A. Innes, Flame Retardants
Associates Inc.

Volume 15
Report 169 Engineering and Structural Adhesives, David J. Dunn,
FLD Enterprises Inc.
Report 170 Polymers in Agriculture and Horticulture,
Roger P. Brown.
Report 171 PVC Compounds and Processing, Stuart Patrick.
Report 172 Troubleshooting Injection Moulding, Vanessa Goodship,
Warwick Manufacturing Group.

Report 173 Regulation of Food Packaging in Europe and the USA,


Derek J. Knight and Lesley A. Creighton, Safepharm
Laboratories Ltd.
Report 174 Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymers for Drug
Delivery, David Jones, Queen's University, Belfast.
Report 175 Tyre Recycling, Valerie L. Shulman, European Tyre
Recycling Association (ETRA).
Report 176 Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids,
V. Goodship and E.O. Ogur.
Report 177 Bonding Elastomers: A Review of Adhesives &
Processes, G. Polaski, J. Means, B. Stull, P. Warren, K.
Allen, D. Mowrey and B. Carney.
Report 178 Mixing of Vulcanisable Rubbers and Thermoplastic
Elastomers, P.R. Wood.
Report 179 Polymers in Asphalt, H.L. Robinson, Tarmac Ltd, UK.
Report 180 Biocides in Plastics, D. Nichols, Thor Overseas Limited.

Volume 16
Report 181 New EU Regulation of Chemicals: REACH,
D.J. Knight, SafePharm Laboratories Ltd.
Report 182 Food Contact Rubbers 2 - Products, Migration and
Regulation, M.J. Forrest.
Report 183 Adhesion to Fluoropolymers, D.M. Brewis and R.H.
Dahm, IPTME, Loughborough University.
Report 184 Fluoroplastics, J.G. Drobny.

Epoxy Composites: Impact


Resistance and Flame
Retardancy
Debdatta Ratna
(IPTME, Loughborough University)

ISBN: 978-1-84735-065-7

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

Contents

1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................3
2. Thermosetting Composites .........................................................................................................................3
3. Epoxy Resins................................................................................................................................................3
3.1 Chemorheology and Curing of Epoxy...............................................................................................5
4. Epoxy Composites.......................................................................................................................................5
4.1 Fracture Testing.................................................................................................................................7
4.2 Fracture Mechanism..........................................................................................................................7
5. Impact Resistant Epoxy Composites............................................................................................................8
6. Modification of Epoxy Matrix.....................................................................................................................8
6.1 Flexibilisation of Epoxy....................................................................................................................8
6.2 Toughening of Epoxy........................................................................................................................9
6.3




6.4

Liquid Rubber Toughening................................................................................................................9


6.3.1 Reaction-induced Phase Separation......................................................................................9
6.3.2 Mechanism of Toughening..................................................................................................11
6.3.3 Morphological Parameters..................................................................................................11
6.3.4 Recent Advances ................................................................................................................13
Toughening by Preformed Particle..................................................................................................15

6.5 Thermoplastic Toughening..............................................................................................................16


6.6 Rigid Particle Toughening...............................................................................................................17
7. Nanoreinforcement of Epoxy.....................................................................................................................17
7.1 Clay Reinforced Epoxy...................................................................................................................17
7.2 CNT-Reinforced Epoxy...................................................................................................................20
8. Simultaneous Nanoreinforcement and Toughening ..................................................................................21
9. Fire Retardant Epoxy Composites.............................................................................................................22
9.1 Flammability and Smoke Tests ...........................................................................................................22

9.1.1 UL-94 Flammability Test....................................................................................................22

9.1.2 Cone Calorimetry................................................................................................................22

9.1.3 LOI Test .............................................................................................................................22
10. Fire Retardant Resin Compositions...........................................................................................................23
10.1 Halogenated Flame Retardants........................................................................................................23
10.2 Phosphorus Containing Flame Retardants .....................................................................................23
10.3 Nanoclay-Based Flame Retardants ................................................................................................24
10.4 Combination of Organoclay and Other Flame Retardants..............................................................26
10.5 Intumescent Fire Retardants . .........................................................................................................26
11. Summary and Outlook ..............................................................................................................................26
12. List of Abbreviation and Acronyms...........................................................................................................27

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

13. Additional References................................................................................................................................27


Subject Index.....................................................................................................................................................99
Company Index................................................................................................................................................115

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Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

1 Introduction
A composite is defined as a combination of two or
more materials with a distinguishable interface. The
oldest man-made composite is concrete, which is
associated with a macrolevel reinforcement. The urge
to improve the properties of composite materials, has
prompted material scientists to investigate composites
with lower and lower reinforcement size, leading to the
development of microcomposites and the recent trend in
composite research is nanocomposites (with nanometer
scale reinforcements). On the basis of the nature of the
matrices, composites can be classified into four major
categories: polymer matrix composite (PMC), metal
matrix composite (MMC), ceramic matrix composite
(CMC) and carbon matrix composite or carbon carbon
composites. PMC can be processed at a much lower
temperature, compared to MMC and CMC. Depending
on the types of polymer matrices, PMC are classified as
thermosetting composites and thermoplastic composites.
In the present review, thermosetting composites with
epoxy matrices will be discussed in detail.

Thermoset composites form a major portion of the


interior furnishings in todays commercial aircraft and
in semiconductor devices (234, 245).

3 Epoxy Resins
Epoxy resins are a class of versatile polymer materials
characterised by the presence of two or more oxirane
ring or epoxy groups within their molecular structure.
Like other thermosets they also form a network on curing
with a variety of curing agents (115) such as amines,
anhydrides, thiols etc. Amine curing agents are most
widely used because of the better understanding/control
of epoxy-amine reactions. The chemical structures of
some commonly used curing agents namely: triethylene
tetramine (TETA), 4,4 diaminodiphenyl methane
(DDM), 4,4diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), diethyl
toluene diamine (DETDA), polypropyletheramine
(Jeffamine) are presented in Figure 1.

2 Thermosetting Composites
Over the last three decades, the use of PMC, has
increased tremendously and this dramatic growth is
expected to continue in the future. The composites
possess many useful properties such as high specific
stiffness and strength, dimensional stability, adequate
electrical properties and excellent corrosion resistance.
The implications are easy transportability, high payload
for vehicles, low stress for rotating parts, high ranges
for rockets and missiles, which make them attractive
for both the civil and defense applications (186,
32). The composite industry is currently dominated
by thermosetting resins namely epoxy, vinyl ester,
unsaturated polyester, phenolic, polyimides, cyanate
ester and so on. This is because of their availability,
relative ease of processing, lower cost of capital
equipment for processing and low material cost (a.1).
The thermosetting resins are available in oligomeric
or monomeric low viscosity liquid forms, which
have excellent flow properties to facilitate resin
impregnation of fibre bundles and proper wetting of
the fibre surface by the resin. They are characterised
by a crosslinking reaction or curing, which converts
those into a three-dimensional (3D) network form
(insoluble, infusible). Because of the crosslinked
structure, thermoset composites offer better creep
properties and environmental stress cracking resistance
compared to many thermoplastics e.g., polycarbonate.

Figure 1
Chemical structures of commonly used amine curing
agents

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

Undoubtedly, there exists more publications based on


the basic and applied research on epoxy resins than that
for any other commercially available thermosetting
resins. The broad interest in epoxy resins originates
from the versatility of epoxy group towards a wide
variety of chemical reactions and the useful properties
of the network polymers (a.2) such as high strength,
very low creep, excellent corrosion and weather
resistance, elevated temperature service capability and
adequate electrical properties. Epoxy resins are unique
among all the thermosetting resins due to several factors
(a.1) (115) namely, minimum pressure is needed for
fabrication of products normally used for thermosetting
resins:

shrinkage is much lower and hence there is lower


residual stress in the cured product than that
encountered in the vinyl polymerisation used to
cure unsaturated polyester resins.

use of a wide range of temperature by judicious


selection of curing agent with good control over
the degree of crosslinking.

availability of the resin ranging from low viscous


liquid to tack free solid, etc. Because of these unique
characteristics and useful properties of network
polymers.

epoxy resins are widely used in structural adhesives,


surface coatings, engineering composites, and
electrical laminates.
The most commonly used epoxy resin is diglycidyl
ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA), which is characterised
by two epoxy groups e.g., LY-556, GY-250 (Ciba
Gigey). Multifunctional epoxies with functionality of
three and four are also available. Chemical structures
of DGEBA and multifunctional epoxies namely
epoxy novolac (e.g., Dow DEN 438), tetraglycidyl
ether of 4,4-diamino diphenyl methane (TGDDM)
(e.g., Araldite MY-720, Ciba Speciality Chemicals),
triglycidyl p-amino phenol (TGAP), (e.g. Araldite
MY 0510, Ciba Speciality Chemicals), are given in
Figure 2. The chemical nature and the amount used
of curing agents or hardeners plays an important role
in determining thermomechanical properties of the

Figure 2
Chemical structures of difunctional and multifunctional epoxies

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

cured networks (243). A wide range of properties can


be demonstrated and materials can be developed for
extreme applications using the same resin, by judicious
selection of curing agents. For example, DGEBA, when
cured with an aromatic amine, produces a network with
high glass transition temperature (Tg) and is used for
high temperature composite applications whereas the
same resin, on curing with Jeffamine (Mn > 800 g/mole)
generates a flexible/rubbery network, which can be used
for vibration damping applications (81).
High Tg epoxy matrices can be made by using an
aromatic curing agent such as DDM, DDS, DETDA.
The advantage of DETDA over others is that it is a
liquid and offers better processability. The Tg can
be further increased by using a higher functionality
resin. Thermally stable high performance resins are
required for use in composite structure for aerospace
applications. Polyimides and cyanate ester reins are the
leading candidates for exterior structural components.
Conventional epoxies are generally not suitable for
aerospace applications. However, multifunctional
epoxies cured with a suitable aromatic amine, can offer
thermal stability comparable to polyimides. Hence,
the conventional epoxy resins, with the combination
of a multifunctional component, can satisfy the
thermomechanical properties, specified for aerospace
application.

3.1 Chemorheology and Curing of Epoxy


From the application point of view, the effective use
of any thermosetting system requires one to be able to
predict the cure kinetics of the system to consistently
obtain the maximum Tg and also to predict the flow
behaviour of the curing resin, in particular to precisely
locate when the sol-gel transitions occurs. This is
because the polymer can be easily shaped or processed
only before the gel point, where it can still flow and
can be easily formed with the stresses applied relaxed
to zero thereafter. Accurate knowledge of the gel point
would therefore allow estimation of the optimum
temperature and time for which the sample should be
heated before being allowed to set in the mould.
The gel point of a crosslinking system is defined
unambiguously as the instant, at which the weight
average molecular weight reaches infinity and as such
is an irreversible reaction. The crosslinked polymer at
its gel point is a transition state between a liquid and
a solid. The polymer reaches its gel point at a critical
extent of crosslinking (agel). Before the gel point, that
is at a < agel the polymer is called a sol, because it is
typically soluble in an appropriate solvent. Beyond the

gel point, that is at a < agel, at least part of the polymer


is typically not soluble in any solvent and is called a gel.
Kinetically, gelation does not usually inhibit the curing
process so the conversion rate remains unchanged.
Hence, it cannot be detected by the techniques sensitive
only to chemical reaction like differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis
(TGA). There are various methods to determine the gel
point. The most sophisticated one is determination by
using a rheological experiment. Another process, which
a thermoset resin undergoes during cure, is vitrification.
It is defined as the point at which the Tg of the network
has become the same as the cure temperature. At this
point, the material is transformed from a rubbery gel
to a gelled glass.
Rheological measurement is generally carried out
with a controlled stress rheometer using a parallel
plate assembly. The dynamic viscoelastic test makes
it possible to characterise the gelation and vitrification
process during curing. Various parameters such as
complex viscosity, storage modulus, loss modulus, loss
factor at various frequencies (at a particular temperature)
can be determined as a function of cure time. The point
at which clear increase in G occurs is defined as gel
point and G maximum is defined as the vitrification
point. The gelation and vitrification are more clearly
determined from a loss factor plot as shown in Figure3
for a trifunctional epoxy system (154).
This experiment clearly demonstrates the time required
for curing an epoxy system at a particular temperature
to get a required Tg, which is very important for
development of prepregs. It may be noted that when the
Tg of the cured system reaches the cure temperature,
the curing reaction becomes very slow. That is why
when a multifunctional epoxy network, without a post
curing treatment at a sufficiently high temperature, is
subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis, it shows two
loss peaks; one is for the partially cured network and
other is for the fully cured network. Hence, it is very
important to give a proper post curing treatment to an
epoxy system (especially multifunctional epoxy system)
to get a network with the desired Tg.

4 Epoxy Composites
A wide variety of composites can be made using epoxy
as a matrix as shown in Table 1. They can be broadly
grouped into fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites,
particulate composites and nanocomposites (246, 277,
289, 294). Epoxy-based FRP composites can be tailormade by judiciously selecting the resin compositions,

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

Figure 3
Loss factor versus time plots of toughened trifunctional epoxy at 140 C using various frequencies
Reprinted with permission from D. Ratna, R. Varley and G.P. Simon, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2003,
89, 9, 2339. 2003, John Wiley and Sons

Table 1 Various types of epoxy composites and the manufacturing processes


Composites

Reinforcement

Fibre reinforced plastic


composite

Glass fibre, carbon fibre, kevlar


fibre, basalt fibre

Particulate microcomposite Silica, carbon black, calcium


carbonate, glass beads, glass
balloons, silicon carbide
Nanocomposite

Wet lay-up and compression moulding,


prepreg lay-up with vacuum bagging and
autoclave curing, filament winding with oven
curing, pultrusion, resin transfer moulding
(RTM), liquid composite moulding,
structural reaction engineering moulding
Mechanical mixing and casting, compression
moulding, matched-die moulding

Nano silica, nanocalcium carbonate, Mechanical mixing and sonication followed


nanoclay, carbon nanofibres, carbon by casting or compression moulding
nanotubes

fibres and by designing the interface. The FRP


composites are used in aerospace, automotive and other
structural applications (222, 225, 232). Epoxy-based
FRP composites (for general purpose use) are made by
the wet-lay up technique and followed by compression
moulding. On the other hand, the prepreg route
(autoclave curing) is the standard production method
within the aerospace sector for manufacturing high fibre
volume fraction, void free composite materials with
good mechanical properties (233). Similar laminated
composites, produced by a vacuum impregnation resin
transfer moulding (RTM), offer cost savings, health

Process

and safety benefits. However, the main drawback of


RTM is the lower fibre volume fraction due to the
low pressure involved in the process. Moreover, the
property enhancement using 3D woven fabric due to
through-the-thickness reinforcement and limiting crack
propagation is not achieved in RTM (218), although
a similar effect is achieved for wet lay-up with the
autoclave curing route. The reason is thought to be due
to the 3D weave involved, having a high crimp and low
compressibility, hence, higher consolidation pressure
than the pressure provided by RTM, is required to realise
the actual advantages of a 3D weave.

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

However, the epoxy-based composites are known to be


highly susceptible to internal damage caused by a low
velocity impact due to inherent brittleness of the cured
resin, which may lead to severe safety and reliability
problems (226, 237). Thus, for high performance
applications the improvement of damage tolerance of
epoxy composites by enhancing their impact strength
is essential and has been the subject of investigation
throughout the world (280, 285).

4.1 Fracture Testing


Toughness of a material is defined as the energy
absorbed by a material before fracture. Toughness is
a very important property in applications where the
material has to encounter a lot of mechanical shock
and vibration. Fracture toughness (KIc) is one of the
most important properties of a material, which is
used to design materials for dynamic applications. It
basically describes the resistance of a material with a
crack to fracture. Since it is almost impossible to make
a material for practical purposes without cracks/defects,
fracture toughness analysis is extremely important for
design applications. The critical stress intensity factor,
KIc and impact energy, GIc are determined using ASTM
D5045-99 (a.3). The tests were carried out using an
Instron machine using a flexure or tensile mode. An
initial crack was machined in a rectangular specimen,
and tapping on a fresh razor blade placed in the notch
generated a natural crack. The parameters can be
expressed mathematically as follows:
K IC =

GIC =

PQ
BW 1/2

f (x)

1 2 2
K IC
E

(1)

(2)

Where: is Poisson's ratio



PQ is the critical load for crack propagation,

B and W are the thickness and width of the
specimen,

E is elastic modulus, and

f (x) is a nondimensional shape factor given
by:
f (x) = 6 x

(1.99 x (1 x ) (2.15 3.93x + 2.7 x 2 )


(1 + 2 x )(1 x )3/2

material are a function of testing speed and temperature.


Furthermore the values may be different under cyclic
load. Therefore application of KIc and GIc in the design
of service components should be made considering the
differences that may exist between the test condition
and the field condition.
Apart from the fracture toughness analysis, various
impact tests are used for quick assessment of the
behaviour of a material under dynamic loading
conditions. The impact tests are used to determine the
behaviour of a material subjected to shock loading in
bending, tension and torsion. Mostly, the Charpy and
Izod impact and occasionally tensile impact tests are
used. These Izod/Charpy tests are widely applied in
industries due to the ease of sample preparation and it
is possible to generate comparative data very quickly.
Both the tests are done as per ASTM D256 (a.4). In the
Charpy test the specimen is supported as a simple beam
whereas in Izod test it is supported as a cantilever. The
apparatus consists of a pendulum hammer swinging at a
notched sample. The energy transferred to the material
can be inferred by comparing the difference in height
of the hammer before and after the fracture. Depending
on the instrument, the impact energy (J/m) or the load
history during the impact event can be recorded. The
test can be carried out using different combinations of
impactor mass and incident impact velocity to generate
the data on damage tolerance as functions of impact
parameters, which are helpful for design of composite
materials for a particular application (177).
Another test, which is used to evaluate epoxy composites,
is the falling dart impact test. In this test a dart is allowed
to fall on a specimen kept in a fixture with an annular
hole typically ranging from 2.5 to 7.5 cm. The output
of the load transducer can be directly fed into a signal
processor and the impact energy or the entire loading
history can be recorded. It can also be coupled with
ultrasonic c-scan (nondestructive inspection technique
composites in which a short pulse of ultrasonic energy
is incident on a sample) and microscopic techniques
to study the post failure analysis (258, 260). It may be
noted that for critical applications, rigorous testing has
to be carried out considering the service conditions, to
ensure the specified service life (255).

4.2 Fracture Mechanism


(3)

The thickness of the specimen should be higher than


the critical value below which the material shows plane
stress behaviour. The KIc and GIc values of a given

The mechanical property of a composite depends on the


nature of the matrix, reinforcement and the interface.
Hence, the design of interface and processing play
an important role in deciding the final properties of a
composite. Once the optimum interface is designed and

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

the processing is perfected, the mechanical properties


can be predicted from the known value of mechanical
properties of the individual components. The modulus
of a composite material can be approximately calculated
from simple linear or logarithmic relationships:
log Ec = log Ee (1-Vr) + log Er (Vr)

(4)

Ec = Ee (1-Vr) + Er Vr

(5)

Where: Ec, Ee and Er are the bending moduli of composite,


epoxy and reinforcement, respectively, and

Vr is the volume fraction of reinforcement in
the composite.
Hence, composites show a modulus value, which
is in between that of an epoxy and a reinforcement.
Interestingly, the impact strength of an FRP composite
does not follow the rule-of-mixture (the average strength
calculated from individual components) and the value is
found to be much higher than the impact strength values
of individual components. As for example, the impact
strength of pure epoxy network (DGEBA cured with
TETA) is about 20 J/m and impact strength of glass is
less than that of epoxy, however, the impact strength of
an epoxy/glass fibre composite is 950 J/m which is about
50 times more. Various models have been proposed to
explain the toughness of the brittle matrix/brittle fibre
composites (249, 251). The models considers various
energy absorbing processes, which occur during the
fracture of composites like fibre pull-out, fibre kinking,
stress redistribution, creation of new surface through
fibre, matrix and the interface, fiber debonding and so
on (205, 268, 298, 299). Since fibre pull out and fibre
debonding, largely contribute in energy dissipation
during fracture, very high interlaminar shear strength
(ILSS) is detrimental for toughness of composites. Thus,
the interface has to be designed for an optimum ILSS to
get the best mechanical property and toughness.

b) introduction of z-directional fibre (stitching) (153,


267), and,
c) addition of whiskers or short fibres to the
interlaminar zone (supplementary reinforcement)
(248, 262, 263, 280).
Wimolkiatiask and Bell (275) electropolymerised a
high temperature thermoplastic (3-carboxy phenyl
maleimide-styrene copolymer) interphase onto a
graphite fibre and evaluated the fibre-reinforced epoxy
composites. The improvement in critical strain energy
factor of about 100% and notched impact of about 60%
were achieved while maintaining the interlaminar shear
strength at around the same value as for a controlled
composite. Cox and co-workers (257) investigated the
tensile behaviour of graphite epoxy composites with
3D woven interlock reinforcement and reported the
contributions of various mechanism of fracture. The
impact strength of an epoxy composite with a particular
matrix can be improved by using a high strain fibre
or fibre hybridisation (228, 231, 239). However, high
strain fibres often show lower modulus and thus cannot
satisfy the requirement for dimensional stability in
high performance engineering applications (297). This
approach is particularly exploited for the application of
composites under high-incident-energy conditions, as
for example ballistic applications (242, 258). Using a
particular reinforcement, low-velocity impact resistance
(desirable for structural applications) of a particulate
or FRP composite can be improved to a great extent
by increasing the toughness of the matrix (291) as
discussed next.

6 Modification of Epoxy Matrix


6.1 Flexibilisation of Epoxy

5 Impact Resistant Epoxy Composites


Impact resistance or damage tolerance of epoxy
composites can be improved by improving the resin
toughness, using high strain fibres and by designing the
interfaces. Design of interface is particularly important
for continuous FRP composites, where the impact
resistance of a composite can be significantly improved,
by controlling and manipulating the microstructure of
the interfaces (259, 296). Generally, three techniques
are used for such modification:
a) incorporation of discrete layers of tough resin
known as interleaving (290, 292)

Unlike thermoplastics, in which the fracture toughness


and processability can be improved significantly by
blending a plasticiser (nonreactive low molecular
weight compound) or by physical blending with a
ductile polymer, the plasticisation or compatible
blending strategies are not successful in thermosets
such as epoxies. This is because as a result of curing, the
modifier either exudes out from the matrix or undergoes
macro-phase separation. Moreover, the accumulation of
free liquid plasticiser molecules at the fibre surface can
act as a weak boundary layer and cause a substantial
decrease in ILSS.

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

Epoxies are flexibilised by using reactive diluents,


which are basically mono epoxide compounds or by
using long chain hardeners (287). The basic idea is
to reduce the effective crosslink density (Xc), thereby
making the networks less tight. Epoxy resins can also
be chemically modified to extend the chain length
between the two epoxy groups leading to the increase
in molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc) and
development of a tougher (ductile) network (141). A
general scheme for chemical modification of epoxy
resin is shown in Figure 4.
The major downside of this approach is that the
modification is associated with a drastic reduction in
Tg, which restricts the use of such materials for high
temperature applications. This arises due to the typical
plasticisation phenomena observed in case of compatible
blending of a rigid plastic with a flexible polymer or
low molecular weight plasticiser. This problem can
be overcome by using the second phase toughening
technology where the modifier is incorporated as a
separate phase.

is associated with a significant deterioration in thermomechanical properties (especially Tg) whereas for
toughening, the same is achieved without significant
deterioration in thermomechanical properties.
The difference arises due to differences in blend
morphology. Flexibilisation is associated with singlephase morphology whereas toughening arises from a
two-phase morphology. Unlike flexibilisation where
the modifier becomes a part of the epoxy phase, the
modifier forms a separate phase in toughening and
thus the bulk thermomechanical properties of epoxy
matrix, are retained. Depending on the second phase
used, epoxy toughening can be grouped into four
types: liquid rubber toughening, core-shell particle
toughening, thermoplastic toughening and rigid particle
toughening.

6.3 Liquid Rubber Toughening

6.3.1 Reaction-induced Phase Separation


6.2 Toughening of Epoxy
A basic difference between toughening and flexibilisation
is that in flexibilisation, the improvement in toughness

Liquid rubber toughening is one of the most successful


methods for improvement in toughness of epoxy resins
and mostly exploited in the field of FRP composites and
adhesives technology (253, 254). Unlike thermoplastics,
where the toughening is achieved by a simple physical
blending, in an epoxy resin, the same is achieved
exclusively through the chemistry and is more
challenging to the expertise of a polymer scientist. The
basic criteria for a modifier to be a toughening agent
for epoxies are:
a) the modifier should be a low molecular weight
liquid to ensure miscibility with the epoxy resin,
b) it must have functionalities like carboxyl, amino
etc., which can react with the epoxy resin, and,
c) it must have borderline miscibility so that before
curing it remains miscible with the epoxy and
undergoes a reaction-induced phase separation
with the advancement of curing reaction, leading to
the formation of a two-phase microstructure (223,
271).
The phenomenon can be explained more clearly by
considering the thermodynamics of mixing.

Figure 4
Chemical modification of epoxy resin

The thermodynamic condition for compatibility is that


the free energy change of mixing (Gm) at constant
pressure (P) and temperature (T), should be negative
(a.5):

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

(Gm) P,T < 0

(6)

Combining the Flory-Huggins equation and the


Hildebrand equation, the free energy of mixing can be
expressed as:
Gm /V = e r (de - dr)2 + RT(e/Ve . ln e + r / Vr . ln r)

(7)

where e, r are the volume fractions, de, dr are the


solubility parameters, Ve and Vr are the molar volume
of epoxy and rubber, respectively, V is total volume, R
is universal gas constant and T is temperature.
Since both e, r are fractions, the second term is always
negative. High temperature favours miscibility. For
a fixed epoxy/rubber composition, DGm at constant
temperature, depends on dr, i.e., the chemical nature
of rubber and Vr which is dependent on the molecular
weight of the rubber. A toughening agent has to be
designed in such a way that the free energy of mixing
is marginally negative at the curing temperature. Then
the rubber will be compatible with epoxy before the
curing but with the advancement of curing reaction, Ve
and Vr will increase due to the increase in molecular
weight of the rubber and the epoxy and at a certain
stage DGm will become positive. At that point rubber
starts undergoing phase separation and it is called the
cloud point. The process continues until the gelation
point, where the phase separation is arrested due to the

tremendous increase in viscosity. The final network is


obtained after a heat treatment called post curing. The
process is shown schematically in Figure 5.
If (de - dr) is very low, then DGm will be highly negative
and entropy change (during curing) cannot make DGm
equal to - ve, before gelation, leading to the formation
of a single phase morphology. Again if (de - dr) is very
high, then DGm will be positive at curing temperature
and rubber will be immiscible at the initial stage
itself, leading to a macro level phase separation. As an
example, carboxyl-terminated polybutadiene is not a
suitable toughening agent for epoxies as the solubility
parameter of butadiene is much lower than that of epoxy
and it is immiscible with epoxy. However, a carboxylterminated copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile
(CTBN) with 20 to 30 wt.% of acrylonitrile (polar
acrylonitrile increases the solubility parameter) has a
solubility parameter, which is close to the solubility
parameter of the epoxy and is an effective toughening
agent for the epoxy. The copolymers are commercially
produced by the Goodrich Company and are known
as Hycar CTBN. The amine-terminated copolymers
of butadiene and acrylonitrile are known as ATBN.
CTBN or ATBN with a higher acrylonitrile content,
have a better miscibility with the epoxy resin in terms
of solubility parameter and undergo phase separation
at a later stage of curing and result in lower amount of
phase separated rubber. CTBN with an acrylonitrile
content of more than 30 wt.%, results in a single-phase

Figure 5
Description of reaction-induced phase separation in rubber-modified epoxy system

10

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

morphology and the modifier acts as a flexibiliser rather


than a toughening agent.
The morphology is controlled by the initial cure
temperature and the post curing condition (although it
affects the final properties), has no role in morphology
development (272). The time from cloud point to
gelation is the effective phase separation time (tps). For
complete phase separation, the tps has to be higher than
the time required for diffusion of rubber from epoxy
medium (tdiff). The diffusivity is the controlling factor of
phase separation if tdiff is greater than tps. The diffusivity
of rubber in epoxy medium (Dr) is considered to be
proportional to the temperature viscosity ratio through
the Stokes-Einstein equation (a.6):
Dr = kT/6pRr he

(8)

Where: k is the Boltzman constant,



Rr is the radius of rubber adducts,

he is the viscosity of the medium, and,

T is absolute temperature.
The characteristic time scale for diffusion in two
dimensions is:
tdiff = L2 / 2 Dr

(9)

A length scale (L) can be assigned from the average twodimensional distance between domain centres obtained
from micrographs of the cured specimen.

initiating the ductile shear yielding mechanism (269).


At the crack tip where the hydrostatic tensile component
is large, the magnitude of the concentrated hydrostatic
stress in the vicinity of rubber particles is insufficient to
promote shear yielding.
The internal cavitations of the rubber particles relieve the
plain strain constraint by effectively reducing the bulk
modulus and then the magnitude of the concentrated
deviatoric stress is sufficient for shear yielding. The voids
left behind by the cavitated rubber particles act further as
stress concentrators. Li and co-workers (a.7) studied the
fracture behaviour of unmodified and CTBN modified
epoxies under hydrostatic pressure. They found that when
rubber cavitations were suppressed by superimposed
hydrostatic pressure, the fracture toughness of CTBN
modified epoxy was no higher than that of the unmodified
epoxy. This implies that the stress concentration by
rubber particles alone will not necessarily induce massive
shear yielding and increase the fracture toughness. Hence,
rubber cavitations are very important to the toughening
of rubber modified epoxies; without cavitations these
rubber particles can still cause stress concentration but
they are not effective in toughening.
Dompas and Groeninckx (264) developed a criterion for
the internal cavitations. The condition has been treated
as an energy balance between the strain energy relieved
by cavitations and the surface energy required to create
a new surface and given by the following equation:
Utotal = Ustrain + Usurface
= - p/12 Kr D2 do3 + g p D2/3 do2 < 0

6.3.2 Mechanism of Toughening


The rubber modified epoxy with two-phase microstructure
shows improved fracture toughness (178, 272, 279) as
the rubber particles, dispersed and bonded to the epoxy
matrix act as the centres for dissipation of mechanical
energy. A number of theories have been proposed to
explain the toughening effect of rubber particles on the
brittle epoxy matrix, based on the fractographic features
and fracture properties of the rubber toughened epoxy
networks. According to recent theories, the most accepted
mechanism for rubber toughening is rubber cavitation
followed by shear yielding. In rubber modified plastics,
under triaxial tensile stresses, voids can be initiated
inside the rubber particles. Once the rubber particles
are cavitated, the hydrostatic tension in the material is
relieved, with the stress state in the thin ligaments of
the matrix between the voids being converted from a
triaxial to a more uniaxial tensile stress state. This new
stress state is favourable for the initiation of shear bands.
In other words, the role of rubber particles is to cavitate
internally, thereby relieving the hydrostatic tension and

(10)

Where: Kr, D, do, g are the rubber bulk modulus, relative


volume strain, rubber particle diameter and
surface energy per unit area, respectively.
Accordingly, the cavitation of rubber is dependent
on the elastic and molecular properties of rubber,
rubber particle size and on the applied volume strain,
which again depends on the difference in Poissons
ratio between the matrix and the rubber. Cavitation
resistance increases with the decrease in particle size
and difference in Poissons ratio.

6.3.3 Morphological Parameters


Rubber toughened epoxy networks display a discrete
morphology, which consists of spherical particle
dispersed in the epoxy matrix. The morphology is
characterised by polarised optical microscope, scanning
electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy and
transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A typical SEM

11

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

microphotograph for rubber toughened epoxy network


is shown in Figure 6. The morphological parameters
dictate the fracture properties of the toughened epoxy
networks (145). Various morphological parameters and
the molecular parameters, which control the morphology,

are listed in Table 2. It is very difficult to study the


effect of an individual parameter on toughening effect
as the parameters are interrelated. For example if we
want to study the effect of functionality of rubber by
changing the functionality, this changes the solubility
parameter difference and affects the other morphological
parameters.

6.3.3.1 Rubber Content

Figure 6
SEM picture of rubber-toughened epoxy

The impact energy of rubber-toughened epoxy systems


increases with increase in rubber volume fraction in
the epoxy network due to dissipation of mechanical
energy by the rubber particle by various mechanisms as
discussed in Section 6.3.2. However, beyond an optimum
rubber concentration the impact energy decreases due to
rubber agglomeration and phase inversion. Generally,
optimum rubber concentration is found to be 10 to 15
wt.%. The effect of rubber content on impact strength
of carboxyl-terminated poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate)
(CTPEHA) rubber (220) is presented in Figure 7.

Figure 7
Effect of acrylate rubber content on impact strength of modified networks
Reprinted with permission from D. Ratna, A.K. Banthia and P.C. Deb, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2000,
78, 4, 716. John Wiley and Sons
Table 2 Parameters influencing rubber toughening
Molecular Parameters

Morphological
Parameters

Processing Parameters

Epoxy
Matrix ductility

Rubber
Polarity

Rubber volume fraction

Initial cure temperature

Functionality

Molecular weight.

Particle size

Post cure temperature and time

Molecular weight
Curing agent (type and
concentration)
Viscosity

Functionality
Concentration

Particle size distribution


Matrix ligament thickness

Viscosity

Particle to matrix adhesion

12

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

6.3.3.2 Particle Size and Distribution


The origin of this size dependence on toughening
behaviour arises from the role played by the particles,
which is governed by the size of the process zone. Large
rubber particles (> 5 mm) lying outside the process zone
are only able to act as bridging particles, which provide
only a modest increase in fracture energy. Small rubber
particles, which lie in the process zone are forced to
cavitate by the large hydrostatic stress component that
exists in the process zone and contributes to the increase
in fracture energy. However, very small particles
(< 0.2mm) cannot cavitate (cavitation resistance
increases with decreasing particle size - see Equation
10) and cannot effectively toughen the epoxy matrix.

6.3.3.3 Matrix ligament thickness


Wu and Mongolina (a.8) proposed that the matrix
ligament thickness (MLT) i.e., surface-to-surface,
interparticle distance is the more fundamental parameter.
For effective toughening, the average matrix ligament
thickness (t) should be less than that of a critical value
(tc) where brittle-tough transition occurs. The tc is
independent of rubber volume fraction, particle size
and characteristics of the matrix alone at a given test
temperature and rate of deformation. For blends with
dispersed spherical particles, the tc can be related to the
rubber particle size and rubber volume fraction (r) by
the following equation:
tc = do [k (p/6r )1/3 - 1]

size corresponding to a lower brittle-tough transition


temperature. However, it has been found in a number
of systems that there exists a minimum particle size
below, which the brittle-tough transition no longer shifts
to lower temperatures. As a possible explanation for the
peculiar behaviour, it has been suggested that particles
which are too small are not able to cavitate and therefore
do not release the hydrostatic tension in the material to
promote ductile shear yielding.

6.3.3.4 Matrix Particle Adhesion


Matrix-rubber particle adhesion is an important
parameter for rubber toughening. For effective rubber
toughening, the rubber particles must be well bonded
to the epoxy matrix. The poor intrinsic adhesion across
the particle-matrix interface causes premature particle
debonding, leading to the catastrophic failure of the
materials (289, 300). Most of the studies, reported
in the literature, have been concerned with reactive
groups terminated rubbers (functionality = 2 eq/mole)
as toughening agents for epoxies, which results in
dispersed rubbery particles having interfacial chemical
bonds as a consequence of chemical reactivity. It was
observed that further increase in functionality of rubber,
improved the toughening effect up to an optimum value
of functionality (2.3-3 eq/mole). The toughening effect
decreases beyond the optimum value of functionality,
due to the formation of a single phase morphology
(203).

(11)

Where: k is a geometric constant and do is the particle


diameter.

6.3.4 Recent Advances

The existence of critical matrix ligament thickness for


an effective rubber toughening, can be explained (203)
in the light of two basic mechanisms, namely rubber
cavitations followed by formation of a shear band and
crazing. The low MLT maintains the connectivity of
the yielding process, which then propagates over the
entire deformation zone and makes the blend tough.
This happens when t is less than tc. In the cases where
crazing is the major energy dissipating mechanism the
high MLT causes the formation of secondary crazes at
the highly stressed region of the ligament which then
propagate rapidly leading to the catastrophic failure of
the materials.

The commercial toughening agents used widely are


CTBN and ATBN from the Goodrich Company. A
multifunctional liquid rubber (nitrile-diene-acrylamide
terpolymer) for toughening epoxy composites and
coatings, was developed by Wolverine Gasket division
of Eagle Picher Industries, Inkster, MI, USA (295). A
new additive that increases the strength and toughness
of amine cured epoxy resins, has been commercialised
by Uniroyal Ltd., of Elmira, Canada (a.9). NASA has
discovered (279) that fibre-reinforced epoxy composites
can be made tougher by incorporating a bromine
containing additive which resulted in substantial
increase in flexural and impact strength. Addition of
small amount of CTBN or ATBN further improved
these properties.

For a given volume fraction of rubber, the critical


MLT is achieved by decreasing the particle size and
by improving the dispersion. For most systems, this
concept works very well and a decrease in particle

In the last two decades a lot of work has been done


and various issues in the field have been addressed as
listed in Table 3. The commercially available liquid
rubber (CTBN, ATBN) toughened epoxy often shows

13

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

outstanding fracture properties and the technology


is exploited in the field of engineering adhesives
(124). However, since the butadiene component of the
elastomer contains unsaturation, it would appear to be
a site for premature thermal and/or oxidative instability
and such modified resins are not suitable for application
at high temperatures. One would imagine that excessive
crosslinking could take place with time, which would
detract from otherwise desirable improvements
accomplished with these structures. Secondly, there

is some limitation in its use due to the possibility of


the presence of traces of free acrylonitrile, which is
carcinogenic. Hence, considerable efforts have been
made to develop saturated liquid rubber alternative to
CTBN.
Several liquid rubbers have been investigated as
alternatives to CTBN. The chemical structures of
some useful toughening agents are shown in Figure 8.
Saturated rubbers namely polyacrylates, polyurethane,

Figure 8
Chemical structures of some useful toughening agents. ESO = epoxidised soybean oil

Table 3 Issues involved in toughening research and addressed in the last two decades
Issue

Solution

Toxicity and poor oxidative stability of commercial Use of saturated modifier e.g., polyacrylates,
toughener (CTBN, ATBN)
polyurethanes, polysiloxane, etc.
Depression of epoxy Tg

Use of high molecular weight rubber and optimum cure


temperature

Processability (high viscosity)

Use of hyperbranched polymer based toughening agents

Reduction in modulus

Use of liquid crystalline modifiers and nanoreinforcement

14

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

polysiloxane, and epoxidised soybean oil (ESO)


(142, 220, 230), offer better oxidative stability and
better performance of such materials. Complete phase
separation can be achieved for such liquid rubbers by
increasing the molecular weight of liquid rubber and
decreasing the cure temperature within the processing
window (the theoretical reason for the effect of these
two parameters have been discussed in Section 6.3.1).
However, beyond a certain molecular weight, the liquid
rubber undergoes phase separation at a very early stage
leading to agglomeration and macrophase separation.
The optimum molecular weight for difunctional
modifier is reported to be about 7000 g/mole (220).
The modification of epoxy with linear elastomers,
as discussed in previous sections, is associated
with a considerable increase in viscosity, which is
disadvantageous as far as processing is concerned.
The problem can be overcome by using dendritic
hyperbranched polymer (HBP) based toughening agents
(168, 202). Due to the compact 3D structure of dendritic
polymers, these molecules mimic the hydrodynamic
volume of spheres in solution or melt and flow easily
past each other under applied stress. This results in a
low melt viscosity, even at high molecular weights,
due to a lack of restrictive interchain entanglements
(a.5). Indeed, dendritic polymers have been shown to
exhibit melt and solution viscosities that are an order
of magnitude lower than linear analogues of similar
molecular weight (a.5) (168). The high density of
functional terminal groups on dendritic polymers also
offers the potential for tailoring their compatibility
either through conversion of dendritic polymer end
groups to chemically suitable moieties or through in situ
reaction to form covalently bound networks. These two
properties: low viscosity and tailorable compatibility,
make HBP excellent candidates as flow additives that
could act simultaneously as toughening agents. These
polymers are commercially available e.g., Boltron.
The fourth issue is reduction in modulus of cured epoxy
as a result of incorporation of rubber. It is necessary to
couple a strengthening mechanism with the toughening
process to get really tough and strong materials. The
successful approach is nanoreinforcement which will
be discussed in the following sections.

6.4 Toughening by Preformed Particle


The phase separation, in the case of liquid rubber
toughening depends upon the formulation, processing
and curing conditions. Incomplete phase separation
can result in a significant lowering of the epoxy Tg.
Moreover, the rubber phase that separates during the

cure, is difficult to control and may result in uneven


particle size distribution. The differences in morphology
and volume of the separated phase affect the mechanical
performance of the product. The factors that affect
the fracture toughness of the modified epoxy such
as morphology, particle size and composition are
interdependent and hence, it is very difficult to study
the effect of the individual parameters. These problems
can be minimised by using an insoluble preformed
particle directly (265). Since the size, morphology
and composition, shell thickness and crosslink density
of the rubbery cores can be controlled separately by
using emulsion polymerisation techniques, the effects
of various parameters on the toughening of epoxies can
be investigated.
The control of the particle parameters by emulsion
polymerisation has been extensively studied, and
various efficient technologies have been developed
(283). Monodisperse latex particles with a diameter
from submicron to micron range can be prepared.
Cohesive strength, which is influenced by crosslink
density of the rubber phase, can be controlled by
the conversion of polymerisation and the amount of
crosslinking agent (a.10). Interfacial architecture can be
controlled by changing the following parameters:
1. thickness of the shell which depends on the ratio
of the shell-core materials and polymerisation
mechanism,
2. chemical bonding and physical interaction between
particles and matrix which can be enhanced by
introducing functional groups onto the surface of
the shell,
3. grafting between the shell and core, and,
4. molecular weight of shell materials.

Various morphologies of the composite such


as core shell, occluded or multilayer can be
achieved through two or multiple stage emulsion
polymerisation (278). The preformed particles are
incorporated into the epoxy matrix by mechanical
mixing. The dispersibility of the particles can be
improved by:
(1) introducing crosslinking into the shell or
(2) using comonomer like acrylonitrile or glycidyl
methacrylate (GMA), which increases the
interfacial adhesion by polar or chemical
interactions (208).

15

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

6.5 Thermoplastic Toughening


Rubber toughening can dramatically increase the
fracture resistance of cured epoxy castings and
composites. However, the presence of the rubber phase
does somewhat decrease the modulus and thermal
stability of the materials and increase the tendency
of water absorption with an accompanying loss of
properties at elevated temperatures. Moreover, the
reactive rubbers have been reported as ineffective
modifiers for a highly crosslinked system based on an
epoxy having a functionality of more than 2 (i.e., 3 or
4). This is because the rubber rich particles, as stress
concentrator, induce the plastic deformation of a highly
crosslinked matrix to a far less extent and dissipation
of fracture energy by the enlargement of deformation
zone can hardly be attained (272). The search for an
alternative method to rubber toughening led to the
development of thermoplastic toughened epoxy (84,
125, 256). Because of their high modulus and high Tg
of engineering thermoplastics, the modified epoxy resin
will reach or even exceed the corresponding values for
the unmodified resin. Unlike the rubber toughening
where significant reduction in stiffness and modulus
was observed at an ambient temperature, in case of
thermoplastic toughened epoxy, reduction in stiffness
becomes significant only at temperatures near to the Tg
of the thermoplastic moiety.
The initial studies on thermoplastic toughened epoxy were
carried out by using unreactive low molecular weight
thermoplastics like polyether sulfone) (PES), polyether
imide. No significant increase in fracture toughness was
observed due to such blending of thermoplastic modifier
with difunctional and multifunctional epoxies (302). It
was concluded that the lack of improvement of fracture
toughness observed in these systems may be due to
the fact that cured epoxy resins high crosslink density
inhibited the primary toughening mechanism namely
the formation of shear bands.
Hedrick and co-workers (301) considered poor interfacial
adhesion to be the main reason for the inability of
commercial thermoplastics (nonreactive) to improve
the toughness of epoxy resin. They used phenolic -OH
ended bisphenol-A based PES and amine-terminated
PES oligomers as toughening agents and claimed
that this approach resulted in remarkable increase in
fracture energy. The theory is similar to liquid rubber
toughening. The thermoplastic modifier having reactive
end groups, reacts with the epoxy resin. The presence of
an excess of epoxy resin essentially produces an epoxy
end-capped thermoplastic modifier. The modified and
unmodified epoxy resin further reacts with the curing
agent and produces the toughened network. Initially

16

the thermoplastic is compatible with the epoxy resin


but as the molecular weight increases due to the curing
reaction, the homogeneous mixture starts undergoing
phase separate by a spinodal decomposition, resulting
in the development of a two-phase microstructure
(107). Gorbunova and co-workers (107) reported that
incorporation of polysulfone into epoxy networks,
resulted in a considerable increase in impact strength
and cross-breaking strength of epoxy composites.
In contrast to the liquid rubber modified epoxy systems,
which displays a simple particulate microstructure,
the thermoplastic-toughened epoxy networks produce
different morphology/microstructures at different
modifier concentrations (266). Initially at low
concentrations of thermoplastic, the thermoplastic
becomes miscible in the epoxy matrix and generates
a single-phase morphology. On subsequent increase
in thermoplastic concentration, the phase separation
occurs leading to the development of a two-phase
morphology and the microstructure changes from
particulate to cocontinuous and finally to the phaseinverted microstructure. The mechanisms responsible
for the toughening of epoxy by thermoplastics, are
reported to be plastic yielding or drawing and tearing
of thermoplastic rich phases.
Once the -OH- terminated bis phenol-A (BPA) based
PES was found to be successful for toughening the
epoxy matrix, efforts were concentrated on developing
amine-terminated oligomers of PES, which can be
synthesised by adding a stoichiometric amount of amino
phenol as the end-capping agent (282). The oligomeric
amines can be reacted with epoxy and DDS to give the
toughened thermoset. Pak and co-workers (274) have
used PES with pendent amino groups as the modifier
for epoxy resin. Like amine-terminated PES, they
can be used as such or after modification with maleic
anhydride. It has been found that with increase in -NH2
content, the toughness increases initially, passes through
a maximum and then decreases. The initial increase
in fracture toughness with increase in -NH2 content
is due to increase in interfacial adhesion between the
epoxy matrix and the dispersed PES particles, which
prevents the debonding of particles. The decrease in
fracture energy above an optimum -NH2 concentration
can be attributed to the formation of a single-phase
morphology (undesirable for toughening) as a result of
higher miscibility of the PES, containing higher -NH2
content, with the epoxy resin.
Crystalline thermoplastics have also been utilised for
toughening epoxy resins (238). Polyethylene oxide
(PEO) was reported to be an effective toughening
agent for epoxy (284). The -OH groups of PEO react

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

with epoxy at an elevated temperature and form a


compatible blend with single-phase morphology or
two-phase microstructure depending on the molecular
weight of PEO and the curing condition. Nichols and
Robertson (a.11) reported a systematic exploration of
the relationship between thermal history, morphology
and mechanical properties of polybutylene terepthalate
(PBT)/epoxy blends. They found that 5 wt.% of a
thermoplastic PBT was able to increase the fracture
energy (GIc) of a brittle anhydride cured epoxy from
180 to 2000 J/m2 with proper control of morphology.
The exceptional higher toughening ability of PBT in
comparison to Nylon 6, can be attributed to phasetransformation of PBT at the crack tip (a.11) as observed
in toughened ceramics.

6.6 Rigid Particle Toughening


The fourth approach generally taken to improve crack
resistance of an epoxy resin, is the incorporation of
rigid inorganic fillers such as alumina, silica, glass
beads, etc., into glassy epoxy matrix (276, 281, 286).
The mechanisms proposed for improvement of fracture
resistance are shear yielding and crack pinning.
However, unlike rubbery filler which can cavitate,
get stretched and remain bonded due to the chemical
interaction to sustain the imposed load, the rigid filler
cannot deform or cavitate and easily get debonded
from the matrix leading to the catastrophic failure
of the material. It is difficult also to achieve a good
dispersion of such materials in the epoxy matrices. The
combinations of glass beads and rubbery fillers have
been tried out (253, 273, 276) and it was reported that
the fracture energies displayed a strong improvement
and a synergistic effect due to the presence of both kinds
of particles in the hybrid composites (270, 271).

7 Nanoreinforcement of Epoxy
Nanoreinforced composites or nanocomposites offer
a great potential for novel properties because the
distinct inorganic organic component properties can
be combined in a single material with a uniformity
of dispersion at the nano level. Such reinforcement
often offers synergistic improvement in properties
when the component sizes approach the nano scale
(77). The concept of nanoreinforcement arises from
the knowledge that control of structure/interactions
at the smallest scales and the systematic nanometer
by nanometer construction of composites provide
the best chance to control the macroscopic properties

(207). An effective exploitation of nanoreinforcement


requires an understanding of nonscale structureproperty-processing relationships of nancomposites
to select the right nancomponent and to process
them properly for the target properties (214). The
main advantage of the nanocomposite is the property
tradeoffs associated with conventional composites. For
example, nanomodification can improve the stiffness
without sacrificing toughness, can enhance barrier
properties without sacrificing transparency and offer
flame retardency without deteriorating mechanical
property and colour (100, 190, 191). Applications
of nanocomposites have been proposed for ballistic
armour, capable of withstanding small arms fire
(7.62mm bullets) (209). If the nanoreinforcement effect
can be synergistically coupled with the effect of other
additives/microfillers, the resultant composite materials
will find wider applications leading to the more and
more replacement of conventional metallic materials
for critical applications (22, 102).
Various nanofillers namely, nanosilica (204) and
nano calcium carbonate (33), polyhedral oligomeric
silsesquixane (24, 31), have been used to make
epoxy-based nanocomposites as described in Table1.
Nanocomposites are now no longer only restricted to
the laboratory, they are found in the real world (62).
Recently, two new polyamide-6 nanocomposites
(NanoTuff and Nanoseal), have been introduced by the
Nylon Corporation of America (21). Two technologies
namely the technology of polymer/clay and technology
of polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites,
will be discussed briefly in the following sections.

7.1 Clay Reinforced Epoxy


Polymer-clay nanocomposite (PCN) is one among very
few areas in the field of polymer technology which has
drawn considerable interest in recent years (42, 146,
151, 152). The main attractions of PCN are the low cost
of clay and the well developed intercalation chemistry,
which makes it possible to achieve a nanostructure
from a micron size filler. Thus, PCN technology can
avoid the potential health hazards involved in other
nanomaterials technology.
The clays are made up of a crystal lattice (0.95 nm
thick layer) stacked together. A layer consists of two
tetrahedral sheets fused to one octahedral sheet of either
aluminum or magnesium hydroxide (2:1 layer). These
2:1 layers are not electrostatically neutral. The excess
layer charge, caused by isomorphous substitutions
of Si4+ for Al3+ in the tetrahedral lattice and Al3+ for
Mg2+ in the octahedral sheet, is balanced by interlayer

17

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

cations, which are commonly Na+, Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions.


The strong hydrophilic nature of the clay surface results
in a high interfacial tension with organic materials,
making the layered silicate difficult to intercalate and
disperse homogeneously in an epoxy matrix. That is
why in situ polymerisation of epoxy with clay leads
to a conventional microcomposite with particle size of
about 5 to 15 mm as shown in Figure 9.
That is why it is necessary to modify the montmorillonite
or bentonite clays with alkyl ammonium cation, which
can be carried out by a simple ion exchange method (133).
The introduction of an alkyl chain into the galleries,
serves two purposes: firstly it introduces hydrophobic
character into the gallery and it expands the spacing
between the clay layers. Both these factors facilitate
the penetration of polymer molecules into the galleries,
leading to the formation of a nanocomposite (158, 166).
Toyota Central R&D Laboratories Inc., Japan is the
first company to exploit Nylon 6/clay composite for
automotive applications. Subsequently, the organoclay
for various polymer systems were commercialised by
Nanocore Inc., USA and Southern Clay Ltd., and various
polymer nancomposites were developed (201, 244,
246). The RTP Company has introduced a polyamide 6
nanocomposite film for extruded film/sheet applications
and Bayer has commercialised a LPDU 601 grade,
which is transparent with barrier properties. The TNO
group has successfully made polyamide, polyethylene,
polypropylene, polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate
and polyurethane using planomer technology, which is
based on the concept of modifying the clay with a block
copolymer (219). PCN offer better dimensional stability,
thermal stability and flame retardency (211). Recently,
Foster Corporation (USA) has commercialised a
patented nanocomposite technology, which enhanced

the mechanical properties of a wide range of commodity


and engineering thermoplastics plus thermosets (37).
The process is called Nano Med, which is intended to
be used in medical devices such as catheters. Techmer
Lehvoss company, USA commercialised nanocomposite
products since 2003 (111). It is estimated that global
polymer nanocomposite market will exceed 211 million
US Dollars by 2008. According to a report published
by Business Communications Inc., USA in 2004, the
polymer nanocomposite market is forecast to grow by
18.4% (136).
The organo-modified clay materials can easily be
dispersed in liquid thermosetting resins like epoxy
resin by simple techniques like mechanical mixing,
shear mixing or sonication (17, 53). Curing such nano
filled resin mixtures makes epoxy/clay nanocomposites.
The fundamental principle behind the formation
of layered silicate/thermoset nanocomposites is
that both the resin and curing agent molecules are
able to intercalate into and react within the silicate
layer galleries. The organic modification of clay
encourages such intercalation leading to the formation
of a nanocomposite after curing. The nanocomposite
structures formed after curing can be broadly divided
into two types: intercalated nanocomposite in which
the silicate is well dispersed in a polymer matrix with
polymer chains inserted into silicate layers that retain
their lateral order, and exfoliated nanocomposites
where the silicate platelets become fully separated or
delaminated, essentially individually dispersed in the
epoxy matrix as schematically shown in Figure10.
However, the real morphology falls somewhere
between these two extremes and the synthesis of true
exfoliated nanocomposite, where the greatest property
improvement takes place, still remains a challenge.

Figure 9
Formation of epoxy/clay microcomposites

18

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

shown in Figure 11. XRD is an important tool which


is frequently used for structural characterisation of
epoxy/clay nanocomposites. The x-ray technique is
often applied to identify intercalated structures through
Braggs equation:
l = 2d sin

(12)

Where: l corresponds to the wavelength of the X-ray


radiation used (l =1.5405 ),

d corresponds to the spacing between specific
diffraction lattice planes, and,

is the measured diffraction angle.

Figure 10
Schematic representations of intercalated and
exfoliated nanocomposites

The key issues found to encourage exfoliation were


thought to be the reactivity and diffusion rates of
the curing agent due to their effect on extragallery
and intragallery reaction rates. When the organoclay
is dispersed in an epoxy hardener mixture, the resin
mixture penetrates into the gallery and the curing
reaction occurs both inside the gallery and outside the
gallery which are called intragalery and extragalery
reaction respectively. The alkyl ammonium cation
presents in the galleries catalyses the epoxy/amine
reaction. Hence the intragallery reaction is faster that
the extragallery reaction. This helps the clay platelets to
push apart leading to a higher extent of intercalation or
exfoliation. A high temperature helps the intercalation
(159) as is evident from x-ray diffraction analysis

The d value corresponding to the (001) plane (indicative


of interlayer distance), increases as a result of
intercalation. The absence of the d001 peak indicates
exfoliation. As observed from Figure 10, the d001 peak
shifted to a lower value indicating the increase in dspace with the increase in cure temperature. Thus high
cure temperature favours intercalation, however, it is
restricted by the processing window.
XRD study does not detect the exfoliated and
intercalated silicates (001 peak) with an interlayer
distance greater than 9 nm (42). Hence, TEM is used
to study the nanostructure of such composites. TEM
micrographs of DGEBA nanocomposites cured at
100C and 160 C are shown in Figure 12. It is clear
that though the XRD indicates exfoliation, TEM studies
indicated that the tactoid were still present and the

Figure 11
XRD Plots of TgDDM nanocomposites containing 7.5% organoclay, cured at different temperature profile
Reprinted with permission from O. Becker, Y.B. Cheng, R.J. Varley and G.P. Simon, Macromolecules, 2003, 36, 5,
1616. 2003, American Chemical Society

19

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

composites. Consequently, the application of epoxy


composites with nanoreinforcement, is going to be
explored extensively and the use of epoxy composites
for such applications as for example naval application,
is going to be increased in the near future.

7.2 CNT-Reinforced Epoxy

Figure 12
TEM micrographs of DGEBA nanocomposites cured
at a) 100 C and b) 160 C
Reprinted with permission from O. Becker, Y.B.
Cheng, R.J. Varley and G.P. Simon, Macromolecules,
2003, 36, 5, 1616. 2003, American Chemical Society

morphology falls in between the intercalated and the


exfoliated nanostructure (159).
Incorporation of nanoclay in a carbon fibre reinforced
epoxy system, resulted in laminates with microcrack
densities lower than those seen in case of unmodified
composite system as a response to cryogenic cycle (181).
Apart from reinforcing effect, nanoclay significantly
reduces the water and solvent permeability of the
epoxy matrix (16, 56), which is generally attributed
to the creation of a tortuous path, for the permeant
molecules to thread their way among the obstructing
platelets (102, 133). Because of their polar nature, the
epoxy matrix absorbs moisture, which significantly
reduces the mechanical properties and toughness of
epoxy composites (252, 260, 261, 303). This is a major
concern for utilisation of epoxy composites in hot/wet
conditions and underwater applications (86, 87, 252).
It is possible to avoid the detrimental effect (due to
moisture) by incorporating the nanoclay into the epoxy

20

Another method for synthesis of nanocomposites is the


direct dispersion of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix.
Today, technologies are available for synthesis of a
wide variety of nanomaterials such as silicon whiskers,
silicon cube, carbon nanotubes and so on. Since the
discovery of CNT and subsequently the investigation of
their properties, considerable attention has been focused
on CNT-based nanocomposites in recent years (96, 105,
138).CNT are seamlessly rolled sheets of hexagonal
array of carbon atoms with a diameter ranging from few
Angstroms to several tens of nanometers across. These
nanometer-sized tubes exist in two forms, singlewall
carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in which the tube is formed
from only a single layer of carbon atoms and multiwall
carbon nanotubes, in which the tube consists of several
layers of coaxial carbon tubes. The exceptionally high
tensile strength and elastic modulus (~1 TPa) of these
tubes renders them ideal candidates as ultra-strong
reinforcement of composites.
The technology of epoxy/CNT nanocomposites, is
less mature than the contemporary technology of
PCN. The probable reasons are difficulty in synthesis
of CNT in large scale and their dispersion in epoxy
matrix unlike layered silicates which are easily
available, and the related intercalation chemistry is
well understood. Typically, CNT tend to agglomerate as
bundles in solvents or in the host resin and if dispersed,
reagglomerate quickly thereafter due to electrostatic
attraction. Uniform dispersion within the polymer
matrix and improved nanotube/matrix wetting and
adhesion are critical issues in the processing of these
nanocomposites. Slipping of nanotubes when they
are assembled in ropes significantly affects the elastic
properties of the composite. In addition to slipping of
tubes that are not bonded to the matrix in a composite,
the aggregates of nanotube ropes effectively reduces the
aspect ratio of the reinforcement (96, 138).
Use of silane coupling agents and initiating the chemical
bonding between CNT and the polymer matrix, have
been reported for improvement of the dispersion (47,
169) and the final properties of the nanocomposites.
As established for microfibre reinforced composites,
matrix-CNT interfacial bonding is a critical parameter,
which controls the efficiency of stress transfer from CNT

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

to the matrix and the efficiency of stress transfer in turn


dictates the mechanical properties of the composites.
Thus the current interest in using CNT and anticipated
potential applications for CNT-reinforced polymer
composites, demands a better understanding of CNTmatrix interfacial characteristics. Since the magnitude of
CNT strength is very high (almost 10 times higher than
typical carbon fibre) very high interfacial shear strength
may be required for more efficient strengthening of
polymers with CNT.
When treated with inorganic acid, the outer shells of
CNT were damaged to some extent and carboxylic acid
groups were formed on the surface. Such functionalised
CNT can easily be dispersed in epoxy resin by
mechanical mixing, magnetic agitation or high-energy
sonication (39, 78). Epoxy/CNT composites can be
made by curing the modified resin with a suitable
curing agent. The carboxyl groups of CNT, react
with the epoxy groups resulting in higher
interfacial interactions. Such composites
show mechanical strength, several times
higher compared to carbon fibre-reinforced
composites (78, 131).

effect has been reported for polymer nanocomposites


(35, 130). Increasing tether rigidity improves thermal
stability and elastic modulus but decreases the fracture
toughness, which is extremely important for engineering
applications. Brittle polymers can be toughened by
incorporating a rubbery phase as discussed before
(in Section 6.2) for epoxy resin. However, rubber
modification is accompanied with a substantial decrease
in modulus. Hence, the conventional toughening strategy
can be coupled with the nanoreinforcement strategy to
make really a strong and tough material. The ternary
blending strategy (simultaneous nanoreinforcement
and toughening) is schematically represented in
Figure13.
Ternary blends consisting of rubber, clay and various
polymer matrices have been investigated and show
considerable promise (20, 28, 34, 67). However, it was

Another issue is to breakdown the CNT


bundles as individual nanosized tubes. This
will lead to the achievement of theoretical
elastic modulus for the polymer/CNT
composites, which has so far remained a
challenge. Recently, Miyagawa and coworkers (143) have used fluorinated SW
CNT for making anhydride cured epoxy
nanocomposite by sonication as the fluorine
atoms present in the nanotubes helps to
disrupt the Van der Waals forces between
the nanotubes leading to homogeneous
dispersion. However, during sonication the
fluorine atoms formed free radicals and
resulted in partial breakage of the epoxy
rings.

8 Simultaneous
Nanoreinforcement and
Toughening
Polymer composites with well-dispersed,
layered silicate often offer improved thermal
stability and elastic modulus at the expense
of fracture toughness. A similar trend
was observed for CNT based and other
nanocomposites, though the toughening

Figure 13
Schematic representations of simultaneous nanoreinforcement
and toughening

21

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

observed (144) that for epoxies, addition of nanofiller


affects the microstructure generated as a result of
reaction-induced phase separation. Thus, control of
nanostructure and microstructure poses a real challenge
for development ternary polymer blends based high
performance composites.

9 Fire Retardant Epoxy Composites


The second limitation of epoxy composites (polymer
composites in general) is the poor fire resistance. This
problem is a major concern in applications, where fire
can occur, namely, aircraft cabin, ships, submarines,
offshore drilling platforms and rail carriages. The
subject of fire retardant composites became a source
of interest (160). Several studies have examined the
effect of high temperature or fire on the load bearing
properties of polymer laminates and sandwich structures
(66) (a.12). These studies have shown that thermal
softening of the polymer matrix and reinforcement,
creep and decomposition of polymer matrix, deteriorate
the tension properties, whereas matrix softening and
delamination cracking are responsible for the reduction
of compression properties. Hence, it is necessary to
make the composite materials-based end products
flame retardant to ensure reliability and human safety.
Before discussing the development of flame retardant
composites, it necessary to know about flammability
and smoke tests.

9.1 Flammability and Smoke Tests


There are many standards and governing regulatory
bodies controlling the level of flame retardency required
for various applications as described in earlier issue
of Rapra review reports (128). Three most commonly
used flame tests, namely, Underwriters laboratory test
(UL-94), Cone calorimetry and limiting oxygen index
(LOI) test, are very briefly described here.

9.1.1 UL-94 Flammability Test


The UL-94 test is performed on a plastic sample
(125mm by 13 mm with various thickness up to
13mm) suspended vertically above a cotton patch. The
plastic is subjected to a flame exposure for 10seconds
with a calibrated flame in a unit, which is free from
the effect of external currents (158). After the first
10seconds exposure, the flame is removed and the time
for the sample to self extinguish is recorded. Cotton

22

ignition is noted if polymer dripping ensues; dripping


is permissible if no cotton ignites. Then the second
ignition is performed for the same sample and the self
extinguishing time and dripping characteristic recorded.
If the plastic self extinguishes in less than 10 seconds
after each ignition with no dripping, it is classified as
V-0. If it self extinguishes in less than 30 seconds after
each ignition with no dripping, it is classified as V-1
and if the cotton ignites then it is classified as V-2.
If the sample does not self extinguish before burning
completely, it is classified as failed (F).

9.1.2 Cone Calorimetry


Cone calorimeter experiments were performed at an
incident heat flask of 50 kW/m. Combustion behavior
was assessed according to ASTM E1354-92 (a.13).
During the test the materials were subjected to irradiated
heat plus the feedback heat from the flame starting
from the ignition of the volatile products. The aim
is to simulate the conditions likely to occur in a real
fire. The data were collected for first 250 seconds, this
being regarded as representative of the initial stage
of fire when it can still be stopped before becoming
uncontrollable after flashover. The heat released was
calculated from the consumption of oxygen due to
combustion (72). Various parameters like peak heat
release rate, mass loss rate, specific extinction area,
ignition time (t ign), carbon dioxide yield, carbon
monoxide yield and specific heat of combustion data are
calculated (119, 120). The results obtained from cone
calorimeter, are considered reproducible to within 10%
error when measured at 50 kW/m2. The average heat
release rate is correlated to the heat released in a room
where the flammable materials are not ignited in the
same time. The data should be reported for a minimum
of three replicated instruments.

9.1.3 LOI Test


LOI test is one of the oldest flammability tests - ASTM
D2863 (a.14) and frequently used to compare the flame
retardant properties of polymer samples. The method
of operation is to select the desired initial concentration
of oxygen based on the past experience with a similar
material (43). The gas is allowed to flow for 30 seconds
to purge the system. The specimen is ignited so that
entire tip is burning. The relative flammability is
determined by adjusting the concentration of oxygen,
which will permit the specimen to burn. LOI is
calculated from the following formula:

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

LOI =

VO
100
VN + VO

(13)

where: Vo is the volume of oxygen and VN is the volume


of nitrogen.
Thus, a LOI of a polymer sample of 28 indicates that
28% of the oxygen/nitrogen mixture was required to
be oxygen in order to support continued combustion
of the sample.

10 Fire Retardant Resin


Compositions
Since inorganic fibres, used for reinforcement in
composites are heat resistant and organic polymers are
flammable (250), the fire properties of matrix resin play
an important role in determining the fire properties of
the related composites. Blending with fire retardant
additives or chemical modification of the base resin
(195, 196) develops fire retardant resins.

10.1 Halogenated Flame Retardants


Inorganic fillers such as metal hydroxides are used as
smoke-reducing, non-toxic flame retardants (93, 99).
However, the flame retardant efficiency of the inorganic
fillers is very low and it is necessary to load the fillers to a
very high concentration (> 60 wt.%) to achieve adequate
flame retardency, which in turn drastically reduces the
bulk mechanical properties of the matrix resin. A recent
trend is to use a nanofiller such as nanosized magnesium
hydroxide (26, 108, 126). However, the dispersion
of such nanomaterials poses a challenge in regards to
processing of the materials (93, 108).
A conventional flame retardant epoxy system consists
of antimony trioxide and chlorinated paraffin (CP) or
decabromobiphenyl oxide (DB)(27). During fire the
antimony trioxide reacts with the chlorine of CP or
bromine of DB and forms antimony halides which
create a blanket of gaseous layer. This acts as a gas
barrier between the fuel gas and condensed phase.
Other mechanisms responsible for flame retardancy
are: a) generation of free radical chain terminating
agents, and b) promotion of char formation through
dehydrogenation reactions (161, 163). As a result,
oxygen cannot come in contact with the combustion
zone and the fire extinguishes. However, low molecular
weight CP or DB, have a problem of migration. The

migration problem can be solved by using brominated


epoxy resins, which are mostly derived from DGEBA)
and tetrabromo bisphenol-A (TBBA) with suitable
catalysts. Brominated epoxies of different grades are
commercially available from Atul and Vantico. Salakhov
and co-workers (27) reported N-trichloromethylolimides
of polychlorinated polycyclic dicarboxylic acids as a
flame retardant modifier for epoxy.
The problem in general with halogenated flame
retardants, is that during combustion the burning is
associated with the release of toxic and corrosive gases,
such as hydrogen halides, which are a potential health
hazard (161, 163, 174). Also they can cause the severe
degradation of polymer chains to combustible monomer
or similar species (161). In recent years the research
on the development of environment friendly, so called
green flame retardants has received considerable
attention (162, 163, 179). The need has not only been
expressed by acute government regulations but equally
and persuasively by various social concerns for the
environment.

10.2 Phosphorus Containing Flame Retardants


Recently, phosphorylation has been considered to
be one of the most efficient methods for imparting
flame retarding property to epoxy resins (148).
Organophosphorus compounds have high flame
retardant efficiency in epoxy resins and have also been
found to generate less toxic gases and smoke compared
to halogen containing compounds (116, 164). Hence,
the replacement of halogen containing fire retardants by
phosphorus-containing ones has a noteworthy benefit
in terms of environmental protection. The presence
of phosphorus helps to form a carbonaceous char or
a barrier layer of polyphosphoric acid on burning of
the polymer in the condensed phase (215). A chemical
vapour-phase mechanism is found to be effective
in those cases where the phosphorus containing
degradation products are capable of being vapourised
at the temperature of the pyrolysing surface. Triphenyl
phosphine oxide and triphenyl phosphate have been
shown to break down in the flame to small molecular
species such as PO, HPO2, PO 2 and P2. The rate
controlling hydrogen atom concentration in the flame
has been shown to reduce in the presence of these
species. Studies on the systems with phosphorus atom
in the chain as well as with the volatile phase species
indicate that condensed phase mechanism is more
effective than vapour phase mechanism (180).
Flame retardant epoxy systems can be made by blending
a suitable organophosphorus compound or by using

23

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

phosphorus containing curing agents (amine, acid or


anhydride) and/or phosphorus containing epoxy resins
(240). The reactive types of flame retardant exhibit
much better flame retardancy and overcome several
drawbacks associated with physical blends of the epoxy
and the flame retardants (128). By the judicious selection
of curing agent of the epoxy, the fire-retardant property
can be manipulated taking advantage of phosphorusnitrogen synergism. Note that the synergistic property
probably occurs due to the formation of the P-N bonded
intermediates, which are better phosphorylating agents
than those of the related phosphorus compounds without
nitrogen (180). However, introduction of phosphorus in
the resin backbone or in the curing agents may affect
the curing behaviour and thermomechanical properties
of the cured resin.
Hergenrother and co-workers (112) synthesised the
epoxy and the diamine curing agents containing
phosphorus and evaluated the resins for composite
applications. The optimised formulations showed
excellent flame retardation with phosphorus content
as low as 1.5 wt.%. The flame retardancy is achieved
without any sacrifice in the properties due to
incorporation of phosphorus. Braun and co-workers
(18) investigated the influence of the oxidation
state of phosphorus on the decomposition and fire
behavior of epoxy-based composites highlighting
the potential for optimising flame retardancy while
maintaining the mechanical properties of epoxy/
carbon fibre composites. They have used phosphene
oxide, phosphinate, phosphonate, and phosphates
(phosphorus content about 2.6 wt.%) and found that
by increasing the oxidation state of the phosphorus,
additional charring is observed. So, the thermally stable
residue increases whereas the flame inhibition, which
plays an important role for the fire performance of the
composites, decreases. The study of the decomposition
behaviour indicates that phosphorus-containing groups
influence the decomposition of the epoxy, resulting
in a clear multi-step decomposition with mass losses
between approximately 15 to 20 wt.% in subsequent
processes after the main decomposition step. The mass
loss of the main decomposition process is reduced as
a result of incorporation of phosphorus.
Recently the use of 9,10 dihydro-9-oxa-10phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide based compounds
have been shown (13, 155) to induce a significant
improvement in the flame retardancy of epoxies, while
at the same time avoiding many disadvantages such as
poor compatibity, migration of compound and release of
toxic gases upon burning as compared to conventional
flame retardants. The beauty of this system is that
the flame retardancy can be improved at phosphorus
content as low as 3 wt.%, thereby limiting processing

24

difficulties, and the often severe degradation of the


thermomechanical properties of the base resin.
Very recently, Braun and co-workers (68) have reported
a novel phosphorus modified polysulfone acting as a
flame retardant and as an impact modifier for epoxy
systems at the same time. Incorporating the modifier in
an amine-cured difunctional epoxy they could enhance
both the toughness and the flame retardancy without a
significant sacrifice in thermomechanical properties.
Also it was possible to generate a network of higher
Tg under certain curing condition due to the formation
of an interlocked epoxy-thermoplastic network. In
order to explain the fire property, the decomposition
behavior has been investigated (68). The possible
decomposition pathway for DGEBA/DDS network is
shown in Figure14 (68). The analysis of decomposed
product indicates formation of gases such as SO2, CO,
CH4 and so on. The phosphorus-containing polysulfone
interacts with the epoxy as shown in Figure 15 during
decomposition and favoured the middle pathway
(68).

10.3 Nanoclay-Based Flame Retardants


Incorporation of a small amount of modified
(organophilic) layered silicates, into a polymer matrix,
has been reported to reduce the heat release and mass
loss rate as measured by cone calorimetry (170, 182,
192, 236). The improvement in flame retardancy
has been investigated using both thermoplastic and
thermosetting resins. Evidence was found for a common
mechanism of thermal stability and flammability
reduction, and it was found that addition of organoclays
can substantially aid flame retardancy by encouraging
the formation of a carbonaceous char in the condensed
phase (137, 170, 174). The nanoscale dispersed lamellae
of clay, either intercalated or exfoliated in polymer
matrix, all enhance the formation of charring upon
burning (212). After pyrolysis the nanocomposite
forms a char with a multilayered carbonaceous silicate
structure (121, 139). The exfoliated clay layers
firstly collapse into an intercalated structure which is
transformed into a multilayered carbonaceous-silicate
structure later (30, 193, 199). The carbonaceous char
builds up on the surface during burning and insulates
the underlying materials. This limits the passage of
degradation products from the matrix which supports
the continuous fueling of the fire (38, 127). The
advantages of organoclay over conventional flame
retardants are manifolds: no generation of toxic gases
(truly green flame retardant) and no discoloration (175,
176, 198). Use of organoclay improves the mechanical
properties unlike conventional flame retardants which

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

Figure 14
Part of possible decomposition pathway for DGEBA-DDS epoxy material. Verified decomposition products are
shown in grey and charring/crosslinking is indicated by zigzag line.
Reprinted with permission from U. Braun, U. Knoll, B. Schartel, T. Hoffmann, D. Pospiech, J. Artner, M.
Ciesielski, M. Dring, R.P. Graterol, J.K.W. Sandler and V. Altstdt, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics,
2006, 207, 16, 1501. 2006, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KgaA

Figure 15
Proposed interaction of phosphorus-containing FR and epoxy
Reprinted with permission from from U. Braun, U. Knoll, B. Schartel, T. Hoffmann, D. Pospiech, J. Artner, M.
Ciesielski, M. Dring, R.P. Graterol, J.K.W. Sandler and V. Altstdt, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics,
2006, 207, 16, 1501. 2006, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KgaA

usually cause a deterioration in the thermomechanical


properties (224, 227, 229).
However, it is usually found that such clay additions
are not themselves sufficiently effective to be classified
as a flame retardant. The clay modified polymer
compositions perform poorly when tested by the
industrially significant UL-94 standard with respect

to extinction time (19, 49). The failure is attributed to


the adsorbed onium salt present in the clay (making
it organophilic), which increases the early ignition.
Also at high temperature the onium ions present in the
galleries of the clay undergo decomposition destroying
the nanocomposite structure (19). Moreover, a major
limitation of organoclay is that they work in condensed
phase and do not work in the vapour phase (49, 52).

25

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

10.4 Combination of Organoclay and Other


Flame Retardants
Recent studies on the combined effects of organoclay
and flame-retardants on polymer blends system
reveal that the presence of an organoclay increases
the compatibilisation of the blend (61). The results
have been attributed to the barrier effect or specific
interaction of both the polymer with the clay which
resulted in change in free energy of mixing. The
modern flame retardants are basically organic molecules
with halogen or phosphorus groups, and are not
well dispersed in polymer system. Hence, it can be
postulated that the presence of clay might enhance the
compatibility between the polymer and the fire retardant
resulting in improvement in fire properties (184, 188).
Thus, by using a small amount of clay, it is possible
to significantly reduce the amount of conventional
fire retardant additives, required for optimum flame
retardant properties. The conventional flame retardants
always have some detrimental effects on the mechanical
properties of the polymer system, hence by using
nanoclay, such detrimental effects can be minimised
and compensated for. The synergistic effect of nanoclay
and conventional fire retardant (decabromodiphenyl
oxide plus antimony trioxide) for polypropylene-gmaleic anhydride system was investigated (189). The
synergy between the brominated fire retardant and
antimony trioxide was found in nanocomposite system
whereas no synergy was observed in the virgin polymer
matrix. Synergistic effects of inorganic flame retardants
(aluminum trihydrate) and phosphorus-based flame
retardants with nanoclay, were reported for epoxy (52,
94, 188) and other polymer systems like vinyl ester
(88, 98), ethylene vinyl acetate (43), polystyrene (147),
polypropylene (189) and silicone rubber (41). TEM
and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
measurements of serially burned samples indicate that
the clays play various roles on quenching the flame,
such as promoting the char formation, improving the
dispersion of fire-retardants and catalysing the chain
reaction for dissociation of halogenated compounds.

10.5 Intumescent Fire Retardants


Intumescent fire retardants (IFR) are a new class of
flame retardants which develop a carbonaceous shield
under heat flux (216). The solid first begins to melt
and dissipates thermal energy in the process. A state
of viscoelastic material is achieved which can trap
the evolving gases. This material starts to expand and
grow, i.e., to intumesce. The intumescent coating so
formed no longer traps the evolving gases when the
internal pressure increases and it degrades under the

26

heat flux and thus protects the structure. The final state
consists of a carbonaceous residue which contains
polyaromatic and phosphorus oxides. IFR consists
of three main components: the acid source, carbon
source and gas source. Polyphosphates-pentaerytritolmelamine system has been successfully used to develop
intumescent coating and additive for thermoplastics
and thermosetting polymers (165, 216, 217). It was
reported that amine cured epoxy-based intumescent
compositions can be developed using a ammonium
polyphosphate, calcium borate and phenanthrene
dehydropolycondensation product containing chromium
and nickel, as additives (160). The composites based
on intumescent epoxy formulation and fire retardant
cellulose fibres have been studied (160). Physical and
chemical interactions of the three components lead
to synergistic effect resulting in an enhanced char
formation.

11. Summary and Outlook


The limitations of conventional epoxy-based FRP
composites for high performance applications are
poor damage tolerance and fire resistance. The damage
tolerance can be improved by using a tough resin, high
strain fibres and by manipulation of the interfaces.
The most successful method for improvement of
impact strength of an epoxy composite for structural
applications, is the toughening of epoxy resin. Liquid
rubber toughening is recommended for a difunctional
epoxy and thermoplastic toughening is the most
suitable for a multifunctional epoxy network. The
toughening strategy can be coupled with a suitable
nanoreinforcement by using a nanofiller like nanoclay
and CNT, to produce strong and tough composites.
The control of both microstructures and nanostructures
is required for achieving optimum properties. Since
the magnitude of CNT strength is very high (almost
10times higher than that of a typical carbon fibre),
very high interfacial shear strength may be required
for a more efficient strengthening of polymers with
CNT. Recent strategy of using functionalised CNT,
shows a considerable promise and the chemical means
to improve interfacial adhesion between CNT and the
polymer matrix, is likely to be a major focus in near
future.
In recent years, a lot of studies have been carried out to
predict the composite properties in fire and to develop
efficient fire-retardant composites. Though various
methods can be adopted to improve the performance
of composites in fire, the use of flame retardant resins,
is inevitable. Phosphorus-containing flame retardants

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

are reported to be better in terms of environmental


protection compared to the halogen-based ones.
Development of phosphorus-containing modifiers,
which can simultaneously act as a flame retardant and as
an impact modifier for epoxy resins, shows encouraging
results, although the detailed mechanical properties
and long-term performance of the related composite
structures, are yet to be established. Organoclays
offer the fire retardancy without any environmental
hazard (green flame-retardants), however, they are
not themselves alone sufficiently effective. They can
be used in combination with other flame retardants
to achieve required fire properties with a minimum
amount of flame retardants and to compensate the
degradation in thermomechanical properties of the
composites occurring due to the addition of flame
retardants. Chemically reactive phosphorus-containing
flame retardants, in addition with organoclays, or
the combinations of both, are going to be the future
materials for development of high performance, flame
retardant composites.

12. List of Abbreviation and


Acronyms

HBP

Hyperbranched polymer(s)

IFR

Intumescent fire retardant(s)

ILSS

Inter laminar shear strength

LOI

Limiting oxygen index

MLT

Matrix ligament thickness

MMC

Metal matrix composite

Mn

Number average molecular weight

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space


Administration

PBT

Polybutylene terepthalate

PCN

Polymer-clay nanocomposite

PEO

Polyethylene oxide

PES

Polyether sulfone

phr

Parts per hundred rubber

PMC

Polymer matrix composite(s)

R&D

Research and Development

RTM

Resin transfer moulding

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

SWNT

Singlewall carbon nanotube

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

3D

Three-dimensional

TETA

Triethylene tetramine

ATBN

Amine-terminated copolymer of butadiene


and acrylonitrile

Tg

Glass transition temperature

BPA

Bisphenol-A

TGA

Thermogravimetric analysis

CMC

Ceramic matrix composite

TGAP

Triglycidyl p-amino phenol

CNT

Carbon nanotube(s)

CP

Chlorinated paraffin

CTBN

Carboxyl-terminated copolymer of butadiene


and acrylonitrile

TGDDM Tetraglycidyl ether of 4,4 diamino diphenyl


methane
UL-94

Underwriters Laboratory test

XRD

X-ray diffraction

CTPEHA Carboxyl-terminated poly(2-ethyl hexyl


acrylate)
DB

Decabromobiphenyl oxide

DDM

4,4 Diaminodiphenyl methane

DDS

4,4 Diaminodiphenyl sulfone

DETDA Diethyl toluene diamine

13. Additional References


a.1

B.Z. Jang, Science and Engineering of


Composite Materials, 1991, 2, 1, 29

a.2

H. Lee and K. Neville, Handbook of Epoxy


Resins, McGraw-Hill, NewYork, NY, USA,
1967.

a.3

ASTM D5045-99(2007)e1, Standard Test


Methods for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness
and Strain Energy Release Rate of Plastic
Materials, 2007.

DGEBA Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A


Dr

Diffusivity of rubber

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

ESO

Epoxidised soybean oil

FRP

Fibre reinforced plastic

27

Epoxy Composites: Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy

a.4

ASTM D256-06a, Standard Test Methods


for Determining the Izod Pendulum Impact
Resistance of Plastics, 2006.

a.5

P.J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry,


Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA,
1975.

a.6

R.B. Bird, W.E. Stewart and E.N. Lightfoot,


Transport Phenomena, Wiley, New York, NY,
USA, 1969.

a.7

D. Li, A.F. Yee, I.-W. Chen, S-C. Chang and K.


Takahashi, Journal of Materials Science, 1994,
29, 8, 2205.

a.8

S. Wu and A. Mongolina, Polymer, 1990, 31,


5, 972.

a.9

Canadian Plastics, 1985, 43, 4, 23.

a.10

M.P. Merkel, V.L. Dimonie, M.S. El-Asser and


J.W. Vanderhoff, Journal of Polymer Science:
Polymer Chemistry Edition, 1987, 25, 5,
1219.

a.11

M.E. Nichols and R.E. Robertson, Journal of


Materials Science, 1994, 29, 22, 5916.

a.12

J.V. Bausano, J.J. Lesko and S.W. Case,


Composite Part A, 2006, 37, 7, 1092.

a.13

ASTM E1354-04a, Standard Test Method


for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates
for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen
Consumption Calorimeter, 2004.

a.14

ASTM D2863-06a, Standard Test Method for


Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration
to Support Candle-Like Combustion of Plastics
(Oxygen Index), 2006.

28

References and Abstracts

References from the Polymer Library Database


Item 1
Polymer
48, No.8, 2007, p.2345-2354
UNDERSTANDING THE DECOMPOSITION
AND FIRE PERFORMANCE PROCESSES
IN PHOSPHORUS AND NANOMODIFIED
HIGH PERFORMANCE EPOXY RESINS AND
COMPOSITES
Weichang Liu; Varley R J; Simon G P
Monash,University; CSIRO
This paper investigates the decomposition mechanism
and fire performance of high performance epoxy amine
resins and laminate systems, using thermogravimetry
(TGA), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), cone
calorimetry and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy
(FTIR). Two different, commercially-important epoxy
resins, tetraglycidyl methylene dianiline (TGDDM) and
diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) have been cured
separately with diethyl toluene diamine (DETDA) and
bis(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl phosphonate (BAPP) and
their relative combustion performance has been examined
and discussed in terms of their decomposition profile. This
paper highlights the close relationship between char yields
(TGA and cone calorimetry) and thermal decomposition
with the peak heat release rate, highlighting the role of
the condensed phase in minimizing combustion. The
lower decomposition temperatures and higher char yields
of the tetra-functional epoxy (TGDDM) are therefore
seen to provide superior fire performance compared to
the bi-functional (DGEBA) epoxy. FTIR shows that the
decomposition occurs through initial cleavage of P-O-C
bonds in preference to other covalent bonds, which allows
dehydration and subsequent charring and/or chain scission.
TGA demonstrated that the laminated systems did not
show a significant difference to the neat resin systems,
with respect to initial decomposition of the network and the
thermal stability of the char layer. Nanoclay addition was
also found to have little effect upon degradation and fire
performance. 33 refs. Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd.
AUSTRALIA

Accession no.992032
Item 2
Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering
46, No.1-3, Jan.-March 2007, pp.227-232
SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF
MONTMORILLONITE AND INTUMESCENT
FLAME RETARDANT ON FLAME
RETARDANCE ENHANCEMENT OF ABS
Ying Xia; Xi-gao Jian; Jian-feng Li; Xin-hong Wang;
Yan-yan Xu
Dalian,Institute of Light Industry; Dalian,University of
Technology; Dalian,University of Light Industry

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Synergistic effects of organically modified montmorillonite


(OMMT) and an intumescent flame retardant (IFR) based
on ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and pentaerythritol
(PER) on the enhancement of flame retardance of
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) were
examined by a range of methods. The limiting oxygen
index value and vertical flame tests showed that OMMT
has a synergistic flame-retardant effect with the IFR, and
the LOI value of ABS/OMMT/IFR (96:4:20) reached
28.7%. Thermogravimetry showed that the incorporation
of OMMT and IFR is very effective in enhancing the
thermal stability of the ABS/OMMT/IFR system at
temperatures above 500 deg.C. X-ray diffractometry
showed that the ABS/OMMT composite is type of
intercalated nanocomposite with a gallery height of 3.5
nm. Microstructural studies with SEM showed that suitable
amounts of OMMT and IFR can promote the formation
of compact intumescent charred layers in ABS blends.
15 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.992294
Item 3
Composites and Polycon 2006. Proceedings of a
conference held St.Louis, Mo., 18th-20th Oct.2006.
Arlington, Va., ACMA, 2006, Paper 29, pp.16, CDROM, 012
POLYPROPYLENE BASED NOVEL
FLAME RETARDANT NANOCOMPOSITE
COMPOSITIONS
Deodhar S; Shanmuganathan K; Patra P; Qinguo Fan;
Calvert P; Warner S; Wilkie C; Dembsey N
Massachusetts,University; Marquette,University;
Worcester,Polytechnic Institute
(American Composites Manufacturers Association;
ICPA)
Polypropylene/calcium carbonate/ammonium
polyphosphate nanocomposites with five different
percentage loadings of additives were prepared by melt
mixing and the effect of the additives on the flame spread
rate of PP films investigated using a standard horizontal
flame spread test. The decomposition behaviour of the
additives, mixtures thereof and nanocomposite films was
studied by TGA and the interaction between the additives
and their effects on the heat stability of PP examined by
TGA and TGA-FTIR analysis. The char residue obtained
after burning of the nanocomposite films was examined
by X-ray diffraction and synergism between the additives
in reducing PP flammability discussed. 18 refs.
USA

Accession no.991646

29

References and Abstracts

Item 4
European Polymer Journal
43, No.3, 2007, p.725-742
PREPARATION, THERMAL PROPERTIES,
MORPHOLOGY, AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF
PHOSPHORUS-CONTAINING EPOXY/SIO2
AND POLYIMIDE/SIO2 NANOCOMPOSITES
Ching Hsuan Lin; Chen Chia Feng; Ting Yu Hwang
Taiwan,National Chung-Hsing University

of network mechanical properties both in the glassy and


rubbery states. The simultaneous increase of stiffness and
toughness was observed, demonstrating the great potential
of pyrogenic silica for the reinforcement of thermosetting
systems. This exceptional behaviour has been interpreted
in terms of the interactions and morphology developed.
23 refs. Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd.

A phosphorus-containing tri-ethoxysilane (dopo-icteos)


reacting from the nucleophilic addition reaction of 9,10dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene 10-oxide (dopo)
and 3-(trieoxysilyl) isocyanate (icteos) was synthesised.
The structure of dopo-icteos was confirmed by 1H, 13C,
31P NMR and IR spectra. A triethylamine catalyzed
mechanism for the dopo-icteos synthesis was proposed
and verified by NMR spectra. The phosphorus-containing
epoxy/SiO2 and polyimide/SiO2 nanocomposites were
prepared from the in-situ curing of diglycidyl ether of
bisphenol A (DGEBA)/4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane(
DDM)/dopo-icteos, and imidisation of poly(amic acid)
of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA)/4,4-oxydianiline
(ODA)/dopo-icteos, respectively. The microstructure and
morphology were investigated by 29Si NMR, scanning
electron microscope (SEM), EDS (Si and P mapping)
analysis and atomic force microscope (AFM). The thermal
properties, flame retardancy and dielectric properties of the
organic-inorganic hybrids were investigated by differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis
(DMA), limiting oxygen index (LOI), thermal gravimetric
analysis (TGA) and dielectric analyzer (DEA). 24 refs.
Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd.

Accession no.990041

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;


GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Item 6
Polymer Engineering and Science
47, No.3, 2007, p.330-336
FLAME RETARDING EFFECTS OF NANOCLAY
ON WOOD-FIBER COMPOSITES
Guo G; Park C; Lee Y; Kim Y; Sain M
Toronto,University

TAIWAN

This research article focuses on investigating the effects of


nanoclay particles on the flame retarding characteristics of
wood-fibre/plastic composites (WPC) using ASTM D635.
The processing aspects of nanocomposites with WPC are
presented. The processing techniques for controlling the
degree of exfoliation and the cost aspect are also described.
It turns out that the coupling agent used for wood-fibres
is also effective for the exfoliation of clay, and therefore,
no additional cost is required. This research indicates
that the structure of nanocomposites (i.e., the degree of
exfoliation) and the clay content used have a large impact
on the flame retardancy of WPC. The flame retardancy is
investigated as a function of these parameters. Based on
this, a cost-effective way to improve flame retardancy of
WPC is presented. 33 refs.

Accession no.989950

CANADA

Accession no.990194
Item 5
Polymer
48, No.6, 2007, p.1596-1605
EFFECT OF SUB-MICRON SILICA FILLERS
ON THE MECHANICAL PERFORMANCES OF
EPOXY-BASED COMPOSITES
Bugnicourt E; Galy J; Gerard J F; Barthel H
Lyon,Institut National des Sciences Appliquees;
Wacker-Chemie AG
Solid state thermo-mechanical properties, as well as low
and large strain mechanical behaviour, of epoxy composites
filled with sub-micron pyrogenic silica are discussed in
this paper. The reinforcement mechanisms involved are
investigated. Two distinct series of pyrogenic silica were
used: hydrophilic silica with various specific surface areas
and silica grafted with various organo-modifications.
Furthermore, two series of networks, having either a high
or low crosslink density, and resulting thus either in glassy
or rubbery materials at room temperature, were considered.
Dynamic mechanical analysis, uniaxial tensile tests and
fracture mechanic tests were performed. All our results
showed that pyrogenic silica leads to an improvement

30

Item 7
IRC 2005 Yokohama. Proceedings of a conference held
Yokohama, Japan, 24th-28th Oct.2005.
Yokohama, Japan,Society of Rubber Industry, 2005,
Paper 59, pp.4, CD-ROM, 012
FLAME RETARDANCY OF EVA-CLAY
NANOCOMPOSITES
Nishizawa H; Okoshi M
Nishizawa,Technical Institute; Fuji Xerox Co.Ltd.
(Japan,Society of Rubber Industry; Foundation for
Advancement of International Science)
An investigation was carried out into the flame retardancy
of organic-inorganic EVA nanocomposites containing
either treated or untreated clay using magnesium hydroxide
nanoparticles as flame retardant. The nanocomposites were
prepared in a twin-screw extruder or press mould and the
interaction between the clay and polymer investigated through
the Ziegler effect and spin-spin relaxation time. 9 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.990607

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 8
High Performance Polymers
19, No.1, Feb.2007, p.33-47
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF
CYANATE EPOXY COMPOSITES
Jayakumari L S; Thulasiraman V; Sarojadevi M
Anna,University
Anthraquinone dicyanate was prepared by treating
CNBr with 1,4-dihydroxy anthraquinone in the presence
of triethylamine at -5 to 5 deg.C. The dicyanate was
characterised by FTIR spectroscopy. The prepared dicyanate
was blended with commercial epoxy resin in different ratios
and cured at 120 deg.C for 1 h, 180 deg.C for 1 h and postcured at 220 deg.C for 1 h using diaminodiphenylmethane
as the curing agent. Castings of neat resin and blends were
prepared and characterised by FTIR analysis. The composite
laminates were also fabricated from the same composition.
The mechanical properties such as TS, flexural strength and
fracture toughness were measured as per ASTM D 3039,
D 790 and D 5528, respectively. The TS increased with
increasing cyanate content (3, 6, and 9%) from 52.1 to
80.1 MPa. The values of fracture toughness also increased
from 0.7671 kJ m-2 for the neat epoxy resin to 0.9168 kJ
m-2 for the 9% cyanate ester epoxy-modified system. The
thermal properties were also studied. The 10% weight loss
temperature of pure epoxy was 358 deg.C and it increased
to 381 deg.C with incorporation of cyanate ester resin. The
incorporation of cyanate ester up to a 9% loading level did
not affect the Tg to a very great extent. These new cyanatemodified epoxy composites could have the potential to
provide better performance in engineering and aerospace
applications. 17 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.990785
Item 9
International Polymer Science and Technology
34, No.2, 2007, p. T/1-8
FLAME RETARDANCY OF TPU AND PVC
NANOCOMPOSITES
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
The thermooxidative stability of thermoplastic
polyurethane- and plasticised PVC-based nanocomposites
was investigated with reference to the use of organoclays.
The PU nanocomposites were synthesised using virgin
and also conventional flame retarded thermoplastic
polyurethanes. A 70% reduction in the peak heat release
rate and no dripping of the burning polymer, was achieved.
For PVC nanocomposites containing organoclays, a rapid
HCl release through an accelerated chain stripping reaction
of the polymer, catalysed by the quaternary ammonium
compound in the organoclays, was found. This resulted
in severe discoloration. Synthesis routes based on EVA or
TPU masterbatches of organoclays substantially reduced
the darkening of the PVC compounds. Cone calorimeter
experiments showed no significant improvement in the

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

flame retardancy properties of PVC filled organoclays. 31


refs.(Article translated from Gummi Fasern Kunststoffe,
No.8, 2006, p.493-498).
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.988766
Item 10
Polymer Materials Science and Engineering
22, No.6, Nov.2006, p.205-208
Chinese
SYNERGISTIC FIRE RETARDANT EFFECT OF
NANO CG-ATH AND RED PHOSPHORUS FOR
PBT
Ting-Song Cai; Fen Guo; Jian-Fen Chen
China,Ministry of Education; Beijing,University of
Chemical Technology
Nano CG-ATH and encapsulated red phosphorus were
added to PBTP in varying amounts and the fire retardancy
and mechanical properties, including tensile strength,
elongation at break and impact strength, and limiting
oxygen index of the nanocomposites investigated. The
synergistic effect of CG-ATH and red phosphorus is
discussed. 8 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.989463
Item 11
Composites Science and Technology
67, No.6, 2007, p.974-980
EFFECT OF DISPERSION OF NANOMAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE ON THE
FLAMMABILITY OF FLAME RETARDANT
TERNARY COMPOSITES
Gui H; Zhang X; Liu Y; Dong W; Wang Q; Gao J; Song
Z; Lai J; Qiao J
Beijing,University of Chemical Technology;
Beijing,Research Inst.of the Chemical Industry
A novel flame-retardant ternary composite of polymer/
crosslinked rubber/nano-magnesium hydroxide (MH),
prepared by blending thermoplastic polymer with a special
compound powder of crosslinked rubber/nano-MH, was
introduced in this paper. The special compound powder
of crosslinked rubber/nano-MH was prepared by co-spray
drying the fluid mixture of nano-MH slurry and irradiated
rubber latex. The cone testing results showed that the new
flame-retardant ternary composite had better flame retardancy
than the composite obtained by conventional process, such as
longer time to ignition and lower mean heat release rate
in initial time. Thermogravimetry and transmission electron
microscope were used to analyze the reason of different flame
retardancy. It is found that more uniform dispersion of nanoMH in the new ternary composite than in conventional one
may be the main reason for better flame retardancy. 23 refs.
Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd.
CHINA

Accession no.987799

31

References and Abstracts

Item 12
Polymer Degradation and Stability
92, No.1, 2007, p.86-93
SELF-EXTINGUISHING POLYMER/
ORGANOCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Si M; Zaitsev V; Goldman M; Frenkel A; Peiffer D G;
Weil E; Sokolov J C; Rafailovich M H
New York,State University at Stony Brook; New
York,Yeshiva University; ExxonMobil Research &
Engineering Co.; Brooklyn,Polytechnic University
We demonstrated that self-extinguishing polymer
nanocomposites, which can pass the stringent UL 94 V0
standard, can be successfully prepared by combining
modified organoclays with traditional flame retardant
(FR) agents. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry
(SIMS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM),
we determined that the addition of modified clays, which
can intercalate or exfoliate in the matrix, also improved
the dispersion of the FR agents. Dynamic mechanical
analysis (DMA) indicated that the clays increased the
modulus of the polymer above Tg, which prevented
dripping during burning. Cone calorimetry test showed
that the nanocomposites with both FR and organoclay,
had a lower peak heat release rate (PHRR) and average
mass loss rate (MLR) than those with only clay or the FR
agents. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)
data confirmed that no FR/clay interactions occurred in the
solid phase, and that the synergistic effects were due to
gas phase reactions. Since this mechanism is not specific,
it opens the possibility of formulating self-extinguishing
materials from a large class of polymers. 16 refs.
USA

Accession no.986624
Item 13
Polymer
48, No.3, 2007, p.778-790
NOVEL PHOSPHORUS-MODIFIED
POLYSULFONE AS A COMBINED FLAME
RETARDANT AND TOUGHNESS MODIFIER
FOR EPOXY RESINS
Perez R M; Sandler J K W; Altstadt V; Hoffmann
T; Pospiech D; Ciesielski M; Doring M; Braun U;
Balabanovich A I; Schartel B
Bayreuth,University; Leibniz Institute of Polymer
Research; Karlsruhe,Forschungszentrum; Berlin,Federal
Inst.For Mat.Res.& Testing
A novel phosphorus-modified polysulphone (P-PSu) was
employed as a combined toughness modifier and a source
of flame retardancy for a DGEBA/DDS thermosetting
system. In comparison to the results of a commercially
available polysulphone (PSu), commonly used as a
toughness modifier, the chemorheological changes during
curing measured by means of temperature-modulated DSC
revealed an earlier occurrence of mobility restrictions in the
P-PSu-modified epoxy. A higher viscosity and secondary
epoxy-modifier reactions induced a sooner vitrification

32

of the reacting mixture; effects that effectively prevented


any phase separation and morphology development in
the resulting material during cure. Thus, only about a
20% increase in fracture toughness was observed in
the epoxy modified with 20wt.% of P-PSu, cured under
standard conditions at 180 deg.C for 2h. Blends of the
phosphorus-modified and the standard polysulphone (PSu)
were also prepared in various mixing ratios and were
used to modify the same thermosetting system. Again,
no evidence for phase separation of the P-PSu was found
in the epoxy modified with the P-PSu/PSu blends cured
under the selected experimental conditions. The particular
microstructures formed upon curing these novel materials
are attributed to a separation of PSu from a miscible PPSu-epoxy mixture. Nevertheless, the blends of P-PSu/PSu
were found to be effective toughness/flame retardancy
enhancers owing to the simultaneous microstructure
development and polymer interpenetration. 62 refs.
Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.986756
Item 14
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
103, No.2, 15th Jan.2007, p.670-680
PHASE CHARACTERIZATION AND
MECHANICAL AND FLAME-RETARDING
PROPERTIES OF NANO-CASO4/
POLYPROPYLENE AND NANO-CA3(PO4)2/
POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES
Mishra S; Mukherji A
Jalgaon,North Maharashtra University
The synthesis of nano-CaSO4 and nano-Ca3(PO4)2 and
the formation and characterisation of polypropylene
composites with these is described. The observed transition
from the alpha-phase to the beta-phase is confirmed by
FTIR. The thermal properties of composites containing
varying amounts of nano-filler are reported. The mechanical
properties are related to observed morphological properties
and phase behaviour. 21 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.984446
Item 15
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
103, No.3, 5th Feb.2007, pp.1681-1689
FIRE-RESISTANT EFFECT OF NANOCLAY ON
INTUMESCENT NANOCOMPOSITE COATINGS
Zhen-yu Wang; En-hou Han; Wei Ke
Shenyang,Chinese Academy of Sciences
The interactions of ammonium polyphosphate,
pentaerythritol, melamine and a nanocomposite of methyl
methacrylate-styrene copolymer were examined. The effect
of the added nanoclay on the fire performance was studied
by a fire-protection test and by measuring the limiting

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

oxygen index and effective thermal conductivity. The


distribution of nanoparticles in the acrylic nanocomposite
was characterised by transmission electron microscopy.
The flame-retarding efficiency of the intumescent
nanocomposite coating was improved by the presence of
1.5% of well-distributed nanoclay particles. However, the
addition of 3% of nanoclay had a negative effect on the
fire performance of the coating. The fire-retardant property
of a conventional intumescent coating is destroyed by
ageing, whereas nanocomposite coatings modified with
1.5% of nanoclay showed good resistance to ageing and
fire. 16 refs.
CHINA

and structure of the composites. In the case of the direct


addition of epoxy, the composite had an intercalated
structure, whereas when the epoxy was used to pre-treat
the composite, it demonstrated an exfoliated structure in
which the modified montmorillonite was well-dispersed
at the nano-scale. Cone calorimetry experiments showed
that the intercalated structure was a little more effective
than the exfoliated one in terms of flame retardancy, due
to the char formation following pyrolysis. Composites
with an exfoliated structure exhibited a solid-like response
and had a higher storage modulus and viscosity in the low
frequency zone than those with an intercalated structure.
29 refs.

Accession no.984623

CHINA

Accession no.983443
Item 16
Polymer Engineering and Science
46, No.12, 2006, p.1667-1673
NANOREINFORCEMENT OF FLEXIBLE EPOXY
USING LAYERED SILICATE
Ratna D; Chakraborty B C; Dutta H; Banthia A K
India,Naval Materials Research Laboratory; Indian
Institute of Technology
Flexible epoxy matrices, having a good vibration damping
capability, were nanoreinforced using an organoclay. The
nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction
(XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
analysis. The effect of matrix flexibility on the reinforcing
effect was investigated. It was found that the reinforcing
effect increased with an increase in flexibility of the matrix.
The reinforcement is achieved without any sacrifice in
flexibility and Tg. In addition, a reduction in solvent
diffusion and flammability has been demonstrated. DMA
study indicates that the height of the loss peak, decreases
with incorporation of the clay because of the intercalation.
Nevertheless, the nanocomposite samples having up to 10
wt% of the clay show a high damping capability as evident
from the tan deltamax values. 38 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.984691
Item 17
Polymers and Polymer Composites
14, No.8, 2006, p.805-812
EFFECT OF EPOXY MODIFIER ON FLAME
RETARDANCY AND RHEOLOGICAL
BEHAVIOUR OF ABS/MONTMORILLONITE
COMPOSITES
Bo Liu; Chaoying Wan; Yong Zhang; Yinxi Zhang;
Yu Su; Jiliang Ji
Shanghai,Jiao Tong University
The effect is studied of an epoxy modifier on the
morphology, flame retardancy and rheology of an
organically modified montmorillonite-reinforced ABS.
It was shown that the processing condition of epoxy
modification had a significant influence on the morphology

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Item 18
Polymer
47, No.26, 2006, p.8495-8508
INFLUENCE OF THE OXIDATION STATE OF
PHOSPHORUS ON THE DECOMPOSITION AND
FIRE BEHAVIOUR OF FLAME-RETARDED
EPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES
Braun U; Balabanovich A I; Schartel B; Knoll U;
Artner J; Ciesielski M; Doring M; Perez R;
Sandler J K W; Altstadt V; Hoffmann T; Pospiech D
Germany,Federal Institute for Materials
Research & Testing; Karlsruhe,Forschungszent
rum; Bayreuth,University; Leibniz-Institut fuer
Polymerforschung Dresden EV
A systematic and comparative evaluation of the pyrolysis
of halogen-free flame-retarded epoxy resins containing
phosphine oxide, phosphinate, phosphonate, and
phosphate (phosphorus contents around 2.6wt.%) and
the fire behaviour of their carbon fibre composites is
presented. Decomposition pathways are proposed based
on the thermal analysis (TG), TG coupled with evolved gas
analysis (TG-FTIR), kinetics and analysis of the residue
with FTIR and XPS. All organophosphorus-modified
hardeners containing phenoxy groups lead to a reduced
decomposition temperature and mass loss step for the main
decomposition of the cured epoxy resin. With increasing
oxidation state of the phosphorus the thermally stable
residue increases, whereas the release of phosphoruscontaining volatiles decreases. The flammability of the
composites was investigated with LOI and UL 94 and the
fire behaviour for forced-flaming conditions with cone
calorimeter tests performed using different irradiations.
The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed. With
increasing oxidation state of the phosphorus additional
charring is observed, whereas the flame inhibition, which
plays the more important role for the performance of the
composites, decreases. The processing and the mechanical
performance (delamination resistance, flexural properties
and interlaminar bonding strength) of the fibre-reinforced
composites containing phosphorus were maintained at a
high level and, in some cases, even improved. The potential

33

References and Abstracts

for optimising flame retardancy while maintaining


mechanical properties is highlighted in this study. 44 refs.
Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.983496
Item 19
Polymers for Advanced Technologies
17, No.9-10, Sept.-Oct.2006, p.772-777
SOME COMMENTS ON THE MAIN FIRE
RETARDANCY MECHANISMS IN POLYMER
NANOCOMPOSITES
Schartel B; Bartholmai M; Knoll U
Germany,Federal Institute for Materials Research &
Testing
The two main general fire retardancy mechanisms for
polymer nanocomposites, i.e. barrier formation and
increasing the melt viscosity, were examined. These
mechanisms resulted in specific effects on fire properties
that then caused varying flame retardancy efficiency in
different fire tests. The barrier formation mainly retarded
flame spread (peak of heat release rate) in developing fires,
but did not reduce fire load (total heat evolved), ignitability
or flammability (limiting oxygen index). This flame
retardancy effect also increased with increasing irradiation
and disappeared with decreasing irradiation. The increased
melt viscosity prevented dripping, which was beneficial or
disadvantageous depending on the fire test used. In some
tests, it became the dominant influence, transforming
self-extinguishing samples into flammable materials
or causing wicking. Advantages and disadvantages for
exploiting the main general fire retardancy mechanisms of
polymer nanocomposites were compared. It was concluded
that barrier formation and changing the melt viscosity in
nanocomposites were not sufficient for most applications,
but should be accompanied by additional mechanisms
in special systems or in combination with other flame
retardants. 29 refs. (8th International Symposium on
Polymers for Advanced Technologies 2005, Budapest,
Hungary, Sept.2005)
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.984240
Item 20
Composites Science and Technology
66, No.16, 2006, p.3097-3114
MICRO- AND NANO-SCALE DEFORMATION
BEHAVIOR OF NYLON 66-BASED BINARY AND
TERNARY NANOCOMPOSITES
Dasari A; Zhong-Zhen Yu; Mingshu Yang;
Qing-Xin Zhang; Xiao-Lin Xie; Yiu-Wing Mai
Sydney,University; Chinese Academy of Sciences;
Huazhong,University of Science & Technology
The primary aim of this paper is to provide an insight on
the effect of the location of organoclay on the micro- and

34

nano-scale deformation processes in melt-compounded


nylon 66/organoclay/SEBS-g-MA ternary nanocomposites
prepared by different blending sequences. In addition,
the deformation processes of the ternary nanocomposites
were compared to the binary nanocomposites (nylon 66/
organoclay and nylon 66/SEBS-g-MA) and neat nylon
66. The incorporation of SEBS-g-MA particles toughened
nylon 66 markedly; but the flexural modulus and strength
were both reduced. Conversely, the use of organoclay
increased the modulus but decreased the fracture toughness
of nylon 66. Nylon 66/SEBS-g-MA/organoclay ternary
nanocomposites exhibited balanced elastic stiffness
and toughness. Stress-whitening studies of the fracture
surfaces in terms of gray level were also performed and
an attempt was made to correlate the optical reflectivity
characteristics with fracture toughness. It was concluded
that the capability of SEBS-g-MA particles to cavitate was
decreased by the presence of organoclay in the SEBS-gMA phase, resulting in reduced toughening efficiency. The
best micro-structure for toughness and other mechanical
properties is thus to maximize the amount of exfoliated
organoclay in the nylon 66 matrix rather than to have it
embedded in the finely dispersed SEBS-g-MA particles.
66 refs. Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd.
AUSTRALIA; CHINA

Accession no.981505
Item 21
High Performance Plastics
Aug.2006, p.6
NANOCLAY-REINFORCED PA FOR FUEL TANK
NanoTuff and NanoSeal are two new polyamide-6
nanocomposites which have been recently introduced by
Nylon Corp. of America (Nycoa). The grades reportedly
offer novel combinations of stiffness, toughness, and
barrier properties. Brief details are provided in this concise
article.
Nylon Corp.of America; Nycoa
USA

Accession no.982079
Item 22
Medical Device Technology
17, No.7, Sept.2006, p.10-12
NEXT GENERATION POLYMER
NANOCOMPOSITES
Heijkants R G J C; Batenburg L F
TNO Science and Industry
It is explained here that developments in nanocomposite
technology are now offering designers a much wider
set of combinations of materials and properties to use.
This in turn will result in medical devices with improved
mechanical properties and enhanced integration of
different functions. This detailed article describes some
of the possibilities. Section headings include: definitions,
commercialisation, next-generation possibilities, and,

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

expanding design combinations. 2 refs.


General Motors; Hybrid Plastics Corp.; Foster Corp.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE; WORLD

Accession no.982114
Item 23
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
98, No.6, 15th Dec.2005, p.2563-71
MECHANICAL AND FLAME-RETARDING
PROPERTIES OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE
RUBBER FILLED WITH NANO-CACO3 AS A
FILLER AND LINSEED OIL AS AN EXTENDER
Mishra S; Shimpi N G
North Maharashtra,University
A nanosized calcium carbonate filler is synthesised and
incorporated into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) with
2% linseed oil as an extender. The SBR/nano-CaCO3
composite is compounded and moulded for analysis.
Properties such as specific gravity, swelling index,
hardness, tensile strength, abrasion resistance, modulus
at 300% elongation, flame retardancy and elongation at
break are measured. The strong rubber-filler interactions
increase the physical, mechanical and thermal properties
of the composites. 20 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.953695
Item 24
Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics
206, No.20, 24th Oct.2005, p.2075-83
EPOXY RESIN CONTAINING
OCTAMALEIMIDOPHENYL POLYHEDRAL
OLIGOMERIC SILSESQUIOXANE
Ni Y; Zheng S
Shanghai,Jiao Tong University
The synthesis of octamaleimidophenyl polyhedral oligomeric
silsesquioxane (POSS) by imidisation of octaaminophenyl
POSS and maleic anhydride, and its characterisation
by FTIR and proton, carbon-13 and silicon-29 NMR, is
described. The synthesis of nanocomposites of epoxy
resin with various proportions of octamaleimidophenyl
POSS and their characterisation by TEM, DSC and TGA
was investigated and the flame retardant properties of the
products are discussed. 46 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.953809
Item 25
China Synthetic Fiber Industry
28, No.5, Oct.2005, p.39-42
Chinese
RESEARCH PROGRESS OF APPLICATION OF
FLAME RETARDANTS FOR POLYPROPYLENE
FIBER

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Yao Xueli; Ma Xiaoyan; Zhu Yahong; Wang Jinhua


Xian,Northwestern Polytechnical University
A review is presented on flame retardants (including
phosphorus-, halogen- and silicon-containing compounds,
metal hydrates and oxides and nanocomposites) for
PP fibres. Properties and methods of enhancing flame
retardant efficiency are covered. 24 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.955300
Item 26
Polymers and Polymer Composites
13, No.8, 2005, p.835-8
THE CURE AND THERMAL BEHAVIOUR
OF MG(OH)2/EPOXY RESIN/DEEA
NANOCOMPOSITES PREPARED BY A NOVEL
METHOD. BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Cheng Yiyun; He Pingsheng; Cui Ronghui
China,University of Science & Technology
Magnesium hydroxide is a smoke-reducing and non-toxic
additive that has been extensively used in halogen-free
flame retardant polymeric materials. However, its low
flame retardant efficiency and the very high loadings
that are consequently required when used in its ordinary
form, lower the mechanical properties of a flame-retarded
polymeric composition. It has been reported that nanosized
magnesium hydroxide/polymeric compositions have the
potential to solve such problems due to the mechanically
reinforcing and flame retardant functions of nanosized
composite materials. This study reports on the cure
and thermal behaviour of these epoxy resin/magnesium
hydroxide composites. The results of tests indicate
enhanced thermal stability. This is claimed to be partly
attributable to the prevention of out-diffusion of the
volatile gas from the thermally decomposed particles,
because magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles, when welldispersed in epoxy networks, act as gas barriers, reducing
the permeability of the volatile gas. 10 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.956569
Item 27
International Polymer Science and Technology
32, No.10, 2005, p. T/61-3
NEW FLAME-RETARDANT MODIFIERS FOR
EPOXY RESINS
Salakhov M S; Agadzhanov R G; Umaeva V S
Azerbaijan,Academy of Sciences
This article describes the synthesis of Ntrichloromethylolimides of polychlorinated polycyclic
dicarboxylic acids and their use as fire retardant modifiers
of epoxy resins. Tabulated test results are included of
physicomechanical and dielectric properties of modified
epoxy composites. The test results show that these
properties are improved by comparison to unmodified

35

References and Abstracts

epoxy composites. This is attributed to the fact that at


the moment of curing, the polyethyleneamine curing
agent enters into chemical interaction, not only with the
epoxy ring of the bisphenol A epoxy resin, but also with
the modifier. It is claimed that the hydroxyl group seems
to take part in additional crosslinking between itself, as
a result of which a three-dimensional structure is formed
that promotes an increase in the physicomechanical
properties of the composite. 5 refs. (Article translated from
Plasticheskie Massy, No.2, 2005, p.37-8)
AZERBAIJAN

Accession no.956584
Item 28
Polymer
46, No.25, 2005, p.11600-9
INVESTIGATION ON THE POLYAMIDE 6/
ORGANOCALY NANOCOMPOSITES WITH
OR WITHOUT A MALEATED POLYOLEFIN
ELASTOMER AS A TOUGHENER
Chiu F-C; Lai S-M; Chen Y-L; Lee T-H
Taiwan,Tao-Yuan University; Taiwan,National I-Lan
University
Details are given of the preparation of nylon-6 based
nanocomposites using a melt-mixing technique. An
organoclay and a maleated polyolefin elastomer were used
as filler and toughener. Dispersion was examined using
X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM. Crystallisation kinetics
were determined using DSC. Thermal stabilities were
confirmed using TGA. Dynamic mechanical properties
of compression moulded samples were investigated. 31
refs.
CHINA

Accession no.957186

Item 30
International Polymer Science and Technology
32, No.12, 2005, p.T/30-41
NANOCOMPOSITE POLYMERIC MATERIALS
BASED ON ORGANIC CLAYS WITH HIGH
FLAME RESISTANCE
Mikitaev A K; Kaladzhyan A A; Lednev O B;
Mikitaev M A; Davydov E M
Russian Academy of Sciences; Mendeleev D.I.,Russian
Chemico-Technological University; Moscow,State
Scientific Establishment,Centre for Composite Materials
A review article is presented of the use of flame retardants
in polymer materials, and with special emphasis on the use
of organic clays in nanocomposites to provide high flame
resistance. The mechanism of inhibition of reactions in the
flame in the presence of different additives is discussed
with reference to halogen-containing organic compounds,
metal compounds phosphorous compounds, synergistic
blends of metal- and halogen-containing flame retardants,
synergistic blends of phosphorus- and halogen-containing
flame retardants, bromine- and sulphur-containing flame
retardants and flame-retarding systems, phosphorusand nitrogen-containing flame retarding systems, and
nanocomposites based on organic clays. On the basis of
experimental data reported in this study, it is claimed not
to be possible to give a precise answer concerning the
mechanism of increase in flame resistance of polymer
nanocomposites based on organic clays. It is however,
reported that the increased thermal stability and flame
resistance of these materials is attributed to the clays
present the polymer matrix as nanoparticles which act
as heat insulators and elements preventing the liberation
of flammable decomposition products. 45 refs. (Article
translated from Plasticheskie Massy, No.4, 2005, p.3643)
RUSSIA

Item 29
Polymer Bulletin
54, No.4-5, July 2005, p.271-8
POLY(BUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/CLAY
NANOCOMPOSITES DIRECTLY PREPARED
FROM PRISTINE MONTMORILLONITE (MMT)
Junfeng Xiao; Yuan Hu; Qingkong Kong; Lei Song;
Zhengzhou Wang; Zuyao Chen; Weicheng Fan
Hefei,University of Science & Technology
The preparation of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/clay
nanocomposites by melt intercalation from montmorillonite
(MMT) using cetyl pyridinium chloride as compatibiliser
is described. The effect of the proportion of compatibiliser
relative to the clay on the structure and properties of the
nanocomposite is studied by X-ray diffraction, TEM,
TGA and cone calorimetry. The optimum composition is
established for well-dispersed intercalation morphology
and enhanced flame-retarding properties. 16 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.957773

36

Accession no.958919
Item 31
Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry
Edition
44, No.3, 1st Feb.2006, p.1093-105
EPOXY RESIN CONTAINING POLYPHE
NYLSILSESQUIOXANE: PREPARATION,
MORPHOLOGY, AND THERMOMECHANICAL
PROPERTIES
Yong Ni; Sixun Zheng
Shanghai,Jiao Tong University
The preparation, morphology and thermomechanical
properties of composites containing
polyphenylsilsesquioxane (PPSQ) and epoxy resin are
reported. Phase separation induced by polymerisation
occurs when physical blending is used, but nanostructured
composites are obtained when a catalytic amount of
aluminium triacetylacetonate is added. Organic-inorganic
composites with different morphologies display quite
different thermomechanical properties. DSC and DMA

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

show the nanostructured composites to possess higher


Tgs. Nanoreinforcement of PPSQ domains enhances the
dynamic storage modulus. The composites also display
improved thermal stability and flame retardancy. 51
refs.
CHINA

Accession no.960248
Item 32
Offshore
66, No.2, Feb.2006, p.94
COMPOSITE MATERIALS CONTINUE THEIR
MOVE OFFSHORE
The trend of replacing more conventional metal alloys
with non-metallic, composite materials of construction
continues in the building of shelters and storage units.
Offshore rigs rely on resilient and long-lasting shelters
and storage containers to protect equipment, inventories
and personnel from harsh environmental factors of wind,
rain, ocean waves and temperature extremes. Alkan
Shelters alternative to metallic alloys is based on fibrereinforced epoxy composites. Alkan reports success with
carbon fibres as a reinforcement material, pointing to their
high level of specific stiffness and very high tensile and
compression strength as being ideally suited for use in
performance structures. The companys Non-Expandable
ISO containers provide 8x8x20 cu ft of well-insulated,
corrosion and fatigue resistant cargo space, and can be
stacked nine-high.
Alkan Shelter LLC

MORPHOLOGY, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL


BEHAVIOR OF POLYPROPYLENE
NANOCOMPOSITES TOUGHENED WITH
POLY(ETHYLENE-CO-OCTENE)
Jian Wei Lim; Hassan A; Rahmat A R; Wahit M U
Malaysia,Universiti Teknologi
Rubber-toughened PP(RTPP) nanocomposites containing
organophilic layered silicates were prepared by means
of melt extrusion at 230C using a co-rotating twinscrew extruder in order to examine the influence of
the organoclay and the addition of PP grafted with
maleic anhydride(PPgMAH) as a compatibiliser on
the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties.
From tensile and flexural tests, the optimum loading of
organoclay in RTPP was found to be 6 wt %. The optimum
loading of PPgMAH, based on the tensile and flexural
properties, was also 6 wt %. The increase in the organoclay
and PPgMAH content resulted in a severe embrittlement,
manifested by a drop in the impact strength and tensile
EB. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that intercalated
RTPP nanocomposites were successfully prepared where
the macromolecular PP segments were intercalated into
the interlayer space of the organoclay. In addition, the
organoclay was dispersed more evenly in the RTPP
nanocomposites as the PPgMAH content increased. TGA
results revealed that the thermal stability of the RTPP
nanocomposites improved significantly with the addition
of a small amount of organoclay. 50 refs.
MALAYSIA

Accession no.961205

USA

Accession no.960325
Item 33
Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering
44, No.3, 2005, p.463-73
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON IMPROVEMENT
IN MECHANICAL AND FLAME RETARDING
PROPERTIES OF EPOXY-CaCO3 NANO AND
COMMERCIAL COMPOSITES
Mishra S; Sonawane S; Chitodkar V
North Maharashtra,University
The physical, mechanical and flame retardant properties
of nanocomposites and commercial composites of epoxy
resin filled with different contents of calcium carbonate
nanoparticles or microparticles respectively were
investigated by XRD, tensile and impact testing, and rate
of burning. The results are discussed in terms of exfoliation
in the nanocomposites. 11 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.960365
Item 34
Polymer International
55, No.2, Feb.2006, p.204-15

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Item 35
POLYOLEFINS 2005. Proceedings of a conference held
Houston, Tx., 27th. Feb. - 2nd. March 2005.
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2005, Paper 6, pp.7, CD-ROM, 012
TOUGHENING MECHANISM OF NANOCLAYFILLED POLYPROPYLENE
Jin Zhao; Hoang Pham; Fibiger R; Garcia-Meitin E; Lizhi
Liu; Juarez V; Bouchard K; Matthews W; Esparza G
Dow Chemical Co.
(SPE,South Texas Section; SPE,Thermoplastic
Materials & Foams Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers &
Additives Div.; Society of Plastics Engineers)
Materials science guidelines that determine the toughness
of PP-clay nanocomposites are described by means of
an understanding of the failure mechanism transitions
based on temperature and rate of deformation, including
quantification of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature.
Increased stiffness is usually associated with a decrease
in toughness. Studies have shown that toughening took
place at low clay loading where exfoliation was optimised
by use of a completely maleated PP matrix polymer, but
that loss of impact performance was found with above
5 wt% organoclay content. An investigation is reported
into the key factors that influence the stiffness-toughness
balance for PP nanocomposites with between 1 and 10

37

References and Abstracts

wt.% organoclay, and where the maleated PP content is a


minor component, versus neat PP. The failure mechanism
was investigated with a notched Izod impact test in the
temperature range from -30 to 110 deg.C, combined with
TEM analysis. 7 refs.
USA

Accession no.962366
Item 36
Plastics Science and Technology
No.6, Dec.2005, p.16-9
Chinese
STUDY ON THE FLAME RETARDANCY
OF HIGH IMPACT POLYSTYRENE/
MONTMORILLONITE COMPOSITES BY
DYNAMIC MELTING INTERCALATION
Wang Lichun; Zhang Jun; Wang Rong; Huang Qingsong
China,Ministry of Education; Qingdao,University of
Science & Technology
Composites of high-impact PS with montmorillonite and
with sodium montmorillonite were prepared by dynamic
melt intercalation and their flame retardancy investigated
and compared. Heat release rates, smoke production rates
and mass loss rates were determined and the mechanism of
flame retardance examined through flammability studies,
microstructure analysis and decomposition product
analysis. 5 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.962754
Item 37
Plastics Technology
51, No.8, Aug.2005, p.29
PATENTED NANO-TECHNOLOGY FOR WIDE
RANGE OF RESINS
Foster Corp. of the USA has commercialised a recentlypatented nanocomposite technology which enhanced the
mechanical properties of a wide range of commodity and
engineering thermoplastics and thermosets. The company
has called the process, which is aimed at medical devices
such as catheters, NanoMed. Brief details are given
here.
Foster Corp.
USA

Accession no.962994
Item 38
4th. European Additives and Colors Conference.
Proceedings of a conference held Aachen, Germany,
16th.-17th. March 2005.
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2005, Paper 18 pp.5, 30 cm, 012
NANOCOMPOSITES AS A NEW CONCEPT FOR
FLAME RETARDANCY OF POLYMERS - FROM
THEORY TO REALITY
Beyer G

38

Kabelwerk Eupen AG
(SPE,Additives & Color Europe Div.)
Flame retardant nanocomposites based on EVA with
modified layered silicates as nanofillers are investigated
for use in coaxial cable sheathing. In addition, further
improvements in flame retardancy are examined by
the use of nanofillers in conjunction with traditional
fillers based on antimony trihydrate. Thermogravimetric
analysis and cone calorimetry were used to investigate
the flame retardancy of the EVA compounds. A layered
silicate based on montmorillonite, modified by dimethyl
distearylammonium cations was used as the nanofiller, and
ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers with different weight%
vinyl acetate were used in the study. 7 refs.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.963379
Item 39
Composites Science and Technology
66, No.3-4, 2006, p.599-603
THE REINFORCEMENT ROLE OF CARBON
NANOTUBES IN EPOXY COMPOSITES WITH
DIFFERENT MATRIX STIFFNESS
Ci L; Bai J B
Paris,Ecole Centrale
The preparation of nanocomposites of a bisphenol A
epichlorohydrin-based epoxy resin with carbon nanotubes
with different matrix stiffness by control of the curing
process using triethylenetetramine as hardener is described.
The effects of the nanotubes on the reinforcement of the
matrix were investigated by tensile testing and SEM of
fracture surfaces, and the results are discussed in terms
of interfacial interactions. 23 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.963635
Item 40
Journal of Fire Sciences
24, No.1, Jan.2006, p.47-64
FLAME RETARDATION OF ETHYLENEVINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER USING NANO
MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE AND NANO
HYDROTALCITE
Jiao C M; Wang Z Z; Ye Z; Hu Y; Fan W C
China,University of Science & Technology
The flammability and mechanical properties of EVA
filled with nano magnesium hydroxide (NMH) and nano
hydrotalcite (NHT) were investigated by limiting oxygen
index measurements, the UL-94 test, the cone calorimeter
test, thermogravimetry and tensile measurements.
The morphology of fracture surfaces of the filled EVA
was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and
carbonaceous charred layers were examined by Raman
spectroscopy. The flame retardant effect of NHT was better

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

than that of NMH whereas the mechanical properties of


EVA containing NMH were better than those of EVA
containing NHT. 27 refs.

and nanoclay products are compared and tested in terms


of properties, filler levels, processability, dimensional
stability, and colour. 6 refs.

CHINA

USA

Accession no.964049

Accession no.965244

Item 41
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
99, No.6, 15th March 2006, p.3275-80
MORPHOLOGY, THERMAL, AND
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLAMERETARDANT SILICONE RUBBER/
MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITES
Ling Yang; Yuan Hu; Hongdian Lu; Lei Song
China,University of Science & Technology

Item 43
Macromolecular Symposia
No.233, 2006, p.180-90
POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES: HOW TO
REACH LOW FLAMMABILITY?
Bourbigot S; Duquesne S; Jama C
ENSCL

Morphology, mechanical properties, thermal stability


and flammability of composites of silicone rubber and
montmorillonite, with magnesium hydroxide and red
phosphorus as synergistic flame retardant additives, were
examined using X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning
electron microscopy, tensile testing, thermogravimetric
analysis and limiting oxygen index measurements. Addition
of 1 percent montmorillonite clay lifted the decomposition
temperature above that of the base silicone rubber. Good
flame retardant properties with higher thermal stability
were observed in the nanocomposites. 17 refs
CHINA

The flammability properties of nanocomposites of


polymers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer,
polystyrene and poly(ether-b-amide) block copolymer, with
montmorillonite clay, organically modified montmorillonite
clay, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes and carbon
nanotubes are reviewed in terms of heat release rate, UL-94
testing and limiting oxygen index. The characterisation of
dispersion of nanoparticles by solid-state NMR and TEM,
and the synergistic effects of combining nanoparticles
with flame-retardants or plasma treatment are discussed.
54 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.966495

Accession no.964509
Item 42
SPE Automotive TPO Global Conference 2005.
Proceedings of a conference held Sterling Heights, Mi.,
10th.-12th. Oct. 2005.
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2005, Paper 15, pp.11, CD-ROM,
012
THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPANSION OF
TPO NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS IN
AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Rodgers W R; Fasulo P D; Balow M J; Bolthouse C L
General Motors; Basell Advanced Polyolefins
(SPE,Detroit Section)
The practical implementation of thermoplastic polyolefin
(TPO) composites in the automotive industry has been
challenging, it is stated. Initial applications were where
overall part quality and thermal properties were considered
more important than maximising the mechanical properties.
More recently, there has been an impetus to improve the
property profile, and the maximisation of exfoliation is
known to be the key to reaching these objectives. This
paper, therefore, reviews the current state of the effort
to improve the physical properties of thermoplastic
polyolefin nanocomposite materials for use in automotive
applications. Improvements in platelet exfoliation have
been made by chemical modification of the organoclay
and also by the refining of compounding techniques. Such
techniques are examined and TPOs based on recent talc

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Item 44
Journal of Materials Science
41, No.2, Jan.2006, p.363-7
MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE SULFATE
HYDRATE WHISKER FLAME RETARDANT
POLYETHYLENE/MONTMORILLONITE
NANOCOMPOSITES
Hongdian Lu; Yuan Hu; Junfeng Xiao;
Zhengzhou Wang; Zuyao Chen; Weicheng Fan
China,university of Science & Technology
Exfoliated nanocomposites were fabricated from maleated
PE, magnesium hydroxide sulphate hydrate (MHSH)
whiskers and organomodified montmorillonite by direct
melt intercalation. The morphology, combustion behaviour
and heat stability of the nanocomposites were investigated
by X-ray diffraction, TEM, cone calorimetry and TGA
and the effects of MHSH and modified montmorillonite
on nanocomposite properties evaluated. A synergistic
flame retardant effect was observed in the nanocomposites
containing both MHSH and modified montmorillonite.
This effect was attributed to the release of water from
MHSH, which accelerated the transportation of silicate
layers to accumulate over the substrate. 16 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.966763

39

References and Abstracts

Item 45
High Performance Fillers 2006: 2nd International
Conference on Fillers for Polymers. Proceedings of a
conference held Cologne, Germany, 21st-22nd March
2006.
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2006, Paper 16,
pp.6, 29 cm, 012
POSS AS PROMISING FIRE RETARDANTS IN
POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES
Gamino G; Fina A; Tabuani D
Torino,Politecnico
(Rapra Technology Ltd.)
The organic-inorganic chemical structure of polyhedral
oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) makes them suitable
for use as versatile nanofillers for flame retarded polymer
nanocomposites. The thermal stability of the organic SiO structure is combined with good dispersibility due to
the compatibility of POSS organic substituents. In this
work, nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing
POSS in polypropylene nylon-6 and PBTP. The thermal
and combustion properties of the nanocomposites
were evaluated. It was found that POSS-polymer
nanocomposites produced a thermally stable ceramic layer
during the early stage of thermal decomposition which
protected the underlying material from oxygen, reduced
diffusion of volatile degradation products and limited
heat transfer. This combined physical action reduced the
rate of heat release during combustion. Cone calorimetry
was used to investigate the fire performance of the POSS
nanocomposites. 13 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.967313
Item 46
London, Interscience Communications Ltd., 2006, 30
papers, pp.xii, 283, ISBN 0954121678, 24cm, 012
FLAME RETARDANTS 2006. Proceedings of
a conference held London, 14th-15th
Feb.2006
(BPF; Interscience Communications Ltd.; Plastics
Europe; European Flame Retardant Assn.)
Thirty papers are presented following the twelfth
International Flame Retardants conference series. This
series concentrates on the practical applications of
flame retardants and polymers and brings together the
manufacturers and users with legislators, fire test experts
and fire scientists. Papers include fire safety, smoke toxicity
and acidity, ignition of solids - what have we learned in
a half-century of research, progress with nanocomposites
and new nanostructured FRs, mechanisms of phosphorus
flame retardants, acceptable fire safety, the need for full
scale fire testing of sandwich panels.
EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN
UNION; UK; USA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.967538

40

Item 47
Polymer Engineering and Science
46, No.5, 2006, p.670-9
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF
MULTIWALLED CARBON NANOTUBES/
CYANATE ESTER COMPOSITES
Zhengping Fang; Jianguo Wang; Aijuan Gu
Zhejiang,University
Two types of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different structure and morphology were
used to fabricate cyanate ester (CE) matrix composites.
Mechanical, thermal, and transmission electron microscopy
tests were performed to evaluate the different effects of the
two types of MW-CNTs on the structure and properties
of MW-CNT/CE composites. Results showed that the
bundled MW-CNTs were easier to be dispersed in CE
matrix than single MW-CNTs, and could improve the
toughness and stiffness of CE material more significantly.
Functionalisation of the two types of MW-CNTs, which
was achieved by grafting triethylenetetramine groups onto
the surface of MW-CNTs, was helpful in improving the
dispersion of the MW-CNTs in CE, and thus in fabricating
MW-CNT/CE composites with improved mechanical and
thermal properties. 27 refs. Copyright 2006 Society of
Plastics Engineers
CHINA

Accession no.967583
Item 48
Journal of Materials Chemistry
16, No.16, 28th April 2006, p.1549-54
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION AND
THERMAL OXIDATION PROPERTIES OF
LLDPE/MgAl-LDH NANOCOMPOSITES
Du L; Qu B
Hefei,University of Science & Technology
The synthesis of nanocomposites of linear low density
polyethylene with various proportions of magnesiumaluminium layered double hydroxide by melt intercalation,
and their characterisation by FTIR, XRD, TEM, DSC and
TGA, is described. The thermal properties of the products
are discussed in terms of potential applications as flameretardants for polymeric materials. 26 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.967693
Item 49
Polymers for Advanced Technologies
17, No.4, April 2006, p.206-17
FLAME RETARDED POLYMER LAYERED
SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES: A REVIEW
OF COMMERCIAL AND OPEN LITERATURE
SYSTEMS
Morgan A B
Dow Chemical Co.

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

A review is presented of polymer nanocomposites used


for flame retardancy applications, including commercial
materials and open literature examples. Where possible,
details of the way in which the nanocomposite and flame
retardant work together are discussed. The key lesson from
this review is that, while the polymer nanocomposite can
be considered to be flame retarded (or a flame retardant)
by definition, these materials by themselves are unable to
pass regulatory fire safety tests such as UL-94V. Additional
flame retardants are, therefore, needed in combination
with the polymer nanocomposite to pass these tests. In
multiple examples, the nanocomposite works with other
flame retardants in a synergistic or cooperative manner
to lower the polymer flammability (heat release rate).
Finally, a discussion on research needs and the outlook
for polymer nanocomposite flammability research is
included. 68 refs.
USA

Accession no.969162
Item 50
Polymers for Advanced Technologies
17, No.4, April 2006, p.218-25
FLAME RETARDANCY OF NANOCOMPOSITES
BASED ON ORGANOCLAYS AND CARBON
NANOTUBES WITH ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
The addition of aluminium trihydrate as a microfiller
to organoclays or carbon nanotubes is shown to be
essential to generate EVA nanocomposites with adequate
flame retardant properties, as required by industry.
Cables containing a combination of organoclays or
carbon nanotubes and aluminium trihydrate are used to
demonstrate the applications of these nanocomposites as
a new concept for flame retardancy. Small-scale fire tests
with Bunsen burner flames attacking the wire insulation
show that the char is strengthened by the long L/D ratio
of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The improved
char results in better flame retardant performances of the
wires. 36 refs.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.969163
Item 51
Polymers for Advanced Technologies
17, No.4, April 2006, p.235-45
POLY(PROPYLENE)/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
AND THEIR APPLICATION IN FLAME
RETARDANCY
Yuan Hu; Yong Tang; Lei Song
China,University of Science & Technology
PP/clay and PP/clay/calcium carbonate nanocomposites
were prepared by a one-step method, using pristine
montmorillonite(MMT) with surfactant loading at different

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

ratios. The nanocomposite structure was examined using


X-ray diffraction, TEM and high resolution electron
microscopy. This study showed that the presence of maleic
anhydride-modified PP and the ratio of surfactant to MMT
both influenced the dispersion of MMT in the hybrids.
The thermal stability and flame retardant properties were
investigated. The synergistic effect between MMT and an
intumescent flame retardant (ammonium polyphosphate/
pentaerythritol) and the flame retardant mechanism are
discussed. 23 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.969165
Item 52
Polymers for Advanced Technologies
17, No.4, April 2006, p.281-93
PHOSPHONIUM-MODIFIED LAYERED
SILICATE EPOXY RESINS NANOCOMPOSITES
AND THEIR COMBINATIONS WITH ATH AND
ORGANO-PHOSPHORUS FIRE RETARDANTS
Schartel B; Knoll U; Hartwig A; Puetz D
BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research &
Testing; Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Fertigungstechnik und
Ang.Materialforschung
Phosphonium-modified layered silicate epoxy resin
nanocomposites were evaluated by testing the thermal/
thermomechanical properties (DSC, TGA, torsion
pendulum, Sharpy toughness), flammability (limiting
oxygen index) and fire behaviour (cone calorimeter with
different irradiations). The morphology of the composites
was determined using SEM and TEM. The drying
conditions of phosphonium-modified layered silicate
were varied in order to improve nanocomposite formation
and properties. The results were compared with those
obtained by using a commercial ammonium-modified
montmorillonite. Enhanced nanocomposite formation
was found for the commercial systems due to the amount
of excess surfactant, but this effect was overcompensated
through the advanced morphology of the phosphoniummodified systems. Several fire retardancy mechanisms and
their specific effect on various fire properties are discussed.
The main mechanism of layered silicate is a barrier
formation influencing the flame spread in developing fires.
Several minor mechanisms are significant, but important
fire properties such as flammability or fire load are hardly
influenced. Combinations with aluminium hydroxide
and organo-phosphorus flame retardants were, therefore,
evaluated and the combination with aluminium hydroxide
was shown to be a promising approach. 42 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.969170
Item 53
Polymers for Advanced Technologies
17, No.4, April 2006, p.294-303
FLAME-RETARDANT UNSATURATED

41

References and Abstracts

POLYESTER RESIN INCORPORATING


NANOCLAYS
Nazare S; Kandola B K; Horrocks A R
Bolton,University
The use of polymer-layered silicate nanoclays as
potential flame retardants in unsaturated polyester resins
was investigated. Preparation, characterisation and
flammability properties of polyester-clay hybrids were
studied. X-ray diffraction studies provided evidence that
dispersion of functionalised clays in the polymer matrix
depended on the type of functional group of the organic
modifier used. Flammability properties studied using cone
calorimetry suggested that incorporation of nanoclays (5%
w/w) reduced peak heat release rate(PHRR) by 23-27%
and total heat release(THR) values by 4-11 %. The fire
growth rate index was also reduced by 23-30% following
nanoclay inclusion. While incorporation of condensedphase flame retardants such as ammonium polyphosphate,
melamine phosphate and alumina trihydrate reduced the
PHRR and THR values of polyester resin, the inclusion
of small amounts of nanoclay (5% w/w) in combination
with these char-promoting flame retardants caused total
reductions of the PHRR of polyester resin in the range 6070%. Ammonium polyphosphate alone and in combination
with polyester-nanoclay hybrids showed better results than
the other flame retardants. 26 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.969171
Item 54
Polymer Degradation and Stability
91, No.6, 2006, p.1319-1325
THERMAL STABILITY AND FLAMMABILITY
PROPERTIES OF HETEROPHASIC PP-EP/EVA/
ORGANOCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Valera-Zaragoza M; Ramirez-Vargas E;
Medellin-Rodriguez F J; Huerta-Martinez B M
Coahuila,Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada;
San Luis Potosi,Universidad Autonoma
A study on the thermal behaviour and flammability
properties of the heterophasic polypropylene-(ethylenepropylene) copolymer (PP-EP)/poly(ethylene vinyl
acetate) (EVA)/montmorillonite nanocomposite is
presented. Nanoclay nanocomposites were prepared using
a twin screw extruder. Both the fluidity of the EVA phase
and compatibility conditions between PP-EP and EVA
were used in order to obtain the required nanocomposites.
Therefore, no additional compatibiliser was required
to achieve the clay dispersion. Products exhibited the
partially exfoliated/intercalated nanoclay dispersion.
Thermogravimetric analyses indicated that nanoclays
retard thermal degradation depending on nanoclay
concentration. The retarding process was assigned to the
exfoliation and dispersion of the silicate layers which
impeded heat diffusion to the macromolecules. Thermal
studies, under non-isothermal crystallisation, indicated the

42

lack of influence of nanoclay on the thermal behaviour.


Flammability characteristics were however affected by the
nanoclay layers which overall generated flame retardation
both in the EVA host and in the complex nanocomposites.
25 refs. Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd.
MEXICO

Accession no.969414
Item 55
Composites Part B
37, No.6, 2006, p.399-407
STUDY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES,
THERMAL STABILITY AND
CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR OF PET/MMT
NANOCOMPOSITES
Wang Y; Gao J; Ma Y; Agarwal U S
Donghua,University; Eindhoven,University of
Technology
PET/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites were prepared
via melt-blending and its nano-dispersion morphology was
confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron
microscopy. Its non-isothermal crystallisation behaviour
was studied by DSC. It is found that the crystallisation rate
of PET nanocomposite was increased significantly. The
Avrami equation parameters related to crystallisation, such
as n, Zc and t1/2, were calculated and analyzed. The thermal
property and mechanical property of the composite were
studied. When the MMT content was 1%, the composite
has a desired comprehensive property. At this composition,
the thermal degradation onset temperature and the thermal
deformation temperature of PET were increased by 12 and
35 deg.C, respectively, and the tensile strength of the PET
was increased by 25% with slightly increase of the notched
impact strength. 23 refs. Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd.
CHINA; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.971214
Item 56
International Journal of Plastics Technology
9, No.1-2, Aug-Dec.2005, p.546-555
THERMAL, MECHANICAL AND
WATER BARRIER PROPERTIES OF
CLAY-UNSATURATED POLYESTER
NANOCOMPOSITES
Jawahar P; Balasubramanian M
Indian Institute of Technology
Clay-polyester nanocomposites were prepared using
organically-modified clay (dodecylamine-treated
montmorillonite) as the reinforcement. Conventional
clay-filled composites were prepared by using inorganic
clay. X-ray diffraction and TEM analyses confirmed the
formation of nanocomposites with organically-modified
clay. TGA was carried out to determine the thermal
stability of nanocomposites and there was an improvement
in the nanocomposites. Dynamic mechanical analysis

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

showed an increase in Tg for the nanocomposites. Tensile


properties and impact strength of nanocomposites were
better than those of conventional composites. Water barrier
properties of nanocomposites were also better than those
of conventional composites. 23 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.972169
Item 57
Composites Technologies for 2020. Proceedings of the
Fourth Asian-Australasian Conference on Composite
Materials (AACM-4), held Sydney, Australia, 6th-9th
July 2004.
Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2004, p.742-747,
ISBN 1855738317, 25 cm, 012
PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF
TOUGHENED NOVOLAC TYPE PHENOLIC/
SILICON DIOXIDE FLAME RETARDANT
NANOCOMPOSITE
Chen-hi Ma; Hsin Tai; Chin-Lung Chiang;
Hsu-Chiang Kuan; Jen-Chang Yang; Chia-Wen Hsu
Taiwan,National Tsing Hua University; HungKuang,University; Chung Shan,Institute of Science
(Asian-Australasian Association for Composite
Materials)
I n t h i s s t u d y, h y d r o x y l g r o u p t e r m i n a t e d
polydimethylsiloxanes were used to toughen 3-glycidox
ypropyltrimethoxysilane-modified novolac-type phenolic
resins reinforced with silicon dioxide in an organic/
inorganic nanocomposite via the sol-gel method. The
properties of the hybrid nanocomposites are investigated,
and improvements in impact strength, flexural strength and
modulus and toughness are discussed. 8 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.972323
Item 58
Composites Technologies for 2020. Proceedings of the
Fourth Asian-Australasian Conference on Composite
Materials (AACM-4), held Sydney, Australia, 6th-9th
July 2004.
Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2004, p.748-753,
ISBN 1855738317, 25 cm, 012
SYNTHESIS, THERMAL PROPERTIES AND
FLAME RETARDANCE OF NOVEL PHENOLIC
RESIN/SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES
Chin-Lung Chiang; Chen-Chi Ma; Hey Rey Chang;
Shiu-Chun Lu
Hung-Kuang,University; Taiwan,National Tsing
Hua University; Ming Hsin,University of Science &
Technology
(Asian-Australasian Association for Composite
Materials)
Novel phenolic/silica hybrid ceramers were synthesised
by the sol-gel process and FTIR and NMR were used
to characterise the structure of the hybrids. The sol-

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

gel process provided promising opportunities for the


preparation of a variety of organic-inorganic hybrid
materials at the molecular level, and was used in this study
to improve the flame retardance and thermal stability. A
coupling agent was used to form the covalent bonding
between organic and inorganic phases to promote the
miscibility of the hybrid creamers. Thermal properties
were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The
char yields of the hybrids increased with increasing
tetraethoxysilane content. Limiting oxygen Index and
UL-94 tests revealed that the hybrid ceramer possessed
excellent flame resistance. 31 refs
CHINA

Accession no.972324
Item 59
European Polymer Journal
42, No.6, 2006, p.1362-1369
THERMAL STABILITY AND FLAME
RETARDANT EFFECTS OF HALLOYSITE
NANOTUBES ON POLY(PROPYLENE)
Mingliang Du; Baochun Guo; Demin Jia
South China,University of Technology
Naturally occurred halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with
hollow nanotubular structures were used as a new type
filler for poly(propylene) (PP). Nanocomposites based on
PP and HNTs were prepared by melt blending. Scanning
electronic microscopy (SEM) results suggested HNTs were
dispersed in PP matrix evenly at nanoscale after facile
modification. Thermal stability of the nanocomposites
was found remarkably enhanced by the incorporation of
HNTs. Cone calorimetric data also showed the decrease
of flammability of the nanocomposites. Entrapment
mechanism of the decomposition products in HNTs was
proposed to explain the enhancement of thermal stability
of the nanocomposites. The barriers for heat and mass
transport, the presence of iron in HNTs, are all responsible
for the improvement in thermal stability and decrease in
flammability. Those results suggested potential promising
flame retardant application of HNTs in PP. 18 refs.
Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd.
CHINA

Accession no.972489
Item 60
Polymer Degradation and Stability
91, No.9, 2006, p.1937-1947
EFFECT OF ACRYLIC POLYMER AND
NANOCOMPOSITE WITH NANO-SIO2
ON THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FIRE
RESISTANCE OF APP-DPER-MEL COATING
Wang Z; Han E; Ke W
Shenyang,Institute of Metal Research
Acrylic nanocomposite and flame retardant coatings with
different acrylic polymers were prepared. The effect of
molecular structure and molecular weight of acrylic resins

43

References and Abstracts

and nanocomposite with nano-SiO2 on the interaction


and char formation of ammonium polyphosphatedipentaerythritol-melamine (APP-DPER-MEL) coating
was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA),
thermogravimetry (TG), Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI),
scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron
spectroscopy (XPS) and fire protection test. The interaction
of APP, DPER, MEL and 3F-1 acrylic resin led to the
formation of intumescent coherent char at 300-450 deg.C.
Owing to low molecular weight and lack of benzene rings,
F-963 acrylic resin decomposed at lower temperature than
APP, and hence their endothermic interaction was destroyed.
The well-distributed nano-SiO2 particles in acrylic
nanocomposite could modify char formation and antioxidation of char structure at high temperature. It is noted
that the fire protection properties of nanocoating with acrylic
nanocomposite were better than those of flame retardant
coatings with conventional acrylic resins. 36 refs.
CHINA

developments in nanoclay materials now available for use


in applications from automotive to agricultural, materials
handling, and electrical wire and cable jacketing. It
demonstrates how these new nanoclay blends are lowering
costs and raising performance.
Co-Op Chemical Co.; DDG Cryogenics; Degussa Corp.;
Dieter Scientific; Dyneon LLC; Elam El Industries;
Elementis Specialties Inc.; Executive Conference
Management; Naturalnano Inc.; NanoSperse LLC;
PolyOne Corp.; Premix Thermoplastics; Putsch
Kunststoffe GmbH; Pyrograph Products Inc.;
Sachtleben Chemie GmbH; Sud-Chemie; Ube America
Inc.; DMS Xplore; Geoflow; Toro Co.; Delphi Corp.;
Audi; Volkswagen; Kabelwerk Eupen; Nexans; Draka
Cable; Toyota Corp.; US,Air Force; Wright-Patterson
AFB; Dayton,University; Boeing
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY;
EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; GERMANY; ISRAEL; JAPAN;
NETHERLANDS; NORTH AMERICA; USA; WESTERN EUROPE;
WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.972527

Accession no.973225

Item 61
Macromolecules
39, No.14, 11th July 2006 p.4793-4801
COMPATIBILIZING BULK POLYMER BLENDS
BY USING ORGANOCLAYS
Si M; Araki T; Ade H; Kilcoyne A L D; Fisher R;
Sokolov J C; Rafailovich M H
New York,State University; North Carolina,State
University; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory;
Uniondale,Hebrew Academy

Item 63
Flame Retardants 2006, Proceedings of a conference
held London, 14th -15th Feb.2006..
London, Interscience Communications Ltd., 2006,
p.123-133, ISBN 0954121678, 24CM, 012
PROGRESS WITH NANOCOMPOSITES AND
NEW NANOSTRUCTURED FRs
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
(BPF)

The compatibilising effects of addition of two commercial


Cloisite organoclays on blends of polymers including
polystyrene/polymethyl methacrylate; polycarbonate/
styrene acrylonitrile copolymer or polymethyl methacrylate/
ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer were studied transmission
electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy, differential
scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis.
In all cases, in comparison to blends without clay, large
reductions in domain size were observed with localisation
of clay platelets along polymer interfaces. Increases in
modulus and in some cases unification of glass transition
temperatures were observed. System models were
proposed indicating in-situ grafting of polymers to clay
platelets, and the technology may be of value in recycling
of mixed polymers. 32 refs.

This study explores the use of organoclays as flame


retardants for thermoplastic polyurethanes and plasticised
PVC, and also reports on the flame retardant properties
of nanostructured fillers, sepiolite and carbon nanofibres.
When modified layered silicates as fillers were dispersed
at a nm-level within a thermoplastic polyurethane matrix,
thermal stability and peak of heat release rates were
improved, but time to ignition of the nanocomposite were
reduced. PVC with organoclays showed a fast HCl release
by an accelerated chain-stripping reaction of the polymer
catalysed by the ammonium compound of the organoclays.
Synthesis routes based on EVA or TPU masterbatches of
organoclays were found to avoid the darkening of PVC
compounds. Test using a cone calorimeter did not show
any remarkable improvement in the flame retardancy of
PVC filled with organoclays. The use of modified sepiolite
and also carbon nanofibres were found to be effective
nanostructured flame retardants in EVA. 14 refs.

USA

Accession no.972942
Item 62
Plastics Technology
52, No.2, Feb.2006, p.56/68
NANOCOMPOSITES DO MORE WITH LESS
Schut J H

BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;


WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.974428

Nanocomposites are at last out of the laboratory and


into the real world! This detailed article highlights new

44

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 64
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
101, No.6, 15th Sept.2006, p.3862-3868
FLAME RETARDANCY OF POLYCARBONATEPOLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE BLOCK
COPOLYMER/SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES
Nodera A; Kanai T
Idemitsu Kosan Co.Ltd.; Kanazawa,University
Details are given of the flame retardancy and thermal
degradation of carbonate-dimethylsiloxane copolymer/
silica nanocomposites. The dispersibility of the silica of
different particle sizes was investigated. The influence
of silica particle size on flame retardancy of the
nanocomposites was determined. 22 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.974889
Item 65
PU Magazine
3, No.3, May 2006, p.171-173
FLAME RETARDANCY OF THERMOPLASTIC
POLYURETHANE NANOCOMPOSITES
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
The use of organoclays, specifically dimethyldistearylam
monium-exchanged montmorillonite, as flame retardants
for thermoplastic PUs was studied. The properties of the
nanocomposites were investigated using cone calorimetry
and TGA. The results obtained showed an improvement
in thermooxidative stability, a reduction of up to 70% for
the peak of heat release and a non-dripping behaviour of
the burning polymer. 11 refs.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.975357
Item 66
Composites Part A
37, No.9, 2006, p.1286-1295
STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF LIQUID-COOLED
GFRP SLABS SUBJECTED TO FIRE - PART I:
MATERIAL AND POST-FIRE MODELING
Keller T; Tracy C; Zhou A
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Temperature-dependent material properties of glass
fibre-reinforced polymer composites were derived from
tests performed on the material itself, from references
concerned with similar polymer materials and from
observations during full-scale fire experiments on loadcarrying slabs for building and bridge applications.
Effective material properties were determined, which
include the effects of evaporation of absorbed moisture,
endothermic decomposition of the resin, the shielding
effect of delaminated fibre layers, and the loss of glass fibre
layers beyond their softening temperature. Two types of
post-fire models have been developed: a two-layer model

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

and a three-layer model. Results from the two-layer model


showed that the determination of the boundary between
the two layers by visual inspection leads to a considerable
overestimation of the remaining stiffness of the specimens.
However, the stiffness prediction based on a boundary at
the depth of the glass transition temperature corresponded
well with the results from post-fire measurements. Similar
accuracy was obtained for the post-fire behavior prediction
using the two-layer model and a more complicated threelayer model with an intermediate partially-degraded layer.
25 refs. Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd
SWITZERLAND; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.975784
Item 67
Polymer
47, No.19, 2006, p.6874-6879
FLAME RETARDANT NANOCOMPOSITES OF
POLYAMIDE 6/CLAY/SILICONE RUBBER WITH
HIGH TOUGHNESS AND GOOD FLOWABILITY
Weifu Dong; Xiaohong Zhang; Yiqun Liu;
Qingguo Wang; Hua Gui; Jianming Gao; Zhihai Song;
Jinmei Lai; Fan Huang; Jinliang Qiao
Beijing,University of Chemical Technology;
Beijing,Research Inst.of the Chemical Industry
A novel flame retardant, silicone elastomeric nanoparticle
(S-ENP) with Tg of -120 deg.C and particle size of
~100 nm has been developed and used as a modifier for
polyamide 6 (nylon-6). It has been found that S-ENP can
not only increase the toughness and improve the flame
retardancy of nylon-6 but also helps unmodified clay
exfoliate in nylon-6 matrix. It has been also found that
the S-ENP and exfoliated clay platelet in nylon-6 have
a synergistic flame retardant effect on nylon-6. A novel
flame retardant nanocomposite of nylon-6/unmodified
clay/S-ENP with high toughness, high heat resistance,
high stiffness and good flowability has been prepared and
a mechanism of synergistic flame retardancy has also been
proposed. 30 refs. Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd.
CHINA

Accession no.976861
Item 68
Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics
207, No.16, 23rd Aug.2006, p.1501-1514
NOVEL PHOSPHORUS-CONTAINING
POLY(ETHER SULFONE)S AND THEIR
BLENDS WITH AN EPOXY RESIN: THERMAL
DECOMPOSITION AND FIRE RETARDANCY
Braun U; Knoll U; Schartel B; Hoffmann T; Pospiech
D; Artner J; Ciesielski M; Doring M; Perez-Graterol R;
Sandler J K W; Altstadt V
Berlin,Federal Inst.for Mat.Res.& Testing;
Dresden,Institute of Polymer Research; Karlsruhe,Forsc
hungszentrum; Bayreuth,University
The thermal decomposition of phosphorus-containing

45

References and Abstracts

polymers, poly(oxyphenylene-sulphonylphenyleneoxydiphenyl phenylene phosphine oxide), 2,5-dihydroxy1-biphenylene-phosphine oxide-based polysulphone,


poly(sulphonyl-diphenylphenylene phosphonate) and
bisphenol A-based polysulphone was studied using TGA.
The pyrolysis and fire retardancy properties of blends
of the polymers with epoxy resin were investigated by
limiting oxygen index and cone calorimetry measurements
and the results are discussed in terms of the heat release
rate, char formation and flame inhibition. 45 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.977226
Item 69
SAMPE 05: New Horizons for Materials and
Processing Technologies. Proceedings of a conference
held Long Beach, Ca., 1st-5th May 2005.
Covina, Ca., ACS, SAMPE International Business
Office, 2005, paper 125, pp.11, CD-ROM, 012
NAVY R & D PROGRAMS: MATERIALS
TECHNOLOGY FOR FIRE SAFETY OF
COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
Sorathia U; Perez I
US,Naval Surface Warfare Center; US,Office of Naval
Research
(SAMPE)
Current research by, or funded by, the naval authorities
in fire retardant structural systems for use in marine
applications is discussed. Resin systems based on
brominated polyvinyl ester resins with nanoclay additives
and phosphate fire retardants, phthalonitrile resins,
polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane resin systems and
bisphenol-C resins were compared. New core materials
such as carbon foam and phenolic foam were compared
to balsa wood and other thermoplastic foam cores such as
polyvinyl chloride and polymethacrylamide. 10 refs.
USA

Accession no.977357
Item 70
SAMPE 06: Creating New Opportunities for The World
Economy: Volume 51. Proceedings of a conference held
Long Beach, Ca., 30th April-4th May 2006.
Covina, Ca., SAMPE International Business Office,
2006, Paper 70, pp.7, CD-ROM, 012
A NEW FLAME RETARDANT ADDITIVE FOR
POLYMERIC COMPOSITES
Rogers M; Small A; Amos T; Johnson A; Sterner L
Luna Innovations
(SAMPE)
A novel flame retardant composed of superabsorbent
polyacrylamide microspheres containing an inorganic
phosphate was prepared and evaluated in vinyl ester and
epoxy matrix resins for glass fibre-reinforced composite
systems using the horizontal burn test and UL94 vertical

46

burn test. The tensile and compression properties of the


flame retarded composites were also investigated. The
flame retardant readily mixed with the resins and provided
cast materials with a V-O UL94 rating. 5 refs.
USA

Accession no.977528
Item 71
SAMPE 06: Creating New Opportunities for The World
Economy: Volume 51. Proceedings of a conference held
Long Beach, Ca., 30th April-4th May 2006.
Covina, Ca., SAMPE International Business Office,
2006, Paper 74, pp.11, CD-ROM, 012
FLAME RETARDED POLYUREA
NANOCOMPOSITES FOR EXPLOSION
RESISTANT COATINGS
Zammarano M; Gilman J W
NIST
(SAMPE)
The flammability of polyurea explosion-resistant
coatings containing a combination of conventional flame
retardants (ammonium polyphosphate or melamine
polyphosphate) and nanofillers (layered double hydroxides,
polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane and carbon nanofibres)
was investigated by means of the modified horizontal
radiant panel test and cone calorimetry. The effect of
partially replacing the conventional flame retardants
with the nanofillers on the flammability of the coatings
was examined. The results obtained indicated that partial
replacement of the flame retardants with layered double
hydroxides or polyhedral oligosilsesquioxanes could
provide a significant improvement in flammability and
toughness and possibly anti-blast properties. 13 refs.
USA
Accession no.977531
Item 72
SAMPE 06: Creating New Opportunities for The World
Economy: Volume 51. Proceedings of a conference held
Long Beach, Ca., 30th April-4th May 2006.
Covina, Ca., SAMPE International Business Office,
2006, Paper 79, pp.13, CD-ROM, 012
EARLY IGNITION OF FLAME RETARDED
PLASTICS AS MEASURED BY CONE
CALORIMETER
Morgan A B; Bundy M
Dayton,University,Research Institute; NIST
(SAMPE)
The results are reported of flame retardancy studies
carried out on a range of flame retarded polymers and
nanocomposites, including high-impact PS, polycarbonate,
polycarbonate/ABS blend and PS and PP nanocomposites,
using the UL-94V test procedure and cone calorimeter. The
phenomenon of early ignition in some of these materials is
addressed and the relationship between UL-94V and cone
calorimeter is examined. 44 refs.

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

USA

Accession no.977535
Item 73
POLYOLEFINS 2006. Proceedings of a conference held
Houston, Tx., 26th Feb.-1st March 2006.
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2006, Paper 21, pp.15, CD-ROM,
012
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LOW-SMOKE
ZERO-HALOGEN FLAME RETARDANT
POLYOLEFINS
Cogen J M; Wasserman S H; Brown G D; Bunker S P;
Gowell R W; Lin T S; Whaley P D
Dow Chemical Co.
(SPE,South Texas Section; SPE,Thermoplastic Materials
& Foams Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.;
Society of Plastics Engineers)
Low-smoke zero-halogen(LSOH) polyolefin compounds
typically require high levels of additives, which significantly
affect mechanical properties and processability. This
poses unique material development challenges. This
paper presents recent developments in LSOH polyolefin
technology, including novel nanoclay flame retardants,
coupling technology, metal hydroxide structure-property
relationships, new functional fillers for wet electrical
applications, rheology of filled polyolefin systems, and
fire testing methodology. These developments provide new
tools for creation of novel LSOH materials. 26 refs.
USA

Accession no.979055
Item 74
Composites Science and Technology
66, No.15, 2006, p.2758-2768
THE NATURE OF THE GLASS FIBRE SURFACE
AND ITS EFFECT IN THE WATER ABSORPTION
OF GLASS FIBRE/EPOXY COMPOSITES.
THE USE OF FLUORESCENCE TO OBTAIN
INFORMATION AT THE INTERFACE
Olmos D; Lopez-Moron R; Gonzalez-Benito J
Madrid,Universidad Carlos III
The effect of the nature of glass fibre surface in the water
absorption of glass fibres/epoxy composites was studied.
Three different silane coatings were used to change
the nature of the surface of the glass fibre. Aqueous
solutions of dansyl labelled silanes (5-dimethylamino-1naphthalene-sulfonylchloride): (i) 3-aminopropyltriethox
ysilane, APTES; (ii) 3-aminopropylmethyldiethoxysilane,
APDES and (iii) 3-aminopropyldimethylmonoethoxysila
ne, APMES were used to get respectively three different
coatings. Gravimetry and FTNIR measurements were used
to complementary study the water absorption process in the
whole composites systems. Besides, to locally study the
ingress of water exactly at the interfaces of the composites
the fluorescence from dansyl label was used. The presence

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

of the silanised fibres seems to induce changes in the


water absorption process of the epoxy resin decreasing the
relative gain of mass at equilibrium and suggesting that the
glass fibre surface may induce a change in the structure of
the epoxy matrix in comparison with this polymer without
reinforcement. Besides, the fluorescence measurements
point out that the water accessibility to the interface is
delayed respect to the water absorption of the polymer
matrix and the relative amount of water absorbed by the
interface depends on the nature of the glass fibre surface,
being absorbed less water the lower the functionality of the
silane was. 49 refs. Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.979340
Item 75
ANTEC 2006. Proceedings of the 64th SPE Annual
conference held Charlotte, NC., 7th-11th May 2006.
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2006, p.273-7, PDF 103537, CDROM, 012
BIO-BASED POLYURETHANE
NANOCOMPOSITES
Etekallapalli R K R; Ibeh C C
Pittsburg,State University
(SPE)
Polyols derived from soybean oil are new polyurethane
raw materials derived from the renewable resources, and
with isocyanates they produce polyurethanes that can
compete in many aspects with ones derived from the
petrochemical polyols. Combined with polyisocyanurates,
they produce materials of good thermal, oxidative and
weather stability. The main objective of this research is
to synthesize mechanically reinforced polyurethanes, and
study the influence of the concentration of nanoparticles on
the properties of the new material. Two different soybean
oil based polyols, SOY169 and SOY201 were selected
to synthesize the polyurethane nanocomposites using a
diisocyanate (pure MDI) as a curing agent. The clay used
at different concentrations (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) in the
synthesis of the nanocomposite polyurethanes was organo
modified Montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 10A. Methanol was
chosen as solvent media in preparing the samples. Several
methods were used to analyze the samples like, mechanical
tests, Tensile strength, Flexural modulus, and Notched Izod
Impact strength; Thermal analysis, Differential Scanning
Calorimetry (DSC), Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA),
and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA); Structural
analysis, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier
Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR). 4 refs.
USA

Accession no.980311
Item 76
ANTEC 2006. Proceedings of the 64th SPE Annual
conference held Charlotte, NC., 7th-11th May 2006.
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2006, p.317-20, PDF 103641, CD-

47

References and Abstracts

ROM, 012
EFFECT OF EPOXY MODIFIER ON FLAME
RETARDANCY AND RHEOLOGICAL
BEHAVIOR OF ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENESTYRENE(ABS)/MONTMORILLONITE(MMT)
COMPOSITES
Bo Liu; Yong Zhang; Chaoying Wan; Yinxi Zhang
Shanghai,Jiao Tong University
(SPE)

In order to obtain such composite materials, it is necessary


to purify the SWNTs, and obtain a homogeneous dispersion
in the matrix. This paper describes a purification/dispersion
process. Two different curing cycles are applied, and
their mechanical properties are obtained. The Youngs
modulus and the tensile strength are studied in both cases.
27 refs.

ABS/MMT composites were prepared via melt intercalation


to MMT with or without pretreatment of liquid epoxy
resin. For the direct addition of epoxy, the composite
has intercalated structure; while for the pretreatment of
MMT with epoxy, the composite has exfoliated structure.
Cone analysis results reveals slight difference in flame
retardancy between the two composites. At low frequency
zone, the composite with intercalated structure has higher
storage modulus than the composite with exfoliated
structure. 11 refs.
Accession no.980320

Accession no.980537

Item 77
ANTEC 2006. Proceedings of the 64th SPE Annual
conference held Charlotte, NC., 7th-11th May 2006.
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2006, p.377-81, PDF 103655, CDROM, 012
STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE OF
ABS-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BY MELT
COMPOUNDING
Qua E H; Major I F M; Lew C Y; McNally G M;
Clarke A H
Belfast,Queens University; Oxford,University
(SPE)
ABS layered-silicate nanocomposites were manufactured
by melt compounding. X-ray diffraction and transmission
electron microscopy analysis confirmed the achievement
of hybrid intercalated and exfoliated structures, giving
significant improvement in the mechanical, thermal and
rheological properties. 8 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.980333
Item 78
Composites Part B
37, No.4-5, 2006, p.273-277
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SWNT/EPOXY
COMPOSITES USING TWO DIFFERENT
CURING CYCLES
De Villoria R; Miravete A; Cuartero J; Chiminelli A;
Tolosana N
Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Aragon
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) presents
outstanding mechanical properties and therefore are
considered very promising reinforcing materials associated
to polymeric matrices for high performance applications.

48

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN;


WESTERN EUROPE

Item 79
Journal of Macromolecular Science A
A43, No.11, 2006, p.1867-1875
A NEW NANO-STRUCTURED FLAMERETARDANT POLY(ETHYLENE
TEREPHTHALATE)
Ming Wang; Meifang Zhu; Bin Sun
Donghua,University
A novel flame retardant additive was obtained by
dispersing a layered hydrotalcite in a brominated PS
solution followed by solvent evaporation and characterised
by X-ray diffraction, TEM and TGA. PETP composites
were fabricated by melt compounding the flame retardant
compound with PETP and the flammability, nanostructure
and mechanical properties of the composites investigated.
12 refs. (2005 International Conference on Advanced
Fibres and Polymer Materials, Shanghai, China, Oct.1921, 2005).
CHINA

Accession no.981001
Item 80
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
94, No.1, 5th Oct.2004, p.116-22
EFFECT OF NANO-MAGNESIUM
HYDROXIDE ON THE MECHANICAL AND
FLAME-RETARDING PROPERTIES OF
POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES
Mishra S; Sonawane S H; Singh R P; Bendale A; Patil K
North Maharashtra,University; India,National Chemical
Laboratory
A PP-nano-magnesium hydroxide composite was prepared
by melt extrusion blending. Adding nano-magnesium
hydroxide at a concentration of 12 wt% to PP increased
the Youngs modulus by up to 433%, the hardness by
50% and improved the flame retardancy of PP by 35%.
These improvements were due to the fact that the nanomagnesium hydroxide was evenly dispersed in the PP, it
intercalated and nucleated the polymer chains and was
endothermic in nature. 12 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.927065

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 81
Polymers for Advanced Technologies
15, No.10, Oct.2004, p.583-6
NOVEL EPOXY COMPOSITIONS FOR
VIBRATION DAMPING APPLICATIONS
Ratna D; Manoj N R; Chandrasekhar L; Chakraborty B C
India,Naval Materials Research Laboratory
The preparation of three novel epoxy compositions cured
with polyether amine hardeners having different polyether
chain lengths is described and the mechanical and dynamic
mechanical properties of these compositions are reported.
The epoxy compositions exhibit low Tgs and broad and
high loss factor values over a wide range of frequencies
and temperature and are considered potentially suitable
as viscoelastic materials in constrained layer vibration
damping. 27 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.927978
Item 82
Fire and Materials
28, No.6, Nov.-Dec.2004, p.423-9
FLAME RETARDANCY OF NANOCOMPOSITES
Okoshi M; Nishizawa H
Kyoto,Institute of Technology; Nishizawa,Technical
Institute
An overview is presented of work carried out on the
development of flame retardant nanocomposites at the
above institutions. It covers EVA-clay nanocomposites
with improved mechanical properties and flame retardancy
obtained by reactive processing, a novel method to control
the orientation of montmorillonite nanofiller by reactive
processing, the preparation of aluminium hydroxide
nanoparticles and a novel coating to react a sol-gel onto
polycarbonate. 3 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.928748
Item 83
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
94, No.4, 15th Nov.2004, p.1676-89
CURE KINETICS OF EPOXY/ANHYDRIDE
NANOCOMPOSITE SYSTEMS WITH ADDED
REACTIVE FLAME RETARDANTS
Torre L; Lelli G; Kenny J M
Perugia,University
Details are given of montmorillonite nanocomposite
systems obtained from epoxy cured using anhydride and
the addition of a reacting flame retardant. A thermokinetic
analysis of the behaviour of five different compounds
was performed using DSC. A model describing the cure
behaviour is proposed which takes into account the fact
that the reaction mechanism of each system is composed
of a couple of parallel phenomena namely the fast
opening of the anhydride ring and resin networking. The

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

verification of the model was performed by comparing the


experimental data with theoretical predictions. 12 refs.
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.929591
Item 84
Polymer Composites
25, No.6, Dec. 2004, p.563-8
TENSILE PROPERTIES OF NATURAL
FABRIC HILDEGARDIA POPULIFOLIA/
POLYCARBONATE TOUGHENED EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Rajulu A V; Rao G B; Devi L G
Sri Krishnadevaraya University
The aim of this work is to produce environmentally
friendly composites, using epoxy resin toughened with
polycarbonate as the matrix material and biodegradable
uniaxial natural fabric, Hildegardia populifolia as the
reinforcing material. The effect of the reinforcement
content in the tensile strength of the composite was studied
and also the effect of the fibre orientation, the use of a
silane coupling agent, and alkali treatment of the fabric,
on the tensile properties of the composites produced. 23
refs.
INDIA

Accession no.930120
Item 85
Polymer Degradation and Stability
87, No.1, 2005, p.111-6
STUDY ON The PROPERTIES OF FLAME
RETARDANT POLYURETHANE/ORGANOCLAY
NANOCOMPOSITE
Lei Song; Yuan Hu; Yong Tang; Rui Zhang;
Zuyao Chen; Weicheng Fan
China,University of Science & Technology
The use of organically modified clay as filler in
nanocomposites consisting of polyurethane, organoclay
and flame retardant, prepared by in situ polymerisation,
was examined by X-ray diffraction, high resolution electron
microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and mechanical
properties. Flame retardant properties were evaluated using
a cone calorimetry. Compared to the base polyurethane, the
nanocomposite had improved mechanical properties, char
formation and flame retardant properties, with a synergistic
effect apparent between organoclay, flame retardant and
polymer. 21 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.930595
Item 86
Composites Science and Technology
64, Nos.13-4, 2004, p.1991-2007
MOISTURE EFFECT ON THE FATIGUE CRACK

49

References and Abstracts

GROWTH OF GLASS PARTICLE AND FIBER


REINFORCED EPOXIES WITH STRONG
AND WEAK BONDING CONDITIONS. II.
MICROSCOPIC STUDY ON TOUGHENING
MECHANISM
Kawaguchi T; Pearson R A
Lehigh,University
The toughening mechanisms in three types of glassfilled epoxy composites subject to fatigue loading are
studied by several different microscopy techniques. The
observed toughening mechanisms are then related to the
macroscopic fatigue crack propagation behaviour. The
role of matrix-reinforcement adhesion is systematically
investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and
transmission optical microscopy (OM) studies reveal that
toughening mechanisms such as microcracking, crack
pinning, shear yielding, fibre bridging, and fibre debonding
and pull-out are dependent on the surface treatment of the
reinforcements as well as the shape of reinforcements.
The nature of the toughening mechanisms observed agree
with the fatigue crack propagation behaviour predicted
by crack tip shielding concepts. Interestingly, matrix
shear yielding turns out to be the prevalent toughening
mechanism in those mechanisms subjected to moisture
exposure. In dry as-moulded composites, a careful
investigation involving SEM, OM, fluorescent microscopy
and atomic force microscopy indicate that the particular
micromechanisms observed are indeed microcracks, and
not micro-shear bands as has been suggested by other
researchers. 39 refs.
USA

Accession no.931385
Item 87
Composites Science and Technology
64, Nos.13-4, 2004, p.2271-8
EFFECT OF WATER IMMERSION AGEING
ON LOW-VELOCITY IMPACT BEHAVIOUR
OF WOVEN ARAMID-GLASS FIBRE-EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Imielinska K; Guillaumat L
Gdansk,University; ENSAM
Two different woven glass-aramid-fibre/epoxy laminates
are subjected to water immersion ageing followed by
instrumented low velocity impact testing. The hybrid
aramid-glass reinforcement consists of ten plies of woven
aramid-glass-fibre fabric or alternatively aramid-fibre
fabric with glass-fibre fabric interlayers. The impacted
plates are re-tested statically in compression to determine
residual strength for assessment of damage tolerance. The
maximum water absorption (4.1-4.4%) and water diffusion
coefficients are found to be only slightly dependent on
reinforcement configuration. The delamination threshold
load and impact energy absorption are not significantly
affected by the absorbed water. Due to low fibre-matrix
adhesion, the prevailing failure modes at low impact
energy are fibre/matrix debonding and interfacial cracking.

50

The compression strength suffers significant reductions


with water absorbed (28%) and impact (maximum 42%).
The least sensitive to impact damage are wet samples
of interlaminated composite. The experimental results
of residual compression strength are compared with
predictions based on a simple, empirical model. 26 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY;
EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; POLAND; WESTERN EUROPE;
WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.931405
Item 88
Journal of Fire Sciences
23, No.1, Jan.2005, p.75-87
FLAME RETARDANCY OF NANOCOMPOSITES
- FROM RESEARCH TO TECHNICAL
PRODUCTS
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
Flame-retardant nanocomposites were synthesised by
melt-blending EVA with modified layered silicates as
nanofillers. TGA performed in air demonstrated a clear
increase in the thermal stability of the layered silicatebased nanocomposites. The cone calorimeter was
used to investigate fire hazards. The nanocomposites
caused a large decrease in the peak of heat release rates.
Char formation was the main important factor for the
improvement of flame retardancy and its function was
examined. Further improvements of the flame retardancy
by using combinations of nanofillers and traditional flame
retardant additives based on metal hydroxides were also
studied. The nanocomposites based on nanofillers and
aluminium trihydrate could be used as efficient systems for
flame-retardant cables. The corresponding results obtained
for a coaxial cable complying with the UL 1666 riser test
are presented. 17 refs.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.932175
Item 89
Polymer Degradation and Stability
86, No.3, 2004, p.535-40
PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF
HALOGEN-FREE FLAME-RETARDED
POLYAMIDE 6/ORGANOCLAY
NANOCOMPOSITE
Lei Song; Yuan Hu; Zhihua Lin; Shangyong Xuan;
Shaofeng Wang; Zuyao Chen; Weicheng Fan
China,University of Science & Technology
Halogen-free flame retarded nylon-6/organoclay (PA6/
OMT) nanocomposite was prepared by using magnesium
hydroxide (MH) and red phosphorus (RP) as a flame
retardant and organoclay (OMT) as synergist, via a melt
blend technique. The morphology was characterised by
X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

The effects of the organoclay on the mechanical properties


and the flammability of the flame retarded nylon-6 were
investigated. The addition of OMT is shown to improve
the mechanical properties of the composite, and cone
calorimetry tests showed that a synergistic effect occurred
as MH-RP and OMT were added to nylon-6. The flame
retardant property of PA6 containing MH-RP and OMT
was better than PA6 containing MH-RP or OMT. 27
refs.
CHINA

Accession no.932283
Item 90
Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry
Edition
42, No.23, 1st Dec.2004, p.6163-6173
POLYPROPYLENE/MONTMORILLONITE
NANOCOMPOSITES AND INTUMESCENT,
FLAME-RETARDANT MONTMORILLONITE
SYNERGISM IN POLYPROPYLENE
NANOCOMPOSITES
Yong Tang; Yuan Hu; Baoguang Li; Lei Liu;
Zhengzhou Wang; Zuyao Chen
Hefei,University Of Science & Technology
Polypropylene (PP)-montmorillonite (MMT)
nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation
with pristine MMT, PP and maleic acid-modified PP, using
the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium
bromide. The dispersibility of MMT in the PP matrix was
studied by X-ray diffraction, TEM and high-resolution
electron microscopy. An intumescent flame retardant (IFR)
was added to the nanocomposites and the flammability
properties were studied by cone calorimetry. Increasing
the surfactant or compatibiliser concentration improved
the dispersion of MMT and SCT-DFT theory predicted that
this reduces the free energy of the system. An optimum
value for the synergistic effect between MMT and IFR was
found and the mechanism of synergism was discussed.
32 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.933197
Item 91
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.
Fall Meeting 2004. Volume 91. Proceedings of a
conference held Philadelphia, Pa., 22nd-26th Aug.2004.
Washington, D.C., ACS, Division of Polymeric
Materials: Science & Engineering, 2004, p.29, CDROM, 012
EFFECT OF INTERFACES IN FLAME
RETARDED NANOCOMPOSITES
Marosi G; Anna P; Szabo A
Budapest,University of Technology & Economics
(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)
A 5% concentration of layered silicate (montmorillonite,
MMT) was introduced into systems containing PP,

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

polyamide or EVA and various flame retardants. It was


concluded that the introduction of MMT into a polymer
may improve the flame retardancy even without interface
modification via a viscosity increasing effect. Surface
treatment of MMT with a cationic surfactant of higher heat
resistance increased the mechanical properties while the
flame retardancy was increased of decreased, depending
on the type of flame retardant system used. Well-dispersed
MMT combined with charring flame retardants showed a
char stabilising effect. MMT had a catalytic effect on the
charring process which could be increased by replacing
its surface ions. Depending on its surface layer, MMT
could promote or hinder the migration of flame retardants
to the surface. Expandable MMT, formed by intercalation
with a well-designed synergist, was the most rapid way
of delivering the nanolayers and flame retardants to the
surface. 10 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; HUNGARY

Accession no.934474
Item 92
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.
Fall Meeting 2004. Volume 91. Proceedings of a
conference held Philadelphia, Pa., 22nd-26th Aug.2004.
Washington, D.C., ACS, Division of Polymeric
Materials: Science & Engineering, 2004, p.34-5, CDROM, 012
EFFECT OF LAYERED SILICATE
NANOCOMPOSITES ON BURNING BEHAVIOUR
OF CONVENTIONALLY FLAME-RETARDED
UNSATURATED POLYESTERS
Kandola B K; Nazare S; Horrocks A R
Bolton Institute
(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)
Unsaturated polyester-organically modified montmorillonite
(5% w/w) nanocomposites incorporating a flame retardant
(ammonium polyphosphate, 20% with respect to resinclay mixture) were prepared by in-situ intercalative
polymerisation. Thermal analysis of these materials was
compared with that of resin-organoclay nanocomposites
and resin-flame retardant samples. The results showed
that in unsaturated polyester resins, nanoclays on their
own were nor effective as char promoters although
significant reduction of heat release values occurred.
When conventional flame retardants were added to the
nanocomposites, char formation was enhanced and the
peak heat release rate was reduced. The results were
discussed. 3 refs.
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.934477
Item 93
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.
Fall Meeting 2004. Volume 91. Proceedings of a
conference held Philadelphia, Pa., 22nd-26th Aug.2004.
Washington, D.C., ACS, Division of Polymeric

51

References and Abstracts

Materials: Science & Engineering, 2004, p.36, CDROM, 012


MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE AND NANO
COMPOSITE FR DEVELOPMENTS
Innes J
Flame Retardants Associates Inc.
(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)
The torque effect of incorporation of nano magnesium
hydroxide in flame retardant formulations was studied.
One control formulation with PP was used which contained
a standard, ultrafine particle magnesium hydroxide flame
retardant. Two other formulations with PP partially replaced
the ultrafine magnesium hydroxide with nano magnesium
hydroxide materials. The relative torque results were
compared during compounding of the formulations. The
assumption that the torque throughout the compounding
process would be increased by the inclusion of nano
magnesium hydroxide did not appear to be borne out by the
results. There was a substantial difference in torque results
between the two nano magnesium hydroxide materials,
despite the fact that their particle sizes were similar. Further
work was needed to investigate the findings. 1 ref.
USA

Accession no.934478
Item 94
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.
Fall Meeting 2004. Volume 91. Proceedings of a
conference held Philadelphia, Pa., 22nd-26th Aug.2004.
Washington, D.C., ACS, Division of Polymeric
Materials: Science & Engineering, 2004, p.39-40, CDROM, 012
COMBINED FIRE RETARDANT ACTION OF
PHOSPHONATED STRUCTURES AND CLAYS
DISPERSION IN EPOXY RESIN
Camino G; Tartaglione G; Frache A; Manferti C;
Finocchiaro P
Torino,Politecnico; Torino,Universita degli Studi;
Catania,University
(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)
E p o x y - o rg a n i c a l l y m o d i f i e d m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e
nanocomposites, containing 10 wt% of the organoclay,
were prepared by in-situ polymerisation of bisphenol A
diglycidyl ether crosslinked with methyl tetrahydrophthalic
anhydride. The flame retardant additive used was 2,2bis(3-diethyloxyphosphonyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane
(5 wt%). Thermogravimetric analysis showed that in the
nanocomposites, the diffusion of oxygen to the epoxy
matrix was restricted. The presence of the organoclay in
the nanocomposites reduced the peak heat release rate,
but the addition of the flame retardant strongly reduced
this further. 21 refs.
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.934480

Item 95
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.
Fall Meeting 2004. Volume 91. Proceedings of a
conference held Philadelphia, Pa., 22nd-26th Aug.2004.
Washington, D.C., ACS, Division of Polymeric
Materials: Science & Engineering, 2004, p.86-7, CDROM, 012
THERMAL STABILITY AND FLAMMABILITY
OF POLYMER/SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES
PREPARED VIA EXTRUSION
Feng Yang; Yngard R; Nelson G L
Florida,Institute of Technology

(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)


PS/silica and PMMA/silica nanocomposites were
prepared using a single screw extruder. The polymer/silica
nanocomposites alone were not flame retardant but, in fact,
burned even faster than the polymers themselves. Materials
treated with phenethyltrichlorosilane burned with the
formation of char while dripping heavily. Composites
with PDMS also burned with char formation but did not
drip heavily. Materials with 40 wt% of brominated PS
added to the pure polymer were flame retardant. When
10% silica was added to PS, only 35 wt% brominated PS
was needed to make the material flame retardant. All the
nanocomposites showed improved thermal stabilities. The
results were discussed. 6 refs.
USA

Accession no.934505
Item 96
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.
Fall Meeting 2004. Volume 91. Proceedings of a
conference held Philadelphia, Pa., 22nd-26th Aug.2004.
Washington, D.C., ACS, Division of Polymeric Materials:
Science & Engineering, 2004, p.90-1, CD-ROM, 012
FLAMMABILITY PROPERTIES OF PMMASINGLE WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE
NANOCOMPOSITES
Kashiwagi T; Fangming Du; Winey K I; Groth K M;
Shields J R; Harris R H; Douglas J
NIST,Building & Fire Research Laboratory;
Pennsylvania,University; NIST,Polymers Div.
(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)
The flammability of PMMA-single walled carbon
nanotube nanocomposites (containing up to 1% mass
fraction of nanotubes) was studied. The mass loss rates
of the samples were measured in a gasification device in
a nitrogen atmosphere rather than in a cone calorimeter.
The results showed that the addition of the single walled
carbon nanotubes significantly reduced the mass loss rate
of PMMA, even at contents of less than 1% mass fraction.
The structure of the residues collected after the tests were
studied by SEM. The final residue was a network structure
consisting of a rope-like structure of intertwined carbon
nanotubes. 13 refs.
USA

Accession no.934507

52

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 97
Polymer Degradation and Stability
87, No.3, 2005, p.411-8
INVESTIGATION OF INTERFACIAL
MODIFICATION FOR FLAME RETARDANT
ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER/
ALUMINA TRIHYDRATE NANOCOMPOSITES
Zhang X; Guo F; Chen J; Wang G; Liu H
Beijing,University of Chemical Technology
Details are given of the preparation of EVAC/alumina
trihydrate nanocomposites by melt blending. A titanate
coupling agent and maleated EVAC were used as
interfacial modifiers. The effects of modifiers on the
properties of EVAC nanocomposites were studied by TGA,
tensile measurements and combustion tests. The dispersion
and adhesion patterns of the nanoparticles in the EVAC
matrix were characterised through Molau solution test,
TEM and SEM. 15 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.936305
Item 98
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.
Fall Meeting 2004. Volume 91. Proceedings of a
conference held Philadelphia, Pa., 22nd-26th Aug.2004.
Washington, D.C., ACS, Division of Polymeric
Materials: Science & Engineering. 2004, p.156-7, CDROM, 012
SYNERGY BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL
PHOSPHORUS-BASED FIRE RETARDANTS AND
NANOCOMPOSITE FORMATION FOR VINYL
ESTERS
Chigwada G; Jiang D D; Wilkie C A
Marquette,University
(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)
Cone calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and transmission
electron microscopy were used to study the synergistic
effects of addition of a wide range of phosphorus
containing fire retardants to vinyl ester nanocomposite
resins. Average mass loss rate and peak heat release rates
were lowered proportionally by addition of increasing
amounts of phosphates, but different phosphates behaved
differently. Ignition times appeared to be unaffected. 7
refs.
USA

Accession no.937249
Item 99
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.
Fall Meeting 2004. Volume 91. Proceedings of a
conference held Philadelphia, Pa., 22nd-26th Aug.2004.
Washington, D.C., ACS, Division of Polymeric
Materials: Science & Engineering. 2004, p.162-3, CDROM, 012
RECENT ADVANCES IN THE USE OF ZINC
BORATES AS MULTIFUNCTIONAL FIRE

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

RETARDANTS IN HALOGEN-FREE POLYMERS


Shen K K; Olson E
Luzenac
(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)
Use of commercial zinc borate fire retardants in aluminium
trihydroxide filled, and nanoclay filled, cable materials
based on ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers is discussed.
Formation of strong chars when these materials are used
in both composite and nanocomposite materials increased
the flame retardancy in all examples studied. 13 refs.
USA

Accession no.937252
Item 100
Plastics Technology
50, No.11, Nov.2004, p.56-61
CHASING NANOCOMPOSITES
Sherman L M
It is explained that nano-sized particles have mammoth
potential in plastics because loadings are so small
compared with other additives. This article highlights
the latest developments in the field of nanocomposites,
as presented at three recent conferences. Research and
development is focusing on boosting plastics mechanical
and barrier properties, flame retardancy, and electrical
conductivity.
BASELL NORTH AMERICA INC.; FOSTER
CORP.; HONEYWELL SPECIALTY POLYMERS;
HYPERION CATALYSIS INTERNATIONAL;
MITSUBISHI GAS CHEMICAL AMERICA
INC.; NANOCOR INC.; NOBLE POLYMERS;
POLYONE CORP.; PYROGRAPH PRODUCTS
INC.; SOUTHERN CLAY PRODUCTS INC.;
SUD-CHEMIE INC.; ZYVEX CORP.; BUSINESS
COMMUNICATIONS CO.; GENERAL MOTORS;
HITE BREWERY CO.; OHIO STATE,UNIVERSITY
SOUTH KOREA; USA; WORLD

Accession no.937421
Item 101
Polymer Materials Science and Engineering
21, No.1, Jan.2005, p.164-7
Chinese
STUDIES ON FLAME RETARDED PROPERTY
OF COAL-BASED POLYETHYLENE/
MONTMORILLONITE COMPOSITES
Wang G-L; Zhou A-N; Ge L-M; Qu J-L
Xian,University of Science & Technology
The effect of ammonium polyphosphate-pentaerythritolmelamine copolymer as an intumescent flame retardant on
the flammability of the above composites is investigated
and the synergism between the components examined.
Limiting oxygen index, thermooxidative degradation and
char rates of the composites are discussed. 6 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.939438

53

References and Abstracts

Item 102
Chemical Weekly
L, No.39, 17th May 2005, p.197-202
NANOTECHNOLOGY: A BEGINNERS GUIDE
TO A FUTURISTIC TECHNOLOGY. PART 2:
NANOCOMPOSITES
Prasad N
Polymeric nanocomposites (PNCs) or polymer
nanostructured materials represent a radical alternative
to conventional-filled polymers or polymer blends.
Uniform dispersion of nanoscopically sized filler particles
produces ultra-large interfacial area per volume between
the nanoelement and host polymer. The value of PNC
technology is not based solely on mechanical enhancements
of the neat resin. Rather, it comes from providing valueadded properties not present in the neat resin, without
sacrificing the inherent processability and mechanical
properties of the resin. PNC fabrication methodologies are
outlined. Nanocomposites and nanoclays for packaging
applications are examined. Nanocomposites can slow
transmission of gases and moisture vapour through plastics
by creating a tortuous path for gas molecules to thread
their way among the obstructing platelets. Nylon 6 and
66, PETP, EVOH, PP, TPO and acetal nanocomposites
are discussed.
INDIA

Accession no.941125
Item 103
Polymer Degradation and Stability
88, No.3, 2005, p.382-93
SYNERGY BETWEEN NANOCOMPOSITE
FORMATION AND LOW LEVELS OF BROMINE
ON FIRE RETARDANCY IN POLYSTYRENES
Chigwada G; Jash P; Jiang D D; Wilkie C A
Marquette,University
The preparation of nanocomposites of polystyrene (PS)
and a montmorillonite clay organically modified with
ammonium salts containing an oligomeric material based
on vinylbenzyl chloride, styrene and dibromostyrene,
by bulk polymerisation and by melt blending, and their
characterisation by XRD, TEM, TGA and cone calorimetry,
is described. The effects of the bromine-containing
organically modified clay on the flame retardancy of PS
are discussed. 22 refs.
USA

Accession no.941263
Item 104
Journal of Fire Sciences
23, No.3, May 2005, p.209-24
FLAMMABILITY OF POLYMER-CLAY AND
POLYMER-SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES
Feng Yang; Yngard R; Nelson G L
Florida,Institute of Technology

54

The flammability of nanocomposites of polystyrene and


poly(methyl methacrylate) with montmorillonite clays
and with silica were investigated in terms of peak heat
release rate (cone calorimetry), limiting oxygen index,
thermal stability and horizontal and vertical burning tests,
with and without the addition of flame-retardant additives.
The results are discussed in comparison with those for the
corresponding polymers. 28 refs.
USA

Accession no.941344
Item 105
Fire and Materials
29, No.2, March-April 2005, p.61-9
FILLER BLEND OF CARBON NANOTUBES AND
ORGANOCLAYS WITH IMPROVED CHAR AS
A NEW FLAME RETARDANT SYSTEM FOR
POLYMERS AND CABLE APPLICATIONS
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
Multi-wall and single-wall carbon nanotubes were
evaluated as flame retardant fillers in LDPE and the multiwalled carbon nanotubes found to act as efficient flame
retardants in the polyethylene. A blend of multi-walled
carbon nanotubes and organoclays was then employed
as a synergistic flame retardant system in EVA-based
systems and formulations optimised to produce a cable
compound, which exhibited improved char and enhanced
flame retardant properties. 8 refs.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.941756
Item 106
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
97, No.1, 5th July 2005, p.366-76
BRIEF REVIEW ON FIRE RETARDANTS FOR
POLYMERIC FOAMS
Wang J Q; Chow W K
Beijing,Institute of Technology; Hong Kong,Polytechnic
University
The change to CFC-free polyurethane foams has
promoted the change to brominated fire retardants to
meet fire resistance specifications. Polystyrene foams
usually contain additive fire retardants, with bromine
compounds increasingly replacing chlorine compounds.
The use of intumescent fire retardants is an alternative to
halogen-containing compounds. They normally comprise
three ingredients: a catalyst, usually a phosphorus
compound; a polyhydric char former; and a blowing
agent. Nanocomposites exhibit enhanced fire resistance
compared with the parent polymer, and have potential use
as fire retardants. 27 refs.
CHINA; HONG KONG

Accession no.942515

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 107
International Polymer Science and Technology
31, No.10, 2004, p. T/34-8
FEATURES OF THE BEHAVIOUR OF
EPOXY BINDERS MODIFIED WITH A
THERMOPLASTIC
Gorbunova I Y; Kerber M L; Shustov M V
In order to increase heat resistance and resistance to impact
loads of epoxy composites, this study investigates the use
of blends of thermosetting plastics with thermoplastic
polymers as binders in the production of articles with
reinforcing fibres. The properties are reported of a
composite based on epoxy oligomer ED-20, curing
agent diaminodiphenylsulphone and polysulphone as
the modifier. In the course of this work, a study was
made of the process of curing of the given system and
the influence of the curing schedules on its properties
and on the internal stresses arising in the material. The
effect of a thermoplastic modifier on the properties of
the composite was also studied. It was shown that the
introduction of polysulphone led to a reduction in the glass
transition temperature determined by the DMA method.
It was established that the Tg of a system could be used
as a criterion characterising the degree of conversion, and
that the introduction of polysulphone led to a considerable
increase in the impact strength and cross-breaking strength
of the epoxy-based composite. 3 refs. (Article translated
from Plasticheskie Massy, No.12, 2003, p.38-40)
RUSSIA

Accession no.943307

Item 109
High Performance Fillers 2005. Proceedings of a
conference held Cologne, Germany, 8th-9th March
2005.
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2005, Paper 5, pp.7,
29cm, 012
FLAME RETARDANCY OF POLYMERS BY
NANOCOMPOSITES. A NEW CONCEPT
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
(Rapra Technology Ltd.)
Flame retardant nanocomposites were synthesised by
melt-blending EVAs with modified layered silicates
(montmorillonites) as nanofillers. TGA performed in
air demonstrated a clear increase in the thermal stability
of the layered silicate-based nanocomposites. A cone
calorimeter was used to investigate fire hazards. The
nanocomposites caused a large decrease in heat release.
The char formation by the nanofillers as char promoter
was the most important factor for the improvement and its
function was examined. Further improvements of the flame
retardancy by combinations of nanofillers and traditional
flame retardant additives based on metal hydroxides were
also studied. The nanocomposites based on nanofillers
and aluminium trihydrate could be used as very efficient
systems for flame-retardant cables. The corresponding
results were outlined for a coaxial cable fulfilling the UL
1666 riser test. 9 refs.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.944255
Item 108
High Performance Fillers 2005. Proceedings of a
conference held Cologne, Germany, 8th-9th March 2005.
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2005, Paper 3, pp.7,
29cm, 012
NEW PERSPECTIVES IN FIRE RETARDANT
POLYMER MATERIALS
Camino G
Torino,Politecnico
(Rapra Technology Ltd.)
Recent developments in fire retardant polymeric materials
are described. The traditional fire retardants generally show
unsatisfactory performance in terms of environmental
impact and fire hazard. The replacement of the strategy
used in the past, which involved quenching the flame in
the gas phase, by condensed phase mechanisms aimed at
reducing the supply of combustible gases to the flame,
below the self-sustaining combustion level, is discussed.
The new generation of polymer materials based on
dispersion of nanosize inorganic fillers in the organic
matrix, in which the improvement of fire retardance is
combined with improvement of physical and mechanical
properties, is considered. 7 refs.
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Item 110
Addcon World 2004. Proceedings of the 10th
International Plastics Additives and Modifiers
Conference, held Amsterdam, 28th - 29th Sept., 2004..
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2004, p.69-82, 29
cm, 012
NANOCOMPOSITES - ANEW
NANOTECHNOLOGY CONCEPT FOR FLAME
RETARDANT POLYMERS AND CABLES
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
(Rapra Technology Ltd.)
The concept of nanocomposites for the production of
flame retardant polymers and cable coverings is discussed.
Traditional flame retardant systems can be costly and the
high levels of flame retardant required can cause problems
with processing and subsequent mechanical properties.
This paper examines the use of layered silicates as
fillers, the synthesis of nanocomposites, the structure and
properties of nanocomposites, their thermal stability and
flame retardancy in a variety of polymer matrixes.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.944296

Accession no.944254

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

55

References and Abstracts

Item 111
Plastics News(USA)
17, No.20, 18th July 2005, p.9-10
TECHMER, LEHVOSS FORM COMPANY
Esposito F
Techmer PM and Lehmann & Voss have formed Techmer
Lehvoss Compounds. In June, the new firm opened a
40,000-square-foot expansion in Clinton, Tennessee. The
project represents an investment of more than 5m US
dollars and is connected to partner Techmer PMs plant
there. The two firms had been distributing each others
products for several years before linking up late last
year to buy the Electrafil and Plaslube engineering resin
compound businesses from DSM Engineering Plastics
Americas. Both Electrafil and Plaslube can be based on
nylon, polycarbonate and other engineering resins. One
area where Techmer Lehvoss may find future growth is
in nanocomposites. Techmer PM has had commercial
products available in this area since 2003.
Techmer PM LLC; Lehmann & Voss & Co.
USA

Accession no.944518
Item 112
Polymer
46, No.14, 2005, p.5012-24
FLAME RETARDANT AIRCRAFT EPOXY
RESINS CONTAINING PHOSPHORUS
Hergenrother P M; Thompson C M; Smith J G;
Connell J W; Hinkley J A; Lyon R E; Moulton R
NASA Langley Research Center; US,National Institute
of Aerospace; US,Federal Aviation Administration;
Applied Poleramics Inc.
The possibility of incorporating phosphorus compounds
into epoxy resins to enhance the fire resistance for
aircraft exterior composite structures was investigated.
Phosphorus was introduced as part of the diamine curing
agent or as part of the epoxy compound. Compositions
containing 1.5 wt% of phosphorus exhibited flame
resistance, and those containing 3 wt% achieved the fire
resistance requirements defined by the Federal Aviation
Administration heat release rate test for large area aircraft
cabin interior components. The reduction in flammability
was attributed to the promotion of charring by phosphorus
in the condensed phase, the phosphorus acting as a catalyst
for char formation. The presence of phosphorus did not
significantly affect the mechanical properties, including
fracture toughness, compressive strength and compressive
modulus. 33 refs.
USA

Accession no.944672
Item 113
Polymer Degradation and Stability
89, No.1, 2005, p.85-100
FIRE RETARDANCY OF VINYL ESTER

56

NANOCOMPOSITES: SYNERGY WITH


PHOSPHORUS-BASED FIRE RETARDANTS
Chigwada G; Jash P; Jiang D D; Wilkie C A
Marquette,University
Nanocomposites were fabricated from various vinyl ester
polymers, several clays and polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane
and flame retarded with various phosphorus compounds.
Nanocomposites with and without flame retardants
were characterised by X-ray diffraction, TEM and
TGA. The flammability of the phosphorus-containing
nanocomposites was investigated using a cone calorimeter
and the synergy between the nanocomposites and flame
retardants evaluated. 21 refs.
USA

Accession no.945013
Item 114
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives
25, No.5, 2005, p.404-9
INFLUENCE OF FIBRE REINFORCEMENT AND
PEEL PLY SURFACE TREATMENT TOWARDS
ADHESION OF COMPOSITE SURFACES
Benard Q; Fois M; Grisel M
Le Havre,Unite de Recherche en Chimie Organique et
Macromoleculaire; Le Havre,University
The surface properties of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy
composites with and without a peel ply-type surface
treatment were investigated by contact angle and
roughness measurements and characterised by scanning
electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy combined
with microscopy. The composites were also subjected to
single lap shear testing and the relationship between the
surface properties and lap shear strength of the composites
examined. 14 refs.
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN
UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN
EUROPE-GENERAL
Accession no.945156
Item 115
International Journal of Plastics Technology
8, No.2, Dec.2004, p.279-86
EVALUATION OF FRP COMPOSITES BASED
ON CONVENTIONAL AND MULTIFUNCTIONAL
EPOXY RESINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Samui A B; Chakraborty B C; Ratna D
India,Naval Materials Research Laboratory
The mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of
conventional difunctional and multifunctional epoxy
resins as castings and composites reinforced with glass and
carbon fibres were compared. The cured tetrafunctional
epoxy network exhibited higher modulus and Tg than the
difunctional epoxy resin. The mechanical properties of
tetrafunctional epoxy-based composites were found to be
inferior to those of composites based on conventional epoxy

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

resin, which was thought to be due to the high viscosity of


tetrafunctional epoxy resin. The blending of tetrafunctional
epoxy resin with low viscosity trifunctional epoxy resin
resulted in a marked improvement in mechanical properties
of composites due to reduction in viscosity. The results
were explained in terms of interlaminar shear strength
analysis of the composites. 21 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.946316
Item 116
Polymer Materials Science and Engineering
21, No.3, May 2005, p.1-5
Chinese
THE LATEST DEVELOPMENT OF NONHALOGEN FLAME-RETARDED PA
Yu-Xiang Ou
Beijing,Institute of Technology
The latest developments in non-halogen flame retarded
polyamides, including those treated with melamine
derivatives and reactive phosphorus compounds and
inorganic nanocomposites. Flame retardant mechanisms
and the future of non-halogen flame retarded polyamides
are also considered. 36 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.948085
Item 117
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.
Fall Meeting 2004. Volume 91. Proceedings of a
conference held Philadelphia, Pa., 22nd-26th Aug.2004.
Washington, D.C., ACS, Division of Polymeric
Materials: Science & Engineering, 2004, p.738-9, CDROM, 012
THERMAL PROPERTIES AND FLAME
RETARDANCE OF NANOCOMPOSITES
OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AND
NANOHYDROTALCITE
Wang X
Beijing,University of Chemical Technology
(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)
Details are given of the preparation of PVC modified with
hydrotalcite as a heat stabiliser. The thermal degradation of
the nanocomposite was investigated. Characterisation was
also undertaken using TEM, TGA and FTIR. 9 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.949897
Item 118
Polymers and Polymer Composites
13, No.5, 2005,p.529-38
FLAME RETARDANCY OF NANOCOMPOSITES
- FROM RESEARCH TO REALITY. REVIEW
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Nanocomposites incorporating modified layered silicates


as fillers dispersed at the nm-level within a polymer
matrix are examined with respect to their inherent flame
retardancy. The flame retardancy mechanism is reported
to be based on the char formation and its structure. The
char insulates the polymer from heat and acts as a barrier,
reducing the escape of volatile gases from the polymer
combustion. In addition, the combination of organoclays
with traditional flame retardants is shown to be a means
of further improving the flame retardant properties of
polymers. The cone calorimeter is used as a tool for the
investigation of flame retardancy. 9 refs.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.950361
Item 119
Fire and Materials
29, No.5, Sept.-Oct.2005, p.283-94
CONE CALORIMETRIC AND
THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS
EVALUATION OF HALOGEN-CONTAINING
POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES
Wang D; Echols K; Wilkie C A
Marquette,University
The morphology and fire retardancy of nanocomposites
of bromine-containing polymers, such as copolymers of
styrene and dibromostyrene, with various proportions of
montmorillonite clay, organically modified with a fluorinecontaining quaternary ammonium salt, were investigated
by XRD, TGA and cone calorimetry studies. The effects of
bromine content and method of preparation on the results
are discussed. 15 refs.
USA

Accession no.950949
Item 120
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
97, No.6, 15th Sept.2005, p.2375-81
TENSILE AND FLAMMABILITY PROPERTIES
OF POLYPROPYLENE-BASED RTPO/CLAY
NANOCOMPOSITES FOR CABLE INSULATING
MATERIAL
Hong C H; Lee Y B; Bae J W; Jho J Y; Nam B U;
Nam G J; Lee K J
Seoul,National University; Korea,University of
Technology & Education; LG Cable Ltd.
Nanocomposites were prepared by blending polypropylenebased reactor thermoplastic polyolefin, maleic anhydridegrafted polypropylene oligomer compatibiliser, organicallymodified montmorillonite clay and magnesium hydroxide
flame retardant. The tensile strength increased, whilst
the elongation at break decreased, with increasing clay
content. From consideration of the tensile properties, it
was concluded that the nanocomposites containing 10
wt% clay were candidate materials for cable applications.

57

References and Abstracts

The nanocomposites exhibited heat release rates which


were significantly less than that of the neat polymer,
combining was very high char yields. Although the clay
enhanced the flame retardant properties, it was considered
that a conventional flame retardant, such as magnesium
hydroxide, was necessary to provide adequate flame
retardant properties for cable applications. 32 refs.
KOREA

Accession no.951085
Item 121
IRC 2005: Creating Value throughout the Supply Chain.
Proceedings of the North European International Rubber
Conference held Maastricht, The Netherlands, 7th-9th
June 2005.
London, IOM Communications, 2005, p.327-37, 21cm,
012
NANOCOMPOSITES AS A NEW CONCEPT FOR
FLAME RETARDANCY OF POLYMERS
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
(UK,Institute of Materials,Minerals & Mining)
Nanocomposites were fabricated from EVA and dimeth
yldistearylammonium cation-modified montmorillonite
as nanofiller with or without alumina trihydrate as
flame retardant and their morphological properties, heat
stability, flammability and thermal degradation behaviour
investigated. Coaxial cables with an outer sheath made
from the nanocomposites containing the above flame
retardant were fabricated and tested for flame retardancy
and found to exhibit enhanced flame retardancy due
to the formation of a char layer during nanocomposite
combustion. 20 refs.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.951129
Item 122
Polymer Degradation and Stability
89, No.3, 2005, p.418-26
THERMAL STABILITY AND FIRE RETARDANT
PERFORMANCE OF PHOTO-OXIDIZED
NANOCOMPOSITES OF POLYPROPYLENEGRAFT-MALEIC ANHYDRIDE/CLAY
Diagne M; Gueye M; Vidal L; Tidjani A
Cheikh Anta Diop,University; Institut de Chimie des
Surfaces et Interfaces
PP-grafted maleic anhydride (PPgMA)/montmorillonite
clay nanocomposites were prepared by extrusion and
by injection moulding. The thermal degradation and fire
retardant behaviour of the nanocomposites were improved
compared with those of pure PPgMA and this improvement
was greater for injection moulded specimens than for
extruded specimens. These properties deteriorated in
UV-irradiated nanocomposites. However, UV-irradiated
pure PPgMA showed an outstanding improvement in fire

58

retardant properties. Reasons for these observations were


discussed. 18 refs.
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
SENEGAL; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.951264
Item 123
Addcon World 2005. Proceedings of the 11th
International Plastics Additives and Modifiers
Conference, held Hamburg, 21st-22nd Sept.2005.
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2005, Paper 11,
pp.8, 29cm, 012
PROGRESS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED FLAME
RETARDANTS
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
(Rapra Technology Ltd.)
A brief report is presented on work carried out to
improve the fire performance of polymers and cables
using nanostructured materials. Results are reported for
thermoplastic PU cables containing organoclays, PE and
LDPE filled with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes,
EVA filled with sepiolite and EVA flame retarded with
a masterbatch of carbon nanofibres in EVA as carrier
matrix. 8 refs.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.952277
Item 124
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology
17, No.12, 2003, p.1655-68
MODIFICATION OF EPOXY RESINS FOR
IMPROVEMENT OF ADHESION. A CRITICAL
REVIEW
Ratna D
India,Naval Materials Research Laboratory
An overview is presented of the modification of epoxy
resins for improvement of adhesion. Improvements in
bond strength and impact strength of epoxy resins by
chemical modification with a suitable flexible modifier
are discussed. 95 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.903264
Item 125
Advances in Polymer Technology
22, No.4, Winter 2003, p.373-7
INTERLAMINAR SHEAR STRENGTH OF
POLYCARBONATE-TOUGHENED EPOXY
COMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH GLASS
ROVINGS
Rajulu A V; Rao G B; Devi L G; Balaji P J; Jiasong He;
Jun Zhang
Sri Krishnadevaraya University; Bharath Dynamics
Ltd.; Beijing,Institute of Chemistry

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

The interlaminar shear strength(ILSS) of a composite


composed of glass rovings in a polycarbonate-toughened
epoxy resin matrix was studied. The variation of ILSS
with the contents of glass rovings and of polycarbonate
was investigated. For a given content of polycarbonate in
the matrix, the ILSS increased with volume fraction of
glass rovings. For a given content of rovings, the ILSS
decreased with increasing polycarbonate content. The
ILSS of the composites with epoxy resin alone as the
matrix was, however, found to be higher than that of the
epoxy resin/polycarbonate blend and this was attributed
to better adhesion between epoxy resin and reinforcement
than that between epoxy resin/polycarbonate blend and
reinforcement. This was further confirmed by SEM of
ILSS fractured samples. 13 refs.
CHINA; INDIA

Accession no.904275
Item 126
Composite Structures
62, No.3-4, Nov.-Dec.2003, p.391-5
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
OF Mg(OH)2 NANOPARTICLES AND
FLAME-RETARDANT PROPERTY OF ITS
NANOCOMPOSITES WITH EVA
Longzhen Qiu; Rongcai Xie; Peng Ding; Baojun Qu
China,University of Science & Technology
Magnesium hydroxide nanocrystalline particles with
needle- or lamella-like morphologies were synthesised
by a surfactant-mediated solution method. The structures
and morphologies of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles
were characterised by X-ray diffraction, TEM and FTIR
spectroscopy. Magnesium hydroxide/EVA nanocomposite
was also prepared and was shown to have a limiting oxygen
index value of 38.3. The high-resolution TEM picture
showed that the magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles
dispersed homogeneously in EVA matrix and the SEM
images indicated that the char formed after combustion of
the nanocomposite was very compact. 21 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.904327
Item 127
Polymer
45, No.3, 1 Feb. 2004, p.881-91
FLAME RETARDANT MECHANISM OF
POLYAMIDE 6-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Kashiwagi T; Harris R H; Xin Zhang; Briber R M;
Cipriano B H; Raghavan S R; Awad W H; Shields J R
NIST,Building & Fire Research Laboratory;
Maryland,University
The thermal and flammability properties of polyamide6/clay nanocomposites containing 2 and 5% by mass of
clay were measured to determine their flame retardant
performance. The gasification of the nanocomposite
samples at an external radiant flux of 50 kW/sq m was

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

examined in a nitrogen atmosphere, and the residues


were analysed thermogravimetrically and by transmission
electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Up to 80% by
mass of the blackened residues consisted of clay particles
and the remainder was thermally stable organic components
with a possible graphitic structure. Clay particles were
stacked in the carbonaceous floccule residues and the
d-spacing of the clay platelets was 1.3-1.4 nm compared
with the well exfoliated original sample. There are two
possible mechanisms that explain the accumulation of
the initially well-dispersed clay particles in the sample
on burning or gasifying the sample surface: recession of
the polymer resin from the surface by pyrolysis to leave
with the de-wetted clay particles; and transportation of
clay particles by rising bubbles of degradation products
and the associated convection flow in the melt from the
interior of the sample toward the surface. Neither PA6/clay
nanocomposite sample produced a sufficient amount of
protective floccules to cover the entire sample surface, and
vigorous bubbling was observed over the sample surface
that was not covered by protective floccules. 30 refs.
USA

Accession no.905576
Item 128
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2003, pp.138, 29
cm. Rapra Review Report 168,. vol. 14, no. 12, 2003.
NALOAN
PLASTIC FLAME RETARDANTS:
TECHNOLOGY AND CURRENT
DEVELOPMENTS
Innes J; Innes A
Edited by: Humphreys S
(Rapra Technology Ltd.)
Rapra Review Report No.168
A comprehensive review is presented of flame retardants
for plastics, with particular reference to US and European
legislation, test methods and product developments. A
market overview is included with indications of market
drivers, major end-use applications, and safety standards.
Particular emphasis is given to flammability and smoke
tests. Flame retardants are considered under the headings
of halogen flame retardants; metal hydrate flame retardants;
phosphorous flame retardants, smoke suppressants,
and other flame retardants, including recent technology
advances, including nanotechnology. 434 refs.
EUROPE-GENERAL; USA

Accession no.907057
Item 129
Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Electronics
15, No.3, March 2004, p.175-82
FLAME RESISTANT GLASS-EPOXY PRINTED
WIRING BOARDS WITH NO HALOGEN OR
PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS
Iji M; Kiuchi Y

59

References and Abstracts

NEC Corp.
The development of printed wiring boards made from
flame-resistant glass fibre-reinforced epoxy composites
free from halogen- or phosphorus-based flame retardants
is described and their flammability, chemical resistance,
dielectric properties and solder-heating resistance are
reported. The printed wiring boards contain a phenol
aralkyl-type epoxy resin and a small amount of aluminium
hydroxide and can be safely burned, disposed and reused
as a filler after pulverisation. 13 refs.

the effect of SWNTs on the mechanical properties of the


resulting composites. Incipient wetting of SWNTs on the
fibre-reinforced epoxy resin composites was investigated.
SWNTs were introduced onto the fibre reinforcements by
spraying SWNTs/prepolymer and by use of chemically
modified SWNT-sizing agents to enhance interphase/
interface between the fibre reinforcement and the
thermoset matrix. 30 refs.
USA

Accession no.908038

JAPAN

Accession no.906137
Item 130
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
91, No.4, 15th Feb.2004, p.2649-52
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
OF MODIFIED-CLAY-REINFORCED
AND TOUGHENED EPOXY-RESIN
NANOCOMPOSITES
Kailiang Zhang; Lixin Wang; Fang Wang;
Guangjian Wang; Zuobang Li
Hebei,University of Technology; Tianjin,University of
Technology
Organically modified layered clay was dispersed in an
epoxy resin (bisphenol A diglycidyl ether) and epoxy-clay
nanocomposites were prepared via curing with methyl
tetrahydro acid anhydride at 80-160C. The nanocomposites
consisted of individual clay layers embedded within a
crosslinked epoxy matrix. The impact strength and tensile
strength of the nanocomposites increased by 87.8 and
20.9% respectively with an organoclay loading of 3 wt%.
The thermal stability, heat distortion temperatures and
dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposites
were all improved compared with those of the pure epoxy
resin. 7 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.907820
Item 131
MATERIALS AND PROCESSING - ENABLING
FLIGHT: OUR LEGACY AND OUR FUTURE. Vol.35.
Proceedings of the 35th International SAMPE Technical
Conference held Dayton, Oh., 28th Sept.-2nd Oct.2003.
Covina, Ca., SAMPE International Business Office,
2003, Paper 74, pp.11, CD-ROM, 012
INCORPORATION OF SINGLE-WALLED
CARBON NANOTUBES IN EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Jongdae Kim; Barrera E V; Armeniades C D
Rice University
(SAMPE)
The incorporation of single-walled carbon
nanotubes(SWNTs) into thermosetting polymer composites
with glass fibre reinforcement was studied, together with

60

Item 132
London, Interscience Communications Ltd., 2004, 26
papers, pp.xii,269, ISBN 0954121627, 25cm, 012
FLAME RETARDANTS 2004. Proceedings of
a conference held London, 27th-28th
Jan.2004
(BPF; Interscience Communications Ltd.; APME;
European Flame Retardant Assn.)
Twenty-six papers are presented following the eleventh
International Flame Retardants conference series. This
series concentrates on the practical applications of
flame retardants and polymers and brings together the
manufacturers and users with legislators, fire test experts
and fire scientists. Papers include emissions of flame
retardants from selected consumer products and building
materials, flame retardant plastics and the DfE challenge,
European fire classes for cables and fire properties of
exterior automotive materials.
EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN
UNION; UK; USA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.909594
Item 133
Journal of Materials Science
39, No.6, 15th March 2004, p.1919-25
SYNTHETIC ROUTES, PROPERTIES AND
FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF POLYMERLAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES
Ahmadi S J; Huang Y D; Li W
Harbin,Institute of Technology
The structure and synthesis of nanocomposites based
on smectite clays, usually rendered hydrophobic by ion
exchange with an onium cation, and polymer matrices thermoplastics, thermosets or elastomers - by exfoliation
adsorption, in-situ intercalative polymerisation and melt
intercalation, are reviewed. The effects of the fillers on
polymer properties such as tensile properties, thermal
stability, gas permeability and flame retardancy, are
discussed, along with potential applications of the
nanocomposites. 63 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.911593

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 134
Polymer Degradation and Stability
82, No.2, 2003, p.365-71
INVESTIGATION INTO THE DECOMPOSITION
AND BURNING BEHAVIOUR OF
ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER
NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS
Hull T R; Price D; Liu Y; Wills C L; Brady J
Salford,University
EVA is a widely used material, particularly as a zerohalogen material in the cable industry. It is frequently
formulated with large quantities of inorganic filler material,
such as aluminium trihydroxide (ATH). Used alone, EVA
is known to form a protective layer which can inhibit
combustion under well ventilated conditions, though
this effect is not observed when used in formulations
with ATH. The incorporation of nanoscale clay fillers
into EVA appears to reinforce the protective layer. The
stages of decomposition under different conditions is
described both for the 10 mg (TGA) and 200 mg small tube
furnace scales. The latter allows the residues formed to be
subjected to further analysis, to elucidate the mechanism
of the reduction of decomposition and flammability.
Enhancements in thermo-oxidative stability of the EVA
clay material are evident from both tube furnace and
TGA experiments. The polymer-organoclay materials,
prepared on a two-roll mill, show poor dispersion when
studied by SEM, suggesting that a significant portion is
present as a microcomposite. However, when the char is
analysed by SEM, layers of protective material are clearly
evident on the char surface. From XRD spectra, there
is no evidence of order within the polymer-organoclay,
but ordering of the outer layer of char is demonstrated.
This suggests that for EVA, which melts before burning,
organoclay layers become nanodisperse at the surface of
the burning polymer. These materials are also studied in
the Purser furnace, designed to replicate the conditions
found in fully developed fires. This allows effluent yields,
such as O2, CO2 and CO to be determined as a function
of fire condition, by controlling the rate of burning and
the ventilation rate. The effect of both the nanofillers and
the protective layers are reported and discussed, under
different ventilation conditions. Specific emphasis is
placed on the relationship between equivalence ratio and
hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide yield. 14 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.912677
Item 135
Polymer Degradation and Stability
82, No.2, 2003, p.379-85
FIRE RETARDANCY EFFECT OF MIGRATION
IN POLYPROPYLENE NANOCOMPOSITES
INDUCED BY MODIFIED INTERLAYER
Marosi G; Marton A; Szep A; Csontos I; Keszei S;
Zimonyi E; Toth A; Almeras X; Le Bras M

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Budapest,University of Technology & Economics;


Hungarian Academy of Sciences; ENSC
Montmorillonite nanoparticles are found to be inefficient
in PP due to the lack of a heat insulating char layer and
the decomposition of the compatibilising surfactant layer
on their surface. Combination with a polyphosphate
based intumescent system shows some synergism due
to modified rheology. The effect of surface and interface
modification is analysed using Raman microscopy
and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Forming a heat
resistant coating layer of low surface energy around the
nanoparticles promotes their migration to the surface and
formation of a flexible barrier layer and thus leads to better
performance. 25 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN
UNION; FRANCE; HUNGARY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.912679
Item 136
Additives for Polymers
May 2004, p.10/2
GLOBAL POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES
MARKET TO EXCEED 211 MILLION US
DOLLARS BY 2008
This concise article provides economic information on
the world market for polymer nanocomposites. Figures
are taken from a recently-published report by Business
Communications Co. Inc. of the USA. The report states
that the nanocomposites market is forecast to grow at an
average annual rate of 18.4 percent over the coming five
years.
BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS CO.INC.;
GENERAL MOTORS
EUROPE-GENERAL; JAPAN; WORLD

Accession no.913283
Item 137
Gummi Fasern Kunststoffe
57, No.5, May 2004, p.309-14
German
NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATION
FOR POLYMERS - IMPROVED FLAME
RETARDANCY FOR POLYMERS AND CABLES
BY NANOCOMPOSITES
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
The preparation of flame-retardant nanocomposites
by the melt blending of EVA with modified layered
silicates, as nanofillers, is reported. The heat stability of
the nanocomposites, char formation and release of heat
therefrom are also reported along with the flammability
of the nanocomposites containing combinations of
nanofiller and flame retardants based on metal hydroxides.
Data on coaxial cables, which fulfils the UL 1666 riser
test are included. 17 refs. Articles from this journal
can be requested for translation by subscribers to the

61

References and Abstracts

Rapra produced International Polymer Science and


Technology.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.914344
Item 138
Polymer
45, No.12, 2004, p.4227-39
THERMAL AND FLAMMABILITY PROPERTIES
OF POLYPROPYLENE/CARBON NANOTUBE
COMPOSITES
Kashiwagi T; Grulke E; Hilding J; Groth K; Harris R;
Butler K; Shields J; Kharchenko S; Douglas J
US,National Institute of Standards & Technology;
Lexington,University of Kentucky
The thermal and flammability properties of nanocomposites
of polypropylene (PP) with multi-walled carbon nanotubes,
prepared by melt blending in various proportions and
characterised by SEM, optical microscopy and FTIR,
were investigated by TGA, thermal conductivity and cone
calorimetry. The effects of nanocomposite morphology
on the flammability of PP are discussed in terms of a
mechanism of flame retardance. 37 refs.
USA

Accession no.914537
Item 139
Polymer
45, No.13, 2004, p.4367-73
PREPARATION AND COMBUSTION
BEHAVIOUR OF POLYMER/LAYERED
SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES BASED UPON
PE AND EVA
Zanetti M; Costa L
Torino,Universita Degli Studi
Polymer composites based on organically modified clay
and polyethylene (PE) were prepared by melt processing
and their combustion behaviour was examined. The
formation of an intercalated nanocomposites was observed
only in presence of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), added
as a compatibiliser. The nanocomposite showed a reduced
rate of combustion because of the accumulation of the
silicate on the surface of the burning specimen which
creates a protective barrier to heat and mass transfer. 24
refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.915268
Item 140
Macromolecular Materials and Engineering
289, No.4, 19th April 2004, p.355-9
PREPARATION AND COMBUSTION
PROPERTIES OF FLAME RETARDANT
STYRENE-BUTYL ACRYLATE COPOLYMER/

62

GRAPHITE OXIDE NANOCOMPOSITES


Rui Zhang; Yuan HuJiayan Xu; Weicheng Fan;
Zuyao Chen; Qinan Wang
China,University of Science & Technology
Styrene-butyl acrylate copolymer(St-BA)/graphite
oxide(GO) nanocomposites and St-BA/GO/melamine
poly(metaphosphate)(MPP) composites were prepared by
an intercalation process using the ball milling method and
were characterised by X-ray diffraction, TEM and field
emission SEM. Cone calorimetry experiments were carried
out in order to evaluate the flammability of the composites.
The cone calorimetry data indicated that the addition of GO
could decrease the heat release rate of St-BA copolymers
significantly. There was also a synergistic effect on the
fire retardant properties by using the combination of GO
and MPP. No significant effect of the GO content on the
reduction of peak heat release rate in nanocomposites
could, however, be found. 16 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.916026
Item 141
Polymer Composites
25, No.2, April 2004, p.165-71
MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF
NEW GLASS FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Ratna D; Chongdar T K; Chakraborty B C
India,Naval Materials Research Laboratory
Epoxy resin was modified with various amount of
a carboxyl-terminated polyethylene glycol adipate
(CTPEGA) and the modified resin employed as a matrix
in the fabrication of glass fibre-reinforced laminates. The
flexural properties, impact properties and interlaminar
shear strength of the composites were determined and
fracture surfaces of the toughened epoxy samples analysed
by scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the
concentration of CTPEGA on the mechanical properties
of the composites were evaluated and the mechanical
properties of the modified composites compared with those
of the unmodified epoxy-based composites. 35 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.917177
Item 142
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
93, No.1, 5th July 2004, p.356-63
SOLID FREEFORM FABRICATION OF
EPOXIDIZED SOYBEAN OIL/EPOXY
COMPOSITES WITH DI-, TRI-, AND
POLYETHYLENE AMINE CURING AGENTS
Liu Z S; Erhan S Z; Calvert P D
USDA; Arizona,University
Soybean oil/epoxy-based composites are prepared by
solid freeform fabrication (SFF) methods. SFF methods

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

build materials by the repetitive addition of thin layers.


The mixture of epoxidised soybean oil and epoxy resin
is modified with di-, tri- or polyethylene amine gelling
agent to solidify the materials until curing occurs. The high
strength and stiffness composites are formed through fibre
reinforcement. E-glass, carbon and mineral fibres are used
in the formulations. The type of fibre affects the properties
of the composites. It is found that a combination of two
types of fibres can be used to achieve higher strength and
stiffness parts than can be obtained from single fibre type.
In addition, the effects of curing temperature, curing time
and fibre concentration on mechanical properties of are
studied and reported. 9 refs.
USA

Accession no.917942
Item 143
Polymer
45, No.15, 2004, p.5163-70
THERMOPHYSICAL AND IMPACT
PROPERTIES OF EPOXY NANOCOMPOSITES
REINFORCED BY SINGLE-WALL CARBON
NANOTUBES
Miyagawa H; Drzal L T
Michigan,State University
Dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric
analysis and Izod impact testing were used to examine
thermophysical properties and impact strength of
nanocomposites prepared using small volumetric amounts
of fluorinated single wall carbon nanotubes (FSWCNT)
in epoxy resins based on the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol
A. Dispersion of FSWCNT in epoxy resin was achieved
using a sonication method, and large improvements
in modulus were achieved with a reduction in glass
transition temperature due to the fluorine affecting the
curing chemistry. Stoichiometric amounts of curing agent
required were determined using dynamic mechanical
analysis. Large improvements in storage modulus were
observed with only slight reductions in Izod impact
strength up to filler levels of 0.3 percent. 35 refs.
USA

Accession no.921579
Item 144
Polymer
44, No.24, Nov.2003, p.7449-57
NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON A COMBINATION
OF EPOXY RESIN, HYPERBRANCHED EPOXY
AND A LAYERED SILICATE
Ratna D; Becker O; Krishnamurthy R; Simon G P;
Varley R J
Monash,University; CSIRO; India,Naval Materials
Research Laboratory
Details are given of the preparation of epoxy resin/clay
nanocomposites. The formation of the nanocomposites
was confirmed by wide angle X-ray diffraction and

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

TEM analysis. The mechanical and dynamic mechanical


properties were evaluated and compared with the
corresponding matrix. Improvements in impact properties
was explained in terms of fracture surface analysis by
SEM. 37 refs.
AUSTRALIA; INDIA

Accession no.902029
Item 145
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
90, No.8, 21st Nov.2003, p.2268-75
INFLUENCE OF ELASTOMER DISTRIBUTION
ON THE CRYOGENIC MICROCRACKING OF
CARBON FIBRE/EPOXY COMPOSITES
Nobelen M; Hayes B S; Seferis J C
Washington,University
Carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites were toughened
with preformed rubber particles, core-shell rubber and
solid carboxyl-functional rubber and the effect of these
toughening agents on the microcracking response of the
composites upon exposure to cryogenic cycling investigated.
The effect of these toughening agents on the mode I and
mode II fracture toughness and interlaminar shear strength
of the composites was also studied and scanning electron
microscopy was employed to analyse the fracture surfaces of
the rubber-modified composites. The modifiers were found
to significantly reduce microcrack density of the composites
subjected to cryogenic cycling. 47 refs.
USA

Accession no.899821
Item 146
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2003, pp.166, 29 cm,
Rapra Review Rept. No. 163, vol.14, No.7, 2003
POLYMER/LAYERED SILICATE
NANOCOMPOSITES
Okamoto M
Toyota Technical Institute
Edited by: Humphreys S
(Rapra Technology Ltd.)
Rapra Review Report No. 163
Advantages of the use of polymer/layered silicate (PLS)
composites are discussed. The main reasons for improved
properties is the interfacial interaction between the
polymer matrix and organically modified layered silicate,
the latter having layer thicknesses in the order of 1 nm, and
very high aspect ratios. This review highlights the major
developments in this area during the last ten years, and
focuses on the different techniques used to prepare PLS
nanocomposites, their physicochemical characterisation,
and the improved material properties that those materials
can provide. Processing and typical applications of PLS
composites are reported in detail. 484 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; JAPAN; UK;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.898802

63

References and Abstracts

Item 147
Polymer Degradation and Stability
81, No.3, 2003, p.551-7
SYNERGY BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL
PHOSPHORUS FIRE RETARDANTS AND
ORGANICALLY-MODIFIED CLAYS CAN LEAD
TO FIRE RETARDANCY OF STYRENICS
Chigwada G; Wilkie C A
Marquette,University
PS-clay nanocomposites combined with phosphorouscontaining fire retardants are prepared and used to explore
the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the
polymer formed. The amounts of fire retardants and clay
used are varied to study the effect of each on thermal
stability and mechanical properties of the polymer. The
samples are prepared by bulk polymerisation and analysed
by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, cone
calorimetry, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy
and evaluation of mechanical properties. The thermal
stability of the polymers is enhanced by the presence of
the phosphorus-containing fire retardants. 11 refs.
USA

Accession no.897011
Item 148
Composites Part A: Applied Science and
Manufacturing
34A, No.9, 2003, p.863-73
MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF HEAT/
FIRE DAMAGED NOVEL FLAME RETARDANT
GLASS-REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES
Kandola B K; Horrocks A R; Myler P; Blair D
Bolton Institute; Hexcel Composites
Glass fibre-reinforced epoxy resin composites containing
a phosphate-based intumescent and inherently flame
retardant (cellulosic and phenol-formaldehyde) fibres
were fabricated. These components were added both as
additives in pulverised form and as fibre interdispersed
with intumescent as a fabric scrim for partial replacement
of glass fibre. Fire testing was performed using a cone
calorimeter at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/sq m and the
results showed that introduction of the intumescent/flame
retardant fibre to the matrix could significantly reduce the
peak heat release values and smoke intensities evolved by
composites. Inclusion of the intumescent/fibre system had
no adverse effect on the tensile and flexural properties of
the composites. Some of the samples retained up to 21%
of the initial stiffness after being exposed to high heat
flux in the cone calorimeter, whereas the control sample
was rendered unusable after cone calorimeter exposure.
16 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.896416

Item 149
High Performance Plastics
Aug.2003, p.2
NANOCLAY-BASED CONCENTRATES
Following an alliance between PolyOne Corp. and Nanocor
Inc., both of the USA, PolyOne has introduced a range of
polymer additives which are based on nanocomposites.
The concentrates are known as Nanoblend and replace
traditional mineral or glass reinforcements and also flame
retardants in PP and PE. Brief details are offered in this
small item.
POLYONE CORP.; NANOCOR INC.
USA

Accession no.896034
Item 150
Polymer International
52, No.8, Aug.2003, p.1396-400
INTUMESCENT FLAME RETARDANTMONTMORILLONITE SYNERGISM IN
POLYPROPYLENE-LAYERED SILICATE
NANOCOMPOSITES
Tang Y; Hu Y; Wang S; Gui Z; Chen Z; Fan W
China,University of Science & Technology
Details are given of the preparation of PP/clay
nanocomposites using montmorillonite, and hexadecyltri
methylammonium bromide as compatibiliser. Molecular
structures were examined using X-ray diffraction and
high resolution electron microscopy. An intumescent
flame retardant was added to the nanocomposites and
their flammability behaviours were evaluated using cone
calorimetry. 16 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.895709
Item 151
Chemistry of Materials
15, No.16, 12th Aug.2003, p.3208-13
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF PE-G-MA/MgAlLDH EXFOLIATED NANOCOMPOSITES
SYNTHESIZED BY SOLUTION
INTERCALATION
Chen W; Qu B
China,University of Science & Technology
Exfoliated nanocomposites were synthesised by solution
intercalation of ethylene-maleic anhydride graft copolymer
into the galleries of organo-modified magnesiumaluminium layered double hydroxide under reflux in xylene.
Characterisation was undertaken using X-ray diffraction,
FTIR, TEM, electron diffraction, TGA and differential
thermal analysis. Potential applications of this nanocomposite
for flame-retardant materials is mentioned. 26 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.895647

64

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 152
Polymer
44, No.18, 2003, p.5323-9
POLYCARBONATE NANOCOMPOSITES. PART
1. EFFECT OF ORGANOCLAY STRUCTURE ON
MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES
Yoon P J; Hunter D L; Paul D R
Texas,University at Austin; Southern Clay Products Inc.
High molecular weight and medium molecular weight
polycarbonate nanocomposites were prepared by melt
processing from a series of organoclays based on sodium
montmorillonite modified by ion exchange with various
amine surfactants. High molecular weight polycarbonate
gave better stiffness and ductility in nanocomposites than
medium molecular weight polycarbonate. A surfactant with
both polyoxyethylene and octadecyl tails showed the most
significant improvement in modulus with some of the clay
platelets fully exfoliated. However, the nanocomposites
formed from other organoclays examined contained both
intercalated tactoids and collapsed clay particles with few,
if any, exfoliated platelets. 31 refs.
USA

Accession no.895471
Item 153
Composites Science and Technology
63, No.12, 2003, p.1815-32
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MODE I
INTERLAMINAR DELAMINATION IN Z-FIBRE
REINFORCED COMPOSITE LAMINATES
Grassi M; Zhang X
Cranfield,University
The development of a numerical approach for predicting
the mode I interlaminar fracture of carbon fibre-reinforced
epoxy composites with z-fibre reinforcement is described.
Thick-layered shell elements are used to model the
composites and non-linear interface elements to simulate
through-thickness reinforcements. The effect of z-fibres
on delamination growth and arrest and the energy balance
associated with fracture are examined and the numerical
predictions are compared with experimental data. 40 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.895169
Item 154
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
89, No.9, 29th Aug.2003, p.2339-45
TOUGHENING OF TRIFUNCTIONAL EPOXY
USING AN EPOXY-FUNCTIONALIZED
HYPERBRANCHED POLYMER
Ratna D; Varley R; Simon G P
Monash,University; CSIRO,Div.of Molecular Science
The chemorheology of curing and the phase separation
behaviour of an epoxy-functionalised hyperbranched
polymer(HBP)-modified triglycidyl p-aminophenol(TGAP)

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

epoxy mixtures were studied by several techniques. There


was little change in gel time as a result of addition of HBP at
levels up to 10%, even though the HBP reacted at a slower
rate with amine curing agents compared with the TGAP
alone. The thermal and dynamic viscoelastic behaviour of
the modified matrices were examined and compared with
those of the unmodified TGAP matrix. Impact properties
were examined in terms of the morphological behaviour
of a TGAP matrix modified with various amounts of HBP.
38 refs.
AUSTRALIA

Accession no.894515
Item 155
Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry
Edition
41, No.15, 1st Aug.2003, p.2354-67
PREPARATION, THERMAL PROPERTIES, AND
FLAME RETARDANCE OF EPOXY-SILICA
HYBRID RESINS
Ying-Ling Liu; Chuan-Shao Wu; Yie-Shun Chiu;
Wen-Hsuan Ho
Chung Yuan,Christian University; Nan Ya,Institute
of Technology; Chung San,Institute of Science &
Technology
A flame-retardant system for epoxy resins was designed
using a phosphorus-containing trimethoxysilane (DOPOGPTMS) in a sol-gel reaction simultaneously performed
with an epoxy curing reaction (bisphenol A type epoxy
and 4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane). The silane was
prepared by the reaction of 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) with 3-glycido
xypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). The formation of
DOPO-GPTMS was confirmed using Fourier transform
IR, H and 31P NMR, and elemental analysis. The products
of the epoxy curing / sol-gel reactions were epoxy resin /
silica networks, with integral flame retardant phosphorus
silane compound. The cured epoxy resin hybrids showed a
high glass-transition temperature (167 degC), good thermal
stability over 320 degC. A high limited oxygen index
of 28.5 was observed, as expected from the synergistic
flame-retardant effects of silicon and phosphorus. A
kinetic analysis of the thermal oxidative behaviour
was performed. The morphology of the surface of the
hybrid epoxy resins was studied using scanning electron
microscopy and showed that the silicon network domains
were homogeneously dispersed in the resins for all the
samples. 37 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.894252
Item 156
Composites Science and Technology
63, No.8, 2003, p.1141-8
ELABORATION OF EVA-NANOCLAY
SYSTEMS - CHARACTERIZATION, THERMAL

65

References and Abstracts

BEHAVIOUR AND FIRE PERFORMANCE


Duquesne S; Jama C; Le Bras M; Delobel R; Recourt P;
Gloaguen J M
Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Lille;
Lille,Universite des Sciences et Technologies; CREPIM
The fire retardances of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer
(EVA) nanocomposites were investigated. Nanocomposites
were formed by melt mixing of EVA with either sodium
montomorillonite or different loadings of tallow ammonium
montmorillonite. The materials were characterised by
thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy
and small angle X-ray scattering, as well as the fire tests.
The ammonium montmorillonites exhibited superior
fire retardance by the measures of time to ignition, heat
release rate, peak heat release rate, total heat release and
weight loss. The structural investigations showed that the
ammonium nanocomposites were more dispersed than the
sodium montmorillonite materials. 17 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.893726
Item 157
International Polymer Science and Technology
30, No.5, 2003, p. T/1-6
CARBON NANOTUBES - A NEW CLASS OF
FLAME RETARDANTS FOR POLYMERS
Beyer G
Flame retardant nanocomposites were synthesised by melt
blending EVA with multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Flame
retardant properties measured using a cone calorimeter
revealed that the incorporation of a multi-wall carbon
nanotube into EVA significantly reduces the peak heat
release rate compared to the unfilled EVA. The EVA/
nanotube composites were found to have better peak heat
release rates than those based on modified layered silicates.
The formation of a thermally insulating crust which was
poorly permeable to gaseous polymer decomposition
products is reported to be the most important factor
determining these improvements. In addition, a synergistic
effect is reported from the combination of carbon nanotubes
and modified layered silicates, which resulted in an overall
more perfectly closed surface with improved heat release
values. 14 refs. (Article translated from Gummi Fasern
Kunststoffe, No.9, 2002, p.596).
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.890785
Item 158
Macromolecular Materials and Engineering
288, No.3, 20th March 2003, p.272-6
PREPARATION AND COMBUSTION
PROPERTIES OF FLAME RETARDANT NYLON
6/MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITE
Hu Y; Wang S; Ling Z; Zhuang Y; Chen Z; Fan W

66

Hefei,University of Science & Technology;


Anhui,University
Flame retardant nylon 6 (PA6)/montmorillonite (MMT)
nanocomposites are prepared using direct melt intercalation
technique by blending PA6, organophilic clay and
conventional fire retardants, such as the melamine cyanurate
(MCA) and the combination of decabromodiphenyl oxide
(DB) and antimony oxide (AO). Their morphology
and combustion properties are characterised by XRD,
transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UL-94 test
and cone calorimetry experiments. The flame retardant
nanocomposites with MCA or DB and AO show lower heat
release rate (HRR) peak compared to that of conventional
flame retardant PA6. Meanwhile, the synergetic effect is
studied between clay and DB-AO. 23 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.889403
Item 159
Macromolecules
36, No.5, 11th March 2003, p.1616-25
LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES
BASED ON VARIOUS HIGH-FUNCTIONALITY
EPOXY RESINS: THE INFLUENCE OF
CURE TEMPERATURE ON MORPHOLOGY,
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, AND FREE
VOLUME
Becker O; Cheng Y-B; Varley R J; Simon G P
Monash,University; CSIRO
An organically-modified montmorillonite clay and di-, tri-,
and tetrafunctional epoxies were used to prepare layered
silicate nanocomposites, the clay exfoliation kinetics
being determined by wide-angle X-ray studies. A small
degree of conversion was necessary to obtain significant
intercalation. The nanocomposite morphology was also
studied using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray
diffraction, and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.
The best exfoliation was achieved using bifunctional
diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). This was
attributed to enhanced catalysis of the intra-gallery
reaction by the resident organo-ions. Clay delamination,
toughness and modulus increased with increasing curing
temperature for the DGEBA- and tri-functional triglycidyl
p-aminophenol-based resins. The free volume was not
significantly influenced by resin composition nor curing
temperature, and generally followed the rule of mixtures.
However, it may have been increased by the presence of
the clay. The clay additions decreased the glass transition
temperatures, attributed to disruption, and to decreased
crosslink density at the clay-epoxy interface. 37 refs.
AUSTRALIA

Accession no.888396
Item 160
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
88, No.10, 6th June 2003, p.2511-21

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN FLAME


RETARDANCY OF GLASS-REINFORCED
EPOXY COMPOSITES
Kandola B K; Horrocks A R; Myler P; Blair D
Bolton Institute; Hexcel Composites
Glass fibre-reinforced composite materials containing
an epoxy resin (B3B from Hexcel), a phosphate-based
intumescent (Antiblaze NH from Rhodia) and inherently
flame-retardant cellulosic (Visil, Sateri) and phenolformaldehyde (Kynol) fibres were developed. The
intumescent and flame retardant fibre components were
added both as additives in pulverised form and fibre
interdispersed with the intumescent as a fabric scrim for
partial replacement of glass fibre. Thermal stability, char
formation and flammability properties of these structures
were studied by thermal analysis, limiting oxygen index
tests and cone calorimetry. The results are discussed in
terms of effect of individual additive components on
thermal degradation/burning behaviour of neat resin. 18
refs.
HEXCEL COMPOSITES LTD.; SATERI FIBERS;
RHODIA SPECIALITIES LTD.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.888162
Item 161
Handbook of Polymer Blends and Composites. Volume 2.
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2002, p.165-99, 627
NEW APPROACHES TO REDUCE PLASTIC
COMBUSTIBILITY
Zaikov G E; Lomakin S M; Usachev S V; Koverzanova
E V; Shilkina N G; Ruban L V
Russian Academy of Sciences; Indian Petrochemical
Corp.Ltd.; Petru Poni,Institute of Macromolecular
Chemistry
Edited by: Kulshreshtha A K; Vasile C
An outline is presented on the mechanisms of action of
flame retardants followed by a discussion on the hazards
encountered with the use of halogenated diphenyl ethers
and dioxins. New trends in flame retardants are then
considered, focusing on intumescent systems, polymer
-organic char formers, polymer nanocomposites and
intercalated flame retardants based on triphenylphosphine.
Finally, the results of studies on the thermal degradation
of triphenyl phosphine and intercalated triphenyl
phosphine carried out using DSC and gas chromatographymass spectrometry and of combustion tests on PS
nanocomposites with and without intercalated triphenyl
phosphine are reported. 42 refs.
RUSSIA

Accession no.886389
Item 162
Chemical Market Reporter
263, No.18, 5th May 2003, p.FR2-3

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

ADDING VALUE TO THE MIX IN PLASTICS


Markarian J
With the market for plastics additives still recovering from
the downturn of 2001, producers are cautiously optimistic
about the year ahead. In 2001, the global plastics additives
market was about 17.6 billion pounds, valued at 14.6bn US
dollars in 2001. In 2002, volume grew about 5% and value
about 10%. In 2003, the market may see similar gains.
Resin mix play a key role in determining additive growth.
High growth additive areas, used in the fast growing PP
resins, are light stabilisers, coupling agents and nucleating
agents, all growing at about 6%. Environmental regulations
continue to drive additive technology trends, particularly
in Europe. With hopes of a recovery this year, several
of the major plastics additives producers are proceeding
with investments, either in the form of acquisitions
or production capacity. A roundup of some of the key
developments in plastic additives is presented.
WORLD

Accession no.886106
Item 163
Handbook of Plastic Films.
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2003, p.159-186, 25
cm. 625
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES OF POLYMER FLAME
RETARDANTS
Zaikov G E; Lomakin S M
Edited by: Abdel-Bary E M
(Rapra Technology Ltd.)
The choice of environmentally friendly alternatives to
traditional flame retardants for plastics is examined.
The mechanism of action of the four main families of
flame retardant chemicals based on halogen, phosphorus,
nitrogen, and inorganic compounds is described, and
details are given of new systems which include the
use of intumescent systems, polymer nanocomposites,
preceramic additives, low-melting glasses, different types
of char-formers and polymer morphology modification.
37 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.885601
Item 164
European Polymer Journal
39, No.4, April 2003, p.825-30
THERMO-OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF
NOVEL EPOXY CONTAINING SILICON AND
PHOSPHOROUS NANOCOMPOSITES
Chiang C-L; Ma C-C M; Wang F-Y
Taiwan,National Tsing Hua University; Hung-Kuang
Institute of Technology; Taiwan,Cheng-Shiu College of
Technology
Modified epoxy nanocomposites containing silicon and
phosphorous is prepared with pure epoxy. The study

67

References and Abstracts

of thermo-oxidative degradation of modified epoxy


nanocomposites and pure epoxy is utilised by thermal
analysis. The thermal stability of modified epoxy
nanocomposites is not superior to that of the pure epoxy
at low temperature, however the char yield of modified
epoxy nanocomposites is higher that that of the pure
epoxy at 800 deg.C in air atmosphere. The modified
epoxy nanocomposites possess better thermal stability at
high temperature range. The values of the limiting oxygen
index of pure epoxy and modified epoxy nanocomposites
are 24 and 32, respectively. This indicates that modified
epoxy nanocomposites possess better flame retardance. By
the Kissingers method, the activation energies of termooxidative degradation for epoxy nanocomposites are less
than that of thermo-oxidative degradation for pure epoxy
in first stage of thermo-oxidative degradation. However,
the activation energies of thermo-oxidative degradation
for epoxy nanocomposites are more than those of thermooxidative degradation for pure epoxy in the second stage
of thermo-oxidative degradation. 29 refs.
TAIWAN

Accession no.882703
Item 165
Polymers for Advanced Technologies
13, No.10-12, Oct.-Dec.2002, p.1103-11
FLAME-RETARDED POLYOLEFIN SYSTEMS
OF CONTROLLED INTERPHASE
Narosi G; Anna P; Marton A; Bertalan G; Bota A;
Toth A; Mohai M; Racz I
Budapest,University of Technology & Economics;
Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Zoltan Bay Applied
Research Foundation
The principle of multiplayer interphases has previously
been proposed for modifying the mechanical properties
and UV stability of various multi-component polymer
systems. Emphasis is placed on the applicability
of this principle for improving the performance of
intumescent flame retardant systems using melaminetreated ammonium polyphosphate, silicone-modified
polyol + ammonium polyphosphate, and silicone modified
nanoparticles in PP. The structure-property relationship of
the formed systems is studied. A melamine layer of 1.45
mm thickness is formed around ammonium polyphosphate
in order in order to improve the hygrothermal stability,
but this layer is not shear resistant enough. An interphase
formed using a special silicone additive is more stable
and acts with the intumescent flame retardant system
synergistically. The advantageous interfacial structure is
quite complex in this case: polyphosphate particles are
surrounded with a macromolecular layer formed from
polyol, silicone and reactive surfactant in order to ensure
good stability, efficiency and compatibility. AFM, XPS and
cone calorimetry are used for determining the structure
and flame retardancy of these systems. Nanocomposites
combined with silicone-containing intumescent system
are developed in order to avoid dipping at ignition in the

68

vertical position. SAXS and mu-TA methods are used for


determining the structure of this material. 29 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; HUNGARY

Accession no.882565
Item 166
Polimery
48, No.2, 2003, p.85-90
Polish
POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES.
II. NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON
THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS AND LAYERED
SILICATES
Kacperski M
Szczecin,Polytechnic
A review is presented of the literature published in 2000
and 2001 of the methods of synthesis and properties
of nanocomposites containing layered silicates and
thermoplastic polymers such as polyamides, polyolefins
(PP, PE), PS and styrene copolymers, PETP and PMMA.
Preparation methods such as mixing of the components
in the melt or swelling of montmorillonite(MMT) in the
monomers (substrates in the case of PETP) are discussed,
as well as methods of MMT modification. Particular
attention is paid to the advantageous properties of
nanocomposites such as flexural strength, stress at break,
flexural modulus, impact strength and heat resistance.
47 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; POLAND

Accession no.882164
Item 167
Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2003, pp. xii, 558,
25cm, 627
HANDBOOK OF POLYMER BLENDS AND
COMPOSITES, VOLUME 1
Petru Poni,Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry;
Indian Petrochemical Corp.Ltd.
Edited by: Vasile C; Kulshreshtha A K
This handbook is the first part of a four volume publication
Handbook of Polymer Blends and Composites which
gives an overview of the theory and application of polymer
blends and composites. It comprises of a collection of
monographs written by professionals from academia
and industry. This volume is concerned with composite
development, characteristics of particulate fillers,
fibre reinforcements and interface, main procedures of
composites manufacture and their applications. Chapters
cover the following topics: the history of composites;
particulate fillers and fibre reinforcements; composites
in Asia; composites technology in Korea; advances in
wood-based composites in China; an overview of the
use of composites Worldwide; the interface in polymer
composites; novel multifunctional epoxy resins; flame
retardant polyesters; cure kinetics of vinyl ester resins;
curing monitoring; curing and bonding of composites

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

using electron beam processing; composites at the turn


of the century.
EASTERN EUROPE; INDIA; RUMANIA

Accession no.881518
Item 168
Journal of Materials Science
38, No.1, 1st Jan.2003, p.147-54
STUDIES ON BLENDS OF EPOXYFUNCTIONALIZED HYPERBRANCHED
POLYMER AND EPOXY RESIN
Ratna D; Varley R; Raman R K S; Simon G P
India,Naval Materials Research Laboratory;
CSIRO,Div.of Molecular Science; Monash,University
An epoxy-functionalised hyperbranched polymer(HBP)
was used to toughen a conventional epoxy resin, DGEBA
cured with diethyltoluene-2,6-diamine. There was little
change in gel time as a result of addition of HBP, even
though the HBP reacted at a slower rate with amine
hardeners than DGEBA alone. Phase separation was
investigated for various HBP contents and as a function
of cure conditions. The thermal and dynamic viscoelastic
behaviour of the modified matrices was examined and
compared with the DGEBA epoxy matrix. It appeared
that the HBP which phase separated did not react as fully
as when it was reacted with the amine alone. A marked
improvement in impact strength was observed, however,
on incorporation of HBP and this was explained in terms
of morphological behaviour for a DGEBA matrix modified
with various amounts of HBP. 48 refs.
AUSTRALIA; INDIA

Accession no.881093
Item 169
Fire and Materials
26, No.6, Nov.-Dec.2002, p.291-3
SHORT COMMUNICATION: CARBON
NANOTUBES AS FLAME RETARDANTS FOR
POLYMERS
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
Flame retardant nanocomposites are synthesised by
melt-blending EVA multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Fire
property measurements by cone calorimeter reveal that the
incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes into EVA
significantly reduces peak heat release rates compared with
the virgin EVA. Peak heat release rates of EVA with multiwalled carbon nanotubes are slightly improved compared
with EVA nanocomposites based on modified layered
silicates. Char formation is the main important factor for
these improvements. There is also a synergistic effect by
the combination of carbon nanotubes and organoclays
ynergistic resulting in an overall more perfect closed
surface with improved heat release values. 12 refs.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.880581

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Item 170
Fire and Materials
26, No.6, Nov.-Dec.2002, p.247-53
FLAMMABILITY OF POLYSTYRENE LAYERED
SILICATE (CLAY) NANOCOMPOSITES:
CARBONACEOUS CHAR FORMATION
Morgan A B; Harris R H; Kashiwagi T; Chyall L J;
Gilman J W
US,National Institute of Standards & Technology; Great
Lakes Chemical Corp.
Polymer layered-silicate (clay) nanocomposites have not
only the unique advantage of reduced flammability but also
improved mechanical properties. This is a key advantage
over many flame retardants, which reduce flammability
but also reduce the mechanical properties of the polymer.
In efforts to further understand the mechanism of flame
retardancy with polymer-clay nanocomposites, the effects
of clay, loading level and polymer melt viscosity on the
flammability of PS-clay nanocomposites are investigated.
The nanoscale dispersion of the clay in the polymer
is analysed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD)
and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cone
calorimetry and gasification studies are used to evaluate
the flammability of these nanocomposites. There are major
reductions in peak heat release rates (HRRs) and increased
carbonaceous char formation, for these nanocomposites. It
is determined that while viscosity of the PS nanocomposite
plays a role in lowering the peak HRR, clay loading level
has the largest effect on peak HRR. Finally, it is found
that clay catalysed carbonaceous char formation and
reinforcement of the char by the clay is responsible for the
lowered flammability of these nanocomposites. 27 refs.
USA

Accession no.880580
Item 171
Polymer Degradation and Stability
79, No.2, 2003, p.201-7
STUDIES ON THE THERMAL STABILIZATION
ENHANCEMENT OF ABS; SYNERGISTIC
EFFECT OF TRIPHENYL PHOSPHATE
NANOCOMPOSITE, EPOXY RESIN, AND
SILANE COUPLING AGENT MIXTURES
Jinhwan Kim; Kyongho Lee; Kunwoo Lww;
Jinyoung Bae; Jaeho Yang; Sanghyun Hong
Sung Kyun Kwan University; Cheil Industries
Triphenyl phosphate(TPP) nanocomposites(nano TPP)
were synthesised by intercalating TPP into the galleries
of organically modified mica-type silicate and the
retarding effect of nanocomposites on the evaporation of
TPP was investigated. It was found that nano TPP had a
higher evaporation temp. than TPP and that the thermal
stability of ABS was slightly enhanced by addition of
nano TPP. Epoxy resin and silane coupling agent were
then incorporated as flame co-retardants. A very large
increase in limiting oxygen index(LOI) value was observed
with epoxy addition and further enhancement in thermal

69

References and Abstracts

stability was obtained for the ABS compound containing


a small amount of coupling agent. It was also found that
the enhancement was closely related to the morphologies
of the chars formed after combustion. A synergistic effect
of using the flame retardant nanocomposites and addition
of epoxy resin and coupling agent as flame co-retardants
was also confirmed for the compounds based on tetra-2,6dimethylphenyl resorcinol diphosphate. LOI values as high
as 44.8 were found for a particular formulation. 41 refs.
SOUTH KOREA

Accession no.879801
Item 172
Fire and Materials
26, No.4-5, July-Oct.2002, p.149-54
POLYURETHANE/CLAY AND POLYURETHANE/
POSS NANOCOMPOSITES AS FLAME
RETARDED COATING FOR POLYESTER AND
COTTON FABRICS
Devaux E; Rochery M; Bourbigot S
Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts & Ind.Text.
PU resins are widely used as coatings for textile fabrics
in order to improve some of the properties of the fabrics.
The use of two types of additives, montmorillonite clay
and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes(POSS), to
prepare PU nanocomposites for providing flame retardancy
to coated textile structures is discussed. Some results
obtained for PU/clay and PU/POSS coated polyester
or cotton fabrics, using cone calorimetry and TGA, are
presented. The efficiency of these additives is clearly
demonstrated and discussed, with particular reference to
the potential of using POSS for fire retardant applications.
14 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.879792
Item 173
International Polymer Science and Technology
29, No.12, p.T/62-4
NEW FLAME-RETARDANT MODIFIERS FOR
EPOXY RESINS
Idrisova S Sh
Sumgait,State University
In order to produce flame retardant epoxy resins, new
flame retardant modifiers were synthesised. The synthesis
is described of imide (III) and carboxybenzimidazole
(IV) of trans-4,5-dibromocyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic
acid. The epoxy composites were prepared with a ratio
of components (parts by weight) of 80-95 parts epoxy
resin, 5-15 parts flame retardant modifier III, IV or a blend
thereof. Tests showed that flame retardant modifiers III,
IV or blend thereof provided the composites with a selfextinguishing capacity, adhesion, high dielectric indices,
and crack resistance. Best ratios are suggested. 2 refs.
(Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy, No.2, 2002,

70

pp.21-2).
RUSSIA

Accession no.877147
Item 174
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
86, No.10, 5th Dec.2002, p.2449-62
ECOLOGICAL ISSUE OF POLYMER FLAME
RETARDANCY
Zaikov G E; Lomakin S M
Russian Academy of Sciences
The use of polymer flame retardants has an important
role in saving lives. The main flame retardant systems
for polymers currently in use are based on halogenated,
phosphorous, nitrogen and inorganic compounds. All of the
flame retardant systems basically inhibit or even suppress
the combustion process by chemical or physical action in
the gas or phase. Conventional flame retardants, such as
halogenated, phosphorous or metallic additives, have a
number of negative attributes. An ecological issue of the
application of conventional flame retardants demands the
search of new polymer flame retardant systems. Among
the new trends of flame are intumescent systems, polymer
nanocomposites, preceramic additives, low-melting
glasses, different types of char formers and polymer
morphology modification processing. Brief explanations
on the three major types of flame retardant systems
(intumescent, polymer nanocomposites and polymer
organic char formers) are presented. 39 refs.
RUSSIA

Accession no.875169
Item 175
Plastics Additives and Compounding
4, No.10, Oct.2002, p.22-8
NANOCOMPOSITES - A NEW CLASS OF FLAME
RETARDANTS FOR POLYMERS
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
In this long and detailed article, the author reviews
the current state of development of nanocomposites
as a new class of flame retardants for polymers.
Section headings include: introduction, layered silicates
as fillers, nanocomposite synthesis, nanocomposite
structures, nanocomposite properties, thermal stability,
flame retardancy, flame retardant combinations, and
conclusions.
US,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS &
TECHNOLOGY
BELGIUM; EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY;
EUROPEAN UNION; USA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.872695

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 176
Advanced Materials and Composites News
24, No.22, 18th Nov.2002, p.7
NANOCOMPOSITES FOR FLAME
RETARDANCY
It is briefly reported that Gitto Global and Nanocor
are expanding their joint venture to develop flameretardant nanocomposites. The programme is devoted
to incorporating nanometre-sized flame-resistant clay
particles into polyolefins. Nanocomposites use significantly
lower quantities of traditional flame retardant additives.
GITTO GLOBAL CORP.; NANOCOR INC.
USA

Accession no.871722
Item 177
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites
21, No.15, 2002, p.1347-62
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON IMPACT
BEHAVIOUR OF WOVEN FABRIC
COMPOSITES: EFFECT OF IMPACT
PARAMETERS
Naik N K; Borade S V; Arya H; Sailendra M; Prabhu S V
Indian Institute of Technology
The effect of impact damage on the mechanical properties
of plain weave E-glass/epoxy composites was investigated
using different combinations of impactor mass and
incident impact velocity at the same impact energy. The
post-impact compression behaviour of the composites
was also studied and deceleration/acceleration and contact
force histories recorded in order to determine the impact
resistance of the composites. The data obtained indicated
that damage tolerance was higher for low mass and high
velocity combinations than high mass and low velocity
combinations. 39 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.870347
Item 178
ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual
Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th
May 2002.
Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 184, Session M37Composites. Advanced Composites, pp.5, CD-ROM,
012
EFFECTS OF LIQUID RUBBER MODIFICATION
ON THE FLEXIBILITY OF FIBER REINFORCED
EPOXY COMPOSITES
Kaynak C; Arikan A; Tincer T
Middle East,Technical University
(SPE)
Short glass fibre-reinforced epoxy resin composites
were modified by the addition of hydroxyl-terminated
polybutadiene liquid rubber to increase flexibility, and
a silane coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

between the reinforcement and the matrix. Alternative


procedures were evaluated for the silane treatment. Cast
composite bars were subjected to three-point bend testing.
Both the fibre surface treatment and the rubber additions
increased the epoxy flexibility, with non-treated fibres
exhibiting weak interfacial adhesion, resulting in more
fibre pull-out. 9 refs.
TURKEY

Accession no.868450
Item 179
Plastics Technology
48, No.7, July 2002, p.22
HALOGEN-FREE POLYOLEFIN FOR FR
CABLES
In the Netherlands, a flame-retardant polyolefin compound
for thin-wall jacketing of low- and medium-voltage cables
has been developed by Inhol BV. Brief details are given of
PTL NHFR 3244-JA which is reported to be completely
halogen-free.
INHOL BV
EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN
UNION; NETHERLANDS; NORTH AMERICA; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.864694
Item 180
Journal of Macromolecular Science C
C42, No.2, 2002, p.139-83
FLAME RETARDING EPOXIES WITH
PHOSPHORUS
Jain P; Choudhary V; Varma I K
Indian Institute of Technology
A review is presented on the flame retardation of epoxy
resins with phosphorus-containing flame retardants or
incorporation of phosphorus in the epoxy monomer as
hardeners. Types of hardeners covered include phosphoruscontaining amines, novolacs, anhydrides, acids and
amides. The effect of phosphorus on curing characteristics
and the heat stability of the cured resins are discussed and
a correlation is established between the limiting oxygen
index and anaerobic char residue. Mechanisms of thermal
decomposition of the cured epoxy resins and of flame
retardation in the presence of phosphorus-containing
derivatives are also considered. 118 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.860560
Item 181
Composites Science and Technology
62, No.9, 2002, p.1249-58
NANOCLAY REINFORCEMENT EFFECTS
ON THE CRYOGENIC MICROCRACKING OF
CARBON FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITES
Timmerman J F; Hayes B S; Seferis J C
Washington,University

71

References and Abstracts

The matrices of carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy resins were


modified with layered clays and alumina to determine
the effects of particle reinforcement on the response of
these materials to cryogenic cycling. The incorporation
of nanoclay reinforcement resulted in laminates with
microcrack densities lower than those seen in the
unmodified or macro-reinforced materials as a response
to cryogenic cycling. 45 refs.
USA

Accession no.859474
Item 182
Polymer News
26, No.11, Nov.2001, p.370-8
NANOCOMPOSITES - A NEW CONCEPT FOR
FLAME RETARDANT POLYMERS
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
Nanocomposites in which layered silicates are dispersed at
a nanometer level within a polymer matrix are discussed.
The synthesis of nanocomposites by in-situ polymerisation,
a solvent method and melt-intercalation is described
and nanocomposite structure and characterisation are
considered. The improved thermal stability and flame
retardant properties of the nanocomposites are then
examined in more detail. The flame retardancy mechanism
of layered silicate nanocomposites is based on the char
formation and its structure, the char insulating the polymer
from heat and acting as a barrier, reducing the escape of
volatile gases from the polymer combustion. The cone
calorimeter is shown to be a useful tool to investigate the
properties of flame retardancy. 26 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.858350
Item 183
Dayville, CT, 2001, pp.2, 27 cms, 24/5/02
SEP SS NANOCOMPOSITE NYLONS
Foster Corp.
Property data are presented for SEP SS (super stiff)
nanocomposite nylons from Foster Corp. SEP (selectively
enhanced polymers) are claimed to represent the latest
in materials technology, whereby selected properties are
improved without detrimental trade-offs in other key
properties. Fosters SEP SS nylon 6 and 12 are claimed
to offer a substantial increase in rigidity and stiffness,
while maintaining substantial elongation. SEP SS
nanocomposites incorporate less than 10% of nanometer
sized clay particles in the base polymer. Such low levels of
reinforcement allow for excellent dispersibility to provide
more uniform material properties.
USA

Accession no.856100

Item 184
Materials in Telecommunications (incorporating PIT
IX). Proceedings of a conference held London, 26th27th September 2001.
London, Institute of Materials, 2001, Paper 17, pp10,
012
NANOCOMPOSITES - A NEW CONCEPT FOR
FLAME RETARDANCY OF POLYMERS
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
(Institute of Materials)
Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers and modified layered
silicates (montmorillonites modified by quaternary
alkylammonium cations) form nanocomposites by
melt-mixing on different compounding machines.
Thermogravimetric analysis performed under air
demonstrates a great increase in thermal stability of
the layered silicate-based nanocomposites. The flame
retardant properties are investigated by a cone calorimeter.
The nanocomposites show a dramatic decrease of heat
release and further improvements in other important fire
parameters. The char formation is the most important
reason for these improvements. Synergistic effects on
flame resistance by combinations of nanofillers and
traditional FR additives based on metal hydroxides are
also reported. 11 refs.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.855848
Item 185
Plastiques et Elastomeres Magazine
53, No.9, Dec.2001, p.8-10
French
FLAME PROOFING ADDITIVES: MAKING
PRODUCTS SAFER
Gouin F
Consideration is given to types of flame retardants for
plastics, their mechanisms of action and polymers and
products in which they are used. Developments by a
number of companies are reviewed.
WORLD

Accession no.854899
Item 186
Materials for Lean Weight Vehicles IV. Proceedings of a
conference held Gaydon, UK, 30th.-31st. Oct. 2001.
London, Institute of Materials, 2001, Paper 6, pp.8, 012
CARBON/EPOXY PROCESS, EXAMPLE OF
AN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: THE UGN
MERCEDES CAB
Nedelec G; Leray C
Sotira SA
(Institute of Materials)
The manufacture is described of structural automotive
parts from carbon/glass/epoxy composites, with particular

72

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

reference to the example of the cab for the UGN Mercedes


multi-purpose 4 wheel drive vehicle. The different stages
of manufacture are described: RTM moulding under
vacuum, trimming, attachment of inserts by bonding and
riveting, and assembly of composite cab components by
bonding. This is followed by a discussion of the different
improvements that in the short and medium terms will
bring gains in both productivity and reduction of material
costs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; UK;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.853961
Item 187
Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry
Edition
40, No.10, 15th May 2002, p.1498-503
SILICON-METHOXIDE-MODIFIED CLAYS AND
THEIR POLYSTYRENE NANOCOMPOSITES
Zhu J; Start P; Mauritz K A; Wilkie C A
Marquette,University; Southern Mississippi,University
Clays, organically modified by reaction with ammonium
salts containing a silicon methoxide linkage, were
dispersed with AIBN in styrene and heated to 60
C to obtain polystyrene-clay nanocomposites. The
nanocomposites were characterised by X-ray diffraction,
and transmission electron and atomic force microscopies.
Thermal stability and flame retardance were determined
by thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimetry. It
is proposed that the linkage which occurred between the
silicon and the clay did not occur in the nanocomposite
as the distance between the reactive sites was increased
by the polystyrene. 18 refs.
USA

Accession no.853231
Item 188
Fire and Materials
25, No.5, Sept./Oct.2001, p.193-7
FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTIES OF EVANANOCOMPOSITES AND IMPROVEMENTS
BY COMBINATION OF NANOFILLERS WITH
ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
Flame retardant nanocomposites are synthesised by
melt-blending EVA with modified layered silicates
(montmorillonites). Thermogravimetric analysis performed
under different atmospheres (nitrogen and air) demonstrates
a clear increase in the thermal stability of the layered
silicate-based nanocomposites. Use of cone calorimetry
to investigate the fire properties of the materials indicates
that the nanocomposites cause a large decrease in heat
release. Char formation is the main factor important
for improvement and its function is outlined. Further
improvements in flame retardancy by combinations of

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

nanofillers and traditional FR additives on the basis of


metal hydroxides are also studied. 15 refs.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852891
Item 189
Chemistry of Materials
14, No.1, Jan.2002, p.189-93
FIRE RETARDANT HALOGEN-ANTIMONYCLAY SYNERGISM IN POLYPROPYLENE
LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES
Zanetti M; Camino G; Canavese D; Morgan A B;
Lamelas F J; Wilkie C A
Torino,Universita; US,National Institute of Standards &
Technology; Marquette,University
The flammability of nanocomposites of PP-graft-maleic
anhydride with organically modified clays was studied with
and without the presence of both decabromodiphenyl oxide
and antimony trioxide fire retardants. The combustion
behaviour was evaluated using oxygen consumption
cone calorimetry. Synergy was observed between the
nanocomposite and the fire retardants, which did not occur
when antimony oxide and the brominated fire retardant
were added to the virgin polymer. 28 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; USA;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.848147
Item 190
Polymer Preprints. Volume 42. Number 2. Fall 2001.
Proceedings of a conference held Chicago, Il., 26th-30th
August 2002.
Washington, D.C., ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry,
2001, p.48-9
POSS NANOSTRUCTURED CHEMICALS: TRUE
MULTIFUNCTIONAL POLYMER ADDITIVES
Schwab J J; Reinerth W A; Lichtenhan J D; An Y-Z;
Phillips S H; Lee A
Hybrid Plastics; US,Edwards Air Force Base;
Michigan,State University
(ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry)
Continuing demand for advancements in the performance
of polymeric materials has driven the search for new
additive technologies to upgrade the properties of existing
plastics. One of the primary goals has been to reinforce
polymeric chains and segments at the molecular level
in much the same way that traditional fillers reinforce
plastics on the macroscopic level. This would prevent
polymers and their corresponding composites from being
subject to thermal limitations imposed by coil-coil and
segment-segment interactions. Significant opportunity
exists for new additive technologies that are compatible
with existing polymer/filler systems yet provide unique
value that is not attained from conventional technological
approaches. Nanostructured Chemicals represent a merger

73

References and Abstracts

between chemical and filler technologies acting as true


multifunctional polymer additives. The chemical diversity
of POSS Nanostructured Chemicals is vast and parallels
that of traditional organic systems, yet incorporates it onto
a robust and precisely defined inorganic (silicon-oxygen)
nanostructure. POSS Molecular Silicas can be utilised in
the same manner as traditional polymer additives in both
melt and solution compounding. Molecular Silicas are
capable of alloying polymer chains at the molecular level
to improve the physical properties of virtually all plastics.
Loading levels for Molecular Silicas can be varied in
accordance to the degree and level of enhancement desired.
POSS Nanostructured Chemicals have the unique ability to
act as multifunctional polymer additives by simultaneously
acting as molecular level reinforcements, processing aids
and flame retardants. 3 refs.
USA

Accession no.847964
Item 191
European Plastics News
29, No.3, March 2002, p.14
SMALLER IS BETTER
Sall K
The automotive industry is driving the commercialisation
of nanocomposite grades. Last year, General Motors
announced that it had worked with Basell and Southern
Clay to successfully commercialise an advanced
thermoplastic olefin nanocomposite which is now used
to make the step assist for two of its vans. Fords target
applications for nanocomposites include instrument panels
and body panels. Ford is developing two novel technologies
to make PP-based nanocomposites more cost competitive.
Ube has developed a nanocomposite fuel tank which is
yet to be commercialised. For packaging, Honeywell has
commercialised polyamide 6 nanocomposites under the
Aegis banner and its latest version, Aegis OX, incorporates
an oxygen scavenger. Kabelwerk Eupen is producing flame
retardant cables based on EVA incorporating a nanoclay
supplied by Sud-Chemie.
WORLD

Accession no.847736
Item 192
Flame Retardants 2002. Proceedings of a conference
held London, 5th-6th Feb. 2002.
London, Interscience Communications Ltd., 2002, Paper
22, p.209-16, 24 cm, 012
NANOCOMPOSITES - A NEW FLAME
RETARDANT SYSTEM FOR POLYMERS
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
(BPF; Interscience Communications Ltd.)
The results are reported of a study of the morphology,
heat stability and flammability of EVA nanocomposites
containing various amounts of a nanofiller (a layered

74

silicate based on montmorillonite modified with dimethyldistearylammonium cations). The effect of incorporating a
flame retardant (aluminium trihydrate) on the flammability
of cable sheaths made from EVA nanocomposites is also
demonstrated. Investigative techniques employed included
TEM, X-ray diffraction, TGA and flammability testing in
a cone calorimeter. 15 refs.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.845175
Item 193
Polymer Degradation and Stability
75, No.2, 2002, p.397-402
FLAMMABILITY OF POLYAMIDE-6/CLAY
HYBRID NANOCOMPOSITE TEXTILES
Bourbigot S; Devaux E; Flambard X
Gemtex; Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts & Ind.
Text.
Flammability of polyamide-6/clay nanocomposites as
textile fabrics was studied. The samples were prepared
by melt blending and shown to have an exfoliated
structure. These were processed into multifilament yarns
by melt spinning. The textiles were evaluated as knitted
fabrics and showed promise as relatively low cost flame
retarding materials with long term laundry resistance. Cone
calorimetry showed a heat release with the textile of 40
percent less than that for pure PA-6. 10 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.842738
Item 194
Plastics and Rubber Weekly
1st Feb.2002, p.2
KABELWERK EUPEN LAUNCHES
NANOCOMPOSITE APPLICATION
Beevers A
Belgian cable and pipe producer Kabelwerk Eupen has
unveiled a commercial application for polymer-clay
nanocomposites. It is using the materials to produce
flame-retardant cables. The firm manufactures EVA-based
nanocomposites using its one-pot synthesis extrusion
technology. The addition of 5% nanoclay improves the
fire performance of EVA by promoting char formation and
delaying degradation. Importantly, it prevents dripping of
burning polymer. Kabelwerk Eupen has also investigated
the combination of nanocomposites with other flame
retardants. These include incorporating alumina trihydrate
into EVA to improve the resistance of cables to fire.
KABELWERK EUPEN AG
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.842398

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 195
London, Interscience Communications Ltd., 2002,
pp.xii,273, 24cm, 012
FLAME RETARDANTS 2002. Proceedings
of a conference held London, 5th-6th
Feb. 2002
APME; European Flame Retardant Assn.; Fire
Retardant Chemicals Assn.
(BPF; Interscience Communications Ltd.)
Twenty-seven papers are presented following the tenth
conference in the Flame Retardant series. The conference
concentrates on the practical appliactions of flame
retardants and polymers, exchanging ideas on what is
needed and what is possible and practicable in the control
of fire in polymeric materials.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.841688
Item 196
Speciality Chemicals
21, No.9, Nov.2001, p.24-5
TECHNOLOGIES GROW FLAME RETARDANTS
MARKET
Rosen M R
Interactive Consulting Inc.
A significant reduction in the risk of fire-related deaths
and injuries is expected from the development of new
performance standards for upholstered furniture. The US
Consumer Product Safety Commission has been conducting
extractability and migration studies in order to evaluate
potential health risks from flame retardant fabric treatments.
For synthetic fabrics, two brominated flame retardant
treatments are most likely: decabromodiphenyl oxide and
hexabromocyclododecane. Albemarle is collaborating
with US Borax in a joint development agreement focused
on new borate-related flame retardant technologies.
Nanocomposites also represent an encouraging class of
emerging flame retardants.
USA

Accession no.837824
Item 197
International Polymer Science and Technology
28, No.10, 2001, p.T/30-2
ATHERMAL BEHAVIOUR OF EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Bobryshev A N; Kozomazov V N; Avdeev R I;
Solomatov V I
A method of investigating athermal failure of epoxy
composites is described which is offered as a partial
analysis of a complex mechanism, and which aims to
outline a range of questions which must be addressed in
the study of athermal failure. This paper gives the results
of tests into the cyclic strength of epoxy resins finely
filled with crushed quartz sand which are subjected to

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

cyclic impact strength tests. Results indicated that in the


region of average values of stresses of the cycle of 10-90
Mpa, a thermal fluctuation mechanism of failure of the
composite is realised. With an increase in the stresses, there
is a transition in the mechanism of failure from thermal
fluctuation to athermal. 4 refs. (Article translated from
Plasticheskie Massy, No.1, 2001, pp.15-16).
RUSSIA

Accession no.836561
Item 198
International Polymer Science and Technology
28, No.10, 2001, p.T/1-5
NANOCOMPOSITES. 2. A NEW FLAME
PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR POLYMERS
Beyer G
Kabelwerk Eupen AG
Disadvantages are discussed of traditional methods of
achieving flame retardancy in polymers, and advantages
provided by the use of nanocomposites are examined.
Details are given of the thermal improvements and
flame retardant properties of nanocomposites, and their
ability to provide improved thermal stability and flame
protection with relatively small amounts of nanofillers.
These improvements are attributed to the formation of a
thermally insulating char which is poorly permeable to
decomposition products on exposure to high temperatures
or flames. Cone calorimetry is used to measure these
effects. 14 refs. (Article translated from Gummi Fasern
Kunststoffe, No.5, 2001, p.321)
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.836555
Item 199
Gummi Fasern Kunststoffe
No.5, 2001, p.321-5
German
NANOCOMPOSITES. II. A NEW FLAME
PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR POLYMERS
Beyer G
The mechanism of flame retardance of silicate
nanocomposites is described. This is related to the
improved char formation during combustion, which
protects the polymer and inhibits the formation and release
of volatiles. The system was subjected to cone calorimetry
and proved superior in their properties to aluminium
hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide. 14 refs. Articles from
this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers
to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and
Technology.
Accession no.833606

75

References and Abstracts

Item 200
International Polymer Science and Technology
28, No.9, 2001, p.T/47
FIRE RETARDANTS FOR THE POLYMER
INDUSTRY
Zaikov G E; Artsis M I
Russian Academy of Sciences
A brief review is presented of papers read at the one
day symposium on Fire Retardants in the Polymer
Industry, organised by the Polymer Group of Belgium
and the Department of Polymers of the Royal Chemical
Society of Belgium. Papers covered ecologically clean
fire retardants, problems of coke formation; the use of
blends and composite materials to provide inherently
flame retardant materials; the use of cone calorimeters
for testing; and the synthesis, properties and application
of bromine-containing fireproofing agents.
RUSSIA

Accession no.831542
Item 201
Plastiques Flash
No.316, Feb./March 2001, p.49
French
WHAT ARE NANOCOMPOSITES?
An examination is made of the properties, processing and
applications of nanocomposites in which submicron silicate
particles are dispersed in a polymer matrix. Developments
by a number of companies in polyamide, polyolefin and
polyacetal matrix nanocomposites are reviewed, and
reference is made to the imminent appearance of the first
nanocomposites based on PETP. Trends in the world
market for such materials are also briefly considered.
TOYOTA; UBE; ALLIEDSIGNAL; GENERAL
ELECTRIC; HONEYWELL INC.; BAYER AG;
BASELL; MONTELL; GENERAL MOTORS CORP.;
SHOWA DENKO
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
JAPAN; USA; WESTERN EUROPE; WORLD

Accession no.828693

and phase-separating epoxy-functionalised hyperbranched


polymers are used, the latter showing more toughening
properties. In these blend formulations, however, a close
control of the phase separation mechanism is required,
in order to avoid filtering effects before or during fibre
impregnation. In composite plaques, the phase separation
is investigated as a function of fibre surface treatment. In a
few cases, a heterogeneous nucleation of modifier particles
occurs at the fibre surface as a consequence of favoured
fibre/particle interactions. This reduces the fibre/matrix
bonding strength and leads to adhesive failures at the
fibre/matrix interface. In using dendritic hyperbranched
polymer modifiers, maximum toughness enhancement
and internal stress reduction are thus obtained when the
modifier nucleates within the matrix phase and adhesive
failure at the fibre matrix interface is avoided by selecting
suitable fibre surface treatments. 28 refs.
SWITZERLAND; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.822791
Item 203
Polymer
42, No.18, 2001, p.7739-47
MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND
MORPHOLOGY OF CARBOXYL RANDOMIZED
POLY(2-ETHYL HEXYL ACRYLATE) LIQUID
RUBBER TOUGHENED EPOXY RESINS
Ratna D; Simon G P
India,Naval Materials Research Laboratory;
Monash,University
Carboxyl randomised poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) liquid
rubbers (2-ethylhexyl acrylate-acrylic acid copolymers)
with different carboxyl functionality were synthesised by
solution polymerisation. These were used as toughening
agents for an epoxy resin. The effects of the functionality
of the liquid rubbers and the ductility of the epoxy matrix
on the mechanical properties of the modified networks
was studied. The results were discussed with reference
to the morphology of the modified network. There was
an optimum functionality which gave the best impact
performance. 50 refs.
AUSTRALIA; INDIA

Item 202
Composites Science and Technology
61, No.5, 2001, p.787-95
REVIEW OF DENDRITIC HYPERBRANCHED
POLYMER AS MODIFIERS IN EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Mezzenga R; Boogh L; Manson J A E
Lausanne,Ecole Polytechnique Federale

Accession no.822054

Dendritic hyperbranched polymers have been shown to


be able to double the interlaminar fracture resistance of
epoxy-based composites and reduce the internal stress
level by as much as 80%, with only 10 phr of modifier.
These property improvements were obtained affecting
the viscosity, and thus the processability, nor the glass
transition temperature of the epoxy resin. Both fully soluble

We are told in this short article that researchers at Ohio


State University have patented a method of mixing plastic
with tiny silica particles, to create a material which is three
to four times tougher than the plastic alone. Brief details
are provided of the properties of the new nanocomposite
material, which is suitable for use in aircraft.
OHIO,STATE UNIVERSITY

76

Item 204
Materials Today
3, No.3, 2000, p.8
TOUGHENING AT NANOSCALE MAKES
PLASTICS SUITABLE FOR AIRCRAFT USE

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

USA

Accession no.813375
Item 205
Composites Part A: Applied Science and
Manufacturing
32A, Nos.3-4, 2001, p.457-71
MICROMECHANICS OF REINFORCEMENT
AND DAMAGE INITIATION IN CARBON
FIBRE/EPOXY COMPOSITES UNDER FATIGUE
LOADING
Koimtzoglou C; Kostopoulos V; Galiotis C
ICE/HT-FORTH; Patras,University
A model single carbon fibre/epoxy resin composite
geometry was subjected to cyclic loading at a maximum
strain below the critical fatigue limit of the matrix
material. The carbon fibres were pre-strained prior to
incorporation in the resin to ensure that they were free
of thermally-induced compression stresses in the axial
direction. A strain-controlled cyclic experiment from 0
to 0.5% applied strain was performed up to a maximum
life of 1,000,000 cycles. At discrete fatigue levels of 1,
1000, 10,000, 100,000, 500,000 and 1,000,000 cycles,
the fibre normal stress distributions of a specific window
of observation were obtained by means of remote laser
Raman microscopy. The fibre normal stress distributions
at each fatigue level were converted to interfacial shear
stress(ISS) distributions from which important parameters,
such as the maximum ISS the system could accommodate,
the transfer length for efficient stress built up and the
length required for the attainment of maximum ISS,
were obtained. The results showed that up to the level
of full fibre fragmentation, the main fatigue damage
parameter that affected the stress transfer efficiency at
the interface was the fibre fracture process itself. 17 refs.
(6th International Conference on Interfacial Phenomena
in Composite Materials, Berlin, Sept.1999)
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GREECE;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.810857
Item 206
Patent Number: US 6156865 A1 20001205
FLAME RETARDANT THERMOSETTING RESIN
COMPOSITION
Iji M
NEC Corp.

Item 207
International Polymer Science and Technology
28, No.1, 2001, p.T/1-5
NANOCOMPOSITES. 1
Lehoczki L
An overview is presented of developments in
nanocomposites, with reference to research work by
major companies, and product developments. Features
of nanocomposites are described, and types of nanofillers
used are discussed. In particular, polyamide-based
nanocomposites are examined, and the properties of
nylon 6 nanocomposites and other filled polyamides are
compared. 4 refs. (Translated from Muanyag es Gumi,
No.8, 2000, p.257)
EASTERN EUROPE; HUNGARY

Accession no.808329
Item 208
Composites Science and Technology
61, No.1, 2001, p.41-56
TOUGHENED CARBON/EPOXY COMPOSITES
MADE BY USING CORE/SHELL PARTICLES
Day R J; Lovell P A; Wazzan A A
Manchester,Materials Science Centre
Toughened epoxy resin composites are prepared by
resin transfer moulding by using a range of toughening
agents. Two types of epoxy-functional preformed
toughening particles are investigated and have a three-layer
morphology in which the inner core is crosslinked PMMA,
the intermediate layer is crosslinked polybutyl acrylate
rubber and the outer layer is a PMMA-co-ethyl acrylateco-glycidyl methacrylate. The presence of glycidyl groups
in the outer layer facilitates chemical reaction with the
matrix epoxy resin during curing. Comparisons are made
with acrylic toughening particles that have a similar
structure, but which do not have the epoxy functionality
in the outer shell, and with a conventional carboxyterminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) liquid rubber
toughening agent. The composites are characterised by
using tensile, compression and impact testing. The fracture
surfaces and sections through the moulded composites
are examined by means of optical and scanning electron
microscopy. Short-beam shear tests and fragmentation
tests are used to investigate the interfacial properties of
the composites. In general, use of the epoxy-functionalised
toughening particles gives rise to superior properties
compared with both the acrylic toughening particles and
CTBN. 40 refs.

A thermosetting composition having a low environmental


load and a high flame retardancy includes a compound of
given formula and a novolac compound of given formula,
as essential components.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN


EUROPE

USA

Item 209
Antec 2000.Conference proceedings.
Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 706
MESOSCOPIC SIMULATION OF BALLISTIC

Accession no.809312

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Accession no.806267

77

References and Abstracts

IMPACT RESISTANCE OF NANOCOMPOSITES


Sharma K R
Fairfax,George Mason University
(SPE)
Ballistic armour capable of withstanding small arms fire
(7.62 mm bullets), comprising nano-sized particles of
polymer dispersed in a polymer matrix, are proposed.
A system comprising a polycarbonate matrix with
polybutadiene as the dispersed phase is described, prepared
by dissolving the polymers in a common solvent followed
by evaporation. Exposure to a laser beam above the particle
abolition threshold would create nanoparticles with a
narrow size distribution.
USA

Accession no.805714
Item 210
Additives for Polymers
Jan.2001, p.10-1
USE OF POLYURETHANES AS CHARFORMING AGENTS IN PP INTUMESCENT
FORMULATIONS
Polyols were first used as carbonising agents in polymeric
intumescent systems, but have now been substituted with
polymers which show a natural charring when heated. This
article discusses in detail the use of polyurethanes as charforming agents in PP intumescent formulations, reporting
on recent research carried out in France.
ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DE CHEMIE
DE LILLE
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.804409
Item 211
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.
Fall Meeting 2000. Volume 83.
Washington, D.C., 20th-24th Aug.2000, p.55
RECENT STUDIES ON THERMAL
STABILITY AND FLAME RETARDANCY
OF POLYSTYRENE-MONTMORILLONITE
NANOCOMPOSITES (PMN)
Zhu J; Lamelas F; Wilkie C A
Marquette,University
(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)
Nanocomposites based on layered inorganics exhibit
new and improved properties due to their nanometer
dimension. They show increased stiffness and strength
and enhanced thermal stability without sacrificing impact
resistance. A recent report shows that nanocomposites also
exhibit better flame retardancy than the pure polymers.
Two approaches have been used for the formation of
nanocomposites: blending and in-situ polymerisation.
Melt-blending is based on melt intercalation of the polymer
and involves annealing a mixture of polymer and clay
above the Tg of the polymer. In-situ polymerisation is

78

based on polymerisation of monomers in the presence


of clay. Since small molecules can easily insert the
galleries of the clay, in-situ polymerisation can produce
well-dispersed materials. Recent studies on the thermal
properties and flammability of PS-clay nanocomposites are
reviewed. These nanocomposites are prepared by in-situ
polymerisation. 7 refs.
USA

Accession no.802817
Item 212
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.
Fall Meeting 2000. Volume 83.
Washington, D.C., 20th-24th Aug.2000, p.53-4
FLAMMABILITY OF POLYSTYRENE-CLAY
NANOCOMPOSITES
Morgan A B; Gilman J W; Harris R H; Jackson C L;
Wilkie C A; Zhu J
US,National Institute of Standards & Technology;
Marquette,University
(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)
Research in the area of condensed phase flame retardants
for polymers usually builds upon technologies, such as
metal hydroxides or phosphorus based materials. However,
these materials tend to weaken mechanical properties
while improving flammability resistance. No major new
flame retardant technology has emerged in this area for
quite some time. Polymer-clay nanocomposites have
generated a great deal of interest lately due to improved
mechanical and thermal properties. Also, they have
improved flammability resistance while maintaining
good mechanical properties, a key advantage over
existing condensed phase flame retardants. It has been
shown that polymer-clay nanocomposites have greatly
reduced heat release rates. Further, polymers are observed
which normally do not char, or leave any carbonaceous
residue upon burning, produce char in the presence of
clay. The flammability properties of styrene copolymers
with phosphates and the ability to crosslink via FriedelCrafts chemistry have been investigated. Friedel-Crafts
technology is combined with clay to obtain an improved
flame resistant PS. 4 refs.
USA

Accession no.802816
Item 213
Patent Number: US 6114007 A1 20000905
FLAME RESISTANT REINFORCED
COMPOSITES
Brandon R E; Gauchel J V
Owens Corning Fiberglas Technology Inc.
A fire resistant thermosetting resin composite formulation
comprises an effective amount of a flame suppressant
additive. The thermosetting resin used in the formulation
can be a polyester resin. The flame suppressant additive
is a polyvinyl chloride powder, which may be the reaction

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

product of emulsion polymerisation or obtained from


recycled products containing significant amounts of
polyvinyl chloride. The additive can be used in an amount
of from 1 to 75% by weight, based on the amount of
inorganic filler present in the formulation.
USA

during the combustion of polymers and methods to reduce


their flammability are briefly described. Combustion of
polymer materials is characterised by a complex coupling
between condensed phase and gas phase phenomena.
Characteristics of the critical role in each phase are
outlined. 46 refs.

Accession no.801264

RUSSIA; USA

Accession no.795748
Item 214
Plastics Additives and Compounding
2, No.5, May 2000, p.30-2
NANOCOMPOSITES - ITS A QUESTION OF
PICKING THE WINNERS
Murphy J
Trends in the development of nanocomposites are
reviewed and discussed. Claims of improved mechanical
properties, stiffness, high barrier properties and inherent
flame retardancy are examined. Out of all the potential
prospects for nanocomposites, it is argued that only
around five are practicable and perhaps only two will be
fully commercialised. Recent developments have seen
the commercialisation of a nylon film with high barrier
properties from nanoparticles, and a nylon moulding
compound with optimised mechanical properties.
GM is reported to have been working with Montell
on a thermoplastic olefin elastomer with 5% smectite
clay which gives stiffness equivalent to a 23-35% talc
reinforcement. Research is reported into methods for the
incorporation of ultra-fine fillers, the production of nanosized carbon and fullerene tubes, and the use of conductive
reinforcements in automotive bodywork panels which can
be electrostatically painted.
Accession no.798275
Item 215
Fire Retardancy of Polymers.
Cambridge, UK, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1998, 54F,
p.175-202
POLYMER COMBUSTION AND NEW FLAME
RETARDANTS
Kashiwagi T; Gilman J W; Nyden M R; Lomakin S M
US,National Institute of Standards & Technology;
Russian Academy of Sciences
Edited by: Le Bras M; Camino G; Bourbigot S;
Delobel R
(Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Lille;
Torino,Universita; CREPIM)
The majority of polymer-containing end products
(e.g. cables, carpets, furniture) must pass some type of
regulatory fire test to help assure public safety. Thus, it
is important to understand how polymers burn and how
to best modify materials to make them less flammable
in order to pass such tests without compromising their
uniquely valuable physical properties and also significantly
increasing the cost of end products. Chemical and physical
processes occurring in the gas and condensed phases

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Item 216
Cambridge, UK, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1998,
pp.xvii,466. 69.50. 8/2/99. 54F
FIRE RETARDANCY OF POLYMERS: THE USE
OF INTUMESCENCE
Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Lille;
Torino,Universita; CREPIM
Edited by: Le Bras M; Camino G; Bourbigot S;
Delobel R
This book, based upon papers presented at the sixth
European meeting on fire retardancy of polymeric
materials, provides a comprehensive overview of the
subject. Main headings include strategies, intumescence
- mechanism studies, new intumescent polymeric
materials, flame retardant intumescent textiles and
finally, an examination of whether intumescence is an
environmentally friendly process.
Accession no.793775
Item 217
Fire and Materials
24, No.4, July/Aug.2000, p.201-8
PA-6 CLAY NANOCOMPOSITE HYBRID AS
CHAR FORMING AGENT INTUMESCENT
FORMULATIONS
Bourbigot S; Le Bras M; Dabrowski F; Gilman J W;
Kashiwagi T
ENSAIT; Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de
Lille; US,National Institute of Standards & Technology
New flame retardant (FR) intumescent formulations for
EVA using charring polymers polyamide 6 (PA-6) and
polyamide-6 clay nanocomposite hybrid (PA-6 nano)
as carbonisation agents are reported. Use of PA-6 nano
improves both mechanical and fire properties of FR
EVA-based materials. The part played by the clay in the
improvement of the FR performance is studied using FTIR
and solid state NMR. It is shown that the clay allows the
thermal stabilisation of a phosphorocarbonaceous structure
in the intumescent char which increases the efficiency of
the shield and, in addition, the formation of a ceramic
which can act as a protective barrier. 44 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
USA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.790159

79

References and Abstracts

Item 218
ICAC 99. Conference proceedings.
Bristol, UK, 23rd-24th Sept.1999, p.195-201
INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF
THROUGH-THE-THICKNESS YARNS IN
CARBON FIBRE EPOXY COMPOSITES
Matthews S T; McIlhagger A T
Ulster,University
(IOM Communications Ltd.; Ulster,University;
IMechE)
Prepreg material is the standard production method
within the aerospace sector for manufacturing high
fibre volume fraction error free composite material with
good mechanical properties. Composites produced by
hand lay-up of dry fabric stock have similar properties
to the benchmark quality of prepreg. Similar laminated
composites produced by vacuum impregnation resin
transfer moulding (RTM) offer cost savings and health
and safety benefits over wet lay-up with the main shortfall
being lower fibre volume fraction due to the low-pressure
nature of the process. A specially developed software
design package and a conventional loom have been used
to produce 3D woven fabric preforms with the aim of
providing through-the-thickness reinforcement and
limiting crack propagation. These one-piece preforms
also have handling advantages over laminates. Using
the wet lay-up with autoclave consolidation route and
normalising with respect to fibre volume fraction, the 3D
woven samples are found to have higher flexural strength
and modulus than a laminated sample. These advantages
are not seen when RTM is employed. This is thought to be
due to the 3D weave involved having high crimp and low
compressibility; hence, a higher consolidation pressure is
required than that provided by the vacuum impregnation
RTM process. 8 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.790065
Item 219
Plastics and Rubber Weekly
No.1852, 1st Sept.2000, p.6
MORE MEAT ON YOUR PLATELET
Lee M
The technology of adding specially treated nano-scale clay
particles to a variety of plastics, creating nanocomposites,
has the potential to dramatically improve the heat
resistance, barrier properties, strength, stiffness and flame
retardancy of the plastics. Target applications range from
food packaging to automotive body panels. In April last
year, RTP launched a clay/polyamide nanocomposite with
a 3-5% loading of organically treated clay. This composite
is made by melt processing. RTPs most recent introduction
is a polyamide 6 nanocomposite for extruded film and
sheet applications. Bayers Durethan LPDU 601 grades
are transparent with gas barrier properties. Durethan
products are made at the polymerisation stage. The TNO

80

group has successfully made nanocomposites of PA, PE,


PP, PS, PMMA and PU using Planomer technology, which
is based on the concept of modifying the clay with a block
copolymer that incorporates clay-compatible and resin
matrix-compatible parts.
WORLD

Accession no.787986
Item 220
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
78, No.4, 24th October 2000, p.716-23
TOUGHENING OF EPOXY RESIN USING
ACRYLATE-BASED LIQUID RUBBERS
Ratna D; Banthia A K; Deb P C
Indian Institute of Technology,Materials Research
Centre
Using bulk and solution polymerisation processed carboxylterminated poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (CTPEHA) liquid
rubbers of different molecular weights and functionalities
were made. Nonaqueous titration, vapour pressure
osmometry and gel permeation chromatography were
used to characterise the rubbers. Modified epoxy networks
were made by prereacting CTPEHA oligomers with
epoxy resin and then curing using a curing agent. The
effects of molecular weight, functionality of liquid rubber
and ductility of the matrix on the impact strength of the
networks was measured.38 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.786475
Item 221
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
77, No.14, 29th Sept.2000, p.3142-53
STUDY OF EPOXY AND EPOXY-CYANATE
NETWORKS THERMAL DEGRADATION TO
PREDICT MATERIALS LIFETIME IN USE
CONDITIONS
Mortaigne B; Regnier N
Arcueil,Centre Technique
The thermal stability of prepregs with carbon fibre
reinforcement and thermostable epoxy or epoxy-cyanate
resin matrices with autoadhesive and auto-extinguishing
properties was studied. During thermal ageing, cracking
appeared in the epoxy-cyanate composites after a longer
time than in the epoxy composites. The isothermal stability
of the epoxy-cyanate composites was particularly good if it
was post cured after processing. The results of accelerated
ageing tests enabled the authors to determine models for
predicting the long-term behaviour of the composites.
18 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.784892

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 222
Patent Number: US 6045898 A1 20000404
RESIN COMPOSITIONS FOR FIBERREINFORCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND
PROCESSES FOR PRODUCING THE SAME,
PREPREGS, FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITE
MATERIALS AND HONEYCOMB STRUCTURES
Kishi H; Hayashi M; Higashi T; Odagiri N
Toray Industries Inc.
The prepreg has excellent self-adhesiveness to a honeycomb
core, low porosity when used as skin panels, excellent
surface smoothness due to low surface porosity and good
tackiness and drapability. The honeycomb sandwich panel
has a skin panel peel strength, excellent impact resistance
and excellent hot water resistance. Fibre reinforced
composite materials made from the prepreg can be used for
airplanes, automobiles and other industrial applications,
particularly as structural materials of airplanes, because
of their excellent mechanical properties.
JAPAN; USA

Accession no.784586
Item 223
Colloid and Polymer Science
278, No.7, July 2000, p.665-70
TOUGHENING OF POLYAMIDES BY THE
IN SITU GENERATION OF ELASTOMERIC
PHASES
Park Y W; Mark J E
Cincinnati,University
Samples of a commercial Trogamid polyamide (aromatic
nylon) are modified with two silane coupling agents. In
the case of the epoxysilyl agent, the silane is incorporated
as a side chain by reacting it with the sample at 50-60
deg.C for three days, with triethylenediamine as catalyst.
In contrast, an isocyanatosilyl compound is added only
to the polyamide end groups (carboxylic acid and amine
groups). The polyamide-epoxy composites are linked
with a difunctional silane and then dried into films. They
exhibit some improved ultimate properties, including
toughness, at the lower epoxysilane contents. In particular,
the tensile strengths of the samples that are annealed at
120 deg.C are greatly improved. Also, the maximum
extensibility is increased by increasing the amount of
difunctional silane, but at the cost of decreased tensile
strengths. The Trogamid isocyanatosilyl materials, on the
other hand, show properties similar to those of polyamides
reinforced with silica generated in situ by the hydrolysis
of tetraethoxysilane. Specifically, the tensile strengths
of these composites increase slightly, but at the cost of
decreased toughness. Although it is not possible to improve
all the mechanical properties of either type of composite
simultaneously, it is possible to identify the conditions for
maximising at least one or two of them at a time. Thus, the
results provide guidance on how to optimise the properties
of an important class of polyamides for any particular
application. 23 refs.

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

USA

Accession no.784028
Item 224
ACS Polymeric Materials: Science & Engineering.
Spring Meeting 2000.Volume 82.Conference
proceedings.
San Francisco, Ca., 26th-30th March 2000, p.286-7
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF
NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON LAYERED
SILICATES AND POLYAMIDE-12
Hoffmann B; Kressler J; Stoppelmann G
Freiburg,Albert-Ludwigs University; Halle,MartinLuther-Universitat; EMS-Chemie AG
(ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.)
Nanocomposites were prepared by the polycondensation of
omega-aminododecanoic acid (ADA) containing a variety
of exfoliated or intercalated layered silicates, to investigate
the influence of swelling conditions on the rheological
and mechanical properties. The silicate materials were
prepared by swelling synthetic silicates (using protonated
ADA) or bentonite clay (using protonated ADA or water).
The mechanical properties of the polyamide-12 (PA-12)
nanocomposites were improved, whilst maintaining the
same notched impact toughness, compared with PA12. Enhanced dimensional stability, barrier resistance,
thermal stability and flame resistance were also observed.
The nanocomposites exhibited complex rheological
behaviour. The slopes of the master curves of the shear
storage modulus and the loss modulus in the terminal
region were considerably lower than those of the matrix
polymer, attributed to the formation of a superstructure in
the molten state. 7 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
SWITZERLAND; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.783159
Item 225
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites
19, No.5, 2000, p.396-402
STUDIES ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF
KNITTED GLASS-EPOXY COMPOSITES
Naveen V P; Vani A; Prakasha V; Divakar C J;
Ananthkrishnan T; Rao R M V G K
SKSJT Institute; India,National Aerospace Laboratories
The results are reported of a study of the effects of added
reinforcement on the mechanical properties of epoxy resin
transfer moulded laminates made from weft rib knit glass
preforms containing various amounts of reinforcement.
Added reinforcement in the course direction is shown
to increase the tensile and flexural strengths of the
composites, as compared with composites without added
reinforcement. 4 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.772445

81

References and Abstracts

Item 226
Polymer Composites
21, No.2, April 2000, p.155-64
MODE I FRACTURE RESISTANCE
CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAPHITE/EPOXY
LAMINATED COMPOSITES
Rhee K Y; Koh S K; Lee J H
Kyung Hee,University; Kunsan,National University;
Cheonbuk,National University
Double cantilever beam specimens were used to determine
mode I crack resistance behaviour of graphite fibrereinforced epoxy composites, with different reinforcement
stacking sequences. R-curves were produced for three
different initial crack lengths, to investigate the effect of
initial crack length on resistance behaviour. The resistance
force (Gr) for a crack increment was determined using a
compliance calibration method. For a stacking sequence
of ((0/90)3s//(19/0)3s), the initial crack deviated from the
mid-plane and propagated in a zigzag fashion, whilst in the
case of (012//012), the crack propagated along the midplane. Prior to resistance force stabilisation, the resistance
behaviour was significantly affected by the initial crack
length. However, once Gr was in the steady-state stage,
the effect of initial crack length on resistance behaviour
was negligible. 14 refs.
KOREA

Accession no.770537
Item 227
Fire and Materials
24, No.1, Jan./Feb.2000, p.45-52
NANOCOMPOSITE FIRE RETARDANTS - A
REVIEW
Porter D; Metcalfe E; Thomas M J K
Greenwich,University
Most fire retardant nanocomposites are made from
layered silicates and organic polymers, a variety of
methods are used in their synthesis. The mechanism
for the fire retardancy of these composites is generally
considered to be due to the structure of the char formed
during combustion, which enables the char to thermally
insulate the polymer and inhibit the formation and
escape of volatiles during combustion. Fire retardant
nanocomposites require relatively low concentrations of
silicates for activity, resulting in low additional costs and
weight. Improvements in the bulk physical properties of
the polymer can be additional advantages over traditional
fire retardants. 39 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.770447
Item 228
Polymer
41, No.10, 2000, p.3841-9
HYBRID COMPOSITES BASED ON

82

POLYPROPYLENE AND CARBON FIBER AND


EPOXY MATRIX
Dutra R C L; Soares B G; Campos E A; Silva J L G
Brazil,Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco; Rio de
Janeiro,Universidade Federal
Polypropylene fibre, and mercapto-modified polypropylene
blend fibre (PPEVASH), were added to carbon fibrereinforced epoxy composites to improve the impact
resistance of this composite system. The hybrid composites,
containing carbon and PPEVASH blend fibres, had higher
impact strength than those containing just carbon fibre, but
lower than those containing just PPEVASH fibres. The
observed changes in the glass transition temperature and
dynamic mechanical properties of the hybrid composite
were attributed to enhanced PPEVASH fibre-matrix and
PPEVASH-carbon fibre layer interfacial adhesion, and
to increased matrix crosslinking caused by the mercapto
groups at the modified fibre interface. The mercapto groups
also improved the matrix thermal stability. 25 refs.
BRAZIL

Accession no.767826
Item 229
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
75, No.3, 18th Jan.2000, p.396-405
TRANSLUCENT ACRYLIC NANOCOMPOSITES
CONTAINING ANISOTROPIC LAMINATED
NANOPARTICLES DERIVED FROM
INTERCALATED LAYERED SILICATES
Dietsche F; Thomann Y; Thomann R; Mulhaupt R
Freiburg,Albert-Ludwigs University
New acrylic nanocomposites consisting of methyl
methacrylate-n-dodecyl methacrylate copolymers and
intercalated layered silicates were prepared. The silicates
were based upon bentonite which was rendered organophilic
by ion exchange with N,N,N,N-dioctadecyl dimethyl
ammonium ions. Morphological, thermal, mechanical
and optical properties were examined as a function of
both organophilic bentonite and n-dodecyl methacrylate
content. Addition of n-dodecyl methacrylate improved
the compatibility between the layered silicate and the
acrylic matrix, thus promoting bentonite intercalation and
formation of anisotropic laminated silicate nanoparticles of
an average diameter of 18 nm, average length of 450 nm,
and interlayer distance of 4.8 nm, as determined by wide
angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy
and atomic force microscopy. Addition of 2-10 wt%
of intercalated layered silicate accounted for improved
stiffness/toughness balance, higher Tg and enhanced
thermal stability in comparison with the corresponding
methyl methacrylate-n-dodecyl methacrylate copolymer.
Data include Izod impact strength, Tg, Youngs modulus,
light transmittance coefficient, EB, interlayer distance and
TGA 10% weight loss temperature. 23 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.763984

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 230
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology
14, No.1, 2000, p.15-25
EPOXIDIZED SOYBEAN OIL TOUGHENED
EPOXY ADHESIVE
Ratna D; Banthia A K
Indian Institute of Technology
Epoxidised soybean oil(ESO) was used to toughen epoxy
resin cured with the ambient temp. curing agent tris2,4,6-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyl)phenol. The ESO was
prepolymerised with the amine curing agent to give liquid
epoxidised soybean rubber(EpSR). The EpSR-modified
epoxy networks were evaluated for their thermal, impact
and adhesion properties. The epoxy/EpSR compositions
were systematically varied to study the effect of modifier
concentration on the adhesion and impact strength. The
optimum properties were obtained at a concentration of
20 wt% EpSR. The DSC and DMTA analyses indicated
phase separation between the epoxy-rich phase and ESOrich phase. 24 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.761345
Item 231
Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia
9, No.3, 1999, p.28-37
Portuguese
PREPARATION OF MERCAPTO-MODIFIED
POLYPROPYLENE FIBRES AND ITS USE IN
EPOXY-BASED COMPOSITES
Dutra R C L; Soares B G; Lourenco V L; Dinis M F
Brazil,Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco; Rio de
Janeiro,University
Mercapto-modified PP fibres are prepared by a process
involving extrusion followed by spinning of mixtures of
PP and EVA modified with mercapto groups (EVASH).
The analysis of the surface of these fibres by X-ray
photoelectronic spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy, surface tension and
scanning electronic microscopy indicate that the polar
component (EVASH) is located close to the fibre surface.
The epoxy composites containing these modified fibres
display a considerable increase in impact resistance. This
result can be attributed to the good interfacial adhesion
between matrix and PP fibre and the ductile characteristic
of the fibre. The dynamic mechanical behaviour also
suggests the interfacial adhesion. 28 refs.
BRAZIL

Accession no.760186
Item 232
International Composites Expo 99. Conference
proceedings.
Cincinnati, Oh., 10th-12th May 1999, session 4-E
SEISMIC REPAIR AND UPGRADE OF
STRUCTURAL CAPACITY OF REINFORCED

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

CONCRETE CONNECTIONS: ANOTHER


OPPORTUNITY FOR POLYMER COMPOSITES
Mosallam A S
California,State University
(SPI,Composites Institute)
Half-scale reinforced concrete connection specimens were
fabricated and instrumented to study the low cyclic fatigue
behaviour of interior beam-column reinforced concrete
joints. Samples tested to failure were repaired by epoxy
injection and by the use of carbon fibre/epoxy and glass
fibre/epoxy composites, and re-tested. Tests were also
conducted on undamaged samples, reinforced using glass
fibre/epoxy composites. A significant increase in both
stiffness and strength of the reinforced connections was
observed, and the ductility of the repaired samples increased
by up to 42% compared with control samples. 5 refs.
USA

Accession no.759482
Item 233
International Composites Expo 99. Conference
proceedings.
Cincinnati, Oh., 10th-12th May 1999, session 2-E
AIRCRAFT COMPOSITE STRUCTURES:
BACKGROUND, BENEFITS, AND USAGE IN
THE NEW BUSINESS JETS FROM RAYTHEON
AIRCRAFT
Abbott R
Raytheon Co.
(SPI,Composites Institute)
The development and current applications for fibrereinforced epoxy composites in aircraft manufacture is
reviewed. The fibre reinforcement is generally carbon,
and the resulting composite offers the advantages of
high strength and stiffness combined with low density.
Applications vary from individual components including
doors and control surfaces up to complete fuselages and
wing assemblies. Glass fibre reinforced epoxy is also popular
for helicopter rotor blades, offering better fatigue resistance
than aluminium equivalents. Automatic machinery may be
used to position the carbon fibre prepregs, and advanced
techniques are used to inspect all parts. No major structure
failure has been reported in service.
USA

Accession no.759475
Item 234
Patent Number: US 5728763 A 19980317
THERMOSETTING RESIN COMPOSITION FOR
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
Yamaguchi M; Shirai M; Morikawa Y; Mitsuoka Y;
Komoto M
Nitto Denko Corp.
A semiconductor device obtained by encapsulating
a semiconductor element with a thermosetting resin

83

References and Abstracts

composition comprising a thermosetting resin (I) and a


hardener (II) having the following components III and IV
incorporated therein. The semiconductor device is thus
provided with a high heat resistance at infrared reflow
step and a high flame retardance, showing a drastically
enhanced reliability. (III) a metal hydroxide of formula (1):
n(MaOb).cH2O (1), where M is a metallic element; a, b
and c each = a positive number; and n is a positive number
of 1 or more, with the proviso that when MaOb is repeated,
the plurality of Ms may be the same or different and that
a and b may be the same or different; and (IV) a metal
oxide of formula (2): n(QdQe) (2), where Q is a metallic
element belonging to the group selected from Groups IVa,
Va, VIa, VIIa, VIII, Ib and IIb in the Periodic Table; d and
e each represents a positive number; and n = a positive
number of 1 or more, with the proviso that when QdQe is
repeated, the plurality of Qs may be the same or different
and that d and e may be the same or different.
JAPAN

Accession no.695736
Item 235
Composites Plastiques Renforces Fibres de Verre
Textile
No.21, May/June 1997, p.82-4
RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING OF FIRERETARDED COMPOSITES FOR RAILWAY
APPLICATIONS
Woodward M G; Brown N
Ashland Composite Polymers Ltd.; Martinswerk GmbH
Formulations for the resin transfer moulding of glass fibrereinforced composite components for railway rolling stock
are described. These consist of Modar 835 S modified
acrylic resin (Ashland), Martinal ON-904 aluminium
hydroxide flame retardant (Martinswerk), BYK-W 996
wetting and dispersing agent (BYK-Chemie), and random
glass mat. The flammability characteristics and mechanical
properties of these composites are examined.
BYK-CHEMIE GMBH
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY;
UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.695314
Item 236
SAMPE Journal
33, No.4, July/Aug. 1997, p.40-6
NANOCOMPOSITES: A REVOLUTIONARY NEW
FLAME RETARDANT APPROACH
Gilman J W; Lichtenhan J D
US,National Institute of Standards & Technology;
US,Air Force
The feasibility of controlling polymer flammability via a
nanocomposite approach is evaluated. The flammability
properties of nylon-6 clay-nanocomposites with clay mass
fractions of 2% and 5% are compared with those of pure
nylon-6 and other flame retarded nylons. Cone calorimetry

84

data shows that the peak heat release rate is reduced by


63% in a nylon-6 clay-nanocomposite containing a clay
mass fraction of only 5%. In addition, physical properties
are not degraded by the clay additive, but moreover, greatly
improved. Furthermore, the nanocomposite structure is
claimed to appear to enhance the performance of the char
through reinforcement of the char layer. 18 refs.
USA

Accession no.693137
Item 237
Antec 98. Volume II. Conference proceedings.
Atlanta, Ga., 26th-30th April 1998, p.2316-20. 012
ASPECTS OF THE TENSILE RESPONSE OF
RANDOM CONTINUOUS GLASS/EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Okoli O I; Smith G F
Warwick,University
(SPE)
The impact properties of a material represent its capacity
to absorb and dissipate energies under impact shock
loading. If a material is strain rate sensitive, its static
mechanical properties cannot be used in designing
against impact failure. In addition, the failure modes in
dynamic conditions can be quite different from those
observed in static tests. The effect of strain rate on failure
mechanisms is investigated by viewing fractured surfaces
of tensile specimens using scanning electron microscopy.
The relationship between the energy dissipated and fibre
content is also evaluated. Tensile tests are conducted on
a random continuous glass/epoxy laminate at increasing
rates of strain. A second laminate (with random continuous
glass reinforcement) is tested in tension at varying fibre
volume fractions in order to ascertain the relationship
between fibre content and energy dissipated. 8 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.687437
Item 238
Patent Number: US 5691444 A 19971125
FUNCTIONALISED CRYSTALLINE
POLYLACTONES AS TOUGHENERS FOR
THERMOSETTING RESINS
Shalaby S W; Monroe L A
(Clemson,University)
A crystalline polylactone is produced having reactive
acrylate end groups. When incorporated into a thermosetting
resin which includes reactive C=CH2 sites, the present
functionalised polylactone acts as a toughener, greatly
increasing the impact resistance of the final cured product.
Also disclosed are carboxyl-bearing polylactones as
tougheners for epoxy resin systems.
USA

Accession no.687088

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 239
Composites Science and Technology
58, No.2, 1998, p.211-20
PROCESSING OF CARBON FIBRE-EPOXY
COMPOSITES WITH COST-EFFECTIVE
INTERLAMINAR REINFORCEMENT
Sohn M-S; Hu X-Z
Western Australia,University
A simple and low-cost interlaminar reinforcement method
for improving delamination resistance of carbon fibrereinforced epoxy resins is presented. Twelve-ply composite
laminates with one, three, and five layers of Kevlar fibres
were processed and their compressive strengths measured
and compared with those of plain 12-ply laminates. SEM
was used to study fracture surfaces. 49 refs.
AUSTRALIA

Accession no.686164
Item 240
Patent Number: EP 845474 A1 19980603
ALKYLENE-BRIDGED ALKYL PHOSPHONATES
Harris C J; Woodward G; Taylor A J; Manku J S
Albright & Wilson UK Ltd.
These halogen-free, oligomeric or polymeric phosphonates
of given formula are used as, or in combination with, a
flame retardant for PU foams, resins and composites, epoxy
resins, phenolic resins, paints, varnishes or textiles.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN
EUROPE

Accession no.682157
Item 241
Patent Number: US 5686514 A 19971111
PRODUCTION AND USE OF FIRE RETARDANT
DISPERSIONS AS ADDITIVES FOR BUILDING
PANELS
Bayha C E; Conley A H
Sequentia Inc.
A fire retardant system, which is useful in a thermosetting
resin, such as a saturated resin, unsaturated polyester,
polyepoxide or PU, in an amount of between 3 and 15
wt.%, comprises a dispersion of particles of a halogencontaining organic material and an inorganic synergist in
a liquid phosphorus carrier. The particles in the blend are
reduced to 20 microns or less by, e.g. processing through
a 3-roll mill. The dispersion remains in suspension during
curing of the resin. The resin, when formed into a ceiling
panel, has a flame spread index less than 25 and a smoke
rating of 450 or less when tested according to ASTM
Test E-84.
USA

Accession no.677872
Item 242
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

17, No.2, 1998, p.147-64


BALLISTIC IMPACT RESISTANCE OF SMA AND
SPECTRA HYBRID GRAPHITE COMPOSITES
Ellis R L; Lalande F; Jia H; Rogers C A
US,Naval Surface Warfare Center; Boeing Co.;
Virginia,Polytechnic Institute & State University; South
Carolina,University
The effect of adding small amounts of high strain hybrid
components on the impact resistance of graphite epoxy
composites subjected to projectiles travelling at ballistic
velocities (greater than 900 ft/sec) is studied. The hybrid
components tested include superelastic shape memory
alloy (SMA) and a high performance extended chain PE
(ECPE) known as Spectra. In all cases, the embedded SMA
fibres are pulled through the graphite without straining to
their full potential. It is believed that this is due to high
strain rate effects coupled with a strain mismatch between
the tough SMA and the brittle epoxy resin. However,
a significant increase in energy absorption is found by
adding KPE and ECPE/SMA layers to the backface of the
composite. 20 refs.
USA

Accession no.675094
Item 243
Advanced Performance Materials
4, No.3, July 1997, p.285-95
ROLE OF RESIN MATRIX/HARDENER RATIO
ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW
VOLUME FRACTION EPOXY COMPOSITES
DAlmeida J R M; Monteiro S N
Rio de Janeiro,Catholic University; Norte
Fluminense,Universidade Estadual
The mechanical performance of composite materials
is usually associated with the properties of their
reinforcement. However the matrix materials also play
an important role as is the case for thermoset resin
matrix composites which can be designed for specific
applications by properly changing the polymer used as
matrix. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties
of the polymer matrix can be tailored by changing the
processing conditions and the type and amount of the
chemical substance used as hardener. An investigation is
carried out on the variation of the mechanical properties
of two composites of large commercial applications as a
function of the resin matrix formulation. The mechanical
properties of the matrix are modified by varying the
amount of hardener. Experimental results show that it
is possible to considerably vary the performance of low
volume fraction composites by the proper processing of
the matrix. In particular, it is observed that a significant
change on the deformability of the composites can be
obtained. Micromechanics equations are used to explain
the experimental trends observed. 30 refs.
BRAZIL

Accession no.670190

85

References and Abstracts

Item 244
Plastics Technology
44, No.1, Jan.1998, p.21-3
CLAY-FILLED NANOCOMPOSITES OFFER
EXTRAORDINARY PROPERTIES
Sherman L M
Research and technical developments relating to
nanocomposites are described. The new clay-reinforced
materials are said to exhibit dramatic improvements in
mechanical, thermal, barrier, and flame retardant properties
without significant loss of toughness or clarity. They
contain very tiny platelets of a special type of surfacemodified clay called montmorillonite, which is dispersed in
a thermoplastic or a reactive liquid resin. Their properties
and applications in nylon are discussed, and potential
applications in PP, polystyrene and PETP are examined.
NANOCOR INC.; TOYOTA CENTRAL R & D
LABORATORIES INC.
JAPAN; USA

USA

Accession no.654683
Item 247
Chemical and Engineering News
75, No.40, 6th Oct. 1997, p.35-6
MAKING POLYMERS TAKE THE HEAT
Jacoby M
Two papers are discussed which were presented at the
Macromolecular Secretariat, and which address recent
advances based on the way flame retardant additives
interact with the materials they seek to protect. In one,
additives improve materials by modifying the structure of
their bulk, and in the other, the changes are made almost
exclusively at the surface.
CORNELL UNIVERSITY; NANOCOR
USA
Accession no.652376

Accession no.666528
Item 245
Patent Number: US 5624989 A 19970429
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE
Yamaguchi M; Shirai M; Morikawa Y; Mitsuoka Y;
Komoto M
Nitto Denko Corp.
This is obtained by encapsulating a semiconductor element
with a thermosetting resin composition comprising a
thermosetting resin and a hardener comprising a metal
hydroxide of given general formula and a metal oxide
of given general formula. It has a high heat resistance
at infrared reflow step and a high flame retardance and
exhibits drastically enhanced reliability.
JAPAN

Accession no.659045
Item 246
Plastics World
55, No.10, Oct.1997, p.36-8
TINY CLAY PARTICLES PACK POTENT
PROPERTIES PUNCH
Miller B
Nanocomposites is the name given to a new class of
mineral-filled plastics that not only possess above-average
mechanical strength and heat resistance, but also offer
unusual gas-barrier properties and flame retardancy.
Nanocomposites technology originated at Toyota and
focused mainly on nylon compositions. Recently a US
company was established to further develop the technology
and extend it to other polymer systems. Nanocomposites
are compounds in which infinitesimally small platelets of
montmorillonite clay are dispersed into a thermoplastic or
a reactive liquid resin.
NANOCOR INC.

86

Item 248
Polymers for Advanced Technologies
8, No.6, June 1997, p.371-7
INTERLAMINAR FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF
CARBON FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITES USING
SHORT KEVLAR FIBER AND/OR NYLON-6
POWDER REINFORCEMENT
Park B Y; Kim S C; Jung B
Korea,Agency for Defence Development;
Korea,Advanced Institute of Science & Technology
Mode I (G(IC)) and Mode II (G(IIC)) interlaminar fracture
toughness in carbon fibre/epoxy resin composites was
investigated as a function of the amount of short kevlar29 fibre(SKF) and/or nylon-6 powder(N6P) between
continuous fibre layers. G(IIC) was found to increase
with increasing crack length as a result of the presence
of SKFs forming bridges behind the progressing crack.
G(IIC) of SKF alone could reach the maximum at an
intermediate amount of SKF. G(IIC) of SKF and N6P was
lower than that of SKF alone because N6P prevented the
orientation of SKF to out-of-plane. The extent of SKFs
bridging phenomenon could be influenced by the amount
and orientation of SKF. G(IC) showed no significant effect
with SKF and was uniform regardless of crack length. SEM
after G(IIC) test showed that new surfaces were created by
extensive fibre bridging, pull-out and fracture of SKF in
random direction without any fixed pattern. 15 refs.
KOREA

Accession no.645633
Item 249
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites
16, No.10, 1997, p.946-66
TENSILE PROPERTIES OF PLAIN WEFT
KNITTED GLASS FIBER FABRIC REINFORCED
EPOXY COMPOSITES

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Ramakrishna S; Cuong N K; Hamada H


Singapore,National University; Kyoto,Institute of
Technology
The tensile properties and failure mechanisms of plain
weft knitted glass fibre fabric reinforced epoxy composites
were investigated. The composite was made by reinforcing
epoxy resin with a single ply of plain weft knitted glass
fibre fabric. Tensile properties were investigated in the
wale and course directions of the knitted fabric. Tensile
failure mechanisms were identified experimentally by
in-situ recording of damage processes using a video
camera and by studying fracture surfaces using SEM.
Elastic modulus was predicted using a modified rule of
mixtures law incorporating reinforcement efficiency of
curved fibre bundles. TS was predicted by estimating
the failure strength of the fibre bundles bridging the
fracture plane. Attempts were also made to predict tensile
failure mechanisms and tensile properties using a threedimensional finite element model. The results of analytical
studies and finite element models were compared with the
experimental results. 25 refs.

CHARACTERISATION AND MODELLING OF


THE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF PLAIN WEFTKNIT FABRIC-REINFORCED COMPOSITES
Ramakrishna S
Kyoto,Institute of Technology
Analytical models for predicting tensile properties of
knitted fabric-reinforced composites are described.
Initially, tensile properties of knitted fabric-reinforced
epoxy composites were determined experimentally in
the wale and course directions. Elastic properties were
predicted using a cross-over model and laminated plate
theory. The analytical model expresses the crossing over
of looped yarns of knitted fabric, and fibre- and resin-rich
regions of composite. Elastic properties of the composites
were determined by combining the effective elastic
properties of looped yarns and resin-rich regions. Tensile
properties of knitted fabric composites with different
volume fractions of fibres were predicted. Analytical
procedures were validated by comparing predictions with
the experimental results. The applicability and limitations
of these models are discussed. 30 refs.

JAPAN; SINGAPORE

JAPAN

Accession no.644131

Accession no.629023

Item 250
Fire and Materials
21, No.1, Jan.-Feb.1997, p.41-9
FLAMMABILITY TESTING OF FLAME
RETARDED EPOXY COMPOSITES AND
PHENOLIC COMPOSITES
Hshieh F-Y; Beeson H D
AlliedSignal Technical Services Corp.;
US,NASA,Johnson Space Center

Item 252
SPI Composite Institute 51st Annual Conference.
Conference proceedings.
Cincinnati, Oh., 5th-7th Feb.1996. Paper 24-B. 627
EFFECTS OF HEAT AND MOISTURE ON
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PULTRUDED
GRAPHITE/EPOXY AND GLASS EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Theobald D; McClurg J A; Vaughan J G
Mississippi,University
(SPI,Composites Institute)

Flame-retarded epoxy composites and phenolic composites


containing glass fibre, aramid (Kevlar 49), and graphite
fibre reinforcements were tested using the NASA upward
flame propagation test, the controlled-atmosphere cone
calorimeter test, and the liquid oxygen (LOX) mechanical
impact test. The upward flame propagation test showed
that phenolic/graphite had the highest flame resistance
and epoxy/graphite had the lowest flame resistance. The
controlled-atmosphere cone calorimeter was used to
investigate the effect of oxygen concentration and fibre
reinforcement on the burning behaviour of composites. The
LOX mechanical impact test showed that epoxy/glass fibre
had the lowest ignition resistance and phenolic/aramid bad
the highest ignition resistance in LOX. The composites
containing epoxy resin and/or aramid fibre reinforcement
reacted very violently in LOX upon mechanical impact.
15 refs.

The effects of heat and moisture on the mechanical


properties of pultruded composites are tested by the threepoint flex method (ASTM D790). To reduce the tendency
to associate variations in flexural strength with the resin
system or the reinforcement, two epoxy resin systems
and two types of reinforcement (glass and graphite) are
used to produce three pultruded products. Moduli, as
determined by the three-point flexural method, are also
analysed to determine the effects of heat and moisture.
The products are tested in seven environmental conditions,
including as-pultruded, and variations of wet, hot and
hot-wet. Comparison of flexural strengths and moduli
of the products allow the determination of the effects of
heat and moisture on strength degradation of the hot-wet
product. 9 refs.

USA

USA

Accession no.634363

Accession no.621975

Item 251
Composites Science and Technology
57, No.1, 1997, p.1-22

Item 253
Polymer Engineering and Science
36, No.18, Sept.1996, p.2352-65

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

87

References and Abstracts

FATIGUE OF HYBRID EPOXY COMPOSITES:


EPOXIES CONTAINING RUBBER AND
HOLLOW GLASS SPHERES
Azimi H R; Pearson R A; Hertzberg R W
Lehigh,University
A diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy resin was modified
by incorporation of varying concentrations of hollow glass
spheres (HGS) and/or reactive liquid rubber. The fatigue
crack propagation (FCP) behaviour and mechanisms
of such materials were studied in detail. A synergistic
phenomenon reported for static fracture toughness was
also observed in the FCP resistance of such composites.
Optical microscopy studies revealed that the interactions
between the stress fields of the crack-tip process zone and
HGS cause plastic-zone branching, which in turn gave rise
to synergistic toughening. It is also shown that process
zone second phase particle interactions cause a transition
in FCP behaviour of rubber-modified epoxy polymers,
similar to that observed in metal alloys. Consequently,
the process zone toughening mechanisms are active only
above a certain stress intensity range. Conversely, FCP
resistance of both modified and unmodified epoxies were
the same below the transition. 48 refs.
USA

Accession no.615671
Item 254
Patent Number: EP 742266 A2 19961113
EPOXY RESIN COMPOSITIONS FOR FIBREREINFORCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS,
PREPREGS AND FIBRE-REINFORCED
COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Oosedo H; Noda S
Toray Industries Inc.
These compositions comprise at least the constituents
(A) an epoxy resin comprising 70 pbw or more, per 100
pbw of the epoxy resin, of a bifunctional epoxy resin, (B)
fine particles comprising a rubber phase and substantially
insoluble in epoxy resins and (C) a curing agent.
Composites made therefrom have high impact resistance
and heat resistance.
JAPAN

Accession no.610227
Item 255
Composites and Adhesives Newsletter
13, No.1, Oct-Dec.1996, p.5
RFQ/RFP ISSUED FOR CALTRANS COMPOSITE
BRIDGE DECK PROGRAM; MODIFICATIONS
DELAY PROPOSALS - NOW DUE OCT.10
Details are given of the Caltrans composite deck
programme in which a failing steel open-grated deck on
the Schuyler-Heim Bridge will be replaced with composite
materials. This programme is important for the composites
industry, since Caltrans intends to use the project as a

88

model for future deck replacement projects. The contract


is to develop and install six experimental fibre-reinforced
composite deck panels in the lift span of the bridge, which
will then be subjected to rigorous testing to ensure it will
perform as predicted with a 25 year service life.
CALTRANS
USA

Accession no.607094
Item 256
Reactive and Functional Polymers
30, Nos.1-3, June 1996, p.85-91
PREPARATION OF POLYIMIDE-EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Gaw K; Kikei M; Kakimoto M; Imai Y
Tokyo,Institute of Technology
Epoxy resin was cured with polyamic acid (from
pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4-oxydianiline) instead
of traditional amino-group-containing hardening agents.
The cure behaviour and potential reaction mechanisms of
Epon 828/polyamic acid mixtures were evaluated by DSC
and TGA. Thermal analysis showed a complex reaction
sequence taking place in the mixture and also determined
the extent of reaction of the polyamic acid with itself and
the competitive reaction of the polyamic acid with the
epoxy. The compositions of the mixtures were varied to
see all the dependence of the cure behaviour on component
concentrations. Solutions of the two components did not
phase separate and also phase separation was not apparent
either optically or microscopically in the cured samples.
This phase behaviour was attributed to a unique in situ
reaction. A novel solvent system for the polyamic acid
precursor was also used. The thermal stability of the epoxy
cured with polyamic acid was superior to that of epoxy
cured with standard diamines, but inferior to that of the
polyimide. 3 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.599707
Item 257
Composites Part A: Applied Science and
Manufacturing
27A, No.6, 1996, p.447-58
TENSILE FAILURE OF 3D WOVEN
COMPOSITES
Cox B N; Dadkhah M S; Morris W L
Rockwell Science Center
Tensile tests are reported for some graphite-epoxy
composites with three-dimensional woven interlock
reinforcement. Rough estimates are made of various
contributions to the work of fracture. 27 refs.
USA

Accession no.590659

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 258
ICCM/9. Volume 5: Composites Behaviour. Conference
Proceedings.
Madrid, 12th-16th July 1993, p.321-33. 627
ENERGY ABSORPTION IN BALLISTIC
PERFORATION OF GRAPHITE EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Hui D
New Orleans,University
Edited by: Miravete A
(Zaragoza,University)
The energy absorption of graphite/epoxy laminated
plates during ballistic impact tests was studied. Scanning
electron microscopy of a few fragments from the impact
showed that the fracture surfaces of the matrix had some
characteristic hacklemarks. The consideration of these
hacklemarks as an energy absorption mechanism was
discussed. 13 refs.
USA

Accession no.543694
Item 259
ICCM/9. Volume 5: Composites Behaviour. Conference
Proceedings.
Madrid, 12th-16th July 1993, p.307-10. 627
IMPACT DAMAGE RESISTANCE OF
LAMINATED COMPOSITES WITH
TOUGHENED INTERFACES
Seng Guan Lee; Fu-Kuo Chang
Stanford,University
Edited by: Miravete A
(Zaragoza,University)
Low velocity impact tests were carried out on T300/976
graphite/epoxy composites with and without FM300
thermoset interleaves, on T800/3900-2 graphite/epoxy
composite with thermoplastic interface coatings, and
on graphite/PEEK thermoplastic matrix composites.
Numerical calculations were also done. The results showed
that interface toughening can improve significantly the
impact resistance of laminated composites to low velocity
impact. 7 refs.
USA

Accession no.543693
Item 260
Journal of Composites Technology and Research
17, No.1, Jan.1995, p.11-6
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND MOISTURE
ON THE IMPACT BEHAVIOUR OF GRAPHITE/
EPOXY COMPOSITES. II. IMPACT DAMAGE
Karasek M L; Strait L H; Amateau M F; Runt J P
Pennsylvania,State University
Following the study in part I (ibid, p.3-10) in which dropped
weight impact testing was used to evaluate the effect of
temp. and moisture (sea water) on the impact resistance

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

of various graphite/epoxy composites, subpenetration


impact testing and subsequent damage characterisation
using ultrasonic c-scan and microscopic techniques were
used to provide additional insight into the nature of the
impact damage and to identify critical parameters affecting
impact performance. 17 refs.
USA

Accession no.541552
Item 261
Journal of Composites Technology and Research
17, No.1, Jan.1995, p.3-10
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND MOISTURE
ON THE IMPACT BEHAVIOUR OF GRAPHITE/
EPOXY COMPOSITES. I. IMPACT ENERGY
ABSORPTION
Karasek M L; Strait L H; Amateau M F; Runt J P
Pennsylvania,State University
Dropped weight impact testing was used to evaluate the
influence of temp. and moisture (sea water) on the impact
resistance of unmodified and modified epoxy/graphite
fibre composites. At ambient and low temps., moisture
was found to have little effect on damage initiation
energy or subsequent energy absorption. At elevated
temp., the presence of moisture had a significant effect
on damage initiation energy, with the change depending
on the particular energy absorption characteristics of the
matrix and the wet epoxy phase Tg. The energy required
to initiate damage was found to decrease with temp. and
this was consistent with a reduction in matrix properties
at elevated temps. 32 refs.
USA

Accession no.541551
Item 262
Composites
26, No.2, 1995, p.115-24
CHARACTERISATION OF INTERLAMINAR
FRACTURE BEHAVIOUR OF WOVEN FABRIC
REINFORCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES
Youjiang Wang; Dongming Zhao
Georgia,Institute of Technology
An experimental study was conducted to characterise
the interlaminar fracture behaviour of two-dimensional
woven fabric reinforced epoxy composites under mode
I loading using double cantilever beam tests. A large
displacement, small strain non-linear beam model was
used to calculate the interlaminar fracture toughness.
The fabrics used included glass fibre and Kevlar woven
structures with different weave patterns. An attempt was
made to enhance the composite interlaminar toughness
by adding different types of microfibres into the matrix.
Toughening mechanisms of the composites were analysed
using SEM. It was found that the weave patterns of fabrics
exhibited a strong influence on the interlaminar fracture
behaviour, and that the addition of the microfibres to the

89

References and Abstracts

epoxy matrix could improve the interlaminar fracture


toughness significantly. 11 refs.

properties of an epoxy resin. Morphological properties


were also determined. 14 refs.

USA

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE;


WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.539409

Accession no.519872
Item 263
Composites Science and Technology
52, No.3, 1994, p.439-48
MODE II DELAMINATION TOUGHNESS OF
CARBON FIBRE/EPOXY COMPOSITES WITH
CHOPPED KEVLAR FIBRE REINFORCEMENT
Sohn M-S; Hu X-Z
Western Australia,University
Chopped Kevlar fibres were spread between continuous
fibre layers of a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy resin to
determine how the mode II delamination toughness is
affected by the Kevlar fibres lying within the fracture
plane. 28 refs.
AUSTRALIA

Accession no.537543
Item 264
Polymer
35, No.22, 1994, p.4743-9
TOUGHENING BEHAVIOUR OF RUBBERMODIFIED THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS
INVOLVING VERY SMALL RUBBER
PARTICLES. I. A CRITERION FOR INTERNAL
RUBBER CAVITATION
Dompas D; Groeninckx G
Leuven,Catholic University
The criteria for internal cavitation of rubber particles were
evaluated. It was shown that internal rubber cavitation
could be considered as an energy balance between the
strain energy relieved by cavitation and the surface energy
associated with the generation of a new surface. The model
predicted that there existed a critical particle size for
cavitation. Very small particles (100-200 nm) were not able
to cavitate. This critical particle size concept explained
the decrease in toughening efficiency in different rubbermodified systems involving very small particles. 35 refs.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.533326
Item 265
Polymer Bulletin
33, No.1, June 1994, p.67-74
TOUGHENING OF EPOXY NETWORKS USING
PRE-FORMED CORE-SHELL PARTICLES OR
REACTIVE RUBBERS
Maazouz A; Sautereau H; Gerard J F
CNRS
The influence of liquid reactive rubbers or core-shell
particles were studied on the thermal and mechanical

90

Item 266
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
52, No.12, 20th June 1994, p.1775-83
RUBBER- AND THERMOPLASTICTOUGHENED EPOXY ADHESIVE FILM
Romano A M; Garbassi F; Braglia R
Istituto Guido Donegani SpA; EniChem
Epoxy resins were toughened using two components, a liquid
rubber (Hycar CTBN 1300x13, a butadiene-acrylonitrile
carboxyl-terminated rubber) and a thermoplastic polymer
(Phenoxy PKHH, a polyhydroxyether). Unsupported
adhesive films were obtained from the blends. The effect of
different curing cycles on morphology, fracture behaviour
and adhesive strength was studied and phase separation
was monitored by dynamic mechanical analysis. The
combination of the two moieties was shown to be a very
efficient toughening agent when a slow curing cycle was
adopted. 23 refs.
UNION CARBIDE CORP.; GOODRICH B.F.,CO.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; ITALY; USA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.515906
Item 267
Composites
25, No.4, April 1994, p.251-62
INFLUENCE OF WEAVE STRUCTURE ON PINLOADED STRENGTH OF ORTHOGONAL 3D
COMPOSITES
Chen J C; Lu C K; Chiu C H; Chin H
Feng Chia,University; Chung-Shan,Institute of Science
& Technology
Orthogonal three-dimensional(3D) carbon fibre fabrics
with different weave structures were obtained by varying
the yarn spacing and number of carbon filaments per tow
in the x-, y- and z-directions during weaving. These weave
structures were impregnated with epoxy resin to produce
orthogonal 3D carbon/epoxy composites. In addition,
one-dimensional (0 and 90 degree unidirectional) and
two-dimensional (cross-ply and plain fabric) laminates
were prepared from the same carbon fibres and epoxy
resin. Single-hole pin-loaded specimens of each material
were tested in tension and the effects of reinforcement
type, weave structure, specimen width-to-hole diameter
ratio and edge distance-to-hole diameter ratio evaluated.
Various modes of failure were observed in the specimens.
The effect of in-plane and out-of-plane fibres on the pinloaded strength of orthogonal 3D composites is discussed.
26 refs.
TAIWAN

Accession no.508830

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 268
Advanced Composites Letters
2, No.4, 1993, p.143-6
COMPRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR OF
UNIDIRECTIONAL CARBON/EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Effendi R R
Aerospatiale SA
An experimental study of the fracture of unidirectional
carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy resin composites under
compression showed that fibre kinking was the principal
compressive failure mode. The materials tested had a
non-linear elastic behaviour during loading, which could
be attributed to the intrinsic non-linear elastic behaviour
of the fibres. 4 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.501092
Item 269
Polyurethanes 92. Conference Proceedings.
New Orleans, La., 21st-24th Oct.1992, p.565-67. 43C6
RECYCLING OF POLYURETHANE RESIDUES
Hoffman A
Remetec-Bauplatten GmbH
(SPI,Polyurethane Div.)
A process is described for converting PU waste into
construction panels (PURO plates) that can be used
whenever conventional particle board panels, plywood
panels or plasterboard panels cannot be used on grounds of
moisture sensitivity, stability or flammability. The process,
basically granulating and sintering, is briefly described.
Pilot plant to deal with other materials, e.g. clothing and
GRP also exists.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.499016
Item 270
Deformation and Fracture of Composites. Conference
Proceedings.
Manchester, 29th-31st March 1993, p.9.1-9.10. 951
SYNERGISTIC TOUGHENING IN HYBRID
EPOXY COMPOSITES
Pearson R A; Smith A K; Yee A F
Lehigh University; Air Products & Chemicals Inc.;
Michigan,University
(Institute of Materials)
An investigation is described of the toughening mechanisms
occurring in epoxy resins containing hollow glass spheres
and rubber particles and of the nature of the interactions
between the toughening mechanisms. A rationale is
proposed to explain both the occurrence of and the lack
of synergistic toughening. 24 refs.
USA

Item 271
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
50, No.4, 20th Oct.1993, p.615-26
HYBRID-PARTICULATE COMPOSITES
BASED ON AN EPOXY MATRIX, A REACTIVE
RUBBER, AND GLASS BEADS. MORPHOLOGY,
VISCOELASTIC, AND MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES
Maazouz A; Sautereau H; Gerard J F
Lyon,Institut National des Sciences Appliquees
The deformation and fracture behaviours of hybridparticulate epoxy composites were examined. The
materials were based on bisphenol A epoxy resin cured with
dicyandiamide, various volume contents of glass beads and
different rubber contents. Youngs modulus, yield stress,
dynamic mechanical spectra, and fracture energy were
determined at room temperature. The Kerner model fitted
well the Youngs modulus for the hybrid complexes with
various glass bead contents. The analysis of the relaxation
peak recorded from viscoelastic measurements allowed
discussion of the influence of the introduction of the glass
beads on the mobility of macromolecular chains and the
characteristics of the rubber-separated phase. The fracture
energy displayed a strong improvement and a synergism
effect due to the presence of both kinds of particles. The
toughening mechanisms were discussed. Use as adhesives
is mentioned 49 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; FRANCE; WESTERN
EUROPE
Accession no.494873
Item 272
Filplas 92. Conference Proceedings.
Manchester, 19th-20th May 1992, Paper 20. 51
EFFECT OF GLASS PARTICLES ADDITION
AND RUBBER (NBR) MODIFICATION ON
MORPHOLOGICAL, VISCOELASTIC AND
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EPOXY
NETWORKS
Maazouz A; Sautereau H; Gerard J F
Institut National des Sciences Appliquees
(BPF; PRI)
The deformation and fracture behaviour of hybrid
particulate epoxy composites based on a DGEBA/DDA
(dicyandiamide) matrix with various volume fractions of
different contents were investigated. Youngs modulus,
yield stress, dynamic mechanical spectra and fracture
energy were determined at room temp. The effects of
the introduction of glass beads on the mobility of the
macromolecular chains and the characteristics of the
rubber related phase are discussed together with the
toughening mechanisms. 15 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.476538

Accession no.498016

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

91

References and Abstracts

Item 273
Polymer Engineering and Science
33,No.2,Jan.1993,p.100-7
DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE OF GLASS
BEAD/CARBOXYL-TERMINATED BUTADIENEACRYLONITRILE RUBBER(CTBN)/EPOXY
COMPOSITES
Zhang H; Berglund L A
Lulea,University
Studies of the above showed that CTBN decreased
the modulus and yield stress of the epoxy resin but
increased its fracture toughness. Addition of glass beads
compensated for the loss in modulus but had little effect
on yield stress. It contributed significantly, however, to the
fracture toughness by providing additional mechanisms
for toughening both the unmodified and rubber-modified
epoxy resin. For the toughened epoxy resins studied,
fracture surfaces gave only limited information on fracture
mechanisms as significant energy absorption also occurred
in the material below the fracture surface. Suggestions for
suitable material compositions for fibre composite matrices
are made. 12 refs.
SCANDINAVIA; SWEDEN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.473324
Item 274
Polymer
34,No.4,1993,p.885-95
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF
NOVEL TOUGHENED THERMOSETS DERIVED
FROM PENDENT AMINES ON THE BACKBONE
OF POLY(ARYLENE ETHER SULPHONE)S
Pak S J; Lyle G D; Mercier R; McGrath J E
Virginia,Polytechnic Institute & State University
Random incorporation of pendent aryl amines on
the backbone of poly(arylene ether sulphone)s was
achieved by the copolymerisation of a minor amount
of a second activated aromatic dihalide, bis(4fluorophenyl)-3-aminophenylphosphine oxide with
4,4-dichlorodiphenylsulphone and bisphenol A via
aromatic nucleophilic substitution polymerisation
using N-methylpyrrolidone as the solvent, toluene as
the azeotroping agent and potassium carbonate as the
base. The pendent amines were optionally chemically
modified by conversion to maleimides and thermally
cured to afford tough insoluble networks. Epoxy networks
were also obtained by reacting the pendent amines with
liquid epoxy resin and 4,4-diaminodiphenylsulphone.
Selected compositions could significantly improve the
fracture toughness of epoxy networks. Increased fracture
toughness was attributed to the good adhesion between the
polysulphone particles and the epoxy matrix as a result of
the reaction of the amines with the epoxy resin. 22 refs.
(Presented at ACS Symp.on Advances in Polymeric Matrix
Composites,San Francisco,USA,5th-10th April 1992).
USA

Accession no.471187

92

Item 275
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
46,No.11,15th Dec.1992,p.1899-914
TOUGHENING OF GRAPHITEEPOXY COMPOSITES WITH AN
ELECTROCOPOLYMERISED HIGHTEMPERATURE THERMOPLASTIC
INTERPHASE
Wimolkiatisak A S; Bell J P
Connecticut,University
A high temperature 3-carboxyphenylmaleimide-styrene
copolymer interphase was electropolymerised onto
graphite fibres in an effort to toughen graphite fibrereinforced epoxy resin composites. The effects of the
interphase and its thickness on mechanical properties and
failure modes were investigated. An optimum thickness
was determined at which the average value of the DCB
Mode I critical strain energy release rate was improved
by about 100% and the average notched Izod impact
resistance by about 60%, whilst maintaining the average
interlaminar shear strength at around the same value as for
control composites. The failure mode was shifted toward
more ductile failure with the inclusion of an interphase.
131 refs.
HERCULES INC.; SHELL CHEMICAL CO.
USA

Accession no.463102
Item 276
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
46,No.10,5th Dec.1992,p.1723-35
EPOXY COMPOSITES BASED ON GLASS
BEADS. II. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Amdouni N; Sautereau H; Gerard J F
Lyon,Institut National des Sciences Appliquees
An epoxy resin matrix based on bisphenol-A diglycidyl
ether and dicyandiamide was used to study the toughening
effect due to the introduction of glass beads with different
volume fractions and which were untreated, silane treated,
or coated with a crosslinked elastomeric adduct. The
effect of the bead volume fraction and surface treatment
was examined in terms of elastic and plastic properties,
and the results were compared with theoretical models.
Linear elastic fracture mechanics and impact tests were
used to study the crack propagation process. The various
parameters influenced the deformation mechanism,
especially for composites containing coated beads, for
which an optimum thickness was displayed. A large
improvement in fracture energy value was obtained with
a slight decrease in stiffness. 54 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.462984
Item 277
Composites Plastiques Renforces Fibres de Verre
Textile

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

32,No.3,May/June 1992,p.316-8
French
ICS PROCESS FOR SINGLE-WALL RTM BODY
COMPONENTS
Neveu D
An account is given of the ICS (Injection-Compression
Sotira) process, developed by Sotira for the production of
composite automotive components. A thermosetting resin
is injected around a preform consisting of a PU foam core
and glass fibre reinforcement placed in the mould. The use
of this technique in the manufacture of vehicle spoilers
and doors in glass fibre-reinforced unsaturated polyester
resin is described.
AUTOMOBILES CITROEN SA; CRAY VALLEY SA;
DSM; PSA; VETROTEX SA
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; FRANCE; NETHERLANDS;
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.462085
Item 278
Macromolecules
24,No.1,7th Jan.1991,p.126-31
MORPHOLOGY OF TWO-PHASE PS/PMMA
LATEX PARTICLES PREPARED UNDER
DIFFERENT POLYMERISATION CONDITIONS
Jonsson J-E L;Hassander H;Jansson L H;Toernall B
LUND,INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
22 refs.

In this paper the impact response of continuous fibrereinforced composites is reviewed. An attempt is made to
draw together much of the work published in the literature
and to identify the fundamental parameters determining the
impact resistance of continuous fibre-reinforced composite
materials. The effect of varying the properties of the fibre,
matrix and interphase are examined as well as the role of
target geometry and loading rate on the dynamic response
of these materials. 106 refs.
SWITZERLAND; USA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.440003
Item 281
Advanced Materials Newsletter
13,No.20,28th Oct.1991,p.1
PARTICULATE-FILLED INTERLAYER
TOUGHENS EPOXY COMPOSITE
Toray Industries has developed a prepreg system which
incorporates toughening thermoplastics in interlayers.
Polyamide particles are deposited on the surface of one
epoxy prepreg layer, becoming an interlayer as additional
prepreg is added. When cured, the Toray material exhibits
the typical heat resistance, modulus and strength of
conventional aircraft-grade epoxy composites.
TORAY INDUSTRIES INC.
JAPAN
Accession no.434389

SCANDINAVIA; SWEDEN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.447039
Item 279
Composites and Adhesives Newsletter
7,No.1,Oct/Nov.1990,p.4
NASA INVENTION ON TOUGHENING
REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES
NASA has discovered that fibre-reinforced epoxy
composites can be made tougher by incorporating a
bromine-containing additive. Flexural strength and impact
resistance are shown to be substantially increased. Adding a
small amount of carboxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile
rubber (Hycar) further improves these properties.
NASA,JOHNSON SPACE CENTER
USA

Accession no.441020
Item 280
Composites
22,No.5,Sept.1991,p.347-62
IMPACT RESISTANCE OF COMPOSITE
MATERIALS - A REVIEW
Cantwell W J;Morton J
LAUSANNE,POLYTECHNIQUE;
VIRGINIA,POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE & STATE
UNIVERSITY

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Item 282
Polymer
32,No.11,1991,p.2020-32
CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF MATRIX
RESIN NETWORKS WITH ENGINEERING
THERMOPLASTICS. I. SYNTHESIS,
MORPHOLOGY, PHYSICAL BEHAVIOUR
AND TOUGHENING MECHANISMS OF
POLY(ARYLENE ETHER SULPHONE)
MODIFIED EPOXY NETWORKS
Hedrick J L;Yilgor I;Jurek M;Hedrick J C;
Wilkes G L;McGrath J E
CIBA-GEIGY CORP.; GOLDSCHMIDT; IBM
ALMADEN RESEARCH CENTER; VIRGINIA
POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE & STATE UNIVERSITY
Hydroxyl-terminated and amine terminated polyether
sulphones were synthesised for blending with epoxy
resin (Epon 828) and thermally curing along with 4,4diaminodiphenyl sulphone. The resulting networks
displayed significantly improved fracture toughness,
with little sacrifice in modulus. The bisphenol-A based
polysulphones were miscible with the epoxy precursors over
the entire composition and molec.wt. ranges, but developed
a two phase structure upon network formation. The two
phase structures were almost transparent. 31 refs.
USA

Accession no.430356

93

References and Abstracts

Item 283
Polymer Engineering and Science
31,No.4,Feb.1991,p.270-4
STUDY OF RUBBER MODIFIED BRITTLE
EPOXY SYSTEMS. PART I. FRACTURE
TOUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS USING THE
DOUBLE NOTCH FOUR POINT BEND METHOD
Sue H J
DOW CHEMICAL USA
Correlations were established for single edge notch
three-point-bend, single edge notch four-point-bend and
the double notch four-point-bend (DN-4PB) toughness
measurement techniques using modified epoxies.
Toughness of unmodified and rubber toughened epoxy
was independent of the testing techniques used. Results
indicate that with a single DN-4PB test information can
be obtained to describe the toughening mechanisms and
fracture toughness value of relatively brittle polymers.
14 refs.
USA

Accession no.420616
Item 284
Polymer
32,No.1,1991,p.53-7
MISCIBILITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF EPOXY
RESIN/POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE) BLENDS
Guo Qipeng;Peng Xinsheng;Wang Zhiji
CHANGCHUN,INSTITUTE OF APPLIED
CHEMISTRY; JILIN,INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Polyethylene oxide was found to be miscible with uncured
epoxy resin, a single Tg being obtained for each blend.
PEO with Mn = 20000 was judged to be immiscible
with the highly amine-crosslinked epoxy resin (ER). The
miscibility and morphology of the ER/PEO blends was
affected by crosslinking. Phase separation in the ER/PEO
blends occurred as crosslinking progressed. 9 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.417685

particularly at low temperatures. The dependence of


impact fracture toughness on temperature was analysed
qualitatively on the basis of existing toughening
mechanisms from fibre pull out measurements, debond
lengths and microscopy. 15 refs.
AUSTRALIA

Accession no.411172
Item 286
Journal of Materials Science
25,No.2B,Feb.1990,p.1435-43
COATED GLASS BEADS EPOXY COMPOSITES:
INFLUENCE OF THE INTERLAYER THICKNESS
ON PRE-YIELDING AND FRACTURE
PROPERTIES
Amdouni N;Sautereau H;Gerard J F;Fernagut F;
Coulon G;Lefebvre J M
LABORATOIRE DES MATERIAUX
MACROMOLECULAIRES; LABORATOIRE DES
STRUCT.ET PROP.DE LETAT SOLIDE; LILLE
FLANDRES ARTOIS,UNIVERSITE DES SCI.ET
TECH.
An elastomeric adduct based on a liquid rubber, an
epoxy prepolymer and a liquid diamine was prepared
and deposited around glass beads reinforcing an epoxy
matrix. The pre-yielding and fracture properties of such
composites were studied. A linear dependence of critical
stress intensity factor (CSIF) vs. volume fraction was
obtained for untreated glass beads, whereas a maximum
was reached at 20% volume fraction of filler for those
with coated glass beads. Introduction of an elastomeric
layer improved fracture toughness. The influence of
interlayer thickness was studied. A maximum for CSIF
was found for (e/r) (thickness of the interlayer/radius of
the glass bead) equals 3% in connection with a strong
decrease of the work-hardening rate compression modulus,
determined in the pre-yielding stage. The toughening
mechanism is discussed in terms of crack pinning and
plastic deformation. 42 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.398583
Item 285
Composites Asia Pacific 89.Conference Proceedings.
Adelaide,19th-21st June 1989,p.150-160. 627
INFLUENCE OF INTERFACIAL COATING
AND TEMPERATURE ON IMPACT FRACTURE
TOUGHNESS OF FIBRE COMPOSITES
Sang-Kyo Kim;Yiu-Wing Mai;Cotterell B
SYDNEY,UNIVERSITY
(Composites Institute of Australia)
Impact fracture toughness of Kevlar 49- and carbon-epoxy
composites with or without PVOH coated fibres has been
evaluated at temperatures from -50C to +80C. For coated
composites, the fracture toughness measured on monolayer
composite/epoxy sandwich specimens increased by more
than 100% in comparison to composites without coating,

94

Item 287
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
37,No.6,20th Feb.1989,p.1439-47
EFFECT OF DILUENTS AND/OR FORTIFIER ON
THE GLASS FIBRE-EPOXY COMPOSITES
Thakkar J;Patel R;Patel R;Patel V
SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY
Glass fibre-epoxy composites were fabricated using Etype glass cloth and the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A
with diethylene triamine as catalyst. The properties were
modified by incorporating diluents such as epoxidised
2,2,6,6-tetramethylolcyclohexanol and 1,4-butanediol
diglycidyl ether with or without 20 parts per 100g of a
condensation product of phenyl glycidyl ether and 4-

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

hydroxyacetanilide as fortifier. Characterisation of these


epoxy laminates included resistance to chemical reagents,
dynamic mechanical analysis and mechanical properties
such as flexural strength, impact strength and hardness.
Dielectric properties such as breakdown strength, dielectric
constant, dielectric loss and loss tangent were estimated.
16 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.379920
Item 288
Rubber and Plastics News
18,No.16,20th Feb.1989,p.38
DOW POLYMER USED FOR BRAKE RELEASES
Dow Chemical Co. has begun marketing a fibre reinforced
composite polymer for use by moulders of parking brake
release levers. Details of the unspecified polymer, Isoplast
101 are briefly outlined in a property comparison with
reinforced ABS.
DOW CHEMICAL CO.
USA

Accession no.378397
Item 289
Composites Science and Technology
34,No.3,1989,p.267-83
FAILURE MECHANISMS IN GLASSY-METALREINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES
Low I M;Hewitt G;Mai Y W;Foley C
AUCKLAND,UNIVERSITY; CSIRO,DIV.OF
APPLIED PHYSICS; SYDNEY,UNIVERSITY
Epoxy composites containing both rubbery particles and
short or continuous glassy metal ribbons were investigated.
Considerable improvement in the fracture toughness
was obtained, particularly in composites containing
aligned short ribbons. As the volume fraction of the
ribbon was increased, so was the fracture toughness. The
micromechanisms of toughening and failure processes
were also identified and discussed in the light of the
microstructures. 23 refs.
AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND

Accession no.378252

AMERICAN CYANAMID INC.; MCDONNELL


DOUGLAS CORP.
USA

Accession no.375010
Item 291
Plastics Engineering
44,No.11,Nov.1988,p.33/7
TOUGHENING COMPOSITES BY MATRIX
MODIFICATION
Lian J Y;Jang B Z;Hwang L R;Wilcox R C
AUBURN,UNIVERSITY
Graphite fibre/epoxy composites often suffer from low
impact strength and susceptibility to delamination, possibly
arising from the brittleness of the matrix resin. The addition
of one or more impact modifiers to increase the toughness
of both resin and composite was investigated. An analysis
of the delamination, or interlaminar crack, after impact
loading was conducted to determine the failure behaviour
in a hybrid composite.
USA

Accession no.373432
Item 292
42nd Annual Conference & Expo 87;Proceedings.
Cincinnati,Ohio,2-6 Feb.1987,Session 20-B,pp.6. 627
EFFECTS OF A CONTROLLED MODULUS
INTERLAYER UPON THE PROPERTIES OF
GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITES
Chang J;Bell J P;Joseph R
CONNECTICUT,UNIVERSITY
(SPI,Reinforced Plastics/Composites Institute)
The results are reported of a study of the effect of a high
molec.wt. polymeric interlayer between the graphite
fibres and epoxy matrix of a graphite-epoxy composite
on composite mechanical properties. Thickness, modulus
of the interlayer and bonding between the interlayer and
epoxy matrix were the three major parameters examined. A
uniform thickness acrylonitrile/methyl acrylate copolymer
coating, applied onto the graphite fibre surface through
a batch electro-copolymerisation technique, was used
as the interlayer. Interlaminar shear strength and impact
resistance data of the composites are tabulated. 19 refs.
USA

Item 290
Advanced Materials Newsletter
10,No.21,12th Dec.1988,p.3
INTERLEAFING BISMALEIMIDE COMPOSITES
OFFERS ANOTHER TOUGHENING APPROACH
The process of interleafing by putting thin layers of
tough, ductile resins into prepregs between layers of resin
containing fibre reinforcement, as a method of improving
graphite/epoxy composites is briefly discussed. Interleafing
of two bismaleimide-based graphite composites is
examined and evaluated for improvements in impact
resistance and delamination by McDonnell Douglas.

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Accession no.372679
Item 293
Composites Science and Technology
31,No.4,1988,p.261-72
EFFECT OF FIBRE PRETREATMENT ON
THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ASBESTOSNYLON-EPOXY COMPOSITES
Papanicolaou G C;Papaspyrides C D
ATHENS,NATIONAL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
The role of fibre pretreatment in determining the
thermal expansion behaviour and Tg of fibre-reinforced

95

References and Abstracts

thermosetting polymers was investigated. Asbestos fibres


were pretreated with polyhexamethylene adipamide and
used afterwards as filler reinforcement in a bisphenolA-based epoxy resin matrix. Two alternative processes
of fibre pretreatment were used. Thermal expansion
coefficients and Tgs for the asbestos-nylon-epoxy resin
composites were experimentally determined. Results were
qualitatively explained by theoretical models in which the
concept of the boundary interphase was considered. The
effects of asbestos and nylon content as well as of type
of pretreatment and adhesion between the phases were
investigated. 32 refs.
GREECE

Accession no.356410

RESIN ON CARBON FIBRE BY IN SITU


POLYMERISATION
Kodama M;Karino I;Kobayashi J
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC CORP.
Carbon fibre was coated with polyimide resin in an attempt
to improve the reinforcement/matrix interaction and the
properties of epoxy composites reinforced with the coated
fibres investigated. Comparisons with untreated carbon
fibre composites were made. Properties investigated
included dynamic viscoelastic properties, tensile properties
and T-peel strength. Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy
was employed to investigate the molecular interaction
between the epoxy resin and polyimide resin. 16 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.336353
Item 294
Plastics and Rubber International
13,No.2,April 1988,p.26/31
NEW MATRIX RESINS FOR STRUCTURAL
COMPOSITES
Pritchard G
This detailed article discusses new matrix resins used in
structural composites. It describes the different structures
of fibre reinforcement, the process of mixing these fibres,
and discusses the development of polyesters, vinyl esters
and epoxy composites. Data and properties are presented
for the matrix resins. 7 refs.
UK

Accession no.355519
Item 295
Plastics Technology
34,No.1,Jan.1988,p.13
TERPOLYMER TOUGHENS EPOXIES
A multi-functional liquid rubber for toughening epoxy
composites and coatings was recently developed by
Wolverine Gasket, division of Eagle-Picher Industries, Inkster
Mich. This heat-curable nitrile-diene-acrylamide (NDA)
terpolymer is said to give better fracture toughness and heat
deflection temp. to epoxies than do competitive products. It
is said to have potential for use in reaction injection moulding
and resin transfer moulding, but will not be commercially
available for six to nine months. This abstract includes all
the information contained in the original article.
WOLVERINE GASKET CO.
USA

Accession no.351452
Item 296
Journal of Applied Polymer Science
33,No.2,5th Feb.1987,p.361-73
INTERACTION BETWEEN THE
REINFORCEMENT AND MATRIX IN CARBON
FIBRE-REINFORCED COMPOSITE: EFFECT OF
FORMING THE THIN LAYER OF POLYIMIDE

Item 297
SAMPE Journal
22,No.6,Nov/Dec.1986,p.10-6
STATIC AND IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF
POLYETHYLENE FIBRE/GRAPHITE FIBRE
HYBRID COMPOSITES
Adams D F;Zimmerman R S
WYOMING,UNIVERSITY
A study was carried out to determine the benefits of using
Spectra 900, high strength, high modulus PE fibres in
graphite/epoxy composites to improve impact resistance of
the resulting hybrid. The feasibility of using a small amount
of graphite fibre in a Spectra laminate to enhance stiffness
properties while maintaining high impact performance was
also evaluated. Data are provided on drop weight impact,
tensile properties, compression properties, in-plane shear
properties and thermal expansion of the various material
combinations. 8 refs.
USA

Accession no.329941
Item 298
Deformation,Yield and Fracture of
Polymers;Proceedings of the Sixth International
Conference.
Cambridge,April 1-4,1985,p.16.1-16.5. 951
DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE OF HYBRID
PARTICULATE-FILLED EPOXY POLYMERS
Kinloch A J;Maxwell D;Young R J
LONDON,UNIVERSITY,IMPERIAL COLLEGE;
LONDON,UNIVERSITY,QUEEN MARY COLLEGE
(PRI)
The fracture behaviour of hybrid-particulate composites
(epoxy resin/glass beads, epoxy resin/glass beads/rubber
and epoxy resin/glass beads(silane)/rubber) was examined.
Values of stress-intensity factor and fracture energy were
determined using a double-torsion test. Considerable
increases in toughness were recorded and the mechanisms
of toughening and the failure criteria identified. 8 refs.
UK

Accession no.312808

96

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

References and Abstracts

Item 299
Die Makromolekulare Chemie- Macromolecular
symposia
No.1,Jan.1986,p.139-50
ENERGY ABSORBING POLYMER-BASED
COMPOSITES
Hull D
CAMBRIDGE,UNIVERSITY
The ability of polymer-based fibre reinforced composite
materials to absorb energy when subjected to high stress
is shown to depend on the micromechanics of deformation
and fracture of the individual laminae and the interaction
between laminae. The micromechanisms depend on
the properties of the matrix, fibres and fibre-matrix
interface. The importance of the capacity of the material
to absorb energy for various applications is considered
with particular reference to the response of structures to
impact. 7 refs. (30th IUPAC International Symposium on
Macromolecules,The Hague,Netherlands, Aug.1985).
UK

Accession no.309612
Item 300
Molecular Characterization of Composite
Interfaces;Proceedings of a Symposium on Polymer
Composites:Interfaces at the 185th American Chemical
Society Meeting.
Seattle,Wash.,March 1983,p.287-98. 012
THERMOSTIMULATED CREEP STUDY OF THE
INTERFACE OF GLASS BEAD-REINFORCED
EPOXY COMPOSITES
Bayoux J P;Pillot C;Chatain D;Lacabanne C
Edited by: Ishida H;Kumar G
(ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry)
The use of thermostimulated creep to study the anelastic
behaviour of two different types of model composites is
described. The method is shown to have high resolving
power and to provide accurate information about the
distribution of the relaxation times in the matrix of
an epoxy resin reinforced with glass beads having on
their surface either a coupling agent, e.g. a silane, or a
release agent, e.g. silicone. From analysis of the spectra,
two different mechanisms are proposed to explain the
reinforcement process through modification of the matrix
at its interface with the filler. 14 refs.
FRANCE

Accession no.302416
Item 301
Polymer Bulletin
13,No.3,March 1985,p.201-8
ENGINEERING-CHEMICAL MODIFICATION
OF MATRIX RESIN NETWORKS WITH
ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS. I.
PHENOLIC HYDROXYL TERMINATED
POLY(ARYL ETHER SULPHONE)-EPOXY

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

SYSTEMS
Hedrick J L;Yilgor I;Wilkes G L;McGrath J E
VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE & STATE
UNIVERSITY
Functionally terminated bisphenol-A polysulphone
oligomers were used in the modification of an epoxy resin/
diamino diphenylsulphone network system. Molecular
weight and the amount of PSF oligomers incorporated
into the network were varied and their effect on the overall
properties of the resulting systems were investigated.
Capping and curing reactions were followed by using
Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, NMR, GPC, HPLC
and DSC techniques. 13 refs.
USA

Accession no.271295
Item 302
Polymer
24,No.5,May 1983,p.639-44
PHASE SEPARATION IN EPOXY RESINS
CONTAINING POLYETHERSULPHONE
Bucknall C B;Partridge I K
CRANFIELD INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical
spectroscopy are used to study phase separation of
dissolved polyethersulphone (PES) from trifunctional and
tetrafunctional epoxy resins during curing. Observations
of modules on fracture surfaces and of multiple peaks in
the dynamic mechanical spectra provide evidence for a
separate, crosslinked, PES-rich phase in the remaining
materials. 13 refs.
UK

Accession no.230834
Item 303
Journal of Elastomers and Plastics
10, July 1978, p.271-81
INFLUENCE OF MOISTURE ON THE IMPACT
BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID GLASS/GRAPHITE/
EPOXY COMPOSITES
HOFER K E; PORTE R
Previous studies have indicated a lack of tolerance for
impact by graphite fibre-reinforced epoxy resin composites,
in contrast with the good impact resistance of GRP. Hybrid
composites combining two fibre reinforcements alleviate
this problem to some degree, whilst retaining stiffness
and strength. A study was undertaken to examine the
effect of hybridisation on charpy impact resistance, and
to gauge modifications of this resistance as a function of
moisture absorption, for hybrid glass/graphite/epoxy resin
composites. 22 refs.
Accession no.127381

97

References and Abstracts

98

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Subject Index

Subject Index
A
ABRASION RESISTANCE, 23
ACCELERATED AGEING, 122 221
ACETIC ACID, 175
ACOUSTIC EMISSION, 268
ACRYLAMIDE POLYMER, 70
ACRYLATE COPOLYMER, 140
ACRYLATE POLYMER, 77
ACRYLATE RUBBER, 77 220
ACRYLIC ACID COPOLYMER,
203
ACRYLIC ESTER COPOLYMER,
140
ACRYLIC ESTER POLYMER, 77
ACRYLIC POLYMER, 19 60 235
ACRYLIC RESIN, 60 235
ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER,
292
ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE
RUBBER, 11
ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENESTYRENE TERPOLYMER, 2
17 19 62 72 76 77 171 196
ACRYLONITRILE-STYRENE
COPOLYMER, 61
ACTIVATION ENERGY, 107 164
ACTUATOR, 22
ADHESION, 97 114 124 125 167
222 230 266 281 292 293 296
ADHESIVE, 22 124 167 186 230
266
ADVANCED COMPOSITE, 290
AEROPLANE, 204 222
AEROSPACE APPLICATION, 8
112 204 233 268
AGEING, 15 87 122 221
AGGLOMERATION, 62 77 100
AGGREGATION, 91
AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION,
62
AIR BARRIER, 244
AIR PERMEABILITY, 216
AIRCRAFT, 204 222 268 281
ALKALI TREATMENT, 84
ALKENE POLYMER, 19 22 34 42
49 51 62 73 100 102 136 146
165 166 176 179 191 195 201
210 246
ALKYLAMMONIUM ION, 130
ALUMINIUM, 151 181 185 235
ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE, 9 10
49 52 53 82 97 121 129 137 185
194 235

ALUMINIUM OXIDE, 181 185


235
ALUMINIUM SILICATE, 62 201
207
ALUMINIUM
TRIACETYLACETONATE, 31
ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE, 10
38 50 53 88 97 99 109 110 121
128 137 175 185 188 192 194
AMIDE, 180
AMIDE POLYMER, 19 22 49 89
91 100 111 116 136 158 162 166
175 185 191 195 201 207 219
223 244 248
AMINE, 56 142 152 168 180 230
287
AMINE COMPOUND, 42
AMINOPHENYLIMIDE, 173
AMMONIUM COMPOUND, 52
65 192
AMMONIUM ION, 189
AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE, 2 3
15 51 53 60 71 92 101 165 210
AMMONIUM POLYPHOSPHATE,
2 3 15 51 53 60 71 92 101 165
210
AMMONIUM SALT, 103
ANALYSIS, 3 7 13 16 24 36 40 48
60 62 75 79 80 83 92 113 114
141 145 153 155 158 160 161
164 165 170 188 211 216 217
235 249 251 258 262 268 275
276 280 291
ANISOTROPY, 22 229
ANTHRAQUINONE, 8
ANTHRAQUINONE CYANATE, 8
ANTI-SHRINK AGENT, 277
ANTIMONY OXIDE, 49
ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE, 9 110
128 175 185 189
ANTIOXIDANT, 162
ANTISTATIC AGENT, 162
APPEARANCE, 7
APPLICATION, 8 21 22 32 35 37
42 46 48 50 62 65 66 73 88 100
102 105 111 112 121 128 129
132 133 136 137 149 167 172
175 179 185 191 192 195 196
201 204 210 214 219 222 233
235 241 244
ARAMID FIBRE, 262 280
ARAMID FIBRE-REINFORCED
PLASTIC, 87 250 263 285
ARMOUR, 209

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE, 22
ASBESTOS FIBREREINFORCED PLASTIC, 293
ASPECT RATIO, 42 76 102 183
214 219 246
ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY,
75 86 165 187 229
ATTAPULGITE, 22
AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION,
21 22 35 42 46 62 100 102 132
136 149 167 185 191 195 196
201 204 214 219 222 244 277
288
AVRAMI EQUATION, 55

B
BALL MILL, 140
BALLISTIC APPLICATION, 209
BALLISTIC PROPERTIES, 209
258
BALLISTIC RESISTANCE, 209
BALLOON, 37
BALSA, 69
BARIUM TITANATE, 22
BARRIER FILM, 102 201
BARRIER PACKAGING, 21 201
BARRIER PROPERTIES, 21 56 62
100 102 183 201 214 219 236
244
BATCH POLYMERISATION, 21
BATTERY, 149
BEER BOTTLE, 100
BENTONITE, 224 229
BEVERAGE, 62
BINDER, 107
BINDING, 21
BIOCOMPOSITE, 75
BIODETERIORATION, 84 146
BIOPOLYMER, 102
BISDIETHYLOXYPHOS
PHONYLHYDROXY
PHENYLPROPANE, 94
BISETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE,
62
BISMALEIMIDE POLYMER, 274
280 290
BISPHENOL A, 39 272 287 293
BISPHENOL A DIGLYCIDYL
ETHER, 94 130 203 276
BISPHENOL A EPOXY RESIN,
27 155
BISPHENOL C, 69

99

Subject Index

BISPHENOL DIGLYCIDYL
ETHER, 94 130 203
BLEND, 9 11 13 20 30 31 35 54 61
62 68 72 77 84 97 100 107 110
115 125 128 136 154 162 168
173 196 200 210 216 223 230
253 256 264 266 271 273 274
277 278 282 284 289 302
BLENDING, 103 247
BLOCK COPOLYMER, 62 219
BLOW MOULDING, 21 100 149
BLOWING AGENT, 100
BLOWN FILM, 149
BODY PANELS, 191 214 277
BOEHMITE, 185
BOND STRENGTH, 18 227
BONDING, 21 22 124 167 186
BOTTLES, 100 191
BOUNDARY LAYER, 293
BRAGG SPACING, 227
BREAKDOWN STRENGTH, 287
BREAKING STRENGTH, 107
BRIDGE, 66
BRIDGE DECK, 255
BRITTLENESS, 34 291
BROMINATION, 79 175
BROMINE, 30 95 128 185 196 200
279
BROMINE COMPOUND, 106
BROMINE-CONTAINING
POLYMER, 119
BUILDING APPLICATION, 66
136 185 195 210 241
BUILDING PANEL, 241 269
BULK POLYMERISATION, 103
147 187 220
BURNING, 3 70 92 129 175
BURNING RATE, 6 33 104
BUSINESS MACHINE, 111 136
185
BUTADIENE POLYMER, 178 209
BUTADIENE-ACRYLONITRILE
COPOLYMER, 266 271 272
273 279 298
BUTADIENE-STYRENE
RUBBER, 23
BUTYL ACRYLATE
COPOLYMER, 140

C
CABLE, 22 46 62 63 88 105 109
121 123 132 137 149 179 191
192 194 195 210
CABLE COVERING, 38 63 99 110
CABLE INSULATION, 50 120 185
196
CADMIUM OXIDE, 234

100

CALCIUM CARBONATE, 3 9 23
33 51 277
CALORIMETRY, 9 13 17 29 30 45
53 61 65 67 73 119 122 147 158
169 170 174 250
CAMERA, 249
CAPROLACTAM, 62
CAPROLACTAM POLYMER, 19
21 28 30 45 49 62 67 89 102
110 111 118 127 193
CAR, 136 185 201 277
CARBON, 22 39 43 47 71 78 96
100 105 123 131 136 138 143
157
CARBON BLACK, 100
CARBON DIOXIDE, 100
CARBON FIBRE, 63 214 226 228
233 268
CARBON FIBRE-REINFORCED
PLASTIC, 1 18 32 114 115 131
142 145 153 181 186 205 208
218 221 226 228 232 233 239
242 248 250 252 263 267 268
275 280 285 290 291 292 296
297
CARBON MONOXIDE, 52 62 63
175 235
CARBON NANOTUBE, 50
CARBON-13, 24
CARBONACEOUS, 40
CARBONATE COPOLYMER, 64
CARBONATE POLYMER, 37 61
72 82 84 111 125 152 196 209
CARBONISATION, 30 210
CARBOXY GROUP, 145 203
CARBOXY-TERMINATED, 141
203 273 279
CARBOXYBENZIMIDAZOLE,
173
CARBOXYDODECYL
AMMONIUM, 9
CARBOXYL GROUP, 145 203
CARBOXYL-TERMINATED, 141
203 266 271
CARBOXYPHENYLMALEIMIDE
COPOLYMER, 275
CASTING, 8 70 115
CATALYST, 203
CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, 45
CATHETER, 22 37
CATION, 192
CATION EXCHANGE, 227
CAVITATION, 264
CELLULAR MATERIAL, 69 100
106 146 185 210 240 277
CELLULOSE, 148 160
CELLULOSE FIBRE, 160
CERAMER, 58

CERAMIC, 22 45 62 201
CHAIN ENTANGLEMENT, 77
CHAIN EXTENSION, 235
CHAIN LENGTH, 81 95
CHAIN MOBILITY, 95
CHAIN STRIPPING, 9 63
CHAR, 3 18 40 50 53 62 85 88 91
92 99 101 121 126 137 148 160
161 171 175 179 180 182 236
CHAR FORMATION, 1 4 17 38 60
68 92 95 105 106 109 110 112
118 128 163 170 174 184 188
194 196 198 210 227 236
CHAR YIELD, 1 4 58 120 199
CHARACTERISATION, 1 4 8 14
16 17 24 29 38 41 43 48 53 57
58 61 63 75 76 77 85 89 98 103
113 122 126 130 138 146 159
182 187 189 199 203 224 227
251 262 287
CHARPY, 276
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, 149
CHEMICAL MODIFICATION, 4
13 24 27 30 44 79 84 91 94 103
124 128 162 163 174 175 185
189 228 247 301
CHEMICAL PLANT, 246
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, 129
179
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE, 22
129 179 255 287
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE, 4 17
21 22 45 57 58 60 62 77 83 99
110 124 126 128 133 144 146
152 202 203 206 207 221 227
240 245 302
CHEMICAL TREATMENT, 219
246
CHEMORHEOLOGICAL
PROPERTIES, 154
CHLORINE, 27 128 185
CHROMATOGRAPHY, 161 170
220
CHROMIUM OXIDE, 234
CIVIL ENGINEERING, 232
CLARITY, 62 100
CLASSIFICATION, 22
CLAY, 1 7 15 19 20 21 22 28 29 30
34 35 37 41 49 50 51 52 53 54
56 61 62 65 67 73 75 82 85 92
98 99 100 102 104 113 120 123
127 128 130 133 136 144 147
149 156 159 165 172 175 176
181 182 185 187 191 193 194
207 212 214 219 224 227 236
244 246 247
CO-ROTATING EXTRUDER, 34
COAL, 101

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Subject Index

COATED FABRIC, 172


COATED FIBRE, 275 285
COATED FILLER, 207 276
COATING, 15 42 45 60 62 71 82
186 259 292 295 296
COBALT OXIDE, 234
COEXTRUSION, 62
COEXTRUSION BLOW
MOULDING, 191
COKING, 200
COLD RESISTANCE, 173
COLOUR, 22 185
COLOUR CONCENTRATE, 111
COLOUR DEVELOPING, 42
COLOUR STABILITY, 185
COMBUSTIBILITY, 1 45 76 189
COMBUSTION, 7 36 44 63 76 94
97 108 121 126 140 158 161
163 171 182 185 189 255
COMBUSTION PRODUCT, 185
235
COMMERCIAL INFORMATION,
100 102 111 149 176 196
COMPATIBILISATION, 62 120
201
COMPATIBILISER, 6 29 34 35 61
77 90 120 196
COMPATIBILITY, 35 42 201 219
COMPOSITION, 1 54 80 81 91 93
94 95 96 112 122 130 152 159
178 187 206 222 224 228 245
254
COMPOUNDING, 42 46 79 93 111
132 175 201
COMPRESSION MODULUS, 276
286
COMPRESSION MOLDING, 7 28
COMPRESSION MOULDING, 7
28
COMPRESSION PROPERTIES,
70 177 208 239 268 281 297
COMPRESSION STRENGTH, 268
COMPRESSION STRESS, 268
COMPUTER SIMULATION, 215
CONCENTRATION
DEPENDENCE, 54
CONCRETE, 232
CONDENSATION POLYMER,
146
CONDENSED PHASE, 108 215
CONDUCTIVE FILLER, 214
CONDUCTIVE POLYMER, 111
162 214
CONE CALORIMETER, 6 9 12
13 17 18 29 38 40 44 45 49 52
53 63 65 67 68 71 72 73 76 85
88 89 90 92 94 98 103 104 109
110 113 118 119 122 138 140

147 148 150 156 157 158 160


163 169 170 172 182 184 188
189 192 193 198 199 200 211
235 236
CONTACT ANGLE, 114
CONTACT FORCE, 177
CONTINUOUS FIBRE, 280 289
COOLING RATE, 55
COPPER OXIDE, 234
CORE-SHELL, 145 278
CORROSION RESISTANCE, 32
COTTON, 172
COUPLING AGENT, 57 60 73 84
97 162 171 178 223 247 276
298 300
CRACK DENSITY, 145 169
CRACK GROWTH, 226
CRACK INITIATION, 226
CRACK LENGTH, 226 248 275
CRACK PROPAGATION, 197 218
226 253 276
CRACK RESISTANCE, 226
CRACK TIP, 253
CRACKING, 86 145 204 221 262
CRAZE RESISTANCE, 35
CRAZING, 35
CREEP, 300
CRITICAL STRESS INTENSITY
FACTOR, 271
CROSS-BREAKING STRENGTH,
107
CROSS-PLY, 267
CROSSLINK DENSITY, 5 75 143
CROSSLINKED COPOLYMER,
11
CROSSLINKED POLYMER, 5
CROSSLINKING, 5 27 37 122 130
175 212 216 235 284 302
CROSSLINKING PHENOMENA,
5
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, 20
CRYSTALLINITY, 20 22 35 54
238
CRYSTALLISATION, 20 28 54
55 80
CRYSTALLISATION RATE, 20
CRYSTALLIZABILITY, 20
CURE RATE, 154 159
CURE TEMPERATURE, 8 142 203
CURE TIME, 235 266
CURING, 4 8 26 27 39 78 83 107
115 130 154 155 159 167 168
180 203 220 235 241 266 301
302
CURING AGENT, 8 18 39 75 81
94 107 112 130 142 154 168
180 203 220 230 234 235 243
245 254 272 276 287

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

CURING RATE, 154 159


CURING REACTION, 256
CURING TEMPERATURE, 107
159
CYANATE, 8
CYANATE ESTER RESIN, 47
CYCLE TIME, 62 186 277
CYCLIC LOADING, 197 205 253

D
DAMPING, 16 81
DEBONDING, 35 285
DECABROMODIPHENYL
ETHER, 49
DECABROMODIPHENYL
OXIDE, 110 175 189
DECOMPOSITION, 1 3 4 30 38
45 54 68 128 130 175 180 198
201 235
DECOMPOSITION PRODUCT,
1 36
DECOMPOSITION RATE, 1
DECOMPOSITION
TEMPERATURE, 1 54 77 185
DEFORMATION, 20 268 272 273
276 286 298 299
DEFORMATION
TEMPERATURE, 55 102 130
146
DEGRADATION, 4 11 15 18 54 62
84 87 101 110 122 146 160 164
169 175 188 221
DEGRADATION PRODUCT, 1
18 96
DEGRADATION RATE, 1
DEGRADATION RESISTANCE, 4
11 54 194
DEGRADATION
TEMPERATURE, 1 4 11 26 54
67 92 110 122
DEGREE OF CONVERSION, 107
DEGREE OF CROSSLINKING, 5
DEGREE OF DISPERSION, 11 20
34 47 51 53 54 59 126 156
DEGREE OF POLYMERISATION,
107
DEGREE OF SWELLING, 75
DEHYDRATION, 185
DELAMINATION, 30 42 66 77
118 153 237 239 258 259 263
290 291
DELAMINATION RESISTANCE,
18
DENDRIMER, 202
DENTAL APPLICATION, 22
DERIVATIVE
THERMOGRAVIMETRY, 3

101

Subject Index

DESIGN, 22 255
DGEBA, 31
DIAMINE, 286
DIAMINE COMPOUND, 112
DIAMINODIPHENYL
METHANE, 8 155
DIAMINODIPHENYL SULFONE,
107 282
DIAMINODIPHENYLMETHANE,
8 155
DIBROMOCYCLOHEXANE, 173
DIBROMOSTYRENE, 103
DIBROMOSTYRENE
COPOLYMER, 119
DICARBOXYLIC ACID, 27 173
DICYANDIAMIDE, 272 276
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT, 4 287
DIELECTRIC LOSS, 287
DIELECTRIC LOSS FACTOR, 4
DIELECTRIC LOSS TANGENT,
4 27
DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES, 4 27
129 287
DIETHYL TOLUENE DIAMINE,
168
DIETHYLENE TRIAMINE, 287
DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE,
62
DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING
CALORIMETRY, 8 13 14 16
24 28 31 48 52 55 60 61 75 80
83 92 151 161 203 227 230 256
265 301
DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL
ANALYSIS, 8 13 14 15 16 24
28 31 48 52 55 60 61 75 80 83
92 151 161 203 227 230 235
256 265 301
DIFFERENTIAL
THERMOGRAVIMETRIC
ANALYSIS, 2 3
DIFFRACTION PATTERN, 41 80
98 122 130
DIFFUSION, 16 191 210
DIGLYCIDYL ETHER, 272 287
DIGLYCIDYL ETHER
BISPHENOL A, 31
DIHYDROOXAPHOSPHAPHEN
ANTHRENE OXIDE, 155
DIISODECYL PHTHALATE, 9
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY, 42
62 100 201 224 244 277
DIMETHYL
BENZYLOCTADECYL
AMMONIUM, 175
DIMETHYL FORMAMIDE, 175
DIMETHYL SILOXANE
POLYMER, 110 118 175

102

DIMETHYLDISTEARYLAMMO
NIUM, 9
DIMETHYLDISTEARYLAMMO
NIUM CHLORIDE, 65
DIMETHYLSILOXANE
COPOLYMER, 64
DIOXIN, 161 174
DIPENTAERYTHRITOL, 60
DIPHENYL ETHER, 161
DIPHENYLMETHANE
DIISOCYANATE, 75
DIRECT COMPOUNDING, 17 42
DISCOLORATION, 9
DISPERSED PHASE, 178
DISPERSIBILITY, 17 76 89 90 149
246
DISPERSING AGENT, 235
DISPERSION, 11 12 20 22 28 34
42 43 47 51 53 54 55 59 62 64
75 77 78 79 80 85 91 94 95 96
97 100 102 126 130 143 152
156 158 170 175 191 196 241
DODECYL METHACRYLATE
COPOLYMER, 229
DODECYLAMINE, 56
DODECYLAMMONIUM, 9
DOMESTIC APPLIANCE, 149
DOMESTIC EQUIPMENT, 149
DOOR PANEL, 196
DOSE RATE, 42 196
DOUBLE CANTILEVER BEAM
TEST, 226 262
DRAPEABILITY, 222
DRIP INHIBITOR, 194
DROP-WEIGHT, 260 261
DRUG DELIVERY, 22
DRUG RELEASE, 22
DUCTILE FAILURE, 275
DUCTILE-BRITTLE
TRANSITION, 35
DUCTILITY, 62 152 203 220 232
DURABILITY, 87 197
DYE, 22 62
DYNAMIC MECHANICAL
ANALYSIS, 12 13 16 31 56 61
107 143 146 266 287 302
DYNAMIC MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES, 4 5 47 81 115
130 228 296
DYNAMIC MECHANICAL
SPECTROSCOPY, 271 272
DYNAMIC MECHANICAL
THERMAL ANALYSIS, 230
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES, 4 5 47
81 115 130 228
DYNAMIC TESTING, 26

E
E-GLASS, 177
E-MODULUS, 20 66 75 78 80 107
159 229
ECONOMIC INFORMATION, 62
100 128 136 162 169 201 219
ELASTIC DEFORMATION, 20
ELASTIC MODULUS, 20 66 75 78
80 107 159 229 249 251 276
ELASTIC PROPERTIES, 17 20 81
210 221 251 268
ELASTICITY, 194 276
ELASTOMER, 11 23 28 34 41 46
57 64 65 77 102 107 128 132
133 145 167 172 178 185 195
203 210 214 215 216 220 223
238 254 264 265 270
ELECTRIC CABLE, 88 109 191
194
ELECTRICAL APPLICATION, 50
62 73 88 105 121 137 149 179
185 192 195 210
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY,
62 100 118
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, 195
ELECTRICAL INSULATION, 32
63 185
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, 27
32 63 175 185 287
ELECTRICAL STRENGTH, 27
ELECTROINITIATED
POLYMERISATION, 275 292
ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELD,
100
ELECTRON BEAM, 10 23 34 67
84 120 152 166 167 203 229
235
ELECTRON DIFFRACTION, 151
ELECTRON MICROGRAPH, 94
95 96 122 130 152 189 203
ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, 39
40 41 51 60 62 78 79 85 86 87
89 90 94 95 96 97 98 103 113
114 117 122 134 138 141 142
145 156 237
ELECTRON SCANNING
MICROSCOPY, 39 40 41 60 78
79 86 87 89 90 94 95 96 97 98
103 113 114 117 122 134 138
141 142 145 156 237
ELECTRONIC APPLICATION,
102 111 129 185
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, 17
ELECTROPOLYMERISATION,
275 292
ELECTROSPINNING, 146
ELECTROSTATIC DISSIPATION,
100

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Subject Index

ELECTROSTATIC SPRAYING,
214
ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS, 155
ELONGATION, 28 37 183 246
ELONGATION AT BREAK, 10 23
34 67 84 120 152 166 203 229
235
EMBRITTLEMENT, 34
EMI SHIELDING, 100
EMULSION POLYMERISATION,
213
ENCAPSULATION, 10 22 234 245
ENERGY ABSORPTION, 237 258
261 273 280 299
ENERGY BALANCE, 153 264
ENERGY DISSIPATION, 258
ENERGY RELEASE RATE, 1 7 9
12 17 18 19 30 36 38 43 45 49
50 51 53 63 65 67 68 69 73 76
88 89 90 92 94 104 120 140 156
157 158 189 236 246 247 275
ENGINEERING APPLICATION,
8 100 111 162 185 195 201 280
301
ENGINEERING PLASTIC, 17 37
76 100 111 128 162 185 201
246 280
ENGINEERING
THERMOPLASTIC, 17 37 76
100 128 246 301
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, 163
174
ENVIRONMENTAL
LEGISLATION, 21 62 128
ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION, 30 128 162 200
ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING
ELECTRON MICROSCOPY,
41
EPICHLOROHYDRIN, 39
EPM, 35 54
EPOXIDE POLYMER, 1 4 5 8 13
16 17 18 19 24 26 27 31 32 33
35 37 39 49 52 62 66 68 70 74
76 78 81 83 84 86 87 94 107
112 114 115 130 131 141 142
143 241
EPOXIDISED SOYBEAN OIL,
230
EPOXY CYANATE RESIN, 221
ETHENE, 210
ETHENE COPOLYMER, 34 44 73
151
ETHERSULFONE COPOLYMER,
274
ETHYLENE, 210
ETHYLENE COPOLYMER, 34 44
73 151

ETHYLENE OXIDE POLYMER,


227 284
ETHYLENE POLYMER, 6 21 37
44 48 62 73 100 105 106 111
123 139 191 297
ETHYLENE-OCTENE
COPOLYMER, 34
ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE
COPOLYMER, 35 54
ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE
COPOLYMER, 7 9 11 38 40 43
49 50 54 61 62 63 73 82 88 91
97 99 100 105 109 110 121 123
126 134 137 139 156 157 169
175 184 185 188 191 192 194
217 231
ETHYLENE-VINYL ALCOHOL
COPOLYMER, 21 100 102
ETHYLHEXYL ACRYLATE
COPOLYMER, 203
ETHYLHEXYL ACRYLATE
POLYMER, 203
EVAPORATION, 171
EVOLVED GAS ANALYSIS, 18
EXFOLIATION, 6 12 17 20 21 22
33 35 38 42 44 54 62 63 67 76
77 89 91 94 102 118 133 152
159 191 207 214 224 247
EXPLOSION RESISTANCE, 71
EXTENDED X-RAY
ABSORPTION
FINE STRUCTURE
SPECTROSCOPY, 12
EXTRUDER, 6 7 34 62 95 100 152
190 201
EXTRUSION, 21 34 54 62 95 111
122 149 175 185 190 194 201
207 219 231
EXTRUSION COMPOUNDING,
54 201
EXTRUSION MIXING, 54 190 207
EXTRUSION RATE, 194

F
FABRIC, 172 193 196 225
FABRIC REINFORCED, 84 251
FAILURE, 35 237 249 257 258 267
268 275 280 289 291 298
FAILURE ANALYSIS, 197
FAILURE MECHANISM, 35 280
FATIGUE, 22 86 205 253
FATIGUE RESISTANCE, 255
FATTY AMINE, 156
FEEDSTOCK, 75
FIBRE, 25 30 62 100 111 160 162
214 226 228 233 248 258 294
FIBRE ALIGNMENT, 268

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

FIBRE BUNDLE, 249


FIBRE CONTENT, 125 235 248
251 275 277
FIBRE DISTRIBUTION, 257
FIBRE GLASS, 62 69 74 233
FIBRE KINKING, 268
FIBRE ORIENTATION, 84 248
268 275 280
FIBRE TREATMENT, 74
FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC,
1 18 32 84 87 114 115 131 142
145 153 162 181 205 208 218
226 228 231 232 233 239 248
250 255 294
FILLER CONTENT, 5 20 26 35 38
42 53 54 55 56 63 75 77 80 84
110 185 191 194 198 201 219
235 246
FILLER DISTRIBUTION, 5 11 20
75
FILLING, 136
FILMS, 21 100 102 111 149 201
219 223 266
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS,
153 249 268
FINITE ELEMENT ITERATIVE
METHOD, 153 249
FIRE, 175 195 210
FIRE HAZARDS, 46 132 175 195
FIRE PROTECTION, 15 60
FIRE RESISTANCE, 1 11 54 62 67
69 98 112 195
FIRE RETARDANT, 1 11 59 67 68
106 122 189 199 200 216
FLAME INSULATION, 236
FLAME PROPAGATION, 185
FLAME RESISTANCE, 1 11 29 30
41 45 54 59 63 67 112 129 135
158 164 169 184 187 188 193
199 217 224 247
FLAME SPREAD, 3 19 52 241
FLAME SPREAD INDEX, 63
FLASHOVER, 9 63
FLAX, 100
FLEXIBILITY, 16 22 62
FLEXURAL MODULUS, 20 21 37
42 67 75 166 183 207 218 235
252 282
FLEXURAL STRENGTH, 8 47 57
166 218 225 235 252 279 287
FLOOR COVERING, 185
FLOORING, 136 210
FLOW CHART, 251
FLOW DIAGRAM, 80
FLOWABILITY, 67
FLUORESCENCE, 62
FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY,
86

103

Subject Index

FLUORESCENCE SPECTRA, 74
FLUOROMICA, 77
FLUOROPOLYMER, 62 63 111
175 207
FOAM, 69 100 106 146 185 210
240 269 277
FOAMING AGENT, 100
FOOD PACKAGING, 22 62 219
FORMULATION, 27 71 93 105
149 210 213
FOURIER TRANSFORM
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY,
3 8 14 18 24 31 48 58 75 114
117 126 138 147 151 155 217
227 296 301
FRACTOGRAPHY, 86 270
FRACTURE, 5 20 124 144 153 205
226 257 258 262 263 265 266
268 270 272 273 276 282 283
285 286 289 298 299 301 302
FRACTURE ENERGY, 271 272
276 298
FRACTURE MECHANICS, 276
FRACTURE MORPHOLOGY, 5 9
11 14 17 20 29 31 34 40 41 44
47 51 52 54 55 59 64 67 75 76
77 78 79 80 85 89 91 94 95 96
102 117 119 121 122 124 126
130 138 142 151 154 163 168
182 192 239
FRACTURE PROCESS
ANALYSIS, 20
FRACTURE RESISTANCE, 226
FRACTURE SURFACE, 5 39 40
78 141 145 249 258 271 273
276
FRACTURE TOUGHNESS, 5 8 13
20 86 145 226 248 259 262 273
282 285 289
FRAGMENTATION, 205
FRICTIONAL PROPERTIES, 257
FRIEDEL-CRAFTS REACTION,
212
FUEL TANK, 21 191
FULLERENE, 214 247
FUNCTIONAL GROUP, 53 145
203
FUNCTIONALISATION, 47 154
159 168
FUNCTIONALITY, 159 203 220
254
FURNITURE, 46 132 185

G
GAS BARRIER, 26 246
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, 161
GAS EMISSION, 235

104

GAS PERMEABILITY, 133 207


GAS PHASE THERMOLYSIS, 12
GAS-PHASE, 108 185 210 215 235
GASES, 108 235
GASIFICATION, 96 217 227
GEARS, 111
GEL CHROMATOGRAPHY, 170
220
GEL PERMEATION
CHROMATOGRAPHY, 170
220 301
GEL TIME, 154 168 235
GELATION, 26
GELLING, 26 274
GELLING AGENT, 142
GELS, 215
GLASS, 149
GLASS BEAD, 271 272 273 276
286 298 300
GLASS CONTENT, 235 277
GLASS FABRIC, 249
GLASS FIBRE, 62 69 74 233
GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED
PLASTICS, 62 66 70 74 86 87
100 114 115 125 129 131 141
142 148 160 178 185 186 207
225 232 233 235 237 243 249
250 252 262 277 280 287 303
GLASS MAT, 235 277
GLASS ROVING, 125
GLASS SPHERE, 253
GLASS TRANSITION
TEMPERATURE, 4 5 8 12 16
31 52 56 66 67 75 81 107 115
130 155 193 203 211 228 229
235 261 265 274 278 282 284
293
GLYCIDOXY ALKYL
ALKOXYSILANE, 57 155
GLYCIDOXYPROPYLTRIMETH
OXYSILANE, 57 155
GOLD OXIDE, 234
GRAFT COPOLYMER, 6 20 34
122 151 189
GRAFT POLYMERISATION, 151
GRANULATION, 269
GRAPHITE, 128 226
GRAPHITE FIBRE, 275 291
GRAPHITE FIBREREINFORCED PLASTIC, 226
242 252 257 258 259 260 261
275 290 292 297 303
GRAPHITE OXIDE, 140
GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS, 2 3 8
9 13 15 16 18 24 26 28 29 31 34
38 40 41 44 45 48 50 51 52 53
56 58 63 64 65 68 75 77 79 85
88 92 94 95 96 97 103 109 110

113 117 119 122 134 135 138


143 147 156 164 184 187 221
GROWTH RATE, 128 162

H
HACKLEMARK, 258
HALIDE, 27
HALLOYSITE, 59
HALOGEN, 30 110 128 175 185
195
HALOGEN COMPOUND, 25 49
106 161 241
HALOGEN-FREE, 18 26 62 73 89
110 116 129 179 185 194 198
235 240
HARDENER, 39 180 203 234 243
245
HARDNESS, 23 80 287
HAZE, 64 246
HEALTH HAZARDS, 46 69 128
132 134 161 163 175 179 185
196 216 235
HEAT ABSORPTION, 128 235
HEAT AGEING, 277
HEAT CURING, 295
HEAT DEFLECTION
TEMPERATURE, 21 219 244
246
HEAT DEGRADATION, 1 4 18
44 54 55 59 64 66 67 77 92 117
121 122 151 156 160 161 164
170 184 193 198 211 216 217
221 252
HEAT DISTORTION, 55 102 130
146 196
HEAT DISTORTION
TEMPERATURE, 55 102 130
146 196 227
HEAT FLOW, 30 227
HEAT FLUX, 18 148 198
HEAT INSULATION, 32 185 198
236
HEAT OF COMBUSTION, 236
HEAT RELEASE, 1 67 109 110
137 148 156 169 174 184 188
193 215 216 227
HEAT RELEASE RATE, 1 7 9 12
17 18 19 30 36 38 43 45 49 50
51 53 63 65 67 68 69 73 76 88
89 90 92 94 104 120 140 156
157 158 189 236 246 247
HEAT STABILITY, 1 3 4 44 59 121
137 162 171 180 187 192 224
HEAT TRANSFER, 215 216
HEAT-RESISTANT, 1
HELIUM, 175
HEMP, 100

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Subject Index

HERBICIDE, 62
HEXADECYLTRIMETHYLAMM
ONIUM BROMIDE, 90 150
HIGH DENSITY
POLYETHYLENE, 6 21 191
HIGH IMPACT PS, 36 72
HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON
MICROSCOPY, 90
HINDERED AMINE, 128
HOLLOW FIBRE, 214
HONEYCOMB STRUCTURE, 222
HOSE, 21
HOT WATER RESISTANCE, 222
HPLC, 301
HYBRID COMPOSITE, 57 58 77
155 186 297 298 303
HYBRID POLYMER, 35 236
HYDROBROMIC ACID, 185
HYDROCHLORIC ACID, 185
HYDROGEN BROMIDE, 185
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE, 185
HYDROLYSIS, 210
HYDROLYTIC STABILITY, 196
HYDROPHILICITY, 22 244
HYDROPHOBICITY, 22 30 62 133
HYDROTALCITE, 22 40 79 117
HYDROXY GROUP, 27
HYDROXYACETANILIDE, 287
HYDROXYL GROUP, 27

I
IGNITION, 19 30 52 72 175 235
IGNITION TIME, 63 156
IMIDE POLYMER, 4
IMIDISATION, 4 24
IMPACT ENERGY, 177 261
IMPACT MODIFIER, 20 145 202
253 275 282 289 291 295
IMPACT RESISTANCE, 20 21 35
42 107 177 197 204 214 222
224 228 238 242 254 255 258
259 279 280 288 290 292 299
303
IMPACT STRENGTH, 10 20 22 34
47 55 56 57 67 75 77 100 107
130 143 152 166 168 201 219
220 224 228 229 230 235 264
275 276 277 287 297
IMPACT VELOCITY, 177
IN SITU POLYMERISATION, 4
92 94 110 118 182 296
IN-MOULD DECORATING, 100
IN-PLACE CURING, 155
IN-SITU HYBRID COMPOSITE,
155
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION,
222

INFRARED SPECTRA, 8 14 18
24 31 48 58 62 75 114 117 138
234 301
INFRARED
SPECTROPHOTOMETRY, 8
14 18 24 31 48 58 62 75 114
117 126 138 147 151 155 217
296 301
INJECTION MOULD, 277
INJECTION MOULDING, 21 62
64 111 122 149 170 201 207
INJECTION MOULDING
MACHINE, 62
INJECTION-COMPRESSION
MOULD, 277
INORGANIC FILLER, 26 229
INSTRUMENT PANEL, 191
INSULATION, 32 50 120 185 196
198 236
INTERACTIONS, 3 7 39 60 77 102
146 253 299
INTERCALATION, 12 16 17 22
29 30 34 36 44 48 54 63 76 77
80 89 90 91 94 102 110 118 130
133 140 146 151 152 159 161
163 171 182 191 224 227 229
246 247
INTERFACIAL ADHESION, 35 84
125 131 231 274 292 293 296
INTERFACIAL DEBONDING, 35
INTERFACIAL ENERGY, 61 278
INTERFACIAL INTERACTION,
39 77 102 146
INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA, 74
INTERFACIAL PROPERTIES, 39
74 77 84 86 91 97 102 146 202
253 280
INTERFACIAL SHEAR STRESS,
205
INTERLAMINAR PROPERTIES,
18 115 125 141 145 153 221
248 259 262 275 292
INTERLAMINAR SHEAR
STRENGTH, 115 125 141 145
221 275
INTERLAYERS, 30 276 281 292
INTERLAYER SPACING, 229
INTERNAL LUBRICANT, 111
INTERNAL STRESS, 107
INTRAMOLECULAR MOTION,
272
INTUMESCENCE, 49 51 60 63 90
101 106 128 148 150 160 161
163 165 174 175 185 210 216
INTUMESCENT COATING, 15
ION EXCHANGE, 30 133 152 227
IONIC CONDUCTIVITY, 118
IR REFLOW SOLDERING, 245

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

IRON OXIDE, 234


IRRADIATION, 122
ISOCYANURATE POLYMER, 75
ISOPHTHALIC POLYESTER
RESIN, 56
ISOTHERMAL CURING, 26
IZOD, 229 275

K
KEVLAR, 248
KINETICS, 18 28 55 155 167
KINK BAND, 268
KINKING, 268
KNEADER, 207
KNITTED FABRIC, 193 225 251
KNITTED REINFORCEMENT,
251

L
LACTONE POLYMER, 238
LAMELLAR, 102
LAMINATED PLATE THEORY,
251
LAMINATES, 1 8 141 225 226 235
239 258 259 267 280
LAMINATION, 226
LANGEVIN EQUATION, 86 134
143 164 197
LAP SHEAR STRENGTH, 114
LASER RAMAN MICROSCOPY,
205
LATEX, 278
LAUROLACTAM POLYMER, 224
LAUROYL PEROXIDE, 278
LAYER REARRANGEMENT, 207
LAYERED DOUBLE
HYDROXIDE, 48
LAYERED STRUCTURE, 9 17 30
38 63 76 77 91 92 110 118 130
133 146 157 189 198 224 227
LEAD SUBSTITUTE, 162
LEGISLATION, 21 62 128 185 196
LIFETIME PREDICTION, 221
LIGHT AGEING, 122
LIGHT DEGRADATION, 22 122
LIGHT STABILISER, 162
LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE, 102
LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX, 2 4
6 10 18 19 40 41 43 52 57 60 68
73 79 101 104 122 126 128 155
160 164 171 180 235 294
LINEAR LOW DENSITY
POLYETHYLENE, 48 62
LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY,
301
LIQUID POLYMER, 244

105

Subject Index

LIQUID RESIN, 76
LIQUID RUBBER, 107 178 203
208 220 230 266 286 295
LOAD BEARING, 32 66
LOAD DEFLECTION, 275
LOADING, 62 93 94 96 100 122
130 152 205 262 267 268 280
LOSS FACTOR, 5 56 81
LOSS MODULUS, 5 224
LOSS TANGENT, 5 56 81 224 287
LOW DENSITY
POLYETHYLENE, 100 105
123
LOW SMOKE, 73
LOW TEMPERATURE
PROPERTIES, 201 285
LUBRICANT, 22 111 162

M
MACHINERY, 34 62 95 100 201
277
MACROCOMPOSITE, 247
MAGNESIA, 185
MAGNESIUM, 151
MAGNESIUM ALUMINIUM
HYDROXIDE, 48
MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE, 7
11 26 40 41 49 62 80 89 93 110
120 126 128 175 185
MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE
SULFATE HYDRATE, 44
MAGNESIUM OXIDE, 185
MAGNESIUM SILICATE, 22 63
123
MALEATION, 44
MALEIC ACID, 90
MALEIC ANHYDRIDE
COPOLYMER, 6 20 34 44 51
73 122 151 189
MALEIMIDE COPOLYMER, 275
MALEIMIDOPHENYL GROUP,
24
MANGANESE OXIDE, 234
MANUFACTURING, 100 179 204
222
MAR RESISTANCE, 191
MARKET GROWTH, 100 136
MARKET SHARE, 100
MARKET TREND, 128
MASS FRACTION, 96
MASS POLYMERISATION, 103
147 187 220
MASS SPECTROMETRY, 12 161
227
MASS TRANSPORT, 77 198 236
MASTERBATCH, 9 42 62 63 123
201

106

MATERIAL REPLACEMENT, 35
62 71 100 110 128 148 149 160
162 175 194 210
MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION, 35
62 71 100 110 128 148 149 160
162 175 194 210
MATRIX, 16 22 39 62 70 94 123
130 141 152 167 175 201 203
210 221 258 259 262 268 276
278 292 294 296
MATTRESS, 196
MECHANICAL STRENGTH, 246
MEDICAL APPLICATION, 22 37
149 167
MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, 22 37
149
MELAMINE, 15 60 116 128 195
MELAMINE COPOLYMER, 101
MELAMINE PHOSPHATE, 53
MELAMINE POLYPHOSPHATE,
71 140
MELT BLEND, 20 38 55 76 80 88
89 138 157 193 211
MELT COMPOUNDING, 20 42 59
77 102
MELT EXTRUSION, 80 244
MELT FLOW, 67
MELT FLOW INDEX, 42 185
MELT FLOW RATE, 42
MELT INDEX, 42 185
MELT MIXING, 20 152
MELT POLYMERISATION, 227
MELT PROCESSING, 20 45 59 76
152 219
MELT PROPERTIES, 224
MELT RHEOLOGY, 67 146 224
MELT SPINNING, 193
MELT STRENGTH, 21
MELT TEMPERATURE, 128
MELT VISCOSITY, 19 67 127
MELT VISCOSITY INDEX, 42
185
MELTING POINT, 54 163
MELTING TEMPERATURE, 54 80
MELTS, 3 34 36 44 48 62 79 103
133 166 182
MERCAPTO GROUP, 228 231
MERCURY OXIDE, 234
METAL, 62 100
METAL FIBRE-REINFORCED
PLASTIC, 289
METAL HYDRATE, 25 128
METAL HYDROXIDE, 71 137 185
200 234 245
METAL OXIDE, 25 30 234 245
METAL REPLACEMENT, 32 255
METHACRYLAMIDE
POLYMER, 69

METHACRYLATE POLYMER,
227
METHACRYLIC ESTER
POLYMER, 227
METHANOL, 75
METHYL ACRYLATE
COPOLYMER, 292
METHYL ALCOHOL, 75
METHYL DODECYL
AMMONIUM, 9
METHYL METHACRYLATE, 235
METHYL METHACRYLATE
COPOLYMER, 60 229
METHYL METHACRYLATE
POLYMER, 19 35 61 95 96 100
104 110 118 278
METHYL
TETRAHYDROPHTHALIC
ANHYDRIDE, 94
METHYLBENZENE, 175
METHYLENE CHLORIDE, 278
METHYLMETHACRYLATE, 235
METHYLMETHACRYLATE
COPOLYMER, 60 229
MICA, 77 171 201
MICROCOMPOSITE, 118
MICROCRACK, 145
MICROFIBRE, 262
MICROGRAPHY, 13 41 61 85 98
258
MICROMECHANICAL
PROPERTIES, 205
MICROMOULDING, 167
MICROPARTICLES, 33
MICROSCOPY, 13 14 41 51 61 62
85 86 87 90 98 114 138 205 260
285
MICROSPHERE, 70
MICROSTRUCTURE, 6 17 36 130
289
MIGRATION, 22 62 91 135 196
201 210
MILITARY APPLICATION, 204
MILLING, 62 140 241
MINERAL FIBRE-REINFORCED
PLASTIC, 142
MINERAL FILLER, 185 187 214
MISCIBILITY, 22 35 256 282 284
MIXING, 3 20 28 54 137 152 166
190 207 294
MODEL COMPOUND, 293 300
MODIFIER, 17 76 77 107 117 162
173 219 253 295
MODULUS, 12 23 35 42 115 146
152 268 273 292
MOISTURE, 303
MOISTURE ABSORPTION, 66
MOISTURE RESISTANCE, 252

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Subject Index

255 260 261


MOISTURE VAPOUR
TRANSMISSION, 21
MOLECULAR BONDING, 246
MOLECULAR DYNAMICS, 95
MOLECULAR INTERACTION,
296
MOLECULAR MASS, 35 60 77
152 170 220
MOLECULAR MOBILITY, 35
MOLECULAR MOTION, 272
MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, 4 17
21 22 45 57 58 60 62 77 83 99
110 124 126 128 133 144 146
152 202 203 206 207 221 227
240 245 265 294 301 302
MOLECULAR WEIGHT, 35 60 77
152 170 220 274 282 284 292
301
MOLYBDATE, 128
MOLYBDENUM OXIDE, 234
MONOLAYER, 285
MONOMETHYL
METHACRYLATE, 235
MONTMORILLONITE, 2 6 9 16
17 20 22 30 36 38 41 42 43 44
49 51 52 54 55 56 62 65 73 75
76 82 83 85 89 90 91 92 94 100
101 103 104 109 120 121 122
135 150 156 158 159 166 172
184 188 192 193 207 211 224
227 244 246
MOULD, 277 294
MOULD CYCLE, 277
MOULDABILITY, 235
MOULDING, 7 21 28 62 64 111
122 167 186 218 225 235 294
MOULDING COMPOUND, 214
MULTILAYER, 22 100 175 191
MULTIWALL, 47 50 63 105 138
157

N
NANOCLAY, 1 15 20 53 54 67 73
92 99 102 149 156 181 191 194
NANODISPERSION, 1
NANOFIBRE, 62 63 71
NANOFILLER, 1 3 4 10 11 16 17
20 26 35 38 40 42 44 45 47 54
59 63 67 71 77 82 88 99 102
109 110 121 123 137 146 176
183 185 191 192 194 196 198
199 201 207 209 214 219
NANOLAYER, 91
NANOPARTICLE, 1 4 7 11 14 21
30 33 37 43 47 54 59 60 67 69
75 80 82 126 128 136 183 199

207 209 214 229


NANOPHASE, 1 4 11 20 47 54 67
199 209
NANOPIGMENT, 22
NANOPOWDER, 59
NANOREINFORCEMENT, 16 201
NANOSTRUCTURE, 31 63 79 190
247
NANOTECHNOLOGY, 37 62 128
NANOTUBE, 22 39 43 47 59 62 63
78 96 100 105 131 136 138 143
146 157 169 214
NATURAL FIBRE, 100
NATURAL FIBRE-REINFORCED
PLASTIC, 6 84
NATURAL POLYMER, 230
NETWORK, 5 130 203 220 221
230 274
NETWORK DENSITY, 5
NETWORK STRUCTURE, 58 221
NICKEL OXIDE, 234
NIOBIUM OXIDE, 234
NITRILE RUBBER, 266 271 272
273 298
NITRILE-DIENE-ACRYLAMIDE
TERPOLYMER, 295
NITROGEN, 30 96 163 185 221
NITROGEN COMPOUND, 27
NOTCH, 275 283
NOVOLAC, 180 206
NOVOLAC POLYMER, 57
NOVOLAC RESIN, 57
NUCLEAR MAGNETIC
RESONANCE, 7 24 43 57 58
155 227 301
NUCLEAR MAGNETIC
RESONANCE SPECTRA, 7 24
43 57 58
NUCLEATING AGENT, 162
NUCLEATION, 80
NUMBER AVERAGE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT, 284
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS, 153
NYLON, 19 22 49 89 91 100 111
116 128 136 158 162 166 175
185 191 195 201 207 214 216
219 223 244 248
NYLON-12, 183 207 224 227
NYLON-6, 19 21 28 30 45 49 62
67 89 102 110 111 118 127 146
158 163 183 191 193 198 201
207 210 214 217 219 227 236
244 246 248
NYLON-6,6, 20 102 198 201 207
215 246

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

O
OCTADECYL GROUP, 152
OCTENE COPOLYMER, 34
OFFSHORE APPLICATION, 32
OLEFIN POLYMER, 19 22 34 42
49 51 62 73 100 102 136 146
165 166 176 179 191 195 201
210 246
OLIGOMER, 103 107 240
OLIGOMERIC, 22 45
OLIGOURETHANE, 235
ONIUM ION, 133
OPTICAL MICROGRAPH, 96
OPTICAL MICROSCOPY, 14 86
138
OPTICAL PROPERTIES, 62 118
183 185 201 219 244
ORGANIC-INORGANIC
COMPOSITE, 4 7 11 45 155
227 236
ORGANOCLAY, 6 9 12 20 35 42
50 54 61 63 65 75 77 85 89 92
94 105 110 118 119 120 122 130
139 152 156 157 175 189
ORGANOCLAY COMPOUND,
152 187 224
ORGANOPHILIC, 42 91 146 219
ORGANOPHOSPHORUS, 163
ORGANOPOLYSILOXANE, 57
110 118
ORGANOSILICON POLYMER,
41 57 110 118 215 227
ORGANOSILICONE POLYMER,
41 57 110 118 215 227
ORGANOSILOXANE POLYMER,
41 57 110 118 215 227
OSMIUM OXIDE, 234
OSMOMETRY, 203 220
OXIDATION, 18 101 110 122
OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION, 18
101 110 122
OXIDATIVE STABILITY, 75
OXIDISATION, 18 101 110 122
OXIRANE POLYMER, 227
OXYGEN, 21 22 62 179 210
OXYGEN BARRIER, 244
OXYGEN CONSUMPTION, 189
OXYGEN INDEX, 2 4 6 10 18 19
40 41 43 52 57 60 64 68 73 79
101 104 122 126 128 155 160
163 164 171 180 235 294
OXYGEN PERMEABILITY, 111
OXYGEN SCAVENGER, 100 191
OXYGEN TRANSMISSION
RATE, 21 191 219
OZONE, 179

107

Subject Index

P
PACKAGING, 21 22 35 100 102
111 167 191 201 207 244 246
PACKAGING FILM, 111 201
PAINTING, 62 214
PAINTS, 240 244
PALLADIUM OXIDE, 234
PARTICLES, 33 91 152 241 254
PARTICLE DENSITY, 75
PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION, 75
77 95
PARTICLE SIZE, 4 22 42 62 64 67
73 75 77 80 91 93 100 107 185
201 204 235 241 246 264
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION,
235
PATENT, 22 37 62 100 191 194
204 246
PATTERN, 41 80 98 122
PEEL STRENGTH, 222 296
PENTAERYTHRITOL, 2 15 51
101 210
PERFLUOROALKYL
COMPOUND, 247
PERMEABILITY, 22 133 191 198
207 216 246
PERMEATION, 21
PERMITTIVITY, 27
PEROXIDE, 235
PESTICIDE, 62
PETP, 30 37 55 79 100 102 166 191
201 219 244 246
PETROLEUM, 62
PHASE BEHAVIOUR, 14
PHASE MORPHOLOGY, 203
PHASE SEPARATION, 31 107 118
124 154 168 202 230 266 282
302
PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE
RESIN, 148 160
PHENOLIC RESIN, 57 58 66 69
235 240 250
PHENYL GLYCIDYL ETHER,
287
PHENYLENE OXIDE POLYMER,
62 68 100
PHOSPHATE, 18 70 148 160 171
185
PHOSPHATE ESTER, 9
PHOSPHINATE, 18 128
PHOSPHINE OXIDE, 18 215
PHOSPHINE OXIDE GROUP, 68
PHOSPHONATE, 18 240
PHOSPHONATION, 13
PHOSPHONIUM COMPOUND,
52
PHOSPHORIC ACID, 128

108

PHOSPHORUS, 10 30 41 49 89
128 147 164 185
PHOSPHORUS COMPOUND, 1
18 25 27 51 52 94 98 106 113
116 140 155 180 241
PHOSPHORUS COPOLYMER,
155
PHOSPHORUS GROUP, 155
PHOSPHORUS POLYMER, 4 112
PHOSPHORUS-CONTAINING
POLYMER, 4 112
PHOTOCHEMICAL
DEGRADATION, 122
PHOTOCHEMICAL STABILITY,
122
PHOTODECOMPOSITION, 122
PHOTODEGRADATION, 122
PHOTOELECTRON
SPECTROSCOPY, 18 60 135
165
PHOTOGRAPHY, 69
PHOTOOXIDATION, 122
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, 33 42
54 102 108 149 163 175 190
PHYSICOMECHANICAL
PROPERTIES, 27
PIGMENT, 22
PIPE, 62 149
PLANT CONSTRUCTION, 162
246
PLANT EXPANSION, 111 162
PLANT START-UP, 111
PLASMA TREATMENT, 43
PLASTICISER, 62 162
PLASTICS INDUSTRY, 149
PLATE, 258
PLATELET, 21 42 62 77 152 191
207 219 246
PLATINUM OXIDE, 234
PMR, 24
POLY-EPSILONCAPROLACTAM, 19 21 28 30
45 49 62 67 89 102 110 111 118
127 193
POLYACETAL, 102 201
POLYACRYLAMIDE, 70
POLYACRYLATE, 77 220
POLYALKENE, 19 22 34 42 49 51
62 73 100 102 136 146 165 166
176 179 191 195 201 210 246
POLYAMIC ACID, 256
POLYAMIDE, 19 22 49 89 91 100
111 116 128 136 158 162 166
175 185 191 195 201 207 214
216 219 223 244 248 281 293
POLYAMIDE-12, 183 207 224 227
POLYAMIDE-6, 19 21 28 30 45 49
62 67 89 102 110 111 118 127

146 158 163 183 191 193 198


201 207 210 214 219 227 236
244 246 248
POLYAMIDE-6,6, 20 102 246
POLYBISMALEIMIDE, 274
POLYBUTADIENE, 178 209
POLYBUTYLENE
TEREPHTHALATE, 10 29 37
45 185 246
POLYCAPROAMIDE, 19 21 28 30
45 49 62 67 89 102 110 111 118
127 193
POLYCAPROLACTAM, 19 21 28
30 45 49 62 67 89 102 110 111
118 127 193
POLYCARBONATE, 37 61 72 82
84 111 125 152 196 209
POLYDIMETHYL SILOXANE, 57
110 118 175
POLYESTER RESIN, 69 98 213
POLYETHER, 266
POLYETHER AMIDE, 43
POLYETHER AMINE, 81
POLYETHER SULFONE, 37 282
302
POLYETHER URETHANE, 9
POLYETHER-AMIDE, 43
POLYETHER-ETHERKETONE,
37 62 259 280
POLYETHER-URETHANE, 9
POLYETHERAMINE, 81
POLYETHERETHERKETONE,
37 62
POLYETHERIMIDE, 227
POLYETHERSULFONE, 37
POLYETHYL HEXYL
ACRYLATE, 203 220
POLYETHYLENE, 6 21 37 44 48
62 73 100 105 106 111 123 139
149 162 166 175 185 191 219
242 297
POLYETHYLENE ADIPATE, 141
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL
ADIPATE, 141
POLYETHYLENE OXIDE, 227
284
POLYETHYLENE
TEREPHTHALATE, 30 37 55
79 100 102 166 191 201 219
244 246
POLYETHYLHEXYL
ACRYLATE, 203 220
POLYHEDRAL OLIGOMERIC
SILSESQUIOXANE, 24 43 45
69 71 113 123 172
POLYHEXAMETHYLENE
ADIPAMIDE, 293
POLYHYDROXYETHER, 266

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Subject Index

POLYIMIDE, 4 256 296


POLYISOCYANURATE, 75
POLYLACTONE, 238
POLYLAUROLACTAM, 224
POLYLAURYLLACTAM, 224
POLYMERIC COMPATIBILISER,
120
POLYMERIC CURING AGENT,
81 256
POLYMERIC FLAME
RETARDANT, 67 213 217 240
POLYMERIC IMPACT
MODIFIER, 145 253 275 289
295
POLYMERIC MODIFIER, 17 76
77 107
POLYMERIC PRECURSOR, 256
POLYMERIC PROPERTY
MODIFIER, 266 275 276
POLYMERIC SHRINK
RESISTANCE AGENT, 277
POLYMERIC TOUGHENING
AGENT, 34 125 238 256 274
POLYMERISATION, 4 21 62 92
94 100 103 110 118 133 146
147 155 175 182 187 213 219
220 227 230 275
POLYMERISATION INITIATOR,
278
POLYMERISATION
MECHANISM, 151 221
POLYMERISATION RATE, 278
POLYMERISATION
TEMPERATURE, 278
POLYMETHACRYLAMIDE, 69
POLYMETHACRYLATE, 227
POLYMETHYL
METHACRYLATE, 12 19 35
61 95 96 100 104 110 118 166
215 219 278
POLYOL, 75 210 235
POLYOLEFIN, 19 22 34 42 49 51
62 73 100 102 136 146 165 166
176 179 191 195 201 210 246
POLYOLEFIN ELASTOMER, 120
POLYORGANOSILOXANE, 41 57
110 118 215 227
POLYOXYDIPHENYLENE
PYROMELLITIMIDE, 256
POLYOXYETHYLENE, 227
POLYOXYETHYLENE GROUP,
152
POLYPHENYLENE ETHER, 62
68 100
POLYPHENYLENE OXIDE, 62
68 100
POLYPHENYLSILSESQUIOXA
NE, 31

POLYPHOSPHINE OXIDE, 274


POLYPHOSPHONATE, 240
POLYPROPENE, 3 14 19 22 25 30
34 35 37 42 45 49 51 59 62 72
90 91 93 100 102 106 120 135
138 149 150 162 166 175 185
189 190 191 207 210 214 219
227 228 231 244 246
POLYPROPYLENE, 3 14 19 22 25
30 34 35 37 42 45 49 51 59 62
72 90 91 93 100 102 106 120
135 138 149 150 162 166 175
185 189 190 191 207 210 214
219 227 228 231 244 246
POLYSILICONE, 41 57 110 118
215 227
POLYSILOXANE, 41 57 110 118
165 215 227
POLYSILSESQUIOXANE, 45
POLYSTYRENE, 19 30 43 46 49
61 62 72 79 95 100 103 104 106
110 128 132 161 162 166 170
185 187 212 219 227 244 278
POLYSULFONE, 13 68 107 301
POLYUREA, 71
POLYURETHANE, 9 37 62 63 65
75 85 106 123 162 172 185 186
210 219 240 241 269 277
POLYURETHANE-ACRYLATE,
235
POLYURETHANEMETHACRYLATE, 235
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, 163 285
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, 9 37
62 63 69 117 128 162 175 185
194 213
POLYVINYL ESTER, 62 70 113
167 294
POLYVINYL HALIDE, 9 69 117
POLYVINYLBENZENE, 30 43 46
61 95 100 103 104 106 110 128
132 187 244
POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE,
62
POROSITY, 222
POST CURING, 221
POWDER, 100 148 213
POWDER COATING, 186
PPE, 100
PPO, 62 68 100
PRE-TREATMENT, 17
PRECISION, 62
PREFORM, 225 277
PREFORMING, 145
PREHEATING, 191
PREPARATION, 92 126 130
PREPOLYMER, 131 286
PREPOLYMERISATION, 230

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

PREPREG, 218 221 222 254 277


281
PRESSURE, 100
PRETREATMENT, 17 293
PRINTED CIRCUIT, 129
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD, 246
PRINTED WIRING BOARD, 129
PROCESSABILITY, 22 73 110 198
PROCESSING, 17 18 21 22 37 62
63 82 146 149 172 184 201 210
239 243 294
PROCESSING AID, 162 190
PROCESSING CONDITIONS, 6
20 122
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT, 82
102 176 191 194 196 246
PRODUCTION, 21 62
PRODUCTION CAPACITY, 246
PRODUCTION COST, 42 186
PROPENE, 210
PROPENE COPOLYMER, 6 34 51
122 189
PROPENE POLYMER, 14 59 90
91 93 100 102 106 120 138 228
PROPERTY MODIFIER, 275 276
PROPYLENE, 210
PROPYLENE COPOLYMER, 6 34
51 122 189
PROPYLENE POLYMER, 14 59
90 91 93 100 102 106 120 138
228
PROPYLENE-ETHYLENE
COPOLYMER, 35 54
PROTECTIVE COATING, 45
PROTON MAGNETIC
RESONANCE, 24
PROTOTYPE, 255
PULTRUSION, 66 252
PULVERISATION, 129
PUNCTURE RESISTANCE, 100
PURIFICATION, 78
PYROLYSIS, 13 18 30 68 128 163
221
PYROLYSIS MASS
SPECTROMETRY, 227

Q
QUALITY CONTROL, 62
QUARTZ, 197
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM
COMPOUND, 9 30
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM
SALT, 42 119

R
R-CURVE, 226

109

Subject Index

RADIANT PANEL TEST, 71


RADIOGRAPHY, 268
RAILWAY APPLICATION, 185
235
RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, 40 91
135
RAW MATERIAL, 75
REACTION CONDITIONS, 92 94
130 203
REACTION INJECTION
MOULDING, 295
REACTION MECHANISM, 80
189 203 221
REACTION MOULD, 295
REACTION PRODUCT, 213
REACTION RATE, 159
REACTIVE EXTRUSION, 7
REACTIVE POLYMER, 274
RECORDING MEDIA, 249
RECYCLED CONTENT, 191
RECYCLING, 61 129 162 167 213
269
RED PHOSPHORUS, 10 41 89 185
REFRACTIVE INDEX, 282
REINFORCED CONCRETE, 232
REINFORCED
THERMOPLASTIC, 162
REINFORCED THERMOSET, 74
178 226
REINFORCEMENT, 5 16 39 78
100 186 201 205 224 225 228
232 248 257 267 268 287 300
REINFORCING FILLER, 224
RELAXATION TIME, 7 300
RELEASE AGENT, 300
RESIDUAL STRAIN, 268
RESIDUAL STRENGTH, 280
RESIDUAL STRESSES, 202
RESIN, 76 100 167
RESIN INJECTION, 186 235 277
RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING,
186 218 235 277 295
RESORCINOL, 171
RESTORATION, 232
REVIEW, 25 30 43 49 77 106 116
124 128 133 146 166 180 200
207 214 275 282
RHENIUM OXIDE, 234
RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES,
17 19 30 67 73 76 77 91 115
135 154 167 170 185 201 216
224 235
RHEOLOGY, 17 19 67 73 76 77 91
115 135 154 185 201 224 235
RHEOMETER, 17 210
RIGIDITY, 183
RING OPENING
POLYMERISATION, 227

110

RISK ASSESSMENT, 46 128 132


196
RIVET BONDING, 186
ROBOT, 100
RUBBER, 11 23 28 34 41 46 57 64
65 77 102 107 128 132 133 145
167 172 178 185 195 203 210
214 215 216 220 223 238 254
264 265 270 271 272 273 276
279 286 295 298
RUTHENIUM OXIDE, 234

S
SAFETY, 128 175 195 210 255
SANDWICH STRUCTURE, 69
222 235
SATURATED POLYESTER, 55
172
SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROGRAPH, 39 40 41 60
78 79 86 87 89 90 94 95 96 97
98 103 113 114 117 122 134 138
141 142 145 156 237
SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROSCOPY, 2 6 12 13 15 16
17 24 28 29 31 35 38 39 40 41
43 44 48 51 52 55 56 60 61 64
73 77 78 79 86 87 89 90 94 95
96 97 98 103 113 114 117 122
124 125 126 127 130 134 138
140 141 142 144 145 150 155
156 170 181 187 203 227 236
237 239 248 249 258 262 263
265 270 271 274 275 276 282
301 302
SCRAP POLYMER, 213
SCRATCH RESISTANCE, 62 191
SCREW DESIGN, 35
SCREW EXTRUDER, 95
SEA WATER, 260 261
SECONDARY ION MASS
SPECTROMETRY, 12
SEEDED POLYMERISATION,
278
SEISMIC REPAIR, 232
SEMICONDUCTOR, 234 245
SEPIOLITE, 22 63 123
SERVICE LIFE, 234 245 255
SHAPE-MEMORY, 242
SHEAR, 115
SHEAR FLOW, 146
SHEAR FORCE, 77
SHEAR MODULUS, 66 224 271
SHEAR PROPERTIES, 77 114 152
181 265 292 297
SHEAR STRENGTH, 114 275 292
SHEAR STRESS, 152

SHEAR VISCOSITY, 67 77
SHEATHING, 38 121
SHEET MOULDING
COMPOUND, 185
SHEETING, 219
SHORT FIBRE, 248 289
SHRINKAGE, 32 201
SHUTTLE PRESS, 186
SILANE, 60 84 171 223 276 298
300
SILANE COMPOUND, 74 247
SILICA, 4 5 22 57 58 60 64 95 104
155 190 197 204 223
SILICATE, 9 34 38 42 44 46 49 52
53 62 63 77 88 91 92 94 100
109 110 118 132 133 137 139
146 157 166 170 171 175 182
184 185 188 189 192 198 199
201 214 224 227 236 247
SILICON, 45 62 164
SILICON COMPOUND, 25 172
SILICON COPOLYMER, 155
SILICON DIOXIDE, 4 5 22 57 58
60 64 95 104 155 190 204 223
SILICON ELASTOMER, 41 57 67
SILICON POLYMER, 41 57 110
118 215 227
SILICON RUBBER, 41 57 67
SILICON-29, 24
SILICON-CONTAINING
COPOLYMER, 155
SILICON-CONTAINING
POLYMER, 41 57 110 118 215
227
SILICONE, 300
SILICONE COPOLYMER, 155
SILICONE ELASTOMER, 41 57
67
SILICONE POLYMER, 41 57 110
118 165 215 227
SILICONE RUBBER, 41 57 67
SILOXANE, 175
SILOXANE ELASTOMER, 67
SILOXANE POLYMER, 41 110
118 165
SILOXANE RUBBER, 67
SILSESQUIOXANE, 22 172
SILVER OXIDE, 234
SINGLE LAP BOND, 114
SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER, 95
SIZING AGENT, 131
SKATES, 21
SKI BOOTS, 21
SKI SHOES, 21
SMALL ANGLE X-RAY
SCATTERING, 156 165
SMART MATERIAL, 22
SMECTITE, 22 133 214

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Subject Index

SMOKE, 46 128 132 148 175 179


185 216 235
SMOKE EMISSION, 36 63 69 185
235
SMOKE GENERATION, 52 53 73
236 241
SMOKE SUPPRESSANT, 128 185
235
SMOKE SUPPRESSION, 118
SMOKE TOXICITY, 69
SNOWBOARD, 21
SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE,
36 152 175
SOFTENING TEMPERATURE, 66
SOL-GEL, 82 155
SOL-GEL FORMATION, 155
SOL-GEL POLYMERISATION,
155
SOL-GEL REACTION, 57 58 155
SOLDER RESISTANCE, 129
SOLUTION POLYMERISATION,
220
SOLVENT, 16 75 110 175 182
SOLVENT ACTIVITY, 118
SOLVENT EVAPORATION, 79
SOLVENT RESISTANCE, 22
SONICATION, 143
SOYBEAN OIL, 75 142
SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 14 23 62 176
SPECIFIC HEAT, 66
SPECTROSCOPY, 3 8 12 14 18
24 31 40 48 58 60 62 75 91 114
117 135 138 165 216 227 302
SPIN-SPIN RELAXATION, 7
SPINNING, 193 231
SPORTS APPLICATION, 21
SPORTS EQUIPMENT, 21 102
SPORTS GOODS, 21 102
SPRAY DRYING, 52
SPRAYING, 131 214
STABILISERS, 117 162 171
STABILITY, 1 2 4 8 9 11 17 22 26
28 29 30 31 34 38 45 47 51 54
55 56 59 63 65 67 75 76 88 92
95 96 104 107 109 110 111 118
122 127 130 133 146 147 152
156 160 164 171 175 182 184
185 187 188 193 196 198 210
211 216 219 221 224 227 229
236
STACKING SEQUENCE, 258
STANDARD, 69 128 137 235 241
STARVE FEEDING, 278
STATIC DISSIPATION, 100
STATIC ELECTRICITY, 136
STATISTICS, 100 128 136 162 169
195 201 219
STIFFNESS, 21 35 39 42 47 62 66

100 142 149 152 183 191 196


201 214 219 232 276 297 303
STIFFNESS MODULUS, 232
STORAGE CONTAINER, 32
STORAGE MODULUS, 4 5 17 31
76 130 224 271
STRAIN, 205 262 268
STRAIN ENERGY, 264 275
STRAIN ENERGY RELEASE
RATE, 275
STRAIN RATE, 237
STRENGTH, 32 37 75 142 146 176
197 207 219 232 267 288 303
STRESS CONCENTRATION, 268
STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR,
276 286 298
STRESS TRANSFER, 205
STRESS WHITENING, 20
STRESS-STRAIN PROPERTIES,
5 8 152 197 223 257 268
STRESSES, 202 268 299
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, 75
STRUCTURE-PROPERTY
RELATIONSHIP, 20
STYRENE, 103
STYRENE COPOLYMER, 49 60
106 119 140 166 275
STYRENE POLYMER, 30 43 46
61 95 100 103 104 106 110 128
132 187 244 278
STYRENE-ACRYLONITRILE
COPOLYMER, 61
STYRENE-BUTADIENE
RUBBER, 23
STYRENE-ETHYLENE
BUTYLENE-STYRENE
BLOCK COPOLYMER, 20
STYRENEETHYLENEBUTYLENESTYRENE BLOCK
COPOLYMER, 20
SULFONE COPOLYMER, 274
SULFONE POLYMER, 13 68 107
SULFUR, 30
SUPERCRITICAL FLUID, 191
SURFACE ACTIVE AGENT, 51 52
62 90 91 100 102 152 235
SURFACE ANALYSIS, 114
SURFACE AREA, 73
SURFACE ATTACHMENT, 47
SURFACE CHEMISTRY, 47
SURFACE ENERGY, 264
SURFACE FINISH, 42 201 277
SURFACE MODIFICATION, 5 21
47 74 91 244 300
SURFACE MORPHOLOGY, 155
SURFACE PREPARATION, 5 74
SURFACE PROPERTIES, 42 47

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

114 144 151 155


SURFACE REACTION, 5
SURFACE STRUCTURE, 47
SURFACE TENSION, 247
SURFACE TREATMENT, 5 21 42
47 74 91 102 114 172 178 207
244 276 296 300
SURFACTANT, 51 52 62 90 91
100 102 152
SWELLING, 16 75 166 214 278
SWELLING AGENT, 214
SWELLING INDEX, 23
SYNTHESIS, 4 8 9 24 27 38 48 53
58 60 63 75 80 110 118 133 140
166 173 182 194 200
SYNTHETIC FIBREREINFORCED PLASTIC, 87
231 248 250 263 285 297
SYNTHETIC RUBBER, 102 107
133

T
TACKINESS, 222
TACTOID, 152
TALC, 42 46 62 100 132
TALLOW AMINE, 156
TANTALUM OXIDE, 234
TECHNETIUM OXIDE, 234
TELECOMMUNICATION
APPLICATION, 179
TELEVISION, 185
TEMPERATURE, 21 22 62 81 100
171 203 204 235 260 261 276
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE,
4 66 67 107 159
TEMPERATURE MODULATED
DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING
CALORIMETRY, 13
TENSILE MODULUS, 56 84 152
235
TENSILE PROPERTIES, 4 5 8 10
16 22 23 28 33 34 39 40 41 55
56 67 70 73 75 78 80 84 85 97
120 130 133 146 148 152 159
203 208 223 225 235 237 246
249 251 257 267 296 297
TENSILE STRENGTH, 5 10 22 23
75 78 80 120 130 203 223 225
235
TERNARY BLEND, 11 20
TERNARY SYSTEM, 11
TERPOLYMER, 62
TEST EQUIPMENT, 110 134 235
280
TEST METHOD, 9 17 26 27 35 38
42 57 58 62 75 76 84 95 96 110
128 134 149 175 197 198 200

111

Subject Index

204 210 221 232 250


TEST SPECIMEN, 268
TESTING, 9 17 26 27 35 38 42 57
58 62 75 76 84 95 96 110 128
134 149 175 197 198 200 204
210 221 232 235 250 255 258
259 277 278 280 283 286 292
296 297 300 301 302
TETRAETHOXYSILANE, 58
TETRAMETHYLOL
CYCLOHEXANOL, 287
TEXTILE, 193 216 240
THERMAL AGEING, 221
THERMAL ANALYSIS, 13 16 24
48 60 75 80 83 92 151 158 160
164 165 170 188 211 217 235
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, 66
100 138
THERMAL CYCLING, 145
THERMAL DECOMPOSITION, 1
4 38 45 54 68 128 130 180 201
278
THERMAL DEGRADATION, 1 4
18 44 54 55 59 64 66 67 77 92
101 110 117 121 122 151 155
156 160 161 164 170 184 193
198 211 216 217 221 252 277
278
THERMAL EXPANSION, 22 62
293 297
THERMAL FLUCTUATION, 197
THERMAL INSULATION, 32 185
198 236
THERMAL PROPERTIES, 1 4 5
8 14 18 19 23 26 29 31 34 41
42 45 48 49 50 51 52 53 55 56
57 58 59 64 65 66 67 73 77 80
83 88 100 108 115 120 126 130
138 140 143 148 154 155 156
160 165 168 175 181 182 187
188 221 228 230 235 236 244
265 293 301
THERMAL RESISTANCE, 1 2 4
11 54 59 67 100 187 204 224
228
THERMAL STABILITY, 1 2 4 8 9
11 17 22 26 28 29 30 31 34 38
45 47 51 54 55 56 59 63 65 67
75 76 88 92 95 96 104 107 109
110 111 118 122 127 129 130
133 146 147 152 156 160 164
166 171 175 182 184 185 187
188 193 198 201 210 211 216
219 221 224 227 229 234 236
245 246 254 256 277
THERMAL TRANSITION, 8 221
THERMALLY STIMULATED
CREEP, 300

112

THERMO-OXIDATIVE
DEGRADATION, 101 110 155
164
THERMOGRAM, 80
THERMOGRAVIMETRIC
ANALYSIS, 2 3 8 9 13 15 16 18
24 26 28 29 31 34 38 40 41 44
45 48 50 51 52 53 56 58 60 63
64 65 68 75 77 79 85 88 92 94
95 96 97 103 109 110 113 117
119 122 134 135 138 143 147
151 156 164 172 184 187 192
193 221 227 229 256
THERMOLYSIS, 12
THERMOMECHANICAL
PROPERTIES, 31
THERMOOXIDATIVE
DEGRADATION, 101 110 155
164
THERMOOXIDATIVE
STABILITY, 1 2 9 65
THERMOPLASTIC
ELASTOMER, 65 102 185 214
215
THERMOPLASTIC RUBBER, 65
102 185 214 215
TISSUE, 22
TITANIUM OXIDE, 234
TOLUENE, 175
TORQUE, 93
TORSION, 298
TORSION PENDULUM, 52
TORSIONAL PENDULUM, 52
TORSIONAL VIBRATION, 26
TOUGHENED, 20 47 203
TOUGHENING AGENT, 8 20 28
34 35 47 57 125 130 141 145
154 168 203 208 220 230 238
253 256 259 262 264 266 271
272 282
TOUGHNESS, 8 20 21 35 47 52 57
71 86 159 202 203 204 208 223
235 265 266 270 273 274 275
276 279 281 282 283 286 291
295 298
TOXICITY, 46 69 128 132 134 161
163 175 179 185 196 216 235
255
TRANSFER MOULDING, 186
218 225
TRANSITION PHENOMENA, 224
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON
MICROSCOPY, 6 12 15 16 17
24 28 29 31 35 38 39 40 41 43
44 48 51 52 55 56 60 61 73 77
78 79 86 87 89 90 94 95 96 97
98 103 113 114 117 122 126 127
130 134 138 140 141 142 144

145 151 152 156 170 187 189


192 227 229 236 237 278
TRANSPARENCY, 183 201 219
244
TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, 77
TRICHLOROMETHYLOLIMIDE,
27
TRIETHYLENE TETRAMINE,
39 203
TRIGLYCIDYL AMINOPHENOL,
154
TRIMETHOXYSILANE, 155
TRIPHENYL PHOSPHATE, 171
TRIPHENYLPHOSPHINE, 161
203
TRISDIMETHYLAMINO
METHYLPHENOL, 203 230
TUBING, 22
TUNGSTEN OXIDE, 234
TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER, 6 7
34 152 190 201

U
ULTRA HIGH MOLECULAR
WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE,
111
ULTRASONIC TEST, 260
ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION,
122
ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, 122
UNDER THE BONNET
APPLICATION, 136 219
UNSATURATED POLYESTER,
53 56 69 92 98 185 207 213 241
277 280 294
UPHOLSTERY, 196
URETHANE POLYMER, 9 85 106
123
UV DEGRADATION, 122
UV RADIATION, 122
UV RESISTANCE, 179
UV STABILITY, 22 122

V
VANADIUM OXIDE, 234
VAPOUR, 21
VAPOUR PHASE, 108 185 210
215
VAPOUR PRESSURE
OSMOMETRY, 203
VARNISH, 240
VEHICLE CAB, 186
VEHICLE DOOR, 277
VEHICLE EXTERIOR, 42 136 201
VEHICLE INTERIOR, 62
VEHICLE SEAT, 235

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Subject Index

VEHICLE SHELL, 277


VEHICLE SPOILER, 277
VERTICAL BURNING TEST, 12
VERTICAL MACHINE, 277
VIBRATION, 26
VIBRATION DAMPING, 16 81
VIBRATIONAL
SPECTROSCOPY, 8 14 18 24
31 40 48 58 62 75 91 114 117
135 138
VIDEO CAMERA, 249
VINYL ACETATE-ETHYLENE
COPOLYMER, 9 11 43 54 61
82 88 91 97 99 100 105 109 110
121 123 139 156
VINYL ALCOHOL POLYMER,
163 285
VINYL CHLORIDE POLYMER,
9 69 117
VINYL ESTER POLYMER, 62 70
113
VINYL ESTER RESIN, 167
VINYL HALIDE POLYMER, 9 69
117
VINYL POLYMER, 146
VINYLBENZYL CHLORIDE, 103
VIRGIN POLYMER, 175
VISCOELASTIC, 17 81 210 221
VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES,
17 81 154 168 210 221 271 272
296
VISCOELASTICITY, 17 81 154
168 210 221 271 272 296
VISCOSITY, 17 30 67 73 77 91 115
170 216 235 265
VISCOSITY MODIFIER, 287
VOLUME FRACTION, 3 10 125
225 237 243 251 253 272 275
276 286 289
VULCANISATION TIME, 235

W
WALL THICKNESS, 62
WARPAGE, 201
WASTE DISPOSAL, 128 129
WASTE MANAGEMENT, 195
WATER, 22 44 56 235 278
WATER ABSORPTION, 56 74 87
WATER REPELLENT, 30
WATER RESISTANCE, 56 87 222
WATER SORPTION, 74
WATER UPTAKE, 74
WATER VAPOUR, 185 235
WEAR RESISTANCE, 23
WEATHER RESISTANCE, 32 75
WEATHERING RESISTANCE,
32 75

WEAVE STRUCTURE, 267


WEAVING, 267
WEFT KNITTING, 249 251
WEIGHT LOSS, 8 12 18 26 36 52
57 110 122 156 221 227
WEIGHT REDUCTION, 102 149
186 207
WETTING, 131
WETTING AGENT, 162 235
WHISKER, 44
WICKING, 19
WIDE ANGLE X-RAY
SCATTERING, 6 152 229
WIRE, 46 62 132 149 210
WOOD, 136
WOOD FIBRE, 100
WOOD FIBRE-REINFORCED
PLASTIC, 6 162
WOUND HEALING, 22
WOVEN FABRIC, 186 262
WOVEN FIBRE, 186

Z
ZINC BORATE, 9 99 128 185
ZINC OXIDE, 22 234
ZINC PHOSPHATE, 128
ZINC STANNATE, 128 185
ZIRCONIA, 234
ZIRCONIUM OXIDE, 234

X
X-RAY DIFFRACTION, 2 3 6 9
15 16 17 23 28 29 33 34 38 41
44 48 51 53 55 56 62 77 79 80
85 89 90 91 98 103 113 119 122
126 127 130 134 140 144 147
150 151 152 158 170 181 187
189 192 212 227
X-RAY MICROSCOPY, 61
X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON
SPECTROSCOPY, 18 60 135
165
X-RAY SCATTERING, 2 3 6 9 15
16 17 23 28 29 33 34 38 41 44
48 51 53 55 56 62 77 79 80 85
89 90 91 98 103 113 119 122
126 127 130 134 140 144 147
150 151 152 156 158 165 170
181 187 189 192 212 227 229
X-RAY SPECTRA, 12 18 60 135
X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY, 12 18
60 135 165
XYLENE, 151

Y
YARN, 251
YIELD, 268 276
YIELD STRENGTH, 152
YIELD STRESS, 272 273 276
YOUNG'S MODULUS, 20 66 75
78 80 107 159 229 249 251 257
271 272 276

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

113

Subject Index

114

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Company Index

Company Index
A
AEROSPATIALE SA, 268
AIR PRODUCTS & CHEMICALS
INC., 270
ALBRIGHT & WILSON UK LTD.,
240
ALKAN SHELTER LLC, 32
ALLIEDSIGNAL, 201
ALLIEDSIGNAL TECHNICAL
SERVICES CORP., 250
AMERICAN CYANAMID INC.,
290
ANHUI,UNIVERSITY, 158
ANNA,UNIVERSITY, 8
APME, 195
APPLIED POLERAMICS INC., 112
ARCUEIL,CENTRE
TECHNIQUE, 221
ARIZONA,UNIVERSITY, 142
ASHLAND COMPOSITE
POLYMERS LTD., 235
ATHENS,NATIONAL
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY,
293
AUBURN,UNIVERSITY, 291
AUCKLAND,UNIVERSITY, 289
AUDI, 62
AUTOMOBILES CITROEN SA,
277
AZERBAIJAN,ACADEMY OF
SCIENCES, 27

B
BAM FEDERAL INSTITUTE FOR
MATERIALS RESEARCH &
TESTING, 52
BASELL, 201
BASELL ADVANCED
POLYOLEFINS, 42
BASELL NORTH AMERICA
INC., 100
BAYER AG, 201
BAYREUTH,UNIVERSITY, 13
18 68
BEIJING,INSTITUTE OF
CHEMISTRY, 125
BEIJING,INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 106 116
BEIJING,RESEARCH INST.OF
THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY,
11 67

BEIJING,UNIVERSITY OF
CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY,
10 11 67 97 117
BELFAST,QUEEN'S
UNIVERSITY, 77
BERLIN,FEDERAL INST.FOR
MAT.RES.& TESTING, 13 68
BHARATH DYNAMICS LTD.,
125
BOEING, 62 242
BOLTON INSTITUTE, 92 148 160
BOLTON,UNIVERSITY, 53
BRAZIL,INSTITUTO DE
AERONAUTICA E ESPACO,
228 231
BROOKLYN,POLYTECHNIC
UNIVERSITY, 12
BUDAPEST,UNIVERSITY
OF TECHNOLOGY &
ECONOMICS, 91 135 165
BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS
CO., 100 136
BYK-CHEMIE GMBH, 235

C
CALIFORNIA,STATE
UNIVERSITY, 232
CALTRANS, 255
CAMBRIDGE,UNIVERSITY, 299
CATANIA,UNIVERSITY, 94
CHANGCHUN,INSTITUTE OF
APPLIED CHEMISTRY, 284
CHEIKH ANTA
DIOP,UNIVERSITY, 122
CHEIL INDUSTRIES, 171
CHEONBUK,NATIONAL
UNIVERSITY, 226
CHINA,MINISTRY OF
EDUCATION, 10 36
CHINA,UNIVERSITY OF
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,
26 40 41 44 51 85 89 126 140
150 151
CHINESE ACADEMY OF
SCIENCES, 20
CHUNG SHAN,INSTITUTE OF
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,
57 155 267
CHUNG YUAN,CHRISTIAN
UNIVERSITY, 155
CIBA-GEIGY CORP., 282
CINCINNATI,UNIVERSITY, 223

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

CNRS, 265
CO-OP CHEMICAL CO., 62
COAHUILA,CENTRO DE
INVESTIGACION EN
QUIMICA APLICADA, 54
CONNECTICUT,UNIVERSITY,
275 292
CORNELL UNIVERSITY, 247
CRANFIELD INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 302
CRANFIELD,UNIVERSITY, 153
CRAY VALLEY SA, 277
CREPIM, 156 216
CSIRO, 1 144 159
CSIRO,DIV.OF APPLIED
PHYSICS, 289
CSIRO,DIV.OF MOLECULAR
SCIENCE, 154 168

D
DALIAN,INSTITUTE OF LIGHT
INDUSTRY, 2
DALIAN,UNIVERSITY OF
TECHNOLOGY, 2
DAYTON,UNIVERSITY, 62
DAYTON,UNIVERSITY,RESEAR
CH INSTITUTE, 72
DDG CRYOGENICS, 62
DEGUSSA CORP., 62
DELPHI CORP., 62
DIETER SCIENTIFIC, 62
DMS XPLORE, 62
DONGHUA,UNIVERSITY, 55 79
DOW CHEMICAL CO., 35 49 73
288
DOW CHEMICAL USA, 283
DRAKA CABLE, 62
DRESDEN,INSTITUTE OF
POLYMER RESEARCH, 68
DSM, 277
DYNEON LLC, 62

E
ECOLE NATIONALE
SUPERIEURE DE CHIMIE DE
LILLE, 156 210 216 217
ECOLE NATIONALE
SUPERIEURE DES ARTS &
IND.TEXT., 172 193
EINDHOVEN,UNIVERSITY OF
TECHNOLOGY, 55

115

Company Index

ELAM EL INDUSTRIES, 62
ELEMENTIS SPECIALTIES INC.,
62
EMS-CHEMIE AG, 224
ENICHEM, 266
ENSAIT, 217
ENSAM, 87
ENSC, 135
ENSCL, 43
EUROPEAN FLAME
RETARDANT ASSN., 195
EXECUTIVE CONFERENCE
MANAGEMENT, 62
EXXONMOBIL RESEARCH &
ENGINEERING CO., 12

F
FAIRFAX,GEORGE MASON
UNIVERSITY, 209
FENG CHIA,UNIVERSITY, 267
FIRE RETARDANT CHEMICALS
ASSN., 195
FLAME RETARDANTS
ASSOCIATES INC., 93
FLORIDA,INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 95 104
FOSTER CORP., 22 37 100 183
FRAUNHOFER-INSTITUT FR
FERTIGUNGSTECHNIK UND
ANG.MATERIALFORSCH, 52
FREIBURG,ALBERT-LUDWIGS
UNIVERSITY, 224 229
FUJI XEROX CO.LTD., 7

G
GDANSK,UNIVERSITY, 87
GEMTEX, 193
GENERAL ELECTRIC, 201
GENERAL MOTORS, 22 42 100
136 201
GEOFLOW, 62
GEORGIA,INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 262
GERMANY,FEDERAL
INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS
RESEARCH & TESTING, 18
19
GITTO GLOBAL CORP., 176
GOLDSCHMIDT, 282
GOODRICH B.F.,CO., 266
GREAT LAKES CHEMICAL
CORP., 170
GREENWICH,UNIVERSITY, 227

116

H
HALLE,MARTIN-LUTHERUNIVERSITAT, 224
HARBIN,INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 133
HEBEI,UNIVERSITY OF
TECHNOLOGY, 130
HEFEI,UNIVERSITY OF
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,
29 48 90 158
HERCULES INC., 275
HEXCEL COMPOSITES, 148 160
HEXCEL COMPOSITES LTD., 160
HITE BREWERY CO., 100
HONEYWELL INC., 201
HONEYWELL SPECIALTY
POLYMERS, 100
HONG KONG,POLYTECHNIC
UNIVERSITY, 106
HUAZHONG,UNIVERSITY OF
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,
20
HUNG-KUANG INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 164
HUNG-KUANG,UNIVERSITY,
57 58
HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF
SCIENCES, 135 165
HYBRID PLASTICS CORP., 22 190
HYPERION CATALYSIS
INTERNATIONAL, 100

I
IBM ALMADEN RESEARCH
CENTER, 282
ICE/HT-FORTH, 205
IDEMITSU KOSAN CO.LTD., 64
INDIA,NATIONAL AEROSPACE
LABORATORIES, 225
INDIA,NATIONAL CHEMICAL
LABORATORY, 80
INDIA,NAVAL MATERIALS
RESEARCH LABORATORY,
16 81 115 124 141 144 168 203
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 16 56 177 180
230
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY,MATERIALS
RESEARCH CENTRE, 220
INDIAN PETROCHEMICAL
CORP.LTD., 161 167
INHOL BV, 179
INSTITUT DE CHIMIE DES
SURFACES ET INTERFACES,
122

INSTITUT NATIONAL DES


SCIENCES APPLIQUEES, 272
INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS DE
MATERIALES DE ARAGON,
78
INTERACTIVE CONSULTING
INC., 196
ISTITUTO GUIDO DONEGANI
SPA, 266

J
JALGAON,NORTH
MAHARASHTRA
UNIVERSITY, 14
JILIN,INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 284

K
KABELWERK EUPEN AG, 9 38
50 62 63 65 88 105 109 110 118
121 123 137 169 175 182 184
188 192 194 198
KANAZAWA,UNIVERSITY, 64
KARLSRUHE,FORSCHUNGSZE
NTRUM, 13 18 68
KOREA,ADVANCED
INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE &
TECHNOLOGY, 248
KOREA,AGENCY FOR
DEFENCE DEVELOPMENT,
248
KOREA,UNIVERSITY
OF TECHNOLOGY &
EDUCATION, 120
KUNSAN,NATIONAL
UNIVERSITY, 226
KYOTO,INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 82 249 251
KYUNG HEE,UNIVERSITY, 226

L
LABORATOIRE DES
MATERIAUX
MACROMOLECULAIRES,
286
LABORATOIRE DES STRUCT.
ET PROP.DE L'ETAT SOLIDE,
286
LAUSANNE,ECOLE
POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE, 202
LAUSANNE,POLYTECHNIQUE,
280
LAWRENCE BERKELEY
LABORATORY, 61

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

Company Index

LE HAVRE,UNITE DE
RECHERCHE EN
CHIMIE ORGANIQUE ET
MACROMOLECULAI, 114
LE HAVRE,UNIVERSITY, 114
LEHIGH UNIVERSITY, 86 253
270
LEHMANN & VOSS & CO., 111
LEIBNIZ INSTITUTE OF
POLYMER RESEARCH, 13
LEIBNIZ-INSTITUT FR
POLYMERFORSCHUNG
DRESDEN EV, 18
LEUVEN,CATHOLIC
UNIVERSITY, 264
LEXINGTON,UNIVERSITY OF
KENTUCKY, 138
LG CABLE LTD., 120
LILLE FLANDRES
ARTOIS,UNIVERSITE DES
SCI.ET TECH., 286
LILLE,UNIVERSITE
DES SCIENCES ET
TECHNOLOGIES, 156
LONDON,UNIVERSITY,IMPERI
AL COLLEGE, 298
LONDON,UNIVERSITY,QUEEN
MARY COLLEGE, 298
LULEA,UNIVERSITY, 273
LUNA INNOVATIONS, 70
LUND,INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE
& TECHNOLOGY, 278
LUZENAC, 99
LYON,INSTITUT NATIONAL
DES SCIENCES
APPLIQUEES, 5 271 276

M
MADRID,UNIVERSIDAD
CARLOS III, 74
MALAYSIA,UNIVERSITI
TEKNOLOGI, 34
MANCHESTER,MATERIALS
SCIENCE CENTRE, 208
MARQUETTE,UNIVERSITY, 3 98
103 113 119 147 187 189 211
212
MARTINSWERK GMBH, 235
MARYLAND,UNIVERSITY, 127
MASSACHUSETTS,UNIVERSI
TY, 3
MCDONNELL DOUGLAS CORP.,
290
MENDELEEV D.I.,RUSSIAN
CHEMICOTECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, 30

MICHIGAN,STATE
UNIVERSITY, 143 190
MICHIGAN,UNIVERSITY, 270
MIDDLE EAST,TECHNICAL
UNIVERSITY, 178
MING HSIN,UNIVERSITY OF
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,
58
MISSISSIPPI,UNIVERSITY, 252
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC CORP.,
296
MITSUBISHI GAS CHEMICAL
AMERICA INC., 100
MONASH,UNIVERSITY, 1 144
154 159 168 203
MONTELL, 201
MOSCOW,STATE SCIENTIFIC
ESTABLISHMENT,CENTRE
FOR COMPOSITE MATERI,
30

N
NAN YA,INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 155
NANOCOR INC., 100 149 176 244
246 247
NANOSPERSE LLC, 62
NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH
CENTER, 112
NASA,JOHNSON SPACE
CENTER, 279
NATURALNANO INC., 62
NEC CORP., 129 206
NEW ORLEANS,UNIVERSITY,
258
NEW YORK,STATE
UNIVERSITY, 61
NEW YORK,STATE
UNIVERSITY AT STONY
BROOK, 12
NEW YORK,YESHIVA
UNIVERSITY, 12
NEXANS, 62
NISHIZAWA,TECHNICAL
INSTITUTE, 7 82
NIST, 71 72
NIST,BUILDING & FIRE
RESEARCH LABORATORY,
96 127
NIST,POLYMERS DIV., 96
NITTO DENKO CORP., 234 245
NOBLE POLYMERS, 100
NORTE FLUMINENSE,
UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL,
243
NORTH CAROLINA,STATE
UNIVERSITY, 61

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

NORTH MAHARASHTRA,
UNIVERSITY, 23 33 80
NYCOA, 21
NYLON CORP.OF AMERICA, 21

O
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, 100
204
OWENS CORNING FIBERGLAS
TECHNOLOGY INC., 213
OXFORD UNIVERSITY, 77

P
PARIS,ECOLE CENTRALE, 39
PATRAS UNIVERSITY, 205
PENNSYLVANIA STATE
UNIVERSITY, 260 261
PENNSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY,
96
PERUGIA UNIVERSITY, 83
PETRU PONI,INSTITUTE OF
MACROMOLECULAR
CHEMISTRY, 161 167
PITTSBURG STATE
UNIVERSITY, 75
POLYONE CORP., 62 100 149
PREMIX THERMOPLASTICS, 62
PSA, 277
PUTSCH KUNSTSTOFFE GMBH,
62
PYROGRAPH PRODUCTS INC.,
62 100

Q
QINGDAO,UNIVERSITY OF
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,
36

R
RAYTHEON CO., 233
REMETEC-BAUPLATTEN
GMBH, 269
RHODIA SPECIALITIES LTD.,
160
RICE UNIVERSITY, 131
RIO DE JANEIRO,CATHOLIC
UNIVERSITY, 243
RIO DE
JANEIRO,UNIVERSIDADE
FEDERAL, 228
RIO DE JANEIRO,UNIVERSITY,
231
ROCKWELL SCIENCE CENTER,
257

117

Company Index

RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF
SCIENCES, 30 161 174 200
215

S
SACHTLEBEN CHEMIE GMBH,
62
SALFORD,UNIVERSITY, 134
SAN LUIS
POTOSI,UNIVERSIDAD
AUTONOMA, 54
SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY,
287
SATERI FIBERS, 160
SEOUL,NATIONAL
UNIVERSITY, 120
SEQUENTIA INC., 241
SHANGHAI,JIAO TONG
UNIVERSITY, 17 24 31 76
SHELL CHEMICAL CO., 275
SHENYANG,CHINESE
ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 15
SHENYANG,INSTITUTE OF
METAL RESEARCH, 60
SHOWA DENKO, 201
SINGAPORE,NATIONAL
UNIVERSITY, 249
SKSJT INSTITUTE, 225
SOTIRA SA, 186
SOUTH
CAROLINA,UNIVERSITY,
242
SOUTH CHINA,UNIVERSITY OF
TECHNOLOGY, 59
SOUTHERN CLAY PRODUCTS
INC., 100 152
SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI
UNIVERSITY, 187
SRI KRISHNADEVARAYA
UNIVERSITY, 84 125
STANFORD UNIVERSITY, 259
SUD-CHEMIE INC., 62 100
SUMGAIT STATE UNIVERSITY,
173
SUNG KYUN KWAN
UNIVERSITY, 171
SWISS FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 66
SYDNEY UNIVERSITY, 20 285
289
SZCZECIN,POLYTECHNIC, 166

T
TAIWAN,CHENGSHIU COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 164

118

TAIWAN,NATIONAL CHUNGHSING UNIVERSITY, 4


TAIWAN,NATIONAL I-LAN
UNIVERSITY, 28
TAIWAN,NATIONAL TSING
HUA UNIVERSITY, 57 58 164
TAIWAN,TAO-YUAN
UNIVERSITY, 28
TECHMER PM LLC, 111
TEXAS,UNIVERSITY AT
AUSTIN, 152
TIANJIN,UNIVERSITY OF
TECHNOLOGY, 130
TNO SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY,
22
TOKYO,INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 256
TORAY INDUSTRIES INC., 222
254 281
TORINO,POLITECNICO, 45 94
108
TORINO,UNIVERSITA DEGLI
STUDI, 94 139 189 216
TORO CO., 62
TORONTO UNIVERSITY, 6
TOYOTA, 201
TOYOTA CENTRAL R & D
LABORATORIES INC., 244
TOYOTA CORP., 62
TOYOTA TECHNICAL
INSTITUTE, 146

U
UBE, 201
UBE AMERICA INC., 62
ULSTER,UNIVERSITY, 218
UNION CARBIDE CORP., 266
UNIONDALE,HEBREW
ACADEMY, 61
US,AIR FORCE, 62 236
US,EDWARDS AIR FORCE
BASE, 190
US,FEDERAL AVIATION
ADMINISTRATION, 112
US,NASA,JOHNSON SPACE
CENTER, 250
US,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
AEROSPACE, 112
US,NATIONAL INSTITUTE
OF STANDARDS &
TECHNOLOGY, 138 170 175
189 212 215 217 236
US,NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE
CENTER, 69 242
US,OFFICE OF NAVAL
RESEARCH, 69
USDA, 142

V
VETROTEX SA, 277
VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC
INSTITUTE & STATE
UNIVERSITY, 242 274 280 282
301
VOLKSWAGEN, 62

W
WACKER-CHEMIE AG, 5
WARWICK,UNIVERSITY, 237
WASHINGTON,UNIVERSITY,
145 181
WESTERN
AUSTRALIA,UNIVERSITY,
239 263
WOLVERINE GASKET CO., 295
WORCESTER,POLYTECHNIC
INSTITUTE, 3
WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB, 62
WYOMING UNIVERSITY, 297

X
XIAN,NORTHWESTERN
POLYTECHNICAL
UNIVERSITY, 25
XIAN,UNIVERSITY OF
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,
101

Z
ZHEJIANG,UNIVERSITY, 47
ZOLTAN BAY APPLIED
RESEARCH FOUNDATION,
165
ZYVEX CORP., 100

Copyright 2007 Smithers Rapra Technology

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